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NASA 2010 STTR Phase II Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-2 T1.01-9930
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX11CI02P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Small Probe Entry Descent and Landing Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9004

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
North Carolina State University
2701 Sullivan Drive, Suite 240
Raleigh, NC 27695-7514
(919) 515-2444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Black
rjb@ifos.com
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara,  CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS), in collaboration with North Carolina State University, successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based system for simultaneous, continuous, multipoint temperature measurements at different depths in a representative Thermal Protection System (TPS) material (Super Lightweight Ablator – SLA), with testing performed near its char temperature. Special high-temperature FBG sensors were also developed and tested to 1000C with an applied 7 kpsi tensile stress, and with an applied 18 kpsi after cooling to room temperature. A pure thermal loading calibration of these sensors in this temperature range was performed. The response of the FBG sensors was much faster than that of thermocouples, and all electrical wires were replaced with a single optical fiber. In Phase 2, IFOS will embed 1000 C-capable optical fiber sensors into a TPS material. Following an appropriate instrumentation development, we will demonstrate temperature profile measurements with a depth resolution of 250-m or better. We will also distinguish between temperature- and strain-induced responses in the FBG sensors, a critical consideration for embedded sensor arrays. Our Phase 2 base work plan is designed to advance the TRL to 5, with TRL 6 being obtained in a Phase 2-E program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The work will significantly benefit the development of commercial re-entry vehicles and hypersonic vehicles (engine and airframe). Additionally, this technology could readily lend itself to temperature measurement and monitoring applications in, for example, jet engine and coal power plant gas turbines and furnace heat recovery units (recuperators).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The TPS-integrated temperature sensing technology will support NASA's goal of developing a more complete understanding of ground test-to-flight traceability issues in small probe TPS applications. Furthermore, this technology has the potential to support NASA's efforts to develop higher performance TPS materials as well as integrated Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Characterization
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Ceramics
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-2 T2.01-9953
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX11CI09P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Aeroservoelastic Control Utilizing Physics-Based Aerodynamic Sensing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tao of Systems Integration, Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5050

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Regents of the University of Minnesota
450 McNamara Alumni Center, 200 Oak Street South East
Minneapolis, MN 55455-2070
(612) 624-5599

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arun Mangalam
arun@taosystems.us
144 Research Drive
Hampton,  VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5040

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
New aircraft designs depend on an integrated active approach to flight control, flutter suppression and structural mode attenuation to meet desired handling quality performance and gust load alleviation. Tao Systems will team with Professor Gary Balas at the University of Minnesota to (1) develop a robust controller that demonstrates improved aerostructural performance over current state-of-the-art techniques by utilizing a novel aerodynamic load sensor, and (2) provide a robust linear parameter varying controller that (a) requires no ad hoc methods of gain-scheduling, (b) provides robustness guarantees that more traditional methods do not offer, and (c) allows for explicit rate bounds enabling less conservative, higher performing controller designs. The benefits include improvement of aerodynamic and structural efficiency using robust aeroservoelastic control methods over a range of flight speeds, in the presence of significant turbulence.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- Traditional and bio-inspired, Sensorcraft, UAVs, DARPA Vulture, Helios-like aircraft, supercavitating vehicles - Wind turbines, ocean energy, solar panels, antennas - Automotive vehicles, trucks

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
- X-56A, Large Transport Aircraft, ISR Platforms, Blended Wing Body - Flight control, gust load alleviation, flutter suppression - Reconfiguration, damage, upset recovery - Future aircraft configurations

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Verification/Validation Tools
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-2 T3.01-9872
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX11CI10P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Co., Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Pennsylvania State University
P.O. Box 30
State College, PA 16804-0030
(814) 865-0305

