SBIR Phase I Solicitation  SBIR Select Phase I Solicitation  Abstract Archives

NASA 2012 STTR Phase I Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T1.01-9781
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Launch Vehicle Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Low Cost Booster Propulsion Development and Demonstration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Compositex, Inc
11815 Littler Road
Sandy, UT 84092-5758
(801) 501-0562

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Purdue University
610 Purdue Mall, Hovde Hall
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2040
(765) 494-6210

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Moser
danmoser@gmail.com111
11815 Littler Road
Sandy,  UT 84092-5758
(801) 502-4379

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed contract effort is for the design, development and proof-of-concept demontration testing of a low cost, pressure-fed liquid rocket booster propulsion system concept. The contract focus will be on four key component technologies in the booster system; (1)composite propellant tanks, (2)pump-fed propellant heat exchanger, (3)self-cooled engine with altitude-compensating nozzle, and (4)annular liquid-liquid engine injector. All four components will be designed and built in subscale in Phase, and will be sized for later incorporation into sub-orbital flight test vehicle. The Phase 1 contract culminates with cold flow testing of the propellant feed subsystem, which is the most novel aspect of the booster. The proposed low-cost booster design also has a low impact on natural resources, and can utilize inexpensive, renewable biofuels. The raw materials used in the contruction of the booster do not include any expensive, exotic, or stategically sensitive substances. The prospect of reusability of most of the booster mass further reduces raw material and energy consumption per launch.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Suborbital sounding rockets for scientific research is likely to be one of the first applications for the proposed low cost booster. Recently, private space missions have been increasing in frequency and variety, and the proposed low cost booster concept directly addresses the needs of these private enterprises: low-cost, high reliability, reusability, safety and readily available raw materials and propellants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A low cost rocket booster could benefit all segments of the space launch industry, including manned spacecraft, scientific payloads, commercial satellites, military payloads, and sounding rockets. The proposed booster not only has the advantage of low purchase cost, but it also has the advantage of simplicity of operation, resulting in improved reliability, safety, and launch readiness. Future versions of the low cost booster are expected to be scaleable to very large sizes, enabling heavy lift launch vehicles that are needed for large payloads, space construction projects and manned exploration missions beyond LEO.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Processing Methods
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T1.01-9946
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Launch Vehicle Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Fidelity Prediction of Launch Vehicle Lift-off Acoustic Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926
(256) 726-4800

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mississippi State University
P. O. Box 9637
Mississippi State, MS 39762-9637
(662) 325-2756

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Harris
reh@cfdrc.com111
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1926
(256) 726-4997

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Launch vehicles experience extreme acoustic loads during liftoff driven by the interaction of rocket plumes and plume-generated acoustic waves with ground structures. Currently employed predictive capabilities to model the complex turbulent plume physics are too dissipative to accurately resolve the propagation of acoustic waves throughout the launch environment. Higher fidelity liftoff acoustic analysis tools to design mitigation measures such as deluge water and launch pad geometry are critically needed to optimize launch pads for SLS and commercial launch vehicles. This STTR project will deliver breakthrough technologies to drastically improve predictive capabilities for launch vehicle lift-off acoustic environments. Hybrid RANS/LES modeling presently established in NASA production flow solvers will be used for simulation of the acoustic generation physics, and a high-order accurate unstructured discontinuous Galerkin (DG) solver developed in the same production framework will be employed to accurately propagate acoustic waves across large distances. An innovative hybrid CFD-CAA method will be developed in which the launch-induced acoustic field predicted from hybrid RANS/LES will be transmitted to a DG solver and propagated using high-order accurate schemes ideal for acoustic propagation modeling. This new paradigm enables: (1) Improved fidelity over linear methods for modeling nonlinear launch-induced acoustics; (2) Greatly reduced numerical dissipation and dispersion; and (3) Improved acoustics modeling for attenuation, reflection, and diffraction from complex geometry. The merits of the proposed approach will be investigated and demonstrated in Phase I for benchmark CAA applications and plume impingement problems. In Phase II, the methodology will be refined and validated against realistic targeted applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation offers significant advantages over aeroacoustic prediction tools currently available in industry. The hybrid RANS/LES and high-order DG modeling will provide a unique combination of robust multi-physics modeling and high-fidelity acoustic propagation physics. The proposed approach will offer a great technology advantage through its improved accuracy for acoustic propagation and its integration within a single massively parallel unified production framework (Loci). The toolset will be invaluable to current and future commercial launch service providers such as United Launch Alliance, ATK, Boeing, Space-X, Orbital Sciences, and payload system and sensitive instrument developers, particularly for one-of-a-kind DoD, NRO, and NOAA satellites. At the end of the SBIR, this technology will be readily available for analysis of micro-jet and active/passive control systems, conventional and STOVL aircraft jet acoustics, airframe and landing noise, and rotorcraft acoustic loading.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This hybrid CFD/CAA tool will uniquely fill the technology gap at NASA centers in defining lift-off environments for ongoing and new launch vehicle designs, and for the analysis of noise suppression techniques. The developed tool will provide greater confidence to NASA acoustics engineers offering accurate, quantitative acoustic loading predictions from first principle CFD/CAA simulations for specific launch vehicle configurations. The tool will also be invaluable to payload system and instrument developers, particularly for one-of-a-kind and experimental optics and telescope systems that are susceptible to acoustic effects during liftoff.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Launch Engine/Booster
Simulation & Modeling
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T1.01-9979
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Launch Vehicle Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Multiphase Combustion Tool Using Level Set-Based Primary Atomization Coupled with Flamelet Models

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Streamline Numerics, Inc.
3221 North West 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville, FL 32609-2189
(352) 271-8841

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mississippi State University
449 Hardy Road, 133 Ethredge Hall
Mississippi State, MS 39762-6156
(662) 325-7397

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Siddharth Thakur
st@snumerics.com111
3221 North West 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville,  FL 32609-2189
(352) 271-8841

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovative methodologies proposed in this STTR Phase 1 project will enhance Loci-STREAM which is a high performance, high fidelity simulation tool already being used at NASA for a variety of CFD applications. This project will address critical needs in order to enable fast and accurate simulations of liquid space propulsion systems (using propellants such as LOX, LCH4, RP-1, LH2, etc.). The proposed enhancements to Loci-STREAM in this project are: (1) Level-Set methodology (which will be of high fidelity and highly scalable for massively parallel computing) for tracking liquid propellant interface for primary atomization, and (2) Adaptive tabulation for flamelet models for turbulent combustion designed for distributed parallel computing architectures. The following methodologies are already available in Loci-STREAM: (a) Lagrangian particle tracking for motion of droplets, (b) Droplet evaporation model, and (c) Flamelet models in Hybrid RANS-LES framework for unsteady turbulent combustion. Integration of the methodologies proposed in this project into Loci-STREAM will result in a state-of-the-art multiphase combustion modeling tool which will enable fast and accurate design and analysis of liquid rocket engine flow environments, combustion stability analysis, etc. which constitute critical components of space propulsion engines that are part of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The computational tool resulting from this project will have wide-ranging commercial applications. The Hybrid RANS-LES (HRLES) methodology can be used for a wide variety of engineering applications involving unsteady turbulent flows. The high-fidelity turbulent combustion simulation capability will lead to improved analysis of unsteady turbulent reacting flow fields in gas turbine engines, diesel engines, etc. leading to design improvements. The real-fluids methodology can be used in a large number of industrial flow situations involving both chemically inert and reacting flows. With additions of multi-phase combustion modeling capability, the applicability of this tool can be further broadened.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The outcome of the proposed Phase 1 and Phase 2 research and development activities will be a powerful and advanced version of a CFD-based multiphase combustion code (called Loci-STREAM) for propulsion engines at NASA. This code is envisioned to be a powerful design and analysis tool for propulsion devices including full rocket engine simulations, injector design, etc. This tool will have a direct impact on development of propulsion systems relevant to the SLS by enabling design improvements of injectors involving liquid propellants such as LOX, LH2, LCH4, RP1, etc. Specific applications at NASA of this capability will include: (a) Fast and accurate simulation of turbulent combustion in existing or new/modified liquid space propulsion engines including J-2X, RS-68, F-1, etc., (b) Fast and accurate 3D unsteady simulations of multi-element injectors coupled with fuel and oxidizer feed lines and manifolds which will yield high-fidelity information for combustion instability models, (c) Prediction of stability and stability margins, (d) Design of acoustic cavities for combustion stability, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T2.01-9819
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: AN LED-BASED SOLAR SIMULATOR FOR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND TESTING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SPACE POWER SYSTEMS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angstrom Designs, Inc.
1204 Calle Del Sol
Santa Barbara, CA 93120-4914
(805) 876-4138

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of California at Santa Barbara
3227 Cheadle Hall
Santa Barbara, CA 93106-2050
(805) 893-8809

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Casey Hare
casey.hare@angstromdesigns.com111
1204 Calle Del Sol
Santa Barbara,  CA 93101-4914
(805) 448-4138

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar cells are the critical power source for the majority of space missions. The advancement from single junction silicon cells to current, state-of-the-art, triple junction, germanium cells enabled greater mission power per weight, stowed volume and deployed area. Near-term, advanced solar cell technologies will range from 4 to 6 junctions, and include a variety of band gaps. Solar cell testing is critical to space missions. Every solar cell is tested at the cell level under continuous light and at the panel, wing and sometimes spacecraft level multiple times under LAPSS. Current test methods calibrate the light source by measuring the current output of each junction and adjusting the source accordingly. Today's sources are a combination of lamps and filters. As cells with more the 3 junctions come into test, more flexible sources of narrower bands will be needed and current methods will have extreme difficulty, complexity and expense trying to keep up with the variety of near-term advanced solar cell designs. We propose a solid state illumination source with enough discrete source wavelengths to be flexible enough to be calibrated to any number of junctions, up to 6, for continuous cell testing. In addition, this source would be cost effective enough to allow many sources connected together to perform large area testing, pulsed or continuous, for panel and wing level testing. Calibration would follow similar methods to the current practice, but would be simplified through a software interface.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The benefits above apply to non-NASA applications as well. The proposed source could be used by all NASA contractors and commercial prime spacecraft suppliers for testing of cells with more than 3 junctions at the cell, string, panel, wing and spacecraft levels. There is also potential application to terrestrial applications, particularly where the flexibility of the proposed design helps scientists and test engineers determine additional wavelength dependence of the device under test than would be possible with a less flexible, traditional lamp-based method.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program will benefit all NASA missions that will use solar cells with more than 3 junctions. The illumination source may also replace existing 3 junction illumination sources. The usefulness of the proposed source across multiple numbers of junctions and larger than single cell areas means there is potentially broad application of this technology for all testing of future solar cell technologies at the cell, string, panel, wing and spacecraft level.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Generation
Characterization
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T2.01-9838
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Green Micropropulsion System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systima Technologies, Inc.
1832 180th Street South East
Bothell, WA 98012-6454
(425) 487-4020