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Szabo
jszabo@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation being developed in this program is a Mg Hall Effect Thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. Performance advantages of a Mg thruster include far higher specific impulse and less life limiting erosion. Additional advantages include low propellant cost and low pressure propellant storage. A system efficiency >50% is expected from an optimized, high power Mg HET. More importantly, the Isp for a high efficiency magnesium Hall thruster driven by a 400V power processing unit may exceed 5000s. For a Mars-Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon HET system are enormous. Mg can also be combusted in a rocket with CO2 or H2O, enabling a multi-mode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in-situ on Mars or the Moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium power (1-3kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate Isp >4000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to medium or high power thruster was also demonstrated. The objective of Phase II will be to evaluate the performance of an integrated, high power Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. In the first task, we will improve the medium power thruster system and characterize it in detail. In the second task, the knowledge gained will be used to design and build a high power (8-20kW) Mg HET. In the third task, a fluidized powder feed system supporting the high power thruster will be built and delivered to Busek. In the fourth task, the integrated high power system will be fully characterized. Measurements will include performance and plume properties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Light metal Hall thruster technology may enhance many critical DoD and commercial missions such as satellite orbit maintenance, orbit raising and repositioning. Magnesium offers far higher specific impulse than possible with xenon with the possibility of long term, low maintenance, propellant storage. High pressure propellant tanks will not be required and spacecraft interaction issues should be manageable. Mg Hall thrusters could also form one half of a multi-mode propulsion system that also contains a Mg based rocket. This system would provide both high thrust and high Isp. The rocket oxidizer would be CO2 or water. The two systems would share propellant feed system components, tanks, and fuel.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Magnesium Hall thrusters are attractive for NASA Flagship, Frontier, and Discovery class missions because extremely high specific impulse is available at voltages typical of low cost, flight qualified power processors. Isp ~ 5000 s is possible at a discharge potential of 400 V, while Isp ~ 6000 s is possible at 600 V. These thrusters can also be deeply throttled. Examples mission targets include asteroids, comets, and the outer planets. Sample return missions are also enabled. Magnesium thrusters are also well suited for lunar and Martian missions. A high power cluster would support manned missions by transporting fuel and cargo. In-situ propellant utilization is possible at the Moon and Mars. Also possible is a multi-mode Mg based propulsion system featuring a Mg rocket and a Hall thruster will full or partial propellant sharing. This multi-mode system with ISRU would greatly reduce the cost of sample return from Mars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Resource Extraction
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-2 T4.01-9931
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX11CI18P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar, Radar, and Passive Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: New Lidar Laser Configuration for Earth Science Measurements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
1000 Hilltop Circle
Baltimore, MD 21250-0002
(410) 455-3140

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Youming Chen
ychen@fibertek.com
13605 Dulles technology Drive
Herndon,  VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this STTR Phase 1 program, Fibertek successfully developed and demonstrated a breadboard version of a pulsed fiber laser capable of high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) measurements. This was installed in the Lidar Lab. at the Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore county (UMBC). Lidar integration, calibration and validation was successfully performed, leading to the demonstration of direct backscatter measurements up to 10km atmospheric height, and HSRL measurement of the atmospheric boundary layer aerosol. Such measurements compared very well to the co-located lidar measurements conducted via the ELF and MPLNET lidar systems. For the STTR Phase 2 program, Fibertek and UMBC propose to mature this technology platform, to develop, test, deliver and demonstrate a completed standalone HSRL lidar system capable continuos lidar measurement. The HSRL lidar transmitter sub-system can be also used for airborne HSRL missions, and the design is both power-scalable and compatible with a qualification roadmap, for future space-based HSRL missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1) Precision lidar ranging applications for target range estimation (2) Target tracking of rocket,artillery, mortar (RAM) for military applications

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
(1) Ground-based High-Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) for atmospheric aerosol mapping (2) Airborne/UAS and potentially space-based aerosol mapping (3) Enables multi-beam approach to high-resolution lidar mapping (4) Direct-detection lidar transmitter applications, enabled by the arbitrary optical waveform capability of proposed fiber-lidar transmitter

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-2 T5.01-9939
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX11CI20P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for In Situ Compositional Analysis and Mapping
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-Time Smart Tools for Processing Spectroscopy Data

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Signal Processing, Inc.
13619 Valley Oak Circle
Rockville, MD 20850-3563
(301) 315-2322

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Tennessee
1508 Middle Drive
Knoxville, TN 37996-2100
(865) 974-8527

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chiman Kwan
chiman.kwan@signalpro.net
13619 Valley Oak Circle
Rockville,  MD 20850-3563
(240) 505-2641

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Since Mars rovers have limited life span, NASA wants to maximize the exploration activities during this period. Rock sample analysis is one of the main tasks of rover missions. Traditionally, rock selection is decided by human operators. Due to long communication delay, manual selection process is time-consuming. There is a strong need to develop an automatic software system to automate the process. We propose a novel and high performance approach to enhancing rock selection process. We explicitly take advantage of the availability of LIBS instrument in the new generation of Mars rover. First, we use LIBS to quickly sample the neighborhood of the rover. LIBS can collect samples in seconds. Our software algorithms can quickly analyze the LIBS data and determine whether there are any interesting chemical elements. If yes, the APXS instrument will be activated. Otherwise, the rover will move to a new location and start the process again. In Phase I, we have demonstrated that our smart processing tools using actual Mars data and our results are more consistent than a current method. Moreover, our tools can implemented in a parallel processing system to achieve real-time performance. Our parallel processing system utilizes multi-core CPUs for distributed processing and we have used such processing architecture for speech and genomic processing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect to produce real-time tools containing the above mentioned algorithms for spectroscopy (LIBS and APXS) data processing. The tools can be useful for military surveillance and reconnaissance, and civilian applications (vegetation monitoring). Other applications include explosive detection, toxic industrious materials identification, environmental monitoring, soil quality monitoring, goal content assessment, and wood treatment processing control. The market size is estimated to be 20 million dollars over the next decade.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our proposed algorithm can exactly meet the NASA's mission needs, including rover guidance, sample selection, and other scientific missions. We can handle different scenarios such as anomaly detection and supervised material identification. In Phase II, we also plan to embed our tools into JMARS, which allows users to use some postprocessing tools to analyze some database and further extract the composition of some rocks at different locations of MARS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Processing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-2 T6.02-9858
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX11CI23P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Portable Sensor Technology for High-Purity Oxygen Determination
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Accurate Sensor for High-Purity Oxygen Determination

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Wisconsin, Madison
21 N. Park Street, Suite 6401
Madison, WI 53715-1218
(608) 262-3822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Manish Gupta
m.gupta@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7874

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this STTR effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) and the University of Wisconsin (UW) propose to develop a highly-accurate sensor for high-purity oxygen determination. The analyzer, which is based on LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS technique, will be capable of rapidly quantifying high-purity oxygen (95 – 100 %) with very high accuracy (better than ? 0.03 %), minimal calibration, and no zero drift. Moreover, the sensor will require no consumables and be sufficiently compact and robust for deployment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In Phase I, LGR and UW successfully demonstrated technical feasibility by fabricating a prototype that quantified high-purity oxygen with a precision of ? 0.017 % and a 24-hour drift of less than 0.05 %. The analyzer distinguished a 0.1 % change in highly pure oxygen and provided a linear response (R2 = 0.999997) over a wide dynamic range (0 – 100 % oxygen). The prototype was found to be accurate to 0.07 % by testing it at NASA Johnson Space Center on oxygen purified by the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) project. Due to the success of this program, LGR released a commercial O2/CO2 analyzer for environmental applications. In Phase II, LGR and UW will refine the measurement strategy, miniaturize the hardware, ruggedize the analyzer, and test the resulting instrument. The measurement strategy will be improved to reduce long-term drift and extended to include other species (H2O, O2 isotopes, N2). The hardware will be modified to meet the technical requirements for deployment aboard the ISS (e.g. power, size, weight, and environmental specifications). The prototype will be manufactured and tested to empirically determine its accuracy, precision, linearity, long-term drift, and time response. Finally, the Phase II instrument will be delivered to researchers in the Life Support and Habitability Systems Branch at NASA Johnson Space Centers for characterization of high-purity oxygen generators.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides its application to NASA, an ultrasensitive, lightweight oxygen analyzer also has significant commercial application for military life gas sensing, industrial process control monitoring, and environmental sciences. LGR is actively collaborating with several commercial partners to develop oxygen sensors for both life gas monitoring aboard Navy submarines and real-time control and optimization of electric arc furnaces. The proposed work is essential in making these instruments smaller, lighter, and more cost effective, thus enabling LGR to penetrate into these lucrative markets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) operating from the International Space Station (ISS) utilize high-pressure (> 1200 psi), high-purity (> 99.5 %) oxygen. This oxygen used to be delivered to the ISS by the space shuttle and stored in High Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs). With the retirement of the shuttle program, NASA is working to generate high-purity oxygen aboard the ISS for extravehicular activities (EVAs). One promising solution is the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) project. In CASEO, ambient oxygen aboard the ISS is purified, compressed, and transferred into the HPGTs. During the filling of the HPGTs, it is necessary to continuously monitor the oxygen purity to assure proper operation and optimize the generator conditions. Moreover, once the HPGTs are filled, it is necessary to confirm that the oxygen purity exceeds 99.5 % prior to usage in EVAs. Thus, NASA requires a high-purity oxygen sensor that can quantify minute changes in oxygen purity with high accuracy. The analyzer must utilize minimal consumables, need infrequent calibration, and withstand harsh environmental conditions. In addition to NASA's EVA oxygen measurement needs, several other NASA programs can benefit from the technologies developed in this STTR program, including the Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion Branch, Life Gas Monitoring aboard the ISS, and the NASA Astronaut Health Monitoring Program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-2 T7.01-9980
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX11CI28P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless SAW Sensor Arrays
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wireless SAW Sensor Strain Gauge & Integrated Interrogator Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mnemonics, Inc.
3900 Dow Road, Suite J
Melbourne, FL 32394-9255
(321) 254-7300