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Washington, Dept. Aeronautics & Astronautics
Dept. of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Box 352250
Seattle, WA 98195-6454
(206) 543-7159

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephanie Sawhill
stephanie.sawhill@systima.com111
1832 180th street SE
Bothell,  WA 98012-6454
(425) 487-4020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Systima in collaboration with the University of Washington will develop a high performance, advanced green monopropellant microthruster (0.1 – 1.0 N) for small- and micro-satellites. The microthruster utilizes a high energy density HAN-based monopropellant AF-M315E, and a novel injection system to maximize thruster performance. The propellant is non-toxic making it easy to store, integrate into modular designs and launch without added costs associated with handling toxic propellants such as hydrazine. Phase I will focus on development of the microthruster propellant injection system to deliver propellant to a miniaturized catalyst bed to provide fast response while maintaining the life of the catalyst bed. In Phase II these systems will be integrated into the full microthruster design. This effort will result in a micropropulsion system with a modular design that meets the needs of current and future small- and micro-satellites for NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Green monopropellants offer significant advantages in performance and reduced handling infrastructure for commercial and military vehicles and payloads and allow for modular designs for enhanced response capabilities. There is no limitation to the commercial or military satellite applications to which this technology can be applied. It is suitable to large or small, satellite DACS intended for low earth orbit or for geosynchronous orbit, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Green micropropulsion systems offer safer handling without the risk of exposure of toxic chemicals to personnel or the environment. They offer reduced system complexity, decreased launch processing times and increased propellant performance. There is no limitation to the NASA satellite applications to which this technology can be applied; it is suitable to large or small satellite DACS/ACS intended for low earth orbit or for geosynchronous orbit, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T3.01-9691
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Harvesting Technology Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Efficiency, Nanowire Based Thermoelectric Tapes for Waste Heat Recovery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Structured Materials Industries, Inc.
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 20878-3723
(732) 302-9274

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UCSC-OSP
1156 High St
Santa Cruz, CA 95064-1077
(831) 459-2778

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nick Sbrockey
sbrockey@structuredmaterials.com111
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08854-3723
(732) 302-9274

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thermoelectric devices offer a simple and reliable means to convert radioisotope thermal energy into useable electrical power. Present thermoelectric devices based on bulk materials are limited by low conversion efficiencies, due to fundamental limitation of identifying materials with both a high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity. Nanowires provides a means to circumvent this limitation, and achieve combinations of properties not possible with bulk materials. To accomplish this task, SMI will demonstrate the formation of nanocomposite structures in a SiGe matrix by gas flow hollow cathode (GFHC) sputtering creating high ZT for the GFHC sputter deposited solid state nanocomposite thermoelectric materials. The potential for high deposition rate, and thick films for the solid state nanocomposite materials, on a range of substrates, by GFHC sputtering will be investigated and demonstated, along with a pathway forward to development of a high efficiency TE power conversion system prototype in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial Applications: Renewable energy production (solar thermal, geothermal, nuclear and radio isotope). Waste heat recovery.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Applications: Reliable power for long duration missions. Compact, light weight, high efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manufacturing Methods
Conversion
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Nanomaterials
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T3.01-9840
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Harvesting Technology Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: Power Generating Coverings and Casings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Streamline Automation, LLC
3100 Fresh Way Southwest
Huntsville, AL 35805-6720
(256) 713-1220

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wake Forest University
1834 Wake Forest Road
Winston-Salem, NC 27106-6000
(336) 727-1806

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Chew
william.chew@streamlineautomation.biz111
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1444
(256) 713-1220

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advances in structured heterogeneity together with nanomaterials tailoring has made it possible to create thermoelectrics using high temperature, polymer composites. While such thermoelectrics do not have the capability to approach the efficiency of top performing ceramic modules such as BiTe, they do provide two unique aspects of use in energy scavenging: the ability to cover large areas easily, and the ability to integrate kinetic energy scavenging together with heat scavenging. Recently the group at Wake Forest University has demonstrated a novel design for internal p/n junction formation in such composites, that allows for a significant increase in thermoelectric voltage and power factor while retaining the form factor of a fabric. This improvement in nanocomposite thermoelectric performance, coupled with effective kinetic energy scavenging makes the piezo-thermo-electric "PowerFelt™" applicable to a wide range of power collection scenarios. This Phase I program will demonstrate that the PowerFelt™ construct can rival small ceramic modules in overall power generation in a fully flexible, lightweight platform. Further, we will show that it is compatible with advanced manufacturing techniques such as printing, with cost profiles of ~$0.5/W.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The generation of electrical power has numerous applications for DOD including fatigues to minimize the battery weight; heat from artillery barrels to minimize the battery weight for electronic gun controls; vehicles to minimize battery requirements for electronics; missile launchers to minimize batteries for launchers and guidance and control systems; nuclear, biological, and chemical defense systems to minimize battery weight; micro and full sized submarines to minimize battery requirements; surface ships to minimize battery and power generation requirements; aircraft to minimize batteries for electronics and life support; unmanned aerial vehicles to minimize battery requirements and weight; and aircraft to minimize batteries for electronics and life support. Applications to the civilian market are similar to DOD, to include clothing; cell phone holsters; tents; backpacks; vehicles, including the passenger compartment; and power generation during emergencies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The generation of electrical power from thermal sources has wide direct applications for NASA. Some of these for space missions include supplemental/backup power for instrument and life support on manned space vehicles; non-manned space vehicles to supplement main power and instrument batteries; main and supplemental power source for planetary exploration vehicles; main and supplemental power source for satellites; supplemental/backup power for instrument and life support on ISS; and supplemental/backup power for instrumentation on sounding rockets and balloons. Indirect applications include supplement/eliminate batteries in experimental apparatus at NASA R&D Centers; harvesting energy from heat sources such as pump house engines; remove the passive heat load generated by the ambient environment and active devices in order to stabilize the temperature of sensitive components; and using thermoelectrics to drive component temperatures far lower than normal to the sensitivity of detectors, CCD, thermal imaging cameras, solid state lasers and other sensors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T3.01-9994
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Harvesting Technology Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: MEMS Based Solutions for an Integrated and Miniaturized Multi-Spectrum Energy Harvesting and Conservation System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiance Technologies, Inc.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805-1961
(256) 489-8584

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Louisiana Tech University
1507 Wyly Tower, P.O. Box 3092
Ruston, LA 71272-0001
(318) 257-5075

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Heath Berry
heath.berry@radiancetech.com111
500 W. Arizona Ave.
Ruston,  LA 71272-4328
(318) 237-3211

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this proposal is to develop three unique energy harvesting technologies utilizing our existing research strengths that will be of interest and utility to NASA applications and environmental conditions. By developing multiple technologies, NASA will be able to harvest energy from multiple waste energy sources, namely environmental vibrations, thermal energy, and solar flux. These devices will initially be developed separately, but all the while with an eye on the final integration into a single package at the end of Phase II. Since the research on these technologies has been ongoing, it is reasonable to develop an initial prototype of these technologies at the end of Phase I, with integration occurring in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program has commercial applications in addition to those which benefit the current NASA mission. Energy and power are at the forefront of every discussion related to advancing microelectronics and systems. Additionally monitoring the health of electronic and mechanical systems has proven to be an emerging need across many military and commercial systems alike. Embedding sensors and systems which can provide this capability requires primary storage if the system is operated remotely. This causes problems when long term monitoring is needed and the system does not have access to recharging or battery replacement. Harvesting energy from the ambient environment would allow for less dependence on primary batteries and help decrease the weight and footprint of these systems. This would allow for broader use and application of these monitoring systems across a variety of platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program has significant application to the current NASA mission. This proposal targets many of the technical challenges outlined in the NASA Space Power and Energy Storage roadmap. All of the technologies which support the Outer Planetary and Inner Planetary missions as well as the Space Operations Mission directorate require new methods of power and energy storage. The technology proposed here would not only harvest energy from the ambient environment facilitating a reduction in dependence on primary power sources, but also provide storage capabilities. The small MEMS footprint of the device allows for further weight reduction and ease of integration into space systems where weight and size are at a premium. Multiple types of energy harvesting technologies integrated together provide a broader application base for the device once it is developed. These benefits are applicable to spacecraft, data collection, tools, computers, and anything which requires power and energy storage.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Generation
Storage
Project Management
Prototyping
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Acoustic/Vibration
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Pressure/Vacuum
Thermal
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T4.01-9744
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent and Adaptive Space Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robotics_MobileRobot Navigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc.
135 East Ortega Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101-1674
(805) 966-3331

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Minnesota
210 Delaware Street Southeast
Minneapolis, MN 55455-0300
(612) 625-4104

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brad Short
bshort@asc3d.com111
135 E. Ortega Street
Santa Barbara,  CA 93101-1674
(805) 966-3331

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Robots and rovers exploring planets need to autonomously navigate to specified locations. Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) and the University of Minnesota will develop a navigational system that employs an IMU and a 3D FLASH Lidar camera manufactured at ASC. The system will furnish both the position of the rover and an elevation map of the terrain. The map will be useful in detecting hazards to navigation both by rovers and during entry, descent and landing (EDL). The algorithm is designed to function in real-time with the comparatively slow speed computers available in space by employing an advanced algorithm that makes efficient use of Lidar determined landmarks. Those landmarks that only appear in a few images are not retained in the state vector, but nevertheless furnish constraints on the rover's pose for improving its state estimates. Those landmarks that persist in many images are used for improving the accuracy of both the rover's state and the map at complexity only linear in the number of landmarks. Significant components of this approach have enjoyed success in NASA tests in the Mohave Desert for EDL and have been assessed at level TRL 4.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed navigational system that is based upon the ASC FLASH LidarTM camera would guide land vehicles to an intended destination autonomously while avoiding hazards in a GPS denied environment. The advanced navigation algorithm is designed to function with a computer having small computational power, which makes it suitable for applications such as unmanned air vehicles (UAV) where low SWAP is important. Accurate, lightweight navigational systems that function in GPS denied situations such as tunnels, indoors and in forests would be useful for many civilian and military applications including robotic mobility, enhanced situational awareness and rescue operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort will result in a navigational system that will enable a vehicle to autonomously move to a specified location in a GPS denied environment. It would enable a Rover vehicle on a moon or planet to travel without human guidance to a specified waypoint. It would also be useful to guide a spacecraft as it navigates above a small body such as an asteroid. It would be useful to autonomously guide tools such as a sampling arm. It may be suitable for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to progress to a waypoint autonomously. The system is an improvement over existing Rover navigational systems because it is less computationally burdensome – an important feature in space where qualified computers are several generations behind their terrestrial counterparts

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
3D Imaging
Image Analysis
Data Processing
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T4.01-9920
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent and Adaptive Space Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: MeshSLAM: Robust Localization and Large-Scale Mapping in Barren Terrain

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mesh Robotics, LLC
142 Crescent Drive
Pittsburgh, PA 15228-1050
(412) 606-3842

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3815
(412) 268-5421

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Wettergreen
dsw@ri.cmu.edu111
5000 Forbes Ave
Pittsburgh,  PA 15213-3815
(412) 268-5421

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Robots need to know their location to map of their surroundings but without global positioning data they need a map to identify their surroundings and estimate their location. Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solves these dual problems at once. SLAM does not depend on any kind of infrastructure and is thus a promising localization technology for NASA planetary missions and for many terrestrial applications as well. However, state-of-the-art SLAM depends on easily-recognizable landmarks in the robot's environment, which are lacking in barren planetary surfaces. Our work will develop a technology we call MeshSLAM, which constructs robust landmarks from associations of weak features extracted from terrain. Our test results will also show that MeshSLAM applies to all environments in which NASA's rovers could someday operate: dunes, rocky plains, overhangs, cliff faces, and underground structures such as lava tubes. Another limitation of SLAM for planetary missions is its significant data-association problems. As a robot travels it must infer its motion from the sensor data it collects, which invariably suffers from drift due to random error. To correct drift, SLAM recognize when the robot has returned to a previously-visited place, which requires searching over a great deal of previously-sensed data. Computation on such a large amount of memory may be infeasible on space-relevant hardware. MeshSLAM eases these requirements. It employs topology-based map segmentation, which limits the scope of a search. Furthermore, a faster, multi-resolution search is performed over the topological graph of observations. Mesh Robotics LLC and Carnegie Mellon University have formed a partnership to commercially develop MeshSLAM. MeshSLAM technology will be available via open source, to ease its adoption by NASA. In Phase 1 of our project we will show the feasibility of MeshSLAM for NASA and commercial applications through a series of focused technical demonstrations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Even on Earth, accurate localization remains a challenge in frequent situations where GPS is unavailable, either temporarily (e.g., passing under bridges or operating near buildings) or permanently (e.g., indoors and underground, or when GPS is jammed). As a result, the mining, agriculture, defense, and automotive industries are investing heavily in localization technologies. Companies (e.g., Applanix, NovAtel) have seen healthy growth in the past decade by providing off-the-shelf inertial navigation systems (INSs) that fuse GPS readings with data from inertial measurement units. Unfortunately, the underlying drift of even high-quality inertial measurements is severe and thus, localization estimates diverge dramatically within minutes of a loss of GPS. MeshSLAM can complement these existing techniques and improve their accuracy in GPS-denied situations. In unmanned-vehicle applications, MeshSLAM uses data from sensors already integrated for perception, so no new equipment is required. Furthermore, MeshSLAM's efficiency makes it suitable for running on highly-integrated embedded platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For the foreseeable future, robots operating beyond Earth will have to rely on triangulating rover position on a map or tracking the sun or stars. These approaches have shortcomings including limited resolution of orbital data and required interaction with ground control. SLAM is a promising means of infrastructure-free localization using local information; but unfortunately, most state-of-the-art SLAM implementations are not yet suitable for planetary exploration. Their implementations depend upon easily-recognizable landmarks that planetary environments lack. SLAM's computational complexity grows quickly with map size making it difficult to maintain kilometer-scale maps, especially on space-relevant computing hardware. MeshSLAM is significant to NASA because it provides planetary-relevant rover localization and mapping without orbital information, ground communication, or excessive computation. Furthermore in barren terrain its results will be more accurate than current methods. The partnership between Carnegie Mellon and Mesh Robotics is committed to developing and maintaining MeshSLAM following an open-source philosophy. Our aim is to leverage our years of experience working with NASA research groups to mature and prepare MeshSLAM for missions of the future. MeshSLAM will add value to long-duration missions involving repeated travel, such as manned-mission pre-cursors, site preparation, and long-range mapping.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Ranging/Tracking


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T4.02-9828
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Dynamic Servoelastic (DSE) Network Control, Modeling, and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Feather and Foil for Shape and Dynamic Load Sensing of Critical Flight Surfaces

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9004

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
New Mexico Tech
801 Leroy Place
Socorro, NM 87801-4681
(575) 835-5606

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ferey Faridian
ff@ifos.com111
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara,  CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9002

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future flight vehicles may comprise complex flight surfaces requiring coordinated in-situ sensing and actuation. Inspired by the complexity of the flight surfaces on the wings and tail of a bird, it is argued that increasing the number of interdependent flight surfaces from just a few, as is normal in an airplane, to many, as in the feathers of a bird, can significantly enlarge the flight envelope. To enable elements of an eco-inspired Dynamic Servo-Elastic (DSE) flight control system, IFOS proposes a multiple functionality-sensing element analogous to a feather, consisting of a very thin (gauge 18 or 20) tube with strain sensors and algorithms for deducing the shape of the "feather" by measuring strain at multiple points. It is envisaged that the "feather" will act as a unit of sensing and/or actuation for establishing shape, position, static and dynamic loads on flight surfaces and in critical parts. IFOS proposes to develop advanced sensing hardware and software control algorithms to demonstrate the proposed DSE flight control concept. The hardware development involves an array of optical fiber based sensorized needle tubes for attachment to key parts for dynamic flight surface measurement.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Multiple commercial applications exist for the novel flight surface control system proposed here in the areas of near-space travel, air and sea defense, commercial travel and, farther afield, in motion and process control systems as used in a number of industries, including the energy sector, chemicals, manufacturing and robotics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The flight surface sensing system proposed herein will extend flight research competencies at NASA by advancing innovative DSE concepts to extend the capabilities of future flight vehicles. The advanced hardware and algorithms for sensing and actuation to be developed will result in superior performance under extreme conditions from disturbances in an extended flight envelope. Importantly, these improved multi-surface DSE concepts should make all types of flight vehicles, from small single-prop airplanes to high performance, high-speed aircraft, more stable and more easily controllable, contributing still further to the safety of air flight.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T4.02-9983
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Dynamic Servoelastic (DSE) Network Control, Modeling, and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Attitude Control Enhancement Using Distributed Wing Load Sensing for Dynamic Servoelastic Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 Hawthorne Boulevard
Hawthorne, CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Univeristy of Florida
339 Weil Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611-6550
(352) 392-9447

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr Thompson
pthompson@systemstech.com111
13766 Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fly-by-feel uses distributed sensing of forces along the lifting surfaces of an aircraft. Whether such measurements are made via hot films, pressure sensors, or strain gauges, all can provide distributed force information that must be intelligently fused and utilized to achieve performance goals. Fly-by-feel will be used to achieve robust disturbance rejection, mass property augmentation, and aeroelastic tailoring. Earlier results using acceleration measurements will be duplicated and demonstrated using strain gauge measurements. Aeroelastic tailoring is a generalization of mass property augmentation whereby the modal mass and damping of selected modes will be augmented using a set of strain sensors. Technology for the design, modeling, and construction of small vehicles with flexible wings will be transferred from the university partner. Existing vehicle models will be used and updated as needed to show the feasibility of the new technology. Transition of the technology to larger vehicles will be demonstrated using models and simulation. Hardware testing using a NextGen strain sensor array will begin in Phase I and then continue in Phase II with wind tunnel and flight testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial potential for the ACES concept includes the large application area of Unmanned Air Vehicles. Flexible vehicles both large and small will be able to use DSE phenomena for increased attitude performance and aeroelastic tailoring. Enabling technologies are flexible wing design, strain sensor arrays, and associated flight control. A summary of the market potential is quoted below from the Defense Industry Daily, 3rd Annual Command and Control Summit, June 29-July 1, 2011: "Market research firm Forecast International recently released 'The Market for UAV Reconnaissance Systems,' which claims that the total UAV market including air vehicles, ground control equipment and payloads is expected to be worth $13.6 billion through 2014. More than 9,000 UAVs are expected to be purchased over the next 10 years by countries in every region of the world, and Forecast International does not include funding for RDT&E and operations and maintenance in its analysis."