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Central Florida
12201 Research Parkway, Suite 501
Orlando, FL 32816-3246
(407) 823-3031

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nikolai Kozlovski
nikolai.kozlovski@mnemonics-esd.com
3900 Dow Road, Suite J
Melbourne,  FL 32394-9255
(321) 254-7300

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed Wireless, passive, SAW sensor system operates in a multi-sensor environment with a range in excess of 45 feet. This proposed system offers unique features in two (2) important areas. The first is in the development of a new sensor type, a strain gauge that is based on OFC techniques and implemented with the low loss characteristics of SAW Unidirectional transducers. The second is in the design of an integrated interrogator system that has DSP-based embedded signal processing. Interrogator will also be capable of rapidly performing multiple interrogations which can them be used to make ibration measurements or averaged to extend the operational range of the system. This proposal extends the Phase I and previous work in two major areas; developing a SAW strain sensor, and dramatically increasing interrogation range, which is applicable to both the new strain sensors and the previously developed temperature sensors. In order to increase SAW sensor range, sensitivity and accuracy, the most important device parameters were identified and initial investigation begun in Phase I and will be put into practice in Phase II. To reduce SAW sensor loss and minimize multi-transit acoustic echoes, low loss unidirectional studies were initiated. Phase I produced three alternative low-loss approaches that will be evaluated in the Phase II work. Success will lower the insertion loss by approximately 15 dB, and multi-transit echoes are predicted to be less than -40 dB from the main signal; doubling the system range and reducing the sensors self-noise. Advanced coding techniques were investigated in Phase I that have led to longer delay path lengths, and shorter codes with less inter-sensor interference. During Phase II, the interrogator will improve the following critical capabilities: onboard-fully-integrated DSP, extended connectivity options to customer's computer, and rapid interrogation capabilities. This will allow vibration sensing and signal integration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA commercial include the Automotive Industry (state of health), Civil Engineering (stress management), Chemical and Biological development (toxic safety monitoring) and Refinery process (safety monitoring). The utilization of a wireless SAW device for remote monitoring of hostile environments will become not only technically feasible but also economically feasible based on the extremely low cost associated with the device. By establishing the WSAW as a passive device and the wireless interrogator as the active portion of the link you have enabled an architecture which can support the monitoring of possibly hundreds of SOH sensors per interrogator. As an example in an automobile the wireless SAW can be deployed as pressure sensors in each tire, liquid contaminant sensors in the fuel and oil supplies, temperature and pressure sensors within the engine, and carbon monoxide sensors within the vehicle. Additionally, highway safety information could be deployed with each informational sign or within construction areas to alert the driver of a status change of speed or other conditions which could be interrogated by the onboard system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A wireless, passive, coded sensor that is rugged, cheap and can be remotely interrogated has multiple applications at NASA. Temperature, pressure and acceleration sensors can be installed on the leading edges of wings to monitor temperature, pressure loss and also provide a profile of the forces on the structure. Additional NASA applications include acceleration sensing for monitoring vehicular acceleration and vehicular vibration, vehicular docking, rotation and directional sensing, tilt control, and fall detection. By exploring the future use of SAW devices for monitoring structural integrity, extreme temperature, extreme pressure, toxic or lethal environments, it is highly probable that the wireless SAW can change the future of Airframe safety and the required/planned maintenance process. This technology can allow the feasible embedment of sensors in key structural components of an airframe for persistent monitoring both during flight and as a post flight analysis. Not only could the structural integrity of the airframe be monitored but other critical states of air flight could be instrumented without the increased cost of weight associated with fiber optic or wired communication.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Ranging/Tracking
Acoustic/Vibration
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Thermal
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-2 T8.03-9945
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX11CI34P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Green Technologies for Renewable Energy Sources
PROPOSAL TITLE: Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brimrose Technology Corporation
19 Loveton Circle, P.O. Box 616
Sparks, MD 21152-9201
(410) 472-2600