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed program will continue the development of an innovative avionics technology called Attitude Control Enhancement using Strain sensors (ACES). This technology is a form of Dynamic Servoelastic Control (DSE). The ACES system directly supports the NASA Robotics, Tele-Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, Dynamic Servoelastic Network Control, Modeling, and Optimization topic under the NASA Small Business Technology Transfer program wherein stated objectives include "DSE control for performance enhancements while minimizing dynamic interaction," "distributed networked sensing and control for vehicle shape, vibration, and load control," and "data-driven multi-objecting DSE control with physics-based sensing." With the performance enhancement provided by a distributed array of strain gauges and fly-by-feel flight control techniques, benefits such as improved precision flying task performance, active shape control to better meet mission requirements, and assessing and adapting to major damage becomes an accomplishable proposition.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Structures
Contact/Mechanical
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T4.03-9945
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Particle Flow Physics Simulation Capability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Particle Flow Physics Modeling for Extreme Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926
(256) 726-4800

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Florida
P.O. Box 116550 (339) Weil Hall
Gainsville, FL 32611-6550
(352) 392-9448

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Liever
pal@cfdrc.com111
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1926
(256) 726-4930

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The liberation of particles induced by rocket plume flow from spacecraft landing on unprepared regolith of the Moon, Mars, and other destinations poses high mission risks for robotic and human exploration activities. This process occurs in a combination of "extreme environments" that combine low gravity, little or no atmosphere, with rocket exhaust gas flow that is supersonic and partially rarefied, and unusual geological and mechanical properties of highly irregular soil regolith. CFDRC and the University of Florida have previously developed unique plume driven erosion simulation software for such environments by combining novel granular physics simulation modules developed by UF with the Unified Flow Solver (UFS) plume flow simulation software developed by CFDRC. Granular flow constitutive models, formulated through first-principle 3-D Discrete Element Method particle kinetics simulations, were implemented for efficient Eulerian gas-granular flow CFD modeling in the UFS simulation framework. Resultant simulations realistically capture the granular flow characteristics of particle erosion and cratering scenarios. The goal of this project is to dramatically advance the fidelity of these simulations towards simulating actual extra-terrestrial soil compositions with broad shape and size variations. This will be achieved through applying recent, novel particle kinetics modeling concepts to formulate granular flow physics models for both, realistic irregular particle shapes and realistically dispersed particle size distributions. The proposed technology development will result in unprecedented computer modeling capability for predicting liberation and flow of realistic granular material compositions in extreme extra-terrestrial environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many potential non-NASA commercial applications exist in civil and military industries. Dust, sand and snow stir-up during helicopter landing and take-off in a desert or arctic environment result in severe visibility impairment (brown-out) and danger of debris ingestion. Civil engineering and environmental engineering applications include wind-borne landscape erosion and dust transport to populated areas

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The debris simulation tool will offer a powerful simulation capability of first order importance to the Space Exploration Program for robotic and human mission architecture definition to the Moon, Mars, and other destinations. The highest risks occurring during propulsive landing and takeoff of spacecraft require gas-granular flow simulation capabilities for designing mitigation measures. The granular flow modeling capability will be equally important for modeling regolith material manipulation for In-situ Resource Utilization such as pneumatic transport, granular flow movement in excavators, resource extraction systems moving and conveying planetary regolith, as well as processing of regolith in reactors for resource extraction.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T5.01-9799
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Navigation in GNSS-Denied Environments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Local Navigation in GNSS and Magnetometer-Denied Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Prioria Robotics
104 N Main St Ste 200
Gainesville, FL 32601-5320
(352) 505-2188

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Florida
219 Grinter Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611-5500
(352) 392-9447

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Walter Hunt
lee.hunt@prioria.com111
104 N Main St Ste 200
Gainesville,  FL 32601-5320
(352) 505-2188

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed solution exploits recent advances in computer vision to conceive of a single-camera + gyro + accelerometer vision-based navigation solution such that the processing will be lightweight (requiring only a single optical flow sample per frame). Known landmarks (natural or artificial) will have absolute positions known to planetary exploration worker robots. The worker robot can identify it's absolute position by observing known landmark features and deriving range from the raw attitude sensor data and the video stream. By observing one or more landmark features during camera motion, the position uncertainty of the range and bearing from the vehicle can be estimated. Each range / bearing measurement to known landmarks acts as a constraint for the camera position in the landmark navigation space (which may be arbitrarily defined and not oriented the same as the global navigation frame). Combining the worker's rough knowledge of it's own position can further reduce the position error estimates. The single-camera passive ranging technology leverages Navy SBIR funded work for early simulation tasks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Prioria will integrate this technology into it's Maveric SUAS as a landmark navigation failsafe when the GPS and/ or magnetometer is jammed or unavailable. The technology could also be transitioned to commercial ground robots and VTOL robots.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA can use this technology for navigation by small robots on other planets, where GNSS, magnetometer, and UTC time may not be known with accuracy. NASA could integrate this technology into a landmark navigation failsafe for it's UAS fleet for when GPS and/or magnetometers are jammed or unavailable for environmental reasons.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Attitude Determination & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Image Processing
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Optical
Ranging/Tracking
Inertial
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T5.01-9952
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Navigation in GNSS-Denied Environments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Navigation in GNSS-Denied Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
4 Cambridge Center
Cambridge, MA 02142-1494
(703) 369-3633

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Maryland
3112 Lee Building
College Park, MD 20742-5141
(301) 405-6269

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Terrence McKenna
tmckenna@aurora.aero111
4 Cambridge Center, 11th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1494
(617) 500-4838

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aurora proposes to develop a vision-based subsystem for incorporation onto Mars vehicles in the air (VTOL) and on the ground. NOAMAD will be an embedded hardware device with associated firmware for payloadlimited UAVs, performing autonomous navigation, obstacle avoidance, guidance using bio-inspired methods, and communication of information between agents within the autonomous team. NOAMAD will transition University of Maryland methods for insect-inspired, lightweight, vision- and optical sensor-based navigation methods into a subsystem that enables expansion of the exploratory capability of the vehicles on which it is installed. The subsystem will provide (1) localization (without a global navigation system or compass) using optic-flow based odometry combined with landmark detection, (2) obstacle detection and avoidance using optic flow, and (3) autonomous guidance using position information together with bio-inspired behaviors. Taken together, these functions will allow air and ground vehicles to work together to achieve progressively refined maps of an exploration region.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aurora is developing bio-inspired embedded device to improve the performance of vehicles operating in urban environments, where (GPS-based) global or inertial navigation is less important than navigation with respect to ones surroundings (buildings ,trees, and other clutter). NOAMAD will advance Aurora's devices from obstacle avoidance and short-duration guidance through cluttered terrain to goal-directed, long term behaviors that enable missions such as search and rescue and urban VTOL for law enforcement and medical evacuation. Bioinspired methods could also impact toxic cloud tracking by UAVs and border patrol search.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application is Return to Mars. Other applications include ground rovers for moon exploration, satellite mapping for inspection, and terrestrial applications in GPS-denied navigation and camerabased see-and-avoid using optic flow.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Image Processing
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T8.01-9801
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Subsystems for Small Satellite Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Collective Detection Based GPS Receiver for Small Satellites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emergent Space Technologies, Inc.
6411 Ivy Lane, Suite 303
Greenbelt, MD 20770-1405
(301) 345-1535

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Colorado Boulder
3100 Marine Street
Boulder, CO 80303-1058
(303) 735-3740

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Bamford
bill.bamford@emergentspace.com111
6411 Ivy Lane, Suite 303
Greenbelt,  MD 20770-1405
(301) 345-1535

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To solve the problem of autonomous navigation on small satellite platforms less than 20 kg, we propose to develop an onboard orbit determination receiver for small LEO satellites which lack stable Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS), continuous GPS coverage, or ground tracking. The system is a refinement of existing spaceborne receiver technology built around a new, innovative collective detection and direct positioning algorithm developed by Dr. Penny Axelrad, a reduced set of GPS hardware, and a compact orbit propagator. The small satellite collective orbit determination receiver (SCOR) brings together efficient reference orbit representations, snapshot GPS sampling, collective detection and direct positioning, and modular orbit propagation methods, to produce an effective new approach for onboard support of small satellites. Since the collective detection algorithm does not require continuous GPS tracking to generate navigation solutions, portions of the receiver can be duty cycled to reduce power consumption between measurements. Additionally, this approach allows for satellites without pointing capabilities to obtain sufficient measurements to generate solutions by taking multiple snapshots when the spacecraft attitude is in a favorable orientation with respect to the GPS constellation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several universities are developing small satellites to advance the current state-of-the-art and demonstrate technologies for larger missions. Georgia Tech is developing PROX-1, a mission to demonstrate autonomous proximity operations. The University of Maryland is demonstrating technologies that could be used for satellite servicing missions with DYMAFLEX satellite. The University of Colorado recently launched and is operating the 3U cubesat CSSWE (Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment), and is working on AllStar, a small satellite bus that is designed to inspire and develop America's future technological workforce and provide students hands-on-experience in applying science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Along the same lines, the MicroMAS satellites being developed by MIT and the NEMO-HD proposed by the University of Toronto would also make ideal platforms for implementation of the SCOR. All of these projects typically require low cost, robust instruments; a category that would be serviced by the proposed receiver.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is currently fueling the development of cutting edge technology demonstrations, each being a potential candidate for our innovative solution. The current small satellite missions FASTSAT and Nanosail-D are missions which would have been ideal platforms for the receiver. In February of 2012 NASA issued a call for proposals under the Edison Small Satellite demonstration program. The SCOR is ideally suited for the size and power requirements of small satellites. A secondary application for this technology can be part of a Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) system for GPS receivers on larger, mission critical satellites. The state solutions generated by the collective detection receiver could be compared with the solutions from the traditional on-board GPS receiver to ensure the estimated states are correct. This would be a low cost, low power solution for autonomously ensuring the onboard state solution is accurate and robust.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Space Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T8.01-9837
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Subsystems for Small Satellite Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Miniaturized Star Tracker for Small Satellite Attitude Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
1880 Pratt Drive, Suite 2006 (0170)
Blacksburg, VA 24060-3580
(540) 231-5281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Sorensen
phs@creare.com111
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 640-2340

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Creare and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University propose to design, develop, test, and deliver an ultra compact star tracker specifically intended for small satellites such as the CubeSat platform. Our design is based on proprietary "folded optics" technology previously developed by our partner for use in military and commercial optical applications that require a compact footprint and high performance. The folded optics design is superior to conventional refractive optics in miniature star trackers because (1) the compact footprint is achieved without sacrificing accuracy; (2) the light-gathering aperture is much greater, leading to better sensitivity; (3) the aperture geometry makes the shielding baffles smaller; and (4) the imaging sensor can be shielded efficiently from cosmic radiation. During the Phase I project, we will demonstrate the feasibility of our innovation by finalizing the design, performing analysis to determine the optimal design parameters, and testing a benchtop prototype to verify the design models. In Phase II, we will fabricate the optimized design, test the prototype in the laboratory and in the field, and deliver the prototype to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Both the military and commercial ventures are looking to small satellites to provide a cost effective space mission platform. However, the majority of missions still require high attitude accuracy. There is therefore a need for high-accuracy star tracker technology. Furthermore, the military is looking at star trackers for high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) attitude determination. These will typically need to provide arc-second accuracy in a small form factor with low power demands, which makes our proposed miniaturized star tracker ideally suited.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many NASA science missions are exploring the use of pico- and nano-satellites as alternatives to expensive, large satellites. In order to enable many mission profiles, these satellites need attitude determination sensors. Our star tracker will enable highly precise attitude determination (e.g., 10 arc seconds or better) in a package that is significantly smaller, has much lower mass, and uses less power than any alternative star trackers on the market. As the market for and uses of small and nano satellites increases, the demand for our star tracker will increase to enable missions that are not possible with today's technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Inertial
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T8.02-9770
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Planetary Compositional Analysis and Mapping
PROPOSAL TITLE: Detectors with Improved Near-to-Mid IR Performance and Reduced Cooling Requirements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amethyst Research Inc.
123 Case Circle
Ardmore, OK 73401-0643
(580) 657-2575