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Research Laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University
P.O. Box 30
State College, PA 16804-0030
(814) 863-3991

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudhir Trivedi
strivedi@brimrosetechnology.com
P.O. Box 616, #19 Loveton Circle
Sparks,  MD 21152-9201
(410) 472-2600

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources. Thermo-electric power generation (TEPG) has exceptionally rich potential to fulfill this need. A TEPG module requires (1) material that can provide high figure of merit while still providing efficient heat control; (2) low resistance ohmic contacts that operate at high temperature; and (3) efficient heat sink material to provide optimal temperature difference between hot and cold junctions. In Phase I, we addressed all of these issues. We successfully produced device quality n-type and p-type, single crystalline and bulk nano-composite PbTe material suitable for TEPG device fabrication. We also developed a novel electrical contact technology having low electrical resistance and capability to withstand significantly elevated temperatures (>800 degree C). And we developed a light weight, highly thermal conductive (50 to 60 % better than copper) heat sink material with tailored low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). These improvements allowed us to develop the design and technique for fabrication of large scale TEPG on a manufacturing level. In Phase II we will expand upon these developments and implement them. We will fabricate TEPG devices using the nano-composite materials. These devices will utilize the ohmic contacts and the heat sink technology that we developed. We will also utilize another approach that we developed in which two materials (PbTe and (Bi-Sb)2(Se-Te)3 based alloys) are segmented into a two-part material that has high efficiency over the entire temperature range from 200-500 degreeC, PbTe being at the hot end and the (Bi-Sb)2(Se-Te)3 based material at the cold end. Our ultimate goal will be to build a TEPG module using such segmented devices to demonstrate the generation of 1kWatt of power. We will develop the technology of fabricating these modules at a large scale manufacturing level, at low cost.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The materials and devices that will result from this research will be useful for both power generation and cooling applications. Major commercial application is in the area of vehicle waste heat recovery (generally from the exhaust pipe) and is very attractive to auto makers in the country. Government agencies like DOD and DOE have a need for thermoelectric power generation for specialized applications. TEPG modules built from suitable thermoelectric materials can be used to build self-powered water and space heating systems, to retrieve the waste heat emitted from incinerators, power plants, or other similar sources, to promote the practice of green building, and even to generate power using human body heat. Development of TEPG materials will advance the state-of-the art in systems and components by reducing / replacing the use of fossil fuels in a cost effective manner.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The product of the proposed research is nanostructured bulk thermoelectric materials that have higher efficiency than conventional materials so that high levels of power can be produced in an environmentally clean (pollution free) manner. The manufacturing technology developed during this program will not only be applicable to the proposed materials but to any thermoelectric material with suitable modifications. This will result in manufacturing of thermoelectric power generation and cooling devices with high efficiency and at economically viable cost. NASA anticipates the need for advanced power generation and conversion that goes well beyond the capabilities of the current level of technology for the success of its future missions. Systems are needed that provide significantly better conversion efficiency, higher specific power and enhanced operational capabilities. Thermo-electric power generation (TEPG) has exceptionally rich potential to contribute to electrical power generation in space based applications, and the potential of enabling large-scale electric power generation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Composites
Nanomaterials
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-2 T9.01-9906
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX11CI37P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Human and Robotic Space Exploration Propulsion Design and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Flow Analysis Tools for Transient Solid Rocket Motor Simulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tetra Research Corporation
420 Park Avenue West
Princeton, IL 61356-1934
(815) 872-0702

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mississippi State University
Engineering Research Center
Mississippi State, MS 39762-9627
(662) 325-7404

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rex Chamberlain
rex@tetraresearch.com
420 Park Avenue West
Princeton,  IL 61356-1934
(815) 872-0702