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Oklahoma
440 West Brooks St.
Norman, OK 73019-0225
(405) 325-3961

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orin Holland
holland@amethystresearch.com111
123 Case Circle
Ardmore,  OK 73401-0643
(580) 657-2575

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This STTR Phase I proposal addresses a NASA need for improved near-to-mid IR detectors for imaging and spectroscopy. High performance IR detectors with cutoff wavelengths in the range of 2.5 – 5.0 microns will be developed using InGaAs / AlAsSb semiconductor materials. The proposal uses a two-pronged approach to address the problem of detector performance degradation by materials' defects, both "grown in" defects and defects caused by radiation damage. The project will apply an advanced device architecture, the nBn detector, which has been shown to be extremely successful in other IR detectors for suppression of defect-related dark current and noise. Additionally, the project will apply our proprietary defect mitigation technology, which passivates defects via UV hydrogenation treatments. The result of this program will be near-to-mid IR detectors with higher performance, reduced cooling requirements, and improved radiation hardness. These detectors are compatible with integration into mega-pixel IR imaging arrays for imaging 2.5 – 5.0 micron wavelengths with improved performance and reduced cost, which will be produced in Phase II. Amethyst has teamed with the University of Oklahoma and FLIR Systems to ensure that this technology can be readily transitioned to meet NASA mission requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As the technology further matures the operability and yield gains will translate to significant reductions in cost and improved manufacturability of infrared imaging systems. The InGaAs nBn sensors will have reduced cooling requirements over other high performance infrared materials (such as HgCdTe and QWIPs) and, thus require fewer and lighter components for both military and commercial systems. The significant cost reduction associated with the InGaAs nBn based technology will generate new markets, currently inaccessible due to high price points, such as medical imaging, robotics, environmental and policing. Due to the nature of the Amethyst/FLIR partnership we fully anticipate that our rollout customer will be FLIR. However, to maximize the value of this program and Amethyst's intellectual property, Amethyst does not intend to grant an exclusive license to a single manufacturer. Amethyst has filed a number of patents relating to its photon-assisted and high pressure hydrogenation processes which will provide the basis for licensing negotiations with its customers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed InGaAs nBn detectors can be employed in NASA IR imaging applications at 2.5 – 5.0 micron wavelengths, such as the following programs: Landsat's Thermal IR Sensor (TIRS) http://ldcm.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.html: Currently TIRS is employing Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) for detection in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) region. These detectors operate at 43K. With significant reduction in the defect densities in Ga-free SLS as well as integrated in an nBn architecture to reduce factors contributing to the dark current such as surface leakage, Shockley Read Hall, the proposed structure will operate relatively at higher operating temperatures (>100K). Although the cut-off wavelength for the proposed structure is in the MWIR, the program will be expanded to cover 5-14 microns in Phase II. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) http://clarreo.larc.nasa.gov/index.php: According to the Extend Pre-Phase A, one of CLARREO's goals is to test and evaluate IR instrument ranging between 5-50 microns, which can provide a test-bed platform for high performance detector technologies such as the propose Ga-free SLS nBn detectors. Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), a joint NASA and ESA project under Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) http://opfm.jpl.nasa.gov/library: JEO concept includes a visible-IR spectrometer between 400-5200nm wavelength with HgCdTe arrays, which may require cooling to as low as 80K for reliable operation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Nanomaterials
Telescope Arrays
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Optical
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal
Infrared
Long
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T8.02-9963
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Planetary Compositional Analysis and Mapping
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel near-to-mid IR imaging sensors without cooling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Applied Technologies, Inc.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801-1721
(781) 935-2800

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kent State University
P. O. Box 5190, 1425 University Esplanade
Kent, OH 44242-0001
(330) 672-2654

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hongzhi Zhao
hzhao@bostonati.com111
6F Gill Street
Woburn,  MA 01801-1721
(781) 935-2800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Boston Applied Technologies, Inc (BATi), together with Kent State University (KSU), proposes to develop a high sensitivity infrared (IR) imaging sensor without cooling, which covers a broad band from near infrared (NIR) to mid-infrared (mid-IR). It is based on a specific transparent functional material developed at BATi that has excellent pyroelectric effect, over strong absorption at NIR, mid-IR and long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavebands, perfect transmittance in visible wavelength. With this material, the intensity variation of an incident NIR, Mid-IR or/and LWIR radiation from a warm object can be transferred into intensity variation of a visible beam by a smart use of liquid crystal, which can be detected by a commercial CCD or CMOS camera. Of the most important, the collaboration with Dr. Quan Li's group at The Glenn H. Brown Liquid Crystal Institute at KSU, which is renowned for their pioneer research and development on liquid crystal, will further leverage and ensure the success of the proposed program. Compared to existing thermal imaging techniques, this invention will generate an uncooled IR imaging sensor with unprecedented low costs, high resolution, high sensitivity, low mass, and low power consumption, which is very important to NASA's planetary exploration projects and other applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed IR imaging sensor features unprecedented low costs, high resolution, high sensitivity, low mass, and low power consumption. Therefore, this IR imaging sensors could be used in various military and commercial applications similar to persistent surveillance including law enforcement, building, installation, airport and seaport security, building inspection, and nighttime emergency response situations. The thermal imaging market value is billion-dollar now and is expected to be fast-growing. Especially, because of its relatively low cost, the proposed IR imaging sensor may also find themselves in many industrial sectors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development effort of this program will directly result in a novel uncooled IR imaging sensor with unprecedented low costs, higher resolution, high sensitivity, low mass, and low power consumption to meet NASA's planetary exploration projects' requirements. Especially, because of its low mass, low power consumption, it also has wide applications at NASA for space research in Earth science, heliophysics science, astrophysics, and remote sensing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Thermal
Visible
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T8.03-9846
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Small Missions (SISM)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Conjugate Etalon Spectral Imager (CESI) & Scanning Etalon Methane Mapper (SEMM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wavefront LLC
7 Johnston Circle
Basking Ridge, NJ 07920-3741
(609) 558-4806

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Dynamics Laboratory
1695 North Research Park Way
North Logan, UT 84341-1947
(435) 713-3850

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Marchant
alan.marchant@sdl.usu.edu111
7 Johnston Circle
Basking Ridge,  NJ 07920-3741
(435) 713-3850

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Conjugate Etalon Spectral Imaging (CESI) concept enables the development of miniature instruments with high spectral resolution, suitable for LEO missions aboard CubeSat or nanosat buses, including constellation missions providing global coverage and characterization of dynamic phenomena. Small size, low power, and a simplified instrument architecture support missions for earth observation, atmospheric science, and planetary science. Unlike prior art hyperspectral and ultraspectral instruments that are much too large and complex for deployment on a nanosat, the CESI concept can be implemented in a small form factor using inexpensive components and requiring only a small optical aperture. CESI superimposes the interferogram from a conjugate Fabry-Perot etalon on the image of a scanned scene captured on a novel high-sensitivity low-noise SWIR focal plane. Using image processing, high resolution spectral characterization is performed independently for each point in the scene. The innovative focal plane and spectroscopic concepts have many promising scientific and commercial applications. The Scanned Etalon Methane Mapper (SEMM) is a CubeSat instrument that incorporates the CESI concept to perform global daytime mapping of atmospheric methane column density. Performance capabilities: ground resolution 100 m; concentration sensitivity 18 ppb; and global revisit ~ 60 days.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications for the CESI technology include: ? hyperspectral earth imaging for applications in minerology, agriculture, environmental management, etc; ? night-vision, laser protection, miniature cameras, and other low-light applications; ? high-sensitivity focal planes for flash lidar and free-space optical communications; and prosthetic vision aids for low-vision patients.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Applications for the CESI technology include: ? hyperspectral imaging of terrestrial and planetary surfaces; ? remote atmospheric analysis, e.g. sounding and solar occultation; ? sensitive, high-gain SWIR detectors and focal planes; ? photon-counting focal planes and miniaturized spectrometers for planetary missions; global methane mapping of the Earth in support of the Earth System mission.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T9.01-9741
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Aerospace Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bayesian Framework based Damage Segmentation (BFDS) with Time-Reversal Tomography (TRT) for Damage Characterization in Complex Aircraft Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
X-wave Innovations, Inc.
407 Upshire Circle
Gaithersburg, MD 20878-5238
(301) 948-8351

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
North Carolina State University
3211 Broughton Hall
Raleigh, NC 27695-7910
(919) 515-5947

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dan Xiang
dxiang@x-waveinnovations.com111
407 Upshire Circle
Gaithersburg,  MD 20878-5238
(301) 948-8351

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To meet the NASA's need for innovative technologies that decrease turn-around time for inspections and assessments for safe operations of aircraft and spacecraft, X-wave Innovations, Inc. (XII), teaming up with Prof. Fuh-Gwo Yuan at North Carolina State University (NCSU), proposes to develop an innovative guided-wave based Time-Reversal Tomography (TRT) technology and Bayesian Framework based Damage Segmentation (BFDS) technology for finite-size damage detection and characterization in complex structures. This framework provides a means for evaluation of the Model-Assisted Probability of Detection (MAPOD) and Confidence Level (CL) for damage characterization in the context of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed damage characterization technology has many market opportunities. Nondestructive damage characterization for geometrically complex structures posts significant challenge and interest to both military and commercial applications. For military applications, the enabling technology will allow the cost-saving Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of aircrafts, ships, ground vehicles and infrastructures to be implemented. In commercial applications, this nondestructive damage characterization technology should benefit the maintenance decision for aerospace, civil structures and power plants. The proposed research provides a great means for cost-savings of maintenance as well as improvement of those mechanical systems. Such a NDE technique will benefit the enhancement of the lifetime and durability and the reduction of failure risk of those systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For NASA, this technology is especially critical to protect the platforms' and crews' safety. For military applications, the enabling technology will increase an aircraft's readiness and allow the cost-saving Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of aircrafts, ships, ground vehicles and infrastructures to be implemented. In commercial sectors, this nondestructive damage characterization technology will benefit the maintenance decision for air and space vehicles, civil structures and power plants. This new NDE/SHM technology could significantly extend an aircraft's service life, reduce maintenance costs, and protect the safety of critical assets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Acoustic/Vibration
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T9.01-9754
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Aerospace Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
420 North Nash Street
El Segundo, CA 90245-2822
(310) 640-8781

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
1901 South First Street, SuiteA
Champaign, IL 61820-7473
(217) 333-2187

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kerho
mike@RollingHillsResearch.com111
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo,  CA 90245-2822
(310) 640-8781

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft. The new test bed aircraft will be developed from an existing conventional airframe and provide a dedicated platform to study, design, and test electrically powered propulsion systems for use in commercial, military, and general aviation vehicles and UAV systems. The test bed aircraft will allow various electrical propulsion system technologies to be tested to determine performance, reliability, safety, and cost. These include various motors, motor controllers, batteries, fuel cells, super capacitors, and propeller technologies. Additionally, the platform could be used to investigate performance characteristics unique to electric propulsion, determine the most accurate methods for measuring energy used and remaining, research redundancy possibilities unique to electric aircraft, and possible hybrid-electric power plant systems. An electric aircraft has several significant advantages over a conventional internal combustion driven aircraft. These include zero, or near zero emissions, increased reliability and safety with only one moving part, reduced noise and vibration, increased comfort, and reduced maintenance. RHRC and the University of Illinois propose to develop an all electric test bed aircraft able to systematically evaluate new and existing technologies, which will make these systems, safe, reliable, and cost effective.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential for an advanced electric propulsion aircraft is quite good. If results from the test bed aircraft show that an all electric propulsion aircraft can be produced which can compete with a conventionally powered aircraft on both a performance and cost basis, the system will be in extremely high demand. The system's emissionless, or near emissionless operation will be highly desirable in an increasingly environmentally conscious world where ever more stringent emissions and noise standards are continually being enacted. The additional benefits of electric propulsion including increased reliability, low maintenance and maintenance costs coupled with low noise and reduced vibration will make the system highly attractive to commercial, military, and general aviation markets for both manned and unmanned systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An advanced aircraft electric propulsion system will have significant potential application across a wide range of NASA aircraft including both manned and unmanned systems. With two of NASA's primary goals being reduced aircraft emissions and noise, a realizable, efficient, and competitive aircraft electric propulsion system is a highly sought after commodity. The test bed aircraft will allow NASA personnel to quickly and rigorously evaluate multiple electrical propulsion systems in a cost effective and timely manner. The test bed will enable component optimization and a variety of operational studies to be performed, all of which will help define the important aspects and characteristics for a successful all-electric aircraft. The test bed can also be used to study new propulsion systems such as turboelectric distributed systems and hybrid electric systems. NASA will be eager to exploit the new test bed platform.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T9.01-9759
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Aerospace Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Semiconductor Nanomembrane based Flight Sensors and Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virginia Tech
122 Randolph Hall
Blacksburg, VA 24060-0000
(540) 231-7274

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hang Ruan
hruan@nanosonic.com111
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA Phase I program would develop and demonstrate semiconductor nanomembrane (NM) based flight sensors and arrays on flexible substrates, using SOI (Silicon on Insulator) silicon NM technique in combination with our pioneering HybridsilTM copolymer nanocomposite materials. Specifically, ultrathin nanostructured sensor skins with integrated interconnect elements and electronic devices that can be applied to new or existing wind tunnel models for skin friction analysis would be developed. NanoSonic has demonstrated the feasibility of NM transducer materials in such sensor skins for the measurement of flow-induced skin friction and pressure. Early experimental results have compared very favorably with data from other sensor gages.Major improvements from the previous Metal RubberTM based sensor include faster response time and less temperature dependence due to the high carrier mobility with the inorganic NMs. During this NASA STTR program, a semiconductor NM based distributed sensor array will be developed (Phase I) and deployed to measure in-flight (Phase II) the surface properties on an airplane wing surface. The properties that will be measured will include shear stress and pressure. With the high frequency response of the NM sensors (100 kHz), it is possible that laminar to turbulence transition can be detected. In phase I, an existing Mach 0.7 wind tunnel will be used to check out the performance of the sensors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Primary customers would be university, government laboratory and aerospace industry researchers. Small, unmanned air vehicles large enough to carry the extra load associated with electronics and power, and operationally sophisticated enough to require air data sensors would be a likely first military platform use. Distributed pressure mapping on air vehicles as well as in biomedical devices and other systems may have merit. Further, the thin film shear sensor elements may be used as air flow or water flow devices in systems where either the low weight, low surface profile, lack of need for space below the flow surface, or high sensitivity at a low cost are needed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The anticipated initial market of the NM sensor skin arrays is for flight testing and wind tunnel testing of flow models for NASA flight research centers. An appreciation of the instrumentation issues obtained by working with such centers would allow improvements in sensor materials, electronics and packaging, and potentially allow the transition of related products to operational vehicles. The commercialization potential of the NM technology developed through this NASA STTR program lies in four areas, namely 1) NM sensor skin arrays for the measurement of skin friction, 2) Broader sensor skin arrays for the measurement of pressure, 3) Single-element air or water flow sensors, and 4) NM material itself.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T10.01-9724
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Refractory Materials for Rocket Propulsion Testing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra High Temperature Refractory Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVANCED CERAMICS MANUFACTURING
7800A S. Nogales Highway
Tucson, AZ 85756-9645
(520) 547-0850

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vilanova University
800 Lancaster
Villanova, PA 19085-1399
(610) 519-4221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
zachary wing
zwing@acmtucson.com111
7800 A South Nogales Highway
Tucson,  AZ 85756-9645
(520) 547-0861

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 0
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Legacy refractory materials that have origins dating to the original Saturn program are commonly used in current launch facilities. Although they failure to meet the target requirements, they are the only approved material. Our research team proposed to develop an ultra high temperature refractory system that uses a non-cement binder, a high temperature macro aggregate, and reactive nano aggregates. The developed binder system will exhibit substantial improvements in strength and have functional limit of 4000F.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Refractory for DOD propulsion test facilities, launch facilities

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Refractory for propulsion test facilities, launch facilities

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Launch Engine/Booster


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T11.01-9699
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Software Framework & Infrastructure Development of Spaceborne Hybrid Multicore/FPGA Architectures
PROPOSAL TITLE: OrFPGA: An Empirical Performance Tuning Tool for FPGA Designs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
RNET Technologies, Inc.
240 W Elmwood Drive, Suite 2010
Dayton, OH 45459-4248
(937) 433-2886

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Argonne National Laboratory
9700 South Cass Avenue
Lemont, IL 60439-4803
(630) 252-7043

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chekuri Choudary
CChoudary@RNET-Tech.com111
240 W. Elmwood Dr., Suite 2010
Dayton,  OH 45459-4248
(937) 433-2886

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With the capacity and performance of FPGAs suitable for space borne applications continuously increasing, the design of FPGAs is becoming increasingly complex involving trading off or simultaneous optimization of space, speed, and power. RNET and ANL are proposing to develop software infrastructure that facilitates automatic performance tuning of FPGAs in terms of speed, power, and size. We introduce an extensible empirical tuning tool system OrFPGA, which is aimed at improving both performance and productivity by enabling FPGA designers to create simple scripts that trigger various FPGA performance optimizations for a specific design. OrFPGA will generate various tuned versions of the same design with different designer parameters and evaluates the versions to select the best performing one for production use. The proposed work will leverage an existing performance tuning tool named Orio developed by ANL for empirical tuning of compute-intensive kernels for a given architecture.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other potential applications include DoD and Homeland Security, Prime Contractors that build space-borne systems that require FPGAs, and Processor hardware manufacturers, such as, Intel and AMD.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are widely used by NASA for space borne applications. The radiation hardened capabilities, high reliability, and the low power requirements make the FPGAs preferable for Flight Computing systems. The proposed tool provides a software infrastructure that facilitates automatic performance tuning of FPGAs in terms of speed, power, and size.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Development Environments
Operating Systems
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T11.01-9737
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Software Framework & Infrastructure Development of Spaceborne Hybrid Multicore/FPGA Architectures
PROPOSAL TITLE: RUSH

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MaXentric Technologies
2071 Lemoine Avenue, Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024-6006
(201) 242-9800

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of California, San Diego
9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92093-0407
(858) 822-2924

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brandon Beresini
beresini@maxentric.com111
737 Pearl St, Suite 208
La Jolla,  CA 92037-5063
(650) 455-2746

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space presents a challenging environment for computing. Extended development times and radiation tolerance requirements leave hardware performance a decade or more behind the terrestrial state-of-the-art at the time of deployment. Additionally, once deployed, hardware changes are impractical, encouraging a trend towards increased software programmability. At the same time, topside pressure from application advancements is forcing space-based platforms to improve throughput and latency while reducing power consumption. A popular approach to addressing the tension between these requirements is the heterogeneous processing architecture. By providing multiple hardware tools that optimally support a subset of the anticipated workload, a heterogeneous architecture can offer performance and power solutions to the application developer. However, programming these systems is extremely challenging due to variations in toolsets and data sharing interfaces. As a result, data sharing and dynamic workload scheduling across heterogeneous architectures are often suboptimal and hindered by poor scalability. In this research and development effort, we study the feasibility of unifying a heterogeneous processing platform a unique programming model This platform is called the Assimilation Dynamic Network (ADN). The ADN employs a mesh network and virtual tiles on FPGAs and scalable multicore processors to create a cleaner and innovative programming model.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Some non-NASA applications include: software defined radio, hyperspectral data analysis, surveillance and reconnaissance processing, search and rescue, medical imaging, target tracking, software defined radar, video processing, video distribution, and general embedded manycore processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Some NASA applications for the ADN include: software defined radio, video processing, video distribution, autonomous landing, hazard avoidance, image processing, data compression, and general processing and system control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architecture/Framework/Protocols


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T12.01-9868
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Temperature Materials and Sensors for Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Deposition Capability for Oxidation & Corrosion Protection Coatings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Direct Vapor Technologies International, Inc.
2 Boars Head Lane
Charlottesville, VA 22903-4605
(434) 977-1405

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Univ. of Pittsburgh
123 University Place
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2303
(412) 624-7400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Susie Eustis
susie.eustis@directedvapor.com111
2 Boars Head Ln
Charlottesville,  VA 22903-4605
(434) 977-1405

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's long range goals of reducing the fuel consumption by 30% and increasing fuel efficiency by 35% can be partially accomplished through increasing engine operation temperatures. As a result, the disk section is desired to operate in increasingly higher temperatures, which will subject it to additional degradation mechanisms of oxidation and hot corrosion. One approach to enhance the temperature capability of these systems is through the incorporation of environmental protective coatings which can provide resistance from oxidation and hot corrosion. Research is proposed here to optimize the use of advanced coating manufacturing techniques designed to enable the affordable application of environmental protective coatings having enhanced resistance to hot corrosion and oxidation to allow operation at the desired high temperature engine environments. Advanced testing conditions will be used to simulate real world conditions and demonstrate the performance of the deposited coatings in these conditions. This approach is envisioned to aid the development of advanced coatings required to protect the surface of turbine disk components at higher temperatures desired for fuel and thrust operationally improvement without inducing significant fatigue debit. Advanced coating systems will be applied in this work onto coupons, and subcomponents to demonstrate coating capability and allow simulated engine environment testing in follow on programs. Success in meeting the objectives will significantly aid the temperature capability of turbine disk components, allowing significant fuel efficiency and thrust increases for turbine engines.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of high temperature turbine disk coatings using DVTI's advanced coatings processing techniques will enable not only new environmentally-protective for use in future military and commercial aircraft platforms, but also new deposition processes to enable affordable coating application onto engines components. DVD coaters are envisioned to be small with low capital costs and tailorable volumes so that small volumes of parts can be deposited at low cost. The soft vacuum required and the high deposition rates also have the potential to facilitate low cost, assembly line like part coating for some geometries. The non line-of-sight capabilities of this approach enable coatings to be applied onto complex components thus expanding their use.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This research is anticipated to result in advanced coatings for turbine disk components that provide higher temperature capability than is possible without these coatings. These advancements will help turbine disk components survive high temperature operation desired for enhanced thrust and fuel efficiency goals. These advances will potentially benefit all gas turbine engines requiring greater performance and efficiency. In addition, this research specifically supports the goals of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) which seeks to expand the boundaries of aeronautical knowledge for the benefit of the Nation and the broad aeronautics community and in particular NASA ARMD's Subsonic Fixed Wing Project which has a goal of conducting long term research in technologies which promote, among other things, higher performance and higher efficiency gas turbine engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T12.01-9928
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Temperature Materials and Sensors for Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Foreign Object Damage Performance for 2D Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Dayton Research Institute
300 College Park
Dayton, OH 45469-0104
(937) 229-2919

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Klock-McCook
edward.klockmccook@m-r-d.com111
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the power density of advanced engines increases, the need for new materials that are capable of higher operating temperatures, such as ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), is critical for turbine hot-section static and rotating components. Such advanced materials have demonstrated the promise to significantly increase the engine operating temperature relative to conventional super alloy metallic blades. They also show the potential to enable longer life, reduced emissions, growth margin, reduced weight and increased performance relative to super alloy blade materials. MR&D is proposing to perform a combined analytical, fabrication and experimental program to achieve the program objectives of developing innovative approaches to improving foreign object damage (FOD) resistance of CMC materials, specifically with Hyper-Therm High Temperature Ceramics's material system as this will be used by Rolls Royce for turbine engine hot-section components. MR&D will develop finite element math models of the CMC material specimens and the high velocity metal projectiles to simulate impact testing. The models will first be verified by reproducing experimental data measured on impacted baseline CMC specimens. Thereafter, candidate methods for potential improvement of the FOD resistance will be analytically investigated through mathematical simulations of impact tests.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the commercial sector, the Rolls Royce Trent 1000 and Trent XWB engines are being developed for the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350 XWB aircraft, respectively. There are currently 838 Boeing 787s on order and 562 Airbus A350 XWBs on order. The Trent 1000 was the launch engine for the Boeing 787. These are large markets where the benefit of this technology will have a lasting impact in efficiency and cost. By working closely with Rolls Royce during the early stages of this development program, MR&D has ensured that the resulting products will meet the requirements of future customers. Both companies have expressed a serious interest in this technology and, as demonstrated above, have a sizable market for its application. The aerospace industry is not the only potential beneficiary of this technology. The Department of Energy (DOE) is working hard to improve the efficiency of power generators. Just as with aircraft engines, power turbines' efficiency improves with higher operating temperatures. As an example, current turbines operate at 2600F, which provided a large improvement in efficiency over earlier models operating at 2300F. CMC turbine blades and stators will allow even higher temperature operation and is a topic which the DOE is currently investigating.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Glenn has been directly involved in the effort to bring Ceramic Matrix Composites to turbine hot section components. The NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology program (UEET) was focused on driving the next generation of turbine engine technology. More recently, the NASA CLEEN and NextGen programs also aim to improve efficiency in aircraft propulsion. One of the major thrusts is the development and demonstration of advanced high-temperature materials which are capable of surviving the extreme environments of turbine combustion and exhaust. These materials enable higher engine operating temperatures which directly improves efficiency. Additionally, by reducing or eliminating the hardware needed to provide cooling, the system become less massive, further improving efficiency. Improved FOD resistance for SiC/SiC combined with the ability to accurately predict impact damage will significantly improve the ability to utilize these materials in future turbine engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Generation
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Composites
Atmospheric Propulsion
Destructive Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T12.02-9933
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Manufacturing Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Space Friction Stir Welding Machine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Longhurst Engineering, PLC
234 South Ewing Street
Guthrie, KY 42234-9208
(615) 289-1162

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vanderbilt University
2301 Vanderbilt Place, PMB407749
Nashville, TN 37240-7749
(615) 322-2631

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Cook
george.e.cook@vanderbilt.edu111
Vanderbilt University, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, PMB 351826
Nasville,  TN 37235-1826
(615) 322-2762

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Longhurst Engineering, PLC, and Vanderbilt University propose an in-space friction stir welding (FSW) machine for joining complex structural aluminum components. The proposed FSW machine is innovative because it can be deployed by 2 people and be used to weld complex surfaces that extend beyond linear welding applications. The in-space FSW machine is a 3 axis system that can be mounted to work pieces of varying geometry, position, and orientation through the use of a high performance vacuum system or mechanical clamps. The key enabler of the proposed FSW machine is a self adjusting and self aligning FSW (SAA-FSW) tool that eliminates the need for automated actuators. In addition, a collection of force reduction techniques will be included as part of the system. When combined together, it is theorized that the effect will be significant and will lead to the advancement of FSW by reducing structural rigidity requirements of FSW machines. Our work plan begins by determining the net effect of the combined force reduction techniques. Substantial effort is given to the development of a preliminary SAA-FSW tool which includes experimental welding. Lastly, a preliminary set of engineering plans will be delivered based upon the results from the development of the SAA-FSW tool and force reduction techniques.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Boeing, Lockheed Martin, and other aerospace companies have FSW applications very similar to NASA that would benefit from this portable system. These companies would increase the efficiency of welding operations by having a portable FSW machine to supplement existing immobile machines. Perhaps the most potential for a portable FSW machine lies with small businesses that will be poised to enter the FSW industry within the next couple of years as the major FSW patents expire. Entry into the FSW industry requires a rather significant investment to obtain the large machines. With a small portable FSW machine, entry will be much easier for these companies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful development of a 2 person portable FSW machine will enable in-space applications of FSW. This includes the joining and assembling of panels as well as in-situ repair operations needed for prolong and deep space missions beyond low Earth orbit. By no longer preassembling the structures, greater payload densities could be achieved, which would reduce the overall costs. The welding and assembly would then be done at the point of use via the in-space FSW machine. In addition, the SAA-FSW tool technology can be used to replace or substitute the actuating mechanisms used with NASA's self-reacting FSW tool technology. With the SAA-FSW tool, automatic actuation and control systems are eliminated.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
In Situ Manufacturing
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T13.01-9887
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Risk Engineering, Sciences, Computation, and Informed Decisions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Risk Engineering, Sciences, Computation, and Informed Decisions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
99 East River Drive
East Hartford, CT 06108-7301
(860) 257-8014

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Montana State University
Department of Computer Science, EPS 363
Bozeman, MT 59717-3880
(406) 994-4835

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudipto Ghoshal
sudipto@teamqsi.com111
99 East River Drive
East Hartford,  CT 06108-7301
(860) 761-9341

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Wrong decisions during the missions can lead to an unsafe condition or immediate failure, while correct decisions can help continue the missions even from faulty conditions. In view of the lessons learned from mishaps, i.e., failed space missions, it is imminent that reliability analysis and risk assessment are kept in sync with space system design as it evolves from the concept through preliminary design, detailed design, production, and operations. Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) in collaboration with Dr. John Sheppard from Montana State University (MSU) proposes a real-time health and risk assessment solution. The proposed efforts through this project in developing real-time computer-based environment for diagnosis, risk assessment, and visualization of system status will provide: (1) an environment for thorough and collaborative analysis and evaluation of a system design before the system is built and commissioned, (2) real-time diagnosis to identify Good, Bad, Unknown, Suspect, Degraded and Suspected Degraded of subsystems/components, (3) state of redundancies in real-time in case of single/multiple faults, (4) degradation status/criticality/time-to-failure, (5) risk identification of software and loss of mission/vehicle/life, (6) recommendation of a safer state to go to, and (7) visualization of risk (rank-ordered missions, probability of mission success, schedule and cost), mission criticality, and diagnostic coverage. The proposed solution should be of significant relevance to NASA's space missions because it provides capabilities in characterizing as system in its failure space as well as uncovering and managing risks as the system design evolves.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Among the other agencies, DoD, US Air Force, US Navy, and SpaceX are the most potential customer for the resulting technologies. Large scale military systems (systems of systems) such as NORAD, Space Command ground segments, the Joint Strike Fighter fleet, the Navy shipboard platforms, Submarine Commands and ballistic missile defense (BMD) systems can be potential areas to field the proposed technology. In addition, UAVs, UMGs and other unmanned submersible vehicle markets could also be potential target for the proposed technology. The product is also expected to be of commercial value to the manufacturers of DoD and military's remotely guided weapons and reconnaissance systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's current vision to enhance the level of autonomy for vehicle health management and mission planning based on identified risks makes the proposed effort worthy of funding from several branches within it. Clearly, establishing the technology and the software so that it readily operates as part of NASA's next generation Mission Control Technology allows NASA to utilize the continuous health assessment and mission satisfiability information from our tool for improved mission execution and reconfiguration while improving safety, mission success probability and reducing flight controller and crew workload.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Sequencing & Scheduling
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T15.01-9798
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cross cutting Avionics for Beyond Earth Orbit Space Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation hard Monolithic SDRAM to support DDR2 and DDR3 architectures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Micro, Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121-1526
(858) 332-0700

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arizona State University (ASU)
PO Box 875706
Tempe, AZ 85287-5706
(480) 965-8222

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bert Vermeire
bvermeire@spacemicro.com111
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego,  CA 92121-1526
(858) 332-0700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is no rad hard SDRAM currently available to support DDR2 and DDR3 applications. Space Micro proposes to build a radiation hardened by design (RHBD) SDRAM memory, using a modified version of our HF-Core Memory Controller to solve all the single event effects issues (SEU, SEFI and multiple bit errors). The RHBD SDRAM will be manufactured on known radiation characterized eDRAM (embedded DRAM) ASIC processes: either TSMC or IBM for a Phase II demonstration. The resulting RH-eDRAM (our name for this device), fabricated on a 130 nm process, provides 128 Mbit of radiation hardened (SEU, SEFI, SEL and TID) memory, while a 90 nm IBM process would result in 512 Mbit of DRAM. The RH-eDRAM solves the space reliability problems with a well-understood set of solutions applied:

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology and evolving Space Micro products may benefit many commercial space platforms, both LEO and GEO telecommunication satellites, such as Intelsat, Direct TV, XM radio, Orbcomm and Iridium Next telecom constellation replenishment, plus standard industry busses including Lockheed's A2100, and Boeing's HS-702. Civil earth sensing applications such as weather/metrology applications e.g. (NOAA GOES and Landsat) can also benefit. The large DoD space industry, including USAF, MDA, NRO, and new Army nanosat programs at SMDC will directly benefit. Among these programs are AEHF upgrades, GPS follow-ons, MDA's PTSS, USAF TacSat family, Operationally Responsive Space (ORS), and Army SMDC nanosat family. The entire Cubesat initiative including NRO's Colony program and the USAF SENSE program would benefit. This technology and products will also address emerging MDA radiation threats. These programs include AKV, THAAD, AEGIS, SM3 Block IIB, and GMD for Blocks 2018 and beyond. With the new challenge of atmospheric neutrons to High Altitude Airship (HAA) programs and NASA or Air Force UAV programs, this R&D and future product may be a timely solution. Other military applications may include strategic missiles (Trident and Air Force upgrades), as well as many DoD tactical weapon programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Virtually all NASA space programs have a demand for this proposed technology and resulting space qaulified product. NASA applications range from science missions, space station, earth sensing missions e.g. (EOS), and deep space missions. NASA programs/missions that will benefit include new lunar landers and orbiters, Mars missions (MAVEN), solar system exploration e.g. (Titan, Juno, Europa, comet nucleus return, New Discovery, and Living with a Star (LWS). NASA programs which hopefully will continue to be funded by Congress include the next generation heavy launch vehicle called SLS, the Orion Multipurpose Crew Exploration Vehicle, Commercial Crew Development Vehicle (CCDev2) and Commercial Orbiter Transportation Service (COTS) would benefit. Space products evolving from this SBIR , and marketed by Space Micro, would have been enabling for NASA programs such as RBSP, GRAIL, LADEE, IRIS, Dawn, SDO, Aquarius, Kepler, Ocean Vector Winds, and space interferometry (SIR). New missions which hopefully will be funded include BARREL, CLARREO, GEMS, solar orbiter, Osiris-Rex asteroid sample return mission, solar probe plus, and ILN.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T15.02-9777
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Systems for Atmospheric Flight
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mission-Aware Payloads for Unmanned Platforms

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sentix
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 306
Leesburg, VA 20175-5686
(800) 405-8576

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brigham Young University
A-258 ASB
Provo, UT 84602-1014
(801) 422-3841

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Pledgie
spledgie@sentixcorp.com111
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 306
Leesburg,  VA 20175-5686
(800) 405-8576

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sentix and Brigham Young University propose the research and development of embedded payload intelligence for inflight optimization of surveillance, reconnaissance, and scientific missions. The current proposal leverages a substantial body of scientific and experimental knowledge derived from the Tactical Seeability™ System developed by Sentix' staff and BYU researchers to provide fully automated, optimal optical sensing over rugged 3D terrain. Discriminating features of our target capability include the following: 1.) A modular, sensor and platform agnostic framework for preflight and inflight modeling and optimization of performance in data acquisition missions, 2.) Mission impact modeling relating sensor payload configuration (states) to "sensing value" for the mission. 3.) An optimizer for the configuration of the aircraft and payload. 4.) An online estimator of current mission impact arising from the actual, achieved sensing, which can be used to inform a re-planning process for corrections to flight trajectories and payload configuration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new capabilities and embedded technology to emerge from this STTR effort will be directly applicable to nearly all inventory platforms (e.g., Predator, Reaper, Shadow) with the possible exception of the lightest weight systems such as Raven and Wasp. Placing the 'smarts' forward into the aircraft and sensor itself will literally embody sensor intelligence onto the battlefield and help to empower autonomy machines, allowing commanders to decide whether they can, at this point in the future, be granted agency to act on behalf of the commanding nation. Beyond DoD applications, DHS-CBP will find widespread use for self-optimizing sensor platforms to aid in border coverage and port overwatch. Similarly, FEMA's ability to use optimal sensing capabilities during response to disasters, e.g., hurricanes, floods, tornados, and management of ongoing recoveries will yield positive results.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mission-aware payloads offer the potential for autonomous platforms to achieve unprecedented levels of accuracy and information density in the sensing products they acquire, package, and deliver to remote operators around the globe. Sentix' successful development of a "smart payload" that is mission and platform aware relative to an operating environment will enable NASA to apply this technology to long-duration earth science missions collecting imagery (EO/IR/HS) across a variety of terrains and atmospheric conditions. It is important to note that integration of sensing intelligence into payload systems will yield implications well beyond terrestrial / earth-bound applications. Space robotics used for exploration of other worlds will present the same, if not significantly greater, challenges with regards to C2 and data links. Because the optimal sensing capabilities can be realized in both airborne and surface environments, robotic platforms in both domains will benefit, yielding rovers, winged fliers, and rotor / flapping flight explorers that can operate with substantially greater autonomy than is currently available to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Image Processing
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 T15.02-9807
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Systems for Atmospheric Flight
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Motion Planning and Autonomous Control Technology for Autonomous ISR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Mass Avenue, Bldg NE 18-901
Cambrdige, MA 02139-4307
(617) 253-3907

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jovan Boskovic
jovan@ssci.com111
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSCI and MIT propose to design, implement and test a comprehensive Integrated Mission Planning \& Autonomous Control Technology (IMPACT) for Autonomous ISR missions employing collaborating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The main feature of the IMPACT system for Autonomous ISR is that it is based on robust real-time learning about dynamic and stochastic environments, and on a capability to autonomously react to contingencies while satisfying the mission objectives and the overall flight safety. The project will leverage a number of technologies recently developed by SSCI and MIT, and integrate various system modules within a flexible and user-friendly framework. In order to achieve the project objectives, the following tasks will be carried out: (i) Problem Statement & Test Scenario Selection jointly with NASA; (ii) Develop, Implement & Test Vehicle-level Subsystems; (iii) Develop, Implement & Test Mission-level Subsystems; and (iii) Carry out Integration & Initial Testing of the overall IMPACT System for an Autonomous ISR mission. Phase II of the project will be focused on the enhancements and full implementation of the IMPACT system, prototype system development, and demonstration of its features through hardware-in-the-loop simulations and flight tests at MIT.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a variety of current and proposed applications of UAVs for US Homeland Security. The US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Border Patrol tested UAVs in its Arizona Border Patrol Initiative, aimed at minimizing illegal and dangerous border crossings. According to the CBP, the advantages of UAVs include advanced image recognition systems in both day and night-time monitoring, longer dwell time (in comparison to manned Blackhawk helicopters) resulting in more sustained coverage, decreased need for human resources and the ability to work in dangerous conditions, which results in increased safety for ground agents. In addition to land border patrol, UAVs have application in search and rescue missions; maritime, harbor and littoral patrol and monitoring critical infrastructure such as dams and aqueducts; energy and water pipelines; and assets in the national power grid, which may span many miles and require long, tedious but essential monitoring. There is also a great potential for utilization of fully autonomous UAVs in a variety of military applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Autonomous UAV ISR & science missions offer great potential for improving the productivity of NASA airborne science research, and applications such as fire monitoring. The related autonomous missions will include high altitude atmospheric composition measurements of specific chemical or physical conditions that contribute to climate change. A mission in which the instrument measurements guide the flight path requires real-time analysis and a high degree of autonomy. Other relevant missions include detection and monitoring of wildfires, and communication of the location and imagery to fire crews on the ground. In such missions, the sensor system must be automated to search for fires in designated areas, revise plans when fire detection task takes longer than expected, track satellite passes to ensure transmission of data, and monitor fuel state to ensure safe return of the vehicle. Fully autonomous UAVs, capable of performing such missions, are envisioned as a part of future NASA's Sensorweb - a networked set of instruments in which information from one sensor is automatically used to redirect or reconfigure other components of the web.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)