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goals of reducing total cost and increasing reliability and safety of access to space continue to be top priorities for NASA. The most immediate propulsion launch challenge involves increasing lift weight from 70 to 130 metric tons by developing the heavy lift Space Launch System (SLS). Solid rocket motor analysis tools are needed to simulate ignition and propellant recession during the burn, but current models are limited in their ability to capture ignition transients or large grain deformations during motor operation. We propose to advance propellant surface heating, ignition, and burning models as well as surface mesh recession algorithms to address a strong need for improved ignition physics and grain burn back and to deliver a unique and powerful software tool for current and next generation solid rocket motor simulations. The Phase I products have already been fielded by NASA for ignition calculations involving the Launch Abort System Jettison Motor and RSRMV. While these calculations are still in the preliminary stages, continued innovation of this successful technology strongly suggests that our research products will provide NASA with the important capability to simultaneously analyze solid propellant heat transfer, combustion, and grain burn back within a single framework. Validation of the integrated tools to a TRL of 5 will be accomplished using available motor data provided by ATK while phased releases of the new software capabilities will allow NASA immediate access to incremental updates as soon as they are available. Advancing this simulation capability will provide a large benefit to NASA because of its compatibility with NASA's mission and expertise.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The growing trend toward complex multi-phase solid rocket motor and launch simulations is creating opportunities for enabling analysis tools in the commercial aerospace market. The ability to analyze these difficult problems in a timely manner will allow the commercial launch industry to reduce costs and increase reliability of access to space. DoD and commercial applications include small and medium solid motors, launch simulations, and stage separation. Additional physical modules, such as upgraded Large Eddy Simulation and turbulence-combustion interaction models, could be developed to address specific commercial opportunities with the basic architecture of the software remaining the same.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology will provide NASA with an advanced simulation capability for two phase flows in solid motors with dynamic grain recession, including burning surface particulate injection and volume and mass flow constraints for the receding propellant, to support simulations of launch abort motors, RSRMV, and SLS. NASA customers, such as Wallops Island Launch Facility and the Missile Defense Agency, would also benefit from their use of this innovative technology. Future upgrades to extend the simulation capabilities of commercial interest to NASA would also be possible, including improved droplet/gas interface modeling for better statistical representations of particle laden flows, improved near-wall turbulence modeling, and extended model validation for commercial space launch systems. Future innovation involving our models for material heating and surface mesh recession would also allow treatment of external surface heating and ablation phenomena that are typical of entry, descent, and landing scenarios.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Launch Engine/Booster


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-2 T10.01-9977
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX11CI43P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Test Area Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Design of Orifice Type Control Element for Mitigating Instabilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Alabama in Huntsville
Office of Sponsored Programs, VBRH Suite E12
Huntsville, AL 35899-0000
(256) 824-6000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vineet Ahuja
vineet@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Rd.
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An orifice element is commonly used in liquid rocket engine test facilities to provide a large reduction in pressure over a very small distance in the piping system. Orifice elements are used in propellant lines, feed systems, plume suppression systems and steam ejector trains. While the orifice as a device is largely effective in stepping down pressure, it is also susceptible to a wake-vortex type instability and cavitation instability that propagate downstream and interact with other elements of the test facility resulting in structural vibration. In this proposal a new proprietary instability mitigation device has been developed that steps down the pressure, straightens the flow and suppresses all instability modes. The device is scalable and can be used for different mass flow rates and varying levels of de-pressurization conditions. It is relatively inexpensive to manufacture, easy to fabricate and install, and can be tailored to meet the performance requirements of a given facility. In Phase I, the device has been successfully demonstrated in a sub-scale cryogenic test facility. In Phase II the performance of the device will be calibrated for full-scale operation in a cryogenic test facility and a water test facility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial market for our product is very large and includes the commercial launch services industry as well as plant installations and industrial facilities that use extensive piping systems such as nuclear power generation, chemical process plants etc. The technology proposed here can play a critical and imminent role in addressing an important safety concern in pressurized water reactors where orifices are used in the emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in conjunction with throttle valves.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Orifice elements are ubiquitous in component test cells and test stands for liquid rocket engines. They are used in propellant lines, propellant conditioning systems, feed systems, water cooling systems in flame buckets and suppression systems to quench the flame. Instabilities that arise due to their operation compromise the safety of the test stands, increase loads on the test article, lead to premature shutdown of tests and cause costly delays. Such events have been observed at NASA SSC during J2-X testing, RS-25 testing, IPD LOX turbopump testing. The instability mitigation device developed in this program can suppress instabilities, substantially reduce risk and the likelihood of such events. The device can replace orifice elements in experimental/testing loops at NASA SSC/JSC/MSFC/KSC/GRC and Plumbrook. In doing so, this STTR program will directly aid NASA by supporting J2-X, RS-25, AJ-26 testing and the SLS and CCdev programs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Process Monitoring & Control
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Acoustic/Vibration
Lifetime Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems