SBIR Phase 1 Solicitation  STTR Phase 2 Solicitation  Abstract Archives

NASA 2009 STTR Phase 2 Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T1.01-9951
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10RA81P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for System Health Management and Sustainability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Prognostics Enhancemend Fault-Tolerant Control with an Application to a Hovercraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Georgia Insitute of Technology
505 Tenth Street, North West
Atlanta, GA 30332-0420
(404) 894-6929

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Vachtsevanos
george.vachtsevanos@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC) is an emerging area of engineering and scientific research that integrates prognostics, health management concepts and intelligent control. Impact Technologies and the Georgia Institute of Technology, propose to build off of a strong foundation in fault-tolerant control (FTC) research performed with NASA in past years to mature the applicability of this technology and push the envelope on the capability and breadth of the technology itself. We are introducing for this purpose two novel concepts to expand the scope of fault tolerance and improve the safety and availability of such critical assets. Building upon the successes of Phase I, we will develop and apply to the hovercraft (a targeted testbed) a reconfigurable control strategy that relies on current prognostic information to maintain the platform's stable operation and complete its mission successfully. The second innovation to be introduced refers to a challenging problem encountered in complex systems such as aircraft platforms: A multitude of critical system components can not be monitored directly due to a lack of appropriate sensing modalities. We will introduce a Model Based Reasoning approach and frequency demodulation tools to resolve the ambiguity and "unmask" those fault variables that can not be observed directly.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of the proposed proactive fault-tolerant control (FTC) system will directly contribute to NASA's IVHM and IRAC efforts. The proposed technologies are generic in nature and are also applicable to Crew Exploration Vehicle, Reusable Launch Vehicles, aircraft, Unmanned Air Vehicles and future generation general aviation platforms, leading to benefits in the form of improved reliability, maintainability, and survivability of safety-critical aerospace systems. The long-term implications of a successful completion of this program are significant: We will provide a bridge between PHM/IVHM technologies and advanced controls for aircraft systems. A lot of NASA's NextGen and current activities can take immediate advantage of these technologies. In short term, the hovercraft modeling and adaptive control algorithms to be developed in this program can be directly transitioned to some ongoing research work at the Prognostics Center of Excellence of NASA Ames and other centers. The adaptable nature of the control modules will allow it to act as a design and development tool for a wide variety of NASA applications including complementing Stennis Space Center's ISHM system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential benefits from the successful completion of this program are enormous and will significantly impact the way critical aerospace and other systems are designed and operated. Examples of key customers that could benefit through use of the developed technologies include: unmanned air vehicles, JSF, future combat systems, commercial airlines, land and marine propulsion systems, industrial actuation systems, and robotic applications. Particularly, the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) contractors such as Lockheed Martin and Rolls-Royce have specific requirements on health management performance for which the fault tolerant technologies can provide value. Also, the prognostics-enhanced hovercraft control will be of great interest to OEMs. Impact has existing contracts with all these potential customers and has an excellent commercialization record.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T1.02-9872
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF52P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent Planetary Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reliable Autonomous Surface Mobility (RASM) in Support of Human Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ProtoInnovations, LLC
1908 Shaw Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15217-1710
(412) 916-8807

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890
(412) 268-5421

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Wettergreen
dsw@ri.cmu.edu
5000 Forbes Ave, NSH 2113
Pittsburgh,  PA 15213-2890
(412) 268-5421

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ProtoInnovations, LLC and Carnegie Mellon University have formed a partnership to commercially develop rover-autonomy technologies into Reliable Autonomous Surface Mobility (RASM). Our aim is to provide safe and reliable means for lunar rovers to travel at substantial speeds and operate in proximity to astronauts and other vehicles. Our unique partnership brings together state-of-art technologies for autonomous rover navigation with experience in delivering and supporting mobility systems for NASA. The RASM project will create an autonomy framework that is capable of supporting off-road vehicle speeds beyond 3 m/s with planetary-relevant constraints including a lack of infrastructure (such as GPS) and limited communication and computing resources. Our RASM framework is based on environment modeling, obstacle avoidance, path planning, and localization algorithms developed by Carnegie Mellon and proven by hundreds of kilometers of traverse in planetary analog landscapes on Earth. On the RASM project we will mature and package these algorithms in a reliable and portable software architecture that supports a variety of vehicle platforms, sensors, and middleware alternatives. Unique to RASM will be a failure-modes analysis of the autonomy system to model and mitigate hazards posed by operating alongside astronauts and lunar vehicles. Mission constraints and operating scenarios will vary broadly, so RASM will be adaptable. We will develop abstraction layers to enable portability across various vehicle chassis configurations, perception sensors, localization sensors, and communications protocols. In Phase 2 of the project, we will implement the portable architecture developed in Phase 1 and demonstrate its capability on KREX or LATUV vehicles developed by ProtoInnovations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technical innovations advanced by this project will have immediate application on the KREX vehicle used by NASA Ames' Intelligent Robotics Group, enabling it to achieve its full capability as a research appliance for NASA. We also see direct applicability of this work to other planetary rovers developed by NASA as part of the research and development program in surface systems. ProtoInnovations will seek to sustain this work by developing portable software for rover navigational autonomy that can be adapted and applied to a wide range of planetary vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Canadian Space Agency has announced that it will perform intensive research in lunar rovers with plans to produce multiple concept vehicles in the next one to two years. ProtoInnovations will aggressively pursue this market and apply its expertise in autonomy and navigation to CSA rovers. We are currently negotiating with Canadian aerospace corporations regarding licensing of navigation and mobility technology. We also believe that our effort can be sustained by our unique capability and experience which we believe is valuable to emerging lunar rover activities in China, Japan, and India/Russia. The market for lunar rover autonomy is not large but it is highly technical and critical to success in lunar missions. ProtoInnovations intends to continue research and development and position itself as a leader in rover navigation software and experience. ProtoInnovations is prepared to approach large manufacturers who represent potential consumers of RASM: from automotive companies building the cars of the future, to mines that can prevent accidents with obstacle-avoidance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Mobility
Perception/Sensing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T1.02-9928
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF53P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technologies for Intelligent Planetary Robotics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integration of Notification with 3D Visualization of Rover Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 N.E. Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-4727
(210) 822-2310

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon Silicon Valley
NASA Research Park, Building 23
Moffett Field, CA 94305-2823
(650) 335-2825

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Debra Schreckenghost
schreck@traclabs.com
1012 Hercules
Houston,  TX 77058-2722
(281) 461-7884

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA exploration missions will rely on remote operation of robots. As human explorers move further away from Earth, robotic precursors will scout destinations and robotic assistants will perform tasks to reduce astronaut risk and workload. 3D visualization is a key component of how humans will interact with robots for these missions. When the operator engages a robot using visualization, there is a risk that he or she will become too focused on what is happening now in the vicinity of the robot and will not be aware of other important events that are not apparent in the field of view. This risk only increases when operations involve multiple robots. It is essential to ensure that the user does not miss important events that do not manifest in the vicinity of the robot. TRACLabs, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), and Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies (SGT) propose to develop software for notifying users of 3D visualization about important notices without distracting users unnecessarily or adding to the visual clutter around the robot avatar. This software will monitor events from the robot or user, identify which events should be brought to the user's attention, and alert users in the 3D pane. The appearance of alerts is altered to shift a user's attention to new notices based on an assessment of the importance and urgency of the notice specific to the user. Thus the same notice may be presented to different users in different ways. Because notices are anchored to a screen overlay, they are visible regardless of what location the user is viewing in the 3D space. In Phase II we will implement this software and evaluate its effectiveness for NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The notification software produced in Phase II will be immediately useful for NASA's future analog robotic field tests where VERVE provides 3D robot visualization. NASA's Robonaut 2 mission to ISS in FY11 is another near-term mission that could benefit from the proposed notification technology by alerting the human operator to important events that occur while he or she is interacting with the robot. The modularization of notice construction from notice presentation should ease integration of the notification software with other 3D visualization software that NASA might use in the future. Longer term, the techniques for determining when to shift the user's attention from the visualization and how to notify without increasing visual clutter should be useful when specifying flight support software for future exploration missions, including robotic precursors for human exploration, ranging from missions to Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) to Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The United States Department of Defense (DOD) is making significant investment in military robots, including unmanned air vehicles for surveillance and search and rescue, unmanned ground vehicles for logistics, and surface robots for reconnaissance. 3D visualization of robots for military operations includes supervising multiple robots operating concurrently to accomplish a military objective. In such multi-robot operations, it is essential to shift the user's focus when another robot outside the current field of view requires attention. Thus the proposed technology for notification should be directly applicable to remote supervision of military robots. Since the military is actively funding research on human attention shifting during complex operations and visual de-cluttering of geospatial displays, the proposed approach should be both interesting to a variety of DOD customers and compatible with military robotic operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T2.01-9878
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10RA83P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Reliable Structural Health Monitoring of Smart Composite Vanes for Jet Engine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9000

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Auburn University
310 Samford Hall
Auburn, AL 36849-5131
(334) 844-5956

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Behzad Moslehi
bm@ifos.com
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara,  CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9004

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems (IFOS) successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) based integrated Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) sensor system capable of providing in-situ crack detection, location, damage quantification and validation of structural models. The system offers advanced features to perform non-contact, non-destructive dynamic testing of composite structures. Tests were successfully carried out on composite coupons produced to mimic smart composite parts such as aircraft wings and jet engine vanes. The key innovation and achievement is an advanced system that monitors up to 48 ultra-sensitive FBG strain and temperature sensors at up to an unprecedented 1.0MHz, with damage identification, location and quantification algorithms. This represents a significant advancement in the state-of-the-art, enabling for the first time, the analysis of very high-frequency dynamic events for SHM. During Phase 2, IFOS will further develop the system and deliver a prototype complete with an instrumented wing test article to NASA for independent testing. IFOS will continue to work with its commercial partners to address applications in engine vanes and market opportunities where the technology has a significant advantage. The solution could potentially evolve into an autonomous onboard monitoring system to inspect and perform Non-Destructive Evaluation and SHM of high-value assets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A structural health monitoring system attached to the aircraft structure, in the areas susceptible to fatigue and impact damage, provides the dynamic data that can reliably indicate the health status of the aircraft structure in real-time. This project has direct NASA applications in the following areas: UAVs such as Ikhana (Predator B) NASA support of Air Transportation Security programs Automated Nondestructive Evaluation for faulty structural components Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) Flight control System with real-time autonomous sensor validity monitors Monitoring manufacturing, assembly process and control; composite materials for internal temperature and pressure during the curing process; composite bonded repairs; sandwich structures; gun barrels; reusable launch vehicles; pressure vessels and tanks during burst testing; aero propulsion flight tests, etc. Self-monitoring structures with alarm and abort capabilities Pyrotechnic test and data acquisition for shock response spectrum analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A low-cost FBG-based fiber-optic sensor system will provide high-speed SHM for military and commercial aerospace vehicle health monitoring. Further applications include jet and flight control testing, wind turbines, oil exploration, ship structures, nuclear power plant, pipe and critical infrastructure monitoring for e.g. homeland security, safety or general maintenance. IFOS is in talks with Knight Carver Wind Group, a leading international wind turbine blade manufacturer to apply its technology to condition monitoring in wind turbine blades. There are remarkable similarities between the needs of the aviation industry given they both use composites under significant stress cycles over extended temperature ranges and on complex geometries. At the appropriate price point, a major application of the IFOS technology would be in the condition monitoring of wind turbine blades and other parts. Success in the commercialization of this innovation will enable IFOS to expand and employ additional engineering, marketing and support staff.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Airframe
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Structural Modeling and Tools
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Highly-Reconfigurable
Photonics
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T2.01-9899
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF54P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Acoustic Reduction of Flow Separation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Texas Dallas
800 W. Campbell Road, MP 15
Richardson, TX 75080-3021
(972) 883-2313

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Cisar
alan.cisar@lynntech.com
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station,  TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Airfoils produce more lift and less drag when the boundary layer is attached to the airfoil. With most aircraft there are combinations of airspeed and angle of attack where the boundary layer at least partially detaches from the airfoil. Reducing boundary layer detachment increases lift and reduce drag reducing fuel consumption and improving control for the pilot. Two methods known to improve boundary layer attachment are heating the air and supplying acoustic pressure at an airfoil dependent frequency. In Phase I we demonstrated that thin (<50 m) ribbons made from carbon nanotubes can be used to produce heating elements which can be heated and cooled hundreds of times per second. When properly located on the surface of a wing they can maximize boundary attachment as demonstrated by improvements of up to 20% in lift. In Phase II we will improve our understanding of the function of these thermoacoustic elements and demonstrate their durability and their effectiveness with larger components. In Phase I we demonstrated multifrequency sound generation on surfaces in a wind tunnel using nanotube heating elements, and achieving improved lift and TRL 3. Phase II will include medium scale wind tunnel tests verifying the effects and achieving TRL 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of NASA's functions is to develop cutting edge technology for adoption by the civilian and military aviation sectors, technology like the technology in this project. This can keep the U.S. aircraft industry on top. The technology proposed here is funded under subtopic A2.07 Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics under Fundamental Aeronautics. NASA operates its own fleet of transport aircraft to move people, spacecraft, and rocket components around the country and around the world. Adding this system for reducing flow separation to those aircraft could increase carrying capacity and reduce fuel consumption.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Developing and dispersing this technology will be of greatest benefit outside of NASA, with improved safety and profitability for commercial aircraft operators at all levels, from private pilots to commercial airlines. By increasing lift and reducing drag on airfoils the technology being developed here, if implemented, can reduce fuel consumption, increase payload, or produce a combination of both. Any of these choices will make aircraft operation more profitable. (Fuel is second only to salaries as an airline operating cost.) Reducing fuel consumption will also reduce emissions, including aircraft-produced CO2. Reduced boundary layer separation will also improve the effectiveness of control systems. Making an aircraft more responsive to its controls, an added advantage, will make a small contribution to improved safety as well. Beyond these direct applications, this technology offers the promise of improved aircraft deicing systems as the same heating elements are used to loosen and shed ice formed in flight, and even further afield, lead to thin layer speakers that can be located in places where it is not now possible to locate speakers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T2.01-9961
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF56P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Foundational Research for Aeronautics Experimental Capabilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aeroelastic/Aeroservoelastic Uncertainty and Reliability of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles in Flight and Ground Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stirling Dynamics, Inc.
4030 Lake Washington Boulevard North East, #205
Kirkland, WA 98033-7870
(425) 827-7476

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The University of Washington
1100 North East 45th Street, Suite 300
Seattle, WA 98105-4696
(206) 685-0338

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrey Styuart
astyuart@stirling-dynamics.us.com
4030 Lk Washington Blvd NE #205
Kirkland,  WA 98033-7870
(425) 827-5222

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ASSURE - Aeroelastic / Aeroservoelastic (AE/ASE) Uncertainty and Reliability Engineering capability - is a set of probabilistic computer programs for isolating uncertainties in simulation, manufacturing, test, measurement, and test to analysis correlation affecting the AE/ASE characteristics of advanced flight vehicles in flight and on the ground, and for studying the effects of such uncertainties. ASSURE will provide a quantitative assessment of the statistics of AE/ASE stability and dynamic response of aircraft at given flight conditions, throughout the flight envelope, on the runway, and throughout the aircraft fleet and its missions. It is designed to have significant flexibility in the types of problems analyzed, the solution methods used, and how problems are defined. ASSURE will be unique in the scope of problems tackled, systems complexity involved, and the inclusion of all elements affecting the ASE behavior of flight vehicles; including detailed models of structures, aerodynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, landing gear, and flight operations and maintenance procedures. Uncertainties of the undamaged and damaged / repaired systems (structural, actuator, sensor, control computer, and landing gear, including possible aerodynamic consequences of damage) will be covered, with applications to test planning and analysis, design, certification, and fleet operation and maintenance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Proposed ASSURE development will equip NASA with a comprehensive Aeroelastic / Aeroservoelastic uncertainty, reliability, and safety assessment and optimization tool that will be applicable to practically all of NASA's aerospace flight vehicle system development, optimization, test, and operation, including fleet management for NASA vehicles and for flight transportation system researched. ASSURE will contribute to the evolution of small and large UAVs, efficient and environmentally friendly new transport flight vehicles flying at all flight regimes, launch and re-entry vehicles, high performance vehicles, and any vehicles displaying tight integration and interaction of light weight structures, unsteady aerodynamics, active controls (including engine controls), and advanced landing gear systems. ASSURE will help guide test planning and the utilization of test results for such vehicles covering flight, runway operations and ground tests.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Proposed ASSURE development will equip the aerospace industry with a comprehensive Aeroelastic / Aeroservoelastic uncertainty, reliability, and safety assessment and optimization tool that will be applicable to practically all aerospace flight vehicle system development, optimization, test and operation, including fleet management and maintenance procedures for airlines and the US DoD. ASSURE will have the potential to contribute to the certification of flight vehicles and increase safety. It will contribute to the evolution of small and large UAVs, efficient and environmentally friendly new transport flight vehicles flying at all flight regimes, launch and re-entry vehicles, high performance vehicles, and any vehicles displaying tight integration and interaction of light weight structures, unsteady aerodynamics, active controls (including engine controls), and advanced landing gear systems. ASSURE will help guide test planning and the utilization of test results for such vehicles by the aerospace industry covering flight, runway operations and ground tests. It will also help support universities in ASE airplane design and in space design education.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Tools
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T3.01-9881
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF59P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Power High Thrust Ion Thruster (HPHTion): 50 CM Ion Thruster for Near-Earth Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ElectroDynamic Applications, Inc.
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor, MI 48113-1460
(734) 786-1434

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Michigan
3003 South State Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1274
(734) 764-7250

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Peterson
info@edapplications.com
3600 Green Court, Suite 300
Ann Arbor,  MI 48105-1570
(734) 734-1434

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advances in high power, photovoltaic technology has enabled the possibility of reasonably sized, high specific power, high power, solar arrays. At high specific powers, power levels ranging from 50 to several hundred kW are feasible. Coupled with gridded ion thruster technology, this power technology can be mission enabling for a wide range of missions ranging from ambitious near Earth NASA missions to those missions involving other customers as well such as DOD and commercial satellite interests. Indeed the HEFT clearly identified the need for high power electric. The appeal of the ion thrusters for such applications stems from their overall high efficiency, typically >70% and long life. In response to the need for a single, high powered engine to fill the gulf between the 7 kW NEXT system and a notional 25 kW engine, a Phase I activity to build a 25 kW, 50 cm ion thruster discharge chamber was completed with a laboratory model fabricated. The proposed Phase II effort aims to mature the laboratory model into a proto-engineering model ion thruster. The proposed effort involves the evolution of the discharge chamber to a high performance thruster by performance testing and characterization via simulated and full beam extraction testing. Through such testing the design will be optimized leading ultimately to the proposed design, build and preliminary checkout of a proto-engineering model thruster, thereby advancing the TRL level to 4-5 range. Deliverables include the thruster, a design package, and a performance data document.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of a 25 kW thruster would support NASA cargo propulsion requirements such as those addressed in the HEFT report which described SEP needs with power levels extending from 30 kW to 300 kW. A single high power engine such as the proposed HPHTion would reduce system complexity by reducing engine count required to process the power. The engine would also support NASA space science endeavors. Operating at high thrust to power (~50mN/kW), the engine with the added bonus of long lifetime could also support DoD as well as commercial orbit transfer needs. In this regard, impact of the proposed activity would be broad with cross governmental agency applicability in addition to its relevance to commercial satellite interests from the private sector.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
EDA's plan to pursue this technology beyond Phase II, in collaboration with UM and Aerojet, is to develop production of flight hardware for NASA, DoD, and commercial vendors. Aerojet has also expressed significant interest in transitioning the technology into their propulsion system lineup as detailed in their letter of support for this technology development.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Electrostatic Thrusters


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T3.01-9893
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF60P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Next-Generation Ion Thruster Design Tool to Support Future Space Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303-1379
(303) 448-0727

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wright State University
3640 Colonel Glenn Highway
Dayton , OH 45435-0001
(937) 775-2425

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudhakar Mahalingam
sudhakar@txcorp.com
5621 Arapahoe Ave
Boulder,  CO 80303-1379
(303) 996-7527

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Computational tools that accurately predict the performance of electric propulsion devices are highly desirable and beneficial to NASA and the broader electric propulsion community. The current state-of-the-art in electric propulsion modeling relies heavily on empirical data and on numerous computational "knobs". In Phase I of this project, we developed the most detailed ion engine discharge chamber model that currently exists. This is a kinetic model that simulates all particles in the discharge chamber along with a physically correct simulation of the electric fields. In addition, kinetic erosion models are included for modeling the ion-impingement effects on thruster component erosion. For Phase II of this project, the goal is to make this sophisticated computer program a user friendly program that NASA and other governmental and industrial customers are able to utilize. In Phase II we will implement a number of advanced numerical routines to bring the computational time down to a commercially acceptable level. At the end of Phase II, NASA will have a highly sophisticated, user friendly ion engine discharge chamber modeling tool that will save time and expense in designing new and different size ion engines, as well as analyzing existing ion engine performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This ion thruster discharge chamber computational tool will reduce the time and expense that NASA incurs in the development of future ion engines. There are a number of space missions which ion engines could fulfill if different size engines could be designed quickly and cheaply. The computational tool being developed for this project will help to make this happen. This tool is also valuable in extending NASA's understanding of the current 40-cm diameter NEXT thruster that NASA GRC is currently testing for use in space. This tool can be used to extend the operating range of the NEXT ion engine to higher power levels, as is being considered in the NEXT STEP program. With some adjustments, this computational tool can simulate Hall thrusters, such as the HiVHAC thruster, which is currently being developed at NASA GRC.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Electric propulsion is important to other government agencies including the Air Force and the Navy. Air Force electric propulsion will benefit from additional/advanced plasma-surface interaction models available in our computer code. The multi-billion dollar military and commercial satellite industries design and develop electric thrusters similar to the ones used at NASA for the purposes of satellite station keeping and orbit changing maneuvers in space. These industries could benefit from sophisticated, userfriendly computational tools, one of which we are developing. The innovations proposed in this work will also benefit the ion source and plasma processing industries which are utilized in materials processing applications and the electronics industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic Thrusters
Electrostatic Thrusters


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T3.01-9972
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF61P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Firefly Technologies
2082 Hackberry Lane
Shakopee, MN 55379-4622
(608) 698-0935

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rochester Institute of Technology
111 Lomb Memorial Drive
Rochester, NY 14623-5608
(330) 421-2104

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Forbes
dvfsps@rit.edu
111 Lomb Memorial Drive
Rochester,  NY 14623-5608
(330) 421-2104

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Firefly, in collaboration with Rochester Institute of Technology, proposes developing a space solar cell having record efficiency exceeding 40% (AM0) by the introduction of nanowires within the active region of the current limiting sub-cell. The introduction of these nanoscale features will enable realization of an intermediate band solar cell (IBSC), while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The triple junction cell follows conventional designs comprised of bottom Ge cell (0.67eV), a current-limiting middle GaAs (1.43eV) cell, and a top InGaP (1.90eV) cell. The GaAs cell will be modified to contain InAs nanowires to enable an IBSC, which is predicted to demonstrate ~45% efficiency under 1-sun AM0 conditions. The InAs nanowires will be implemented in-situ within the epitaxy environment, which is a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex-situ gold nanoparticles. Successful completion of the proposed work will result in ultra-high efficiency, radiation-tolerant space solar cells that are compatible with existing manufacturing processes. Significant cost savings are expected with higher efficiency cells, enabling increased payload capability and longer mission durations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high efficiency (>40%) of the proposed PV cell will make it the obvious choice for NASA space-based applications. Another potential application revisits a NASA research thrust on virtual substrates. One important aspect of nanowires is the demonstrated capability to integrate widely mismatched nanowires and substrates. The restricted cross-sectional area of the nanowire reduces the opportunity for mismatch defect generation. Nanowires of highly mismatched systems (>7%) have been demonstrated in the literature and, more importantly, in the Phase 1 of this proposal. This flexibility in substrate/nanowire combinations can enable more optimum bandgap and material combinations for novel devices. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized Ge/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (10s of nms diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5-1 um2). In this approach, the nanowire PV device integrated with a low-cost foil substrate would have potential for high weight-specific power (W/kg).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high-efficiency of the proposed device represents a significant competitive advantage for any space-based power generation application. This proposed device offers a significant increase in efficiency which corresponds to a significant cost savings in terms of photovoltaic array size, array weight, and launch costs. The proposed cells would represent a disruptive technology within the space photovoltaic marketplace. Additionally, a path is proposed for commercial, low-cost nanowire growth with broad market implications. Nanowires of highly mismatched systems (>7%) have been demonstrated in the literature and, more importantly, in the Phase 1 of this proposal. This flexibility in substrate/nanowire combinations enables more optimum bandgap and material combinations for novel devices. One exciting possibility is the integration of III-V nanostructures on low-cost silicon substrates for photovoltaic applications. In addition, the use of core-shell geometry for photovoltaic applications decouples the absorption length from the carrier collection length, which allows low diffusion length material to be effective PV materials in the core-shell configuration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Energy Storage
Photovoltaic Conversion
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T4.01-9939
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF63P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar, Radar and Passive Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: Structured nonlinear optical materials for LIDAR-based remote sensing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1-1
Bozeman, MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stanford University
Office of Sponsored Research, 340 Panama Street MC 4100
Stanford, CA 94305-4100
(650) 725-6864

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philip Battle
battle@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA Phase II STTR effort will develop domain-engineered magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate (MgO:LN) for LIDAR-based remote sensing and communication applications. Use of bulk and waveguide-based domain engineered MgO:LN will allow the manufacture of highly efficient and compact, wavelength conversion modules for second-harmonic generation (SHG), sum-frequency generation (SFG), and parametric down conversion (PDC). In addition, these devices can be configured for broadband and high-gain optical parametric amplification (OPA) in the near-IR spectral region providing a path to the development of compact, single wavelength, spectroscopically useful laser sources as well as programmable optical comb (multi-wavelength) sources.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Domain engineered MgO:LN for efficient, high-power quasi-phase matched (QPM) frequency conversion will play a key role in many NASA systems. Complex domain engineered MgO:LN crystals are needed to improve the performance of laser sources being developed at NASA-GSFC for the ASCENDS mission and laser-based methane detection for use in future Earth and Planetary science missions. Multi-element integrated waveguide components in MgO:LN which include both QPM and phase modulation could improve the performance of iodine-based wavelength locking systems being considered for the ACE Mission. The integrated-waveguide based parametric amplifier is a key building block for a programmable, broadband near-IR comb, which may find use in precision spectroscopy, spectrometer calibration used for astrophysical measurements, as well as in systems used for remote sensing. QPM parametric amplification using MgO:LN may also prove useful for shifting communications signals in the 1550/1340 nm band farther in the IR to facilitate to Free-Space Optical Communications. AdvR staff has visited and discussed with three different research groups in two NASA centers (GSRC and LaRC) whose specific application will benefit directly from the proposed frequency conversion technology. AdvR will maintain communications with these NASA groups during this Phase II to stay current with the present needs and remain flexible towards meeting specific application needs as technology progresses.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The result of this STTR partnership with Stanford, will be the development of process steps required to fabricate high quality, domain engineered MgO:LN. As a consequence, AdvR expects to continue expanding its engineered materials product offering to high performance bulk and waveguide-based MgO:LN. Efficient high power, single pass QPM conversion has many non-NASA commercially significant uses. According to a study by Electronics.ca Publications, Inc. (www.electronics.ca), the optical component market, which is currently forecast at $2.9 billion, is expected to reach $7.6 billion by 2012. While use of engineered materials represents only one portion of this market, they can enable significant performance improvements in existing technologies as well as enable a host of new technologies. Applications include gas sensing, precision spectroscopy, microwave photonics, frequency metrology, monitoring and optimization of combustion processes, multi-channel sources for fiber and free space communication systems, medical diagnostics such as spectroscopy-based disease diagnosis, research involved with quantum information and science and infrared countermeasures (IRCM).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T5.01-9926
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF64P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties in Integrated Spacecraft System Models
PROPOSAL TITLE: Quantification of Uncertainties in Integrated Spacecraft System Models

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M4 Engineering, Inc.
4020 Long Beach Boulevard
Long Beach, CA 90807-2683
(562) 981-7797

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Missouri University of Science & Technology
300 West 12th Street
Rolla, MO 65401-1330
(573) 341-4134

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tyler Winter
tyler@m4-engineering.com
4020 Long Beach Blvd.
Long Beach,  CA 90807-2683
(562) 981-7797

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective for the Phase II effort will be to develop a comprehensive, efficient, and flexible uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework implemented within a matured user-friendly software, which will enable the modeling of both inherent and epistemic uncertainties in spacecraft system models, have a general quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) capability for system certification and reliability assessment, and utilize advanced methods based on non-intrusive polynomial chaos (NIPC) for efficient and accurate propagation of mixed (inherent+epistemic) uncertainties as also demonstrated under the Phase I effort. In the proposed project, an adaptive uncertainty quantification methodology, which will successively utilize different NIPC methods depending on the size of the problem along with the non-linear global sensitivity information, will be implemented to address the computational expense of UQ in complex spacecraft system simulations with large number of uncertain variables. The developed UQ framework and QMU capability will be demonstrated on a large-scale spacecraft system model that is of interest to NASA. This proposed work will compliment M4 Engineering's expertise in developing simulation technologies that solve relevant demonstration applications. The researchers from MS&T (RI) will guide the implementation of UQ and QMU methodologies and contribute to the proposed effort with their UQ expertise in aerospace simulations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The first NASA application will be performed as a demonstration example during the Phase II project. One candidate for this example will be the SWOT program. It is also expected that this technology will be applicable to other research projects planned at JPL. The effectiveness in reducing the total runtime associated with UQ makes it an ideal candidate for use in computationally demanding systems requiring complex analyses to characterize the design space. Examples of potential application include future space systems, next generation launch and entry systems such as HMMES and HRRLS as well as exploration programs, high efficiency subsonic aircraft, quiet supersonic aircraft, high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and hypersonic aircraft. This effort will develop technologies to make use of high fidelity, physics-based UQ analysis earlier in the design cycle. It is therefore applicable in general to any NASA vehicle application. While initial implementation is expected for space applications, applications to future concepts in aeronautics also have potential. This proposal addresses NASA's goals by proposing state of the art advances in UQ methods. The tools developed can be used with an integration framework, and will be widely applicable to space systems as well as subsonic and supersonic vehicles including unconventional designs. By making these analyses available earlier in the design process, more effective vehicle systems can be generated while maintaining safety.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
M4 Engineering has active relationships with several prime contractors who are likely users of this technology. These include Boeing Phantom Works, Northrop Grumman, and Raytheon. These provide excellent commercialization opportunities for the technology. The application of these new uncertainty quantification techniques is expected to find wide application to many aerospace and non-aerospace products. The non-intrusive approach for uncertainty propagation is a widely applicable concept. Examples include aerospace/defense, turbomachinery, automotive, and alternative energy applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T5.01-9952
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF65P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties in Integrated Spacecraft System Models
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Quantification of Uncertainties in Complex Computer Code Results

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
IllinoisRocstar, LLC
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL 61826-3001
(217) 417-0885

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
1901 South First Street, Suite A
Champaign, IL 61820-7406
(217) 333-2187

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Brandyberry
mdbrandy@illinoisrocstar.com
60 Hazelwood Drive, Ste 212
Champaign,  IL 61826-3101
(217) 766-2567

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Propagation of parameter uncertainties through large computer models can be very resource intensive. Frameworks and tools for uncertainty quantification are generally geared to individual codes, are research codes, or are single-purpose tools such as LHS matrix generators. The Reduced-Order-Clustering-Uncertainty-Quantification (ROCUQ) methodology discussed in this proposal is specifically designed to circumvent many of the issues associated with uncertainty quantification of large simulation codes. The ROCUQ methodology has been applied in several different physical disciplines with good results. The computational methodology is a combination of reduced-order modeling, stratified sampling (Latin Hypercube Sampling LHS), statistical clustering of results (K-means clustering) and a few (five to ten) full-physics runs of the high-fidelity model under investigation. The method should be applicable to hundreds of uncertain variables when required. ROCUQ enables estimates of system response quantities (SRQ) uncertainty distributions for situations where it is not feasible to use purely sampling, collocation, or other techniques where many runs would be required. For some organizations, uncertainty analysis has never been possible due to resource limitations, and thus is not part of the organizational culture. Many analysts know that uncertainties can be important, but have no way to expend sufficient resources (money, CPU cycles, time) to do the work needed to quantify uncertainties. A methodology such as ROCUQ promises to open doors in organizations that know that they have the need, and may now be able to actually perform the analyses. Successful completion of the Phase II project will produce not only new software that will be able to be used by researchers and industry, but will assemble insights on the use of reduced order models in a variety of disciplines, and provide guidance and rules for the use of ROCUQ for the estimation of SRQ uncertainty distributions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program will provide pathways to two commercial products: software and engineering services. Software: The completed module will be architected in such as manner as to allow introduction of specialized reduced-order model modules without requiring changes to the base software. IllinoisRocstar has significant expertise in building modular, extensible software. As a module operable within the open-source Dakota framework, it will be useable by a wide variety of entities and organizations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program will provide pathways to two commercial products: software and engineering services. Engineering services: Consulting services will be available based on the extensibility of the proposed system. IllinoisRocstar has the broad-based experience with a wide variety of supercomputing platforms to allow support of the proposed system on platforms located at NASA, DoD components, DOE, and private companies. Assisting companies and government agencies with customization of the reduced-order models for their specific applications will provide a market, as well as a source of reduced-order library models for these services.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T5.01-9983
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF66P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties in Integrated Spacecraft System Models
PROPOSAL TITLE: QMU in Integrated Spacecraft System Models

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ACTA, Inc.
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance, CA 90505-5345
(310) 530-1008

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sandia National Laboratories
PO Box 5800
Albuquerque, NM 87185-0557
(505) 845-9190

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy Hasselman
hasselman@actainc.com
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance,  CA 90505-5345
(310) 530-1008

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ACTA and Sandia National Laboratories propose to quantify and propagate substructure modeling uncertainty for reduced-order substructure models to higher levels of system assembly, thereby enabling predictive simulations of engineering designs with quantified margins and uncertainties for model-based flight qualification of complete spacecraft. A critical part of this process is the accurate modeling of nonlinear components and interface structures, structures that connect major substructures, and the quantification of their uncertainties. By developing uncertainty models for reduced order models of specific substructures, NASA will be able to quantify margins and uncertainties for structural systems outside the domain of model validation tests.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has long been required to ground-test spacecraft and spacecraft components in their launch configuration for model verification, validation and flight qualification because of the severity of the dynamic environment. Ground-testing of spacecraft in their on-orbit configurations is often impractical when not designed to withstand earth-gravity forces. The ability to quantify modeling uncertainty at the substructure level and propagate it to system levels could avoid the need for launch environment model V&V and qualification testing, and enable the assessment of predictive accuracy for on-orbit modeling as well. This technology has potential application to virtually all NASA spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Air Force has requirements similar to NASA's for launch environment model V&V and qualification testing. While Air Force spacecraft may not approach the size of some NASA spacecraft, such as the NASA space station for example, Air Force satellites may have instrumentation appendages that cannot be tested in an earth-gravity environment. Potential non-NASA applications stand to benefit from the proposed technology in the same ways as NASA applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Erectable
Inflatable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Modular Interconnects
Structural Modeling and Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T6.01-9891
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10RA89P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Safe High Energy Density Batteries and Ultracapacitors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Prototype Carbon Nanotube Ultracapacitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientic, Inc.
555 Sparkman Drive, Suite 214
Huntsville, AL 35816-3440
(256) 319-0858

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vanderbilt University
PMB #407749, 2301 Vanderbilt Place
Nashville, TN 37240-7749
(615) 322-3979

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott von Laven
scott.vonlaven@scientic.us
555 Sparkman Drive, Suite 214
Huntsville,  AL 35816-3440
(256) 319-0872

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Scientic, Inc. and Vanderbilt University propose to dramatically improve the performance of ultracapacitors to address several applications within NASA. As power-supply components, ultracapacitors provide extremely high power densities, fast recharging rates, and long cycle life; when used in tandem with batteries, they can greatly extend battery life. We note that ultracapacitors can assume almost any form factor that an application might require. Our recent success with a flexible substrate supports this claim. Finally, commercialization of our ultracapacitor will rely on the use of environmentally friendly materials and well understood industrial manufacturing processes in common use today. We propose to develop a novel hybrid electrochemical ultracapacitor which will combine desirable attributes such as extremely high energy-power density, excellent life-cycle reliability and safety characteristics, with low production cost and have the potential for widespread deployment in energy delivery/storage applications for the NASA. In this innovative, hybrid, demonstrated approach we will grow vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) directly on conducting flexible substrates to reduce contact resistances, and we will exploit the more controllable CNT nano-architectures for optimum attachment of inexpensive pseudocapacitive manganese-dioxide (MnO2) nanoparticles to enhance charge efficiency and energy-power capacity. Our approach employs "green" electrolyte that increases cell voltage.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications of ultracapacitors include Lunar and Martian surface vehicles and sensor platforms. Vehicle ultracapacitors will serve as independent power sources or back-up power sources to the high capacity batteries propelling electric vehicles by providing high power output necessary during acceleration, uphill climbing, and braking. In the case of sensor platforms ultracapacitors may improve the efficiency of charging by solar power. Among the many other ultracapacitor applications are power sources for portable electronic equipment, such as diagnostic devices and power tools. Ultracapacitors may also provide backup or bridge power for sensors and control systems for aircraft and spacecraft. Ultracapacitors, in fact, address a wide range of space-based applications, including deep-space missions, manned and unmanned planetary exploration, and space-station missions. Ultracapacitors combined with battery technology can power spacecraft, as well as the aforementioned lunar surface mobility systems and portable electronic equipment. Future missions will probe deeper into space and will utilize a wide array of advanced electronic instrumentation and electric propulsion systems. Consequently, compact, on-board electrical power generation, energy storage, and power management will be central to the success of these missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Minimizing the use of oil in the US economy requires the invention of advanced energy storage devices that provide orders-of-magnitude efficiency gains over present commercial technology. The application of enhanced CNT ultracapacitors in the automotive, aviation, and military represents an enormous market, in which costs will be driven down and innovation will penetrate industries that might not otherwise pursue cutting edge science and engineering due to the inherent risk (and cost) associated with it. Many other applications arise in consumer and industrial electronics, usually in situations where portability is needed and where fast charging capability is also desired. These applications may not be as critical to national security and well-being as those in transportation, but they represent large markets nonetheless. Ultracapacitors possess much higher energy density than conventional capacitors, and their power density is far superior to that of batteries including fuel cells, resulting in enhanced efficiency and space and weight savings, which will benefit each of the above applications. The ability to fabricate these ultracapacitors using commonly-used environmentally-friendly techniques will facilitate their widespread commercialization.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Laser
RF
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Tools
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T6.01-9917
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10RA90P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Safe High Energy Density Batteries and Ultracapacitors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metal Oxide-Carbon Nanocomposites for Aqueous and Nonaqueous Supercapacitors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanoscale Materials, Inc.
1310 Research Park Drive
Manhattan, KS 66502-5000
(785) 537-0179

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Battelle Memorial Institute
505 King Avenue
Columbus, OH 43201-2693
(800) 201-2011

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Slawomir Winecki
swinecki@NanoScaleCorp.com
1310 Research Park Drive
Manhattan,  KS 66502-5000
(785) 537-0179

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase 2 effort focuses on development of a supercapacitor energy storage device based on novel metal oxide-carbon nanocomposites. In the Phase 1 project, NanoScale discovered a group of cathode nanocomposites with an exceptionally high capacitance of 270 F/g and a large potential window of 3.8 V versus metallic lithium in inorganic electrolytes. The combination of a large capacitance and a high achievable device voltage, allows for construction of hybrid supercapacitors with high energy and power densities and a very long lifetime. Importantly, the materials developed by NanoScale are easy to produce on a large industrial scale since no costly raw materials or manufacturing methods are required. In Phase 2, a complete supercapacitor system, including nanocomposite cathode and anode electrodes and nonaqueous low temperature electrolytes, will be tested and optimized. The proposed project will be a joint effort between NanoScale Corporation, Battelle Memorial Institute, the STTR partner, and Rayovac, a well known battery manufacturer. This team is uniquely qualified to carry out the proposed research due to its rich experience in manufacturing of nanoscale materials, supercapacitor development and large scale battery manufacturing. NanoScale and Battelle will jointly develop the proposed supercapacitor system. Rayovac will fabricate and evaluate prototype supercapacitors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The top level requirements of NASA space applications demand highly efficient and highly reliable energy storage systems. Long cycle lifetime (100,000 cycles), long calendar lifetime (years or decades), and temperature performance, specifically -40 <SUP>o</SUP>C and below requirements favor supercapacitors over batteries in space systems. Existing supercapacitors based on carbons or ruthenium oxide offer low capacities or are prohibitively expensive. The proposed project will develop new materials that have high potential to provide superior capacities and be economical. This development will enable a new generation of supercapacitors for various NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technologies that allow for storage of electrical energy are critically important for today's energy-intensive applications. Hybrid and electric cars, power conditioning or backup systems, and various portable electronic devices (cameras, camcorders, and power tools) all require high density storage of energy and high power delivery rates. Supercapacitors are expected to be widely used in these applications and provide the high power density and long lifetime capabilities that are out of reach for batteries. Unfortunately, existing carbon based supercapacitors are inefficient for these applications while the state of the art ruthenium oxide devices are prohibitively expensive. Nanocomposite materials that will be developed in this project will combine high capacities with low cost and will satisfy the demands of industrial and Customer applications. NanoScale and Battelle anticipate great commercial opportunities originating from the proposed project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Composites
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T6.02-9912
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF70P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Surface Analog Support Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scalable Gravity Offload System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Astrobotic Technology, Inc.
4551 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3524
(412) 682-3282

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3815
(412) 268-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Whittaker
red@cmu.edu
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh,  PA 15213-3815
(412) 268-6559

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A scalable gravity offload device simulates reduced gravity for the testing of various surface system elements such as mobile robots, excavators, habitats, and deployables in a relevant environment. The device is capable of simulating reduced gravity over an arbitrary terrain including such features as slopes, obstacles, and varying surface concavity. The device consists of a linear movement system, a 2 degree-of-freedom manipulator, a passive force application mechanism, and a position tracking mechanism. The manipulator travels along the linear movement system and is positioned perpendicular to the linear movement system's direction of travel. The result is a rectangular working area whereby the gravity offload device can simulate reduced gravity in the area defined by the length of the linear movement system by the width (reach) of the 2 degree-of-freedom manipulator. The force application mechanism is principled upon precision maintenance of a pressure in an air cylinder. Precision regulation of supply pressure enables constant force over the throw of the air cylinder. Varying the regulator supply pressure to the air cylinder(s) modifies the force experienced by the test article and therefore enables a gravity offload device to simulate a range of gravity fields proportional to the ability to regulate pressure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Notable applications relevant to NASA for reduced gravity include: terramechanics, wheel-soil interaction for Mars/Lunar wheeled vehicles, lightweight robotic excavation performance, habitat deployment, and astronaut mobility. Long-standing relationship exists between Carnegie Mellon University and NASA Glenn for terramechanics and wheel-soil interaction research. NASA Glenn's SLOPE lab is the source of wheel design and testing for the majority of NASA rovers. The gravity offload device will be developed in close cooperation with NASA Glenn, which desires gravity offload for lunar and Mars relevant testing, which accelerates the TRL of NASA rover wheel development. Astrobotic Technology is currently building a lightweight robotic excavator under a NASA SBIR Phase II. Robotic excavators are a necessary precursor to sustained human occupation. Gravity offload of excavators validates performance in a relevant environment and accelerates the TRL of essential excavation technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Astrobotic Technology will incorporate this device into its ongoing development efforts for prospecting rovers and resource-excavation rovers that will conduct the company's commercial lunar expeditions. Astrobotic's focus on resource extraction requires heavy interaction with lunar soil for drilling, digging and dozing, all of which are made more challenging by the reduced traction available in one-sixth gravity. The gravity offload device will ensure that Astrobotic designs and mechanisms can be tested in the relevant environment. Non NASA applications include foreign space agencies, university research (domestic and foreign) in reduced gravity mechanics, as well as several competitors to Astrobotic who also plan to carry out commercial lunar missions with mobility.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Mobility
Testing Facilities


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T7.01-9887
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF71P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: One-Sided 3D Imaging of Non-Uniformities in Non-Metallic Space Flight Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Based 3D Imaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LongWave Photonics, LLC
15 Bartlett Street, #3
Boston, MA 02129-2520
(310) 650-6276

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139-4301
(617) 258-8017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Lee
awmlee@longwavephotonics.com
15 Bartlett St #3
Boston,  MA 02129-2520
(310) 845-6276

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
LongWave Photonics proposes a terahertz quantum-cascade laser based swept-source optical coherence tomography (THz SS-OCT) system for single-sided, 3D, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of non-conductive materials. The THz SS-OCT system uses a frequency tunable QCL array to generate an interferometric signal between a reference mirror, and a sample. An algorithm is used to transform this signal into depth information of the interfaces within the sample. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility of measuring the interfaces of a dielectric on metal sample. In Phase II, we propose to demonstrate a complete scanning system for 3D imaging by upgrading the optics and mechanics. Improvements in the power levels and frequency bandwidth of the QCL source are expected to greatly improve the depth resolution and signal to noise ratio of the system. The milliwatt power levels of the QCL are expected to result in fast scan speeds. Operation of the SS-OCT system is expected to be relatively simple as the QCL is an electrically pumped, solid state source of terahertz radiation, capable of operation in a compact, high reliability crycooler as demonstrated in Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed THz SS-OCT system will be useful for characterizing the voids and delaminations in materials used in space flight (e.g. urethane based foams, silica based materials, composites, etc). The high depth resolution enabled by this system will also allow measurement of thin non-conductive polymer layers, such as paints and compositions to verify thicknesses and integrity. Further application include inspection for corrosion damage under paint layers or foams.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Pharmaceutical applications for this technology include in-process monitoring of thicknesses of polymer coatings in controlled release tablets. Numerous defects in the thin coatings can occur during processing affecting the performance of the tablet, leading drug complications and drug recalls. The use of QCL based 3D imaging technology could improve the uniformity in a batch tablet coating process. In the automotive and aerospace industry spray application of paint is both inefficient and environmentally unfriendly. In situ monitoring of sprayed paint thicknesses would allow reduced paint usage and reduced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Testing Facilities
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Photonics
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T7.01-9931
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF72P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: One-Sided 3D Imaging of Non-Uniformities in Non-Metallic Space Flight Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: One-Sided 3D Imaging of Non-Uniformities in Non-Metallic Space Flight Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Picometrix, LLC
2925 Boardwalk Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-6765
(734) 864-5600

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Regents of the University of Michigan
3003 South State Street, Room 1072
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1274
(734) 763-7188

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Zimdars
dzimdars@picometrix.com
2925 Boardwalk
Ann Arbor,  MI 48104-6765
(734) 864-5639

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase II project, we propose to develop, construct, and deliver to NASA a prototype single-sided computed tomography time-domain terahertz (single-sided CT TD-THz) scanner accessory. This accessory will be suitable to be mounted onto a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) imaging gantry for the single-sided inspection of spacecraft and launch vehicle composite structures. The single-sided CT TD-THz scanner will be an accessory which works with existing T-Ray 4000<SUP>REG</SUP> TD-THz NDE imaging instruments owned by NASA (and other aerospace firms). We will also develop, and deliver a software package which employs the model-based image reconstruction (MBIR) methods. The MBIR method allows the reconstruction of 2D slices in depth from the data acquired by the single-sided CT TD-THz scanner. These 2D slices can then be stacked laterally to generate 3D images of sub-surface structures, features and defects. Time-domain terahertz imaging in the 0.1 to 3 THz spectral range is currently being used to characterize defects in Space Shuttle insulation and related materials. The proposed project will largely be configured from standard Picometrix THz sub-components, but incorporate measurements of the scattered THz fields, enabling full 3D reflection-mode reconstruction of non-metallic materials where only one side is accessible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The capabilities provided by a single-sided CT TD-THz NDE imager will be valuable in characterizing new spacecraft materials in complex 3-dimensional forms. Material examples include SOFI and other foam materials, TUFI and other thermal protection systems (TPS), Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and adhesive systems, and other non-conductive polymer composite structures. Example NDE applications where these materials are used include inspection of soft shell fan containment, thermal protection systems, composite overwrap pressure vessels (COPV), and inflatable orbital habitats. The technique is fully applicable to single-sided imaging and can locate and quantify internal structure, regions of damage, porosity, cracking, delaminations, intrusion, and other sub-surface properties.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial potential of the technology from a successful Phase II development effort extends well beyond the NASA Polymer matrix composites are used in automobile and ships and many other consumer and industrial products. Single-sided CT TD-THz 3D imaging applications can include inspection of automobile dashboards, imaging inspection for delamination of printed circuit boards, inspection of pipe insulation, as well as with manufactured parts such as pure plastic and paper products. Single-sided CT TD-THz imaging benefits homeland security applications under development such as personnel and luggage inspection for concealed weapons and explosives (in luggage, shoes, etc.). single-sided CT TD-THz imaging and spectroscopy can inspect items in shipment such as mail, cardboards packages, and plastic and wood crates.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Inflatable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Thermal Insulating Materials
Structural Modeling and Tools
Tankage
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical
Tools
Photonics
Ceramics
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T7.01-9948
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF73P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: One-Sided 3D Imaging of Non-Uniformities in Non-Metallic Space Flight Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Three-Dimensional Backscatter X-Ray Imaging System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ARIBEX
744 S 400 East
Orem, UT 84097-6322
(801) 226-5522

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SCI Institute of the University of Utah
72 Central Campus Drive, 3750 WEB
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-9200
(801) 585-1867

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Clark Turner
cturner@aribex.com
744 S. 400 E
Orem,  UT 84097-6322
(801) 226-5522

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA application requires a system that can generate 3D images of non-metallic material when access is limited to one side of the material. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing and build a new, practical, potentially portable, battery operated, self-contained Compton x-ray backscatter 3D imaging system by using a specially designed automated rotationally movable x-ray source, a 2D x-ray detector with a highly collimator system and the development of a suitable 3D processing computer model. In the proposed x-ray imaging system, the primary technical advance will be to extend methods that normally supply a 2D projected image through a sheet of material, to a 3D image with more complicated features at different depths, such as voids, cracks, corrosion or delaminations. The portability of the proposed imaging system will allow bringing it to the object to be imaged. Phase 2 will be conducted with a focus on technology transition and an understanding of what it will take to demonstrate and qualify the proposed method in a prototype for use in an actual imaging system and a realistic environment. Also in Phase II, time reduction in setup, data image acquisition, and 3D-image reconstruction analysis will be realized by remote automated control of the operation and movement of a brighter x-ray source and a state-of-the-art digital flat panel detector in conjunction with a highly collimator system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed three-dimensional backscatter x-ray imaging system addresses the interest for NASA in one-sided 3D imaging of non-uniformities in non metallic space flight materials. The proposed x-ray backscatter 3D system will help determine defects, voids or imperfections in the workmanship of the Space Shuttle components at the launch site. The system portability will allow it to be brought to the spacecraft and to be handled in the field for multiple applications. Furthermore, this 3D capability can be used at the launch site to meet the inspection requirements for new NASA programs, such as the Constellation program. Additional potential applications include inspection for micro-meteorite damage to shielding layers in inflatable habitats, and inspection for damage to re-entry vehicle heat shields.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerospace - In addition to NASA's needs, there is a routine need in the aerospace industry to inspect for metal fatigue on the wings and fuselage of airplanes. Cargo Inspection - There is a demonstrated need for one-sided imaging for inspecting cargo and other transportation containers that are already loaded onto a ship or other transportation carrier. A portable, battery-powered unit would enable random inspections at a much lower cost than truck-based imaging systems. Explosives Detection - Current explosives ordinance detection systems require an imaging plate to be positioned behind a suspicious package such as a suitcase or backpack. The proposed system will allow imaging from one-side only. Construction and Related Industries - There is a need for contractors to be able to image inside walls, floors, ceilings, etc., to determine the location of pipes, electrical wires, and other internal obstructions before demolition or remodel work.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Testing Facilities
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Thermal Insulating Materials
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Data Input/Output Devices
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Ceramics
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T8.01-9896
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF74P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Computational Fluid Dynamics Mesh Creation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Generation and Adaptive Modification of Anisotropic Meshes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Simmetrix, Inc.
10 Halfmoon Executive Park Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065-5630
(518) 348-1639

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
110 8th Street
Troy, NY 12180-3590
(518) 276-6283

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Saurabh Tendulkar
saurabh@simmetrix.com
10 Halfmoon Executive Park Dr.
Clifton Park,  NY 12065-5630
(518) 348-1639

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ability to quickly and reliably simulate high-speed flows over a wide range of geometrically complex configurations is critical to many of NASA's missions. Advances in CFD methods and parallel computing have provided NASA the core flow solvers to perform these simulations. However, the ease of use of these flow solvers and the reliability of the results obtained are a strong function of the technologies used to discretize the domain. Many applications involve solutions with highly anisotropic features: boundary layers, shear layers, wakes, shocks etc. Efficient resolution of those features motivates matching the mesh resolution/anisotropy to the solution's anisotropy but, in the more challenging applications, the location and strength of those features is difficult to precisely estimate prior to solution. Currently available meshing tools are not capable of producing and controlling the required initial meshes, nor adapting the mesh to match evolving anisotropic features. This project will combine Simmetrix Inc. expertise in the development of meshing components for flow simulations, and Rensselaer's Scientific Computation Research Center expertise in the development of adaptive mesh control technologies, to provide NASA the mesh generation and adaptation technologies needed. New techniques will be developed to create highly anisotropic semi-structured and unstructured meshes suitable for CFD simulations with high Reynolds number flow features (e.g., boundary layers, bow shocks, free shear layers, wakes, contact surfaces). Techniques to adapt these meshes based on mesh correction indicators will be developed to enable fully automated adaptive simulations. All procedures to be developed will work effectively in parallel on large-scale parallel computers and will support a wide range of flow solvers. The overall capabilities will be demonstrated through execution of fully automated parallel adaptive simulations on problems relevant to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications of this technology include any type of computational fluid dynamics simulations that involve complex geometry and/or complex flow features whose solution resolution needs cannot be precisely defined before starting the solution process. Applications in the aeronautics area include airflow around aircraft and engines. Applications to astronautics include propulsion, liftoff and reentry aerodynamics, and energy generation systems in space. Problems with a wide range of spatial scales resulting from complex geometry and flow features will benefit most from the proposed developments. Specific examples may include passive and/or active flow control devices, inlet configurations for blended wing body with boundary layer ingestion, hypersonic flight vehicles with scramjet engines, crew launch and exploration vehicles, launch vehicles, re-entry capsules, tethered ballute configurations. In addition to these "high speed" aerodynamics applications, there are also NASA commercial applications related to power generation and other spacecraft systems in a low gravity environment. The mesh resolution needs of two phase flow systems in such environments can also be addressed by the proposed developments. Finally, there are also biomedical applications of CFD such as the effects of low gravity on the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High speed flow simulations are also of interest to many organizations outside of NASA thus the majority of the NASA applications also apply to non-NASA organizations. Moreover, the generality of these procedures proposed to be developed will allow them to apply them for other flow applications such as cardiovascular flows to accurately predict wall shear stress, flow over wind turbines to obtain better designs, two-phase annular flows to predict liquid film thickness to avoid dry out conditions, etc. In addition there are other types of physics such as electromagnetics and heat transfer that have solutions with high gradients that can also utilize these types of meshes for simulations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T8.01-9965
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF75P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Computational Fluid Dynamics Mesh Creation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mesh Generation and Adaption for High Reynolds Number RANS Computations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ResearchSouth, Inc.
555 Sparkman Drive, Suite 1612
Huntsville, AL 35816-3431
(256) 721-1769

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Mason University
4400 University Drive
Fairfax, VA 22030-4444
(703) 993-4573

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lawrence W Spradley
lawrence@researchsouthinc.com
555 Sparkman Dr, Suite 1612
Huntsville,  AL 35816-0000
(256) 721-1769

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation of our Phase II STTR program is to develop and provide to NASA automatic mesh generation software for the simulation of fluid flows using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes codes. As a result of the successful Phase I work, these new tools are now capable of generating high-quality, highly-stretched (anisotropic) meshes in boundary layer regions and transition smoothly to inviscid flow regions, even in an adaptive context. The significance is that our method has the ability to generate a boundary layer mesh while keeping intact the previous adaptation procedures from non viscous simulations. This leads to a natural coupling between boundary layer mesh generation and anisotropic mesh adaptation. All of the Phase I objectives were met and all tasks were completed successfully. The Phase II project will include improvements in surface remeshing, coding for optimal speed and increased robustness of the solvers, adding a mesh optimization module, providing a link to general CAD packages, include unsteady coupling where the boundary layer mesh refinement evolves in time, conduct further validation and verification on NASA models by running flow cases with our solver, documenting the project, and delivering the new meshing software to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Next generation Space Launch Systems are being designed at NASA for access to space. These include launch configurations for earth-to-orbit to access the International Space Station and to launch modules for eventual landing on asteroids and moons and entry into the Mars atmosphere. Design of new and powerful propulsion systems will be a major requirement for this new generation aerospace flight hardware. Launch pad design, with rocket plume trenches, for these new booster configurations also requires high fidelity base flow and heating predictions. Our proposed program addresses the time-critical technology development item by providing a new anisotropic meshing code to address high Reynolds number viscous flow fields. The software to be provided in this SBIR project is a computational capability which is critical for design and analysis of these next generation space vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are important commercial problems that can directly use and benefit from the application of our software. Some example industries and applications are: Analysis of nuclear blast accidents from power plants: Automobile manufacturers for design of car and truck engines, transmissions and issues including engine cooling, under-hood flows, and air bag design: Airline companies who are responsible for maintaining safe flying machines: Watercraft design for safety concerns: Bio-Medical applications such as blood flow in elastic arteries, hearts, and air flow in lungs: Computer simulation of blast waves for use in anti-terrorists investigations: Housing design for protection from hurricanes, and tornados: The entertainment industry and film makers for taping building and bridge collapse, bombs blowing up buildings, and storms destroying structures: Heating and air conditioning manufacturers for home units, large office complexes and automobile air conditioning systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Computational Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T8.01-9986
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF76P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Computational Fluid Dynamics Mesh Creation
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Automated High Aspect Ratio Mesher for Computational Fluid Dynamics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ciespace Corporation
900 Commerce Drive, Suite 201
Oak Brook, IL 60523-0036
(412) 952-5990

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3589
(412) 268-9527

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenji Shimada
shimada@cmu.edu
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh,  PA 15213-3890
(412) 268-3614

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The work will focus on the 3D implementation of the Phase 1 CHARM mesher, with solution-adaptive iteration for CFD and non-CFD applications. The proposed 3D method will incorporate and extend a previously developed method of generating field-guided hexahedral elements from a metric tensor field. While the fundamental technical approach a combination of metric tensor conditioning, metric-tracing mesher, and cell-packing mesher remains the same, there are many technical challenges specific to the 3D domain, including the following: - Investigation into conditioning of volume metric tensor fields - Investigation into the topology (structure) of volume metric tensor fields - Developing algorithms for the generation, repair, and adjustment of streamsurface arrangements - Developing algorithms to convert streamsurface arrangements to hex-dominant meshes - Developing algorithms to combine streamsurface- and packing-based meshes - Investigation into designing these algorithms for mesh adaptation rather than adaptive remeshing - Investigation of time and storage efficiency of these algorithms in a large-scale parallelism context In addition to the above, the goal is to generalize the solution in order to support its packaging and commercialization for a number of problem sets and target applications. This includes generalization of the solver-adaptive framework, creation of APIs to programatically expose core functions, and provide UI access to appropriately control and configure the application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Ciespace adaptive remeshing framework can be applied to the evaluation, design/redesign, and assessment of air- and spacecraft for current and future NASA missions. The current requirement is the use of a suitable CFD solver which can take mixed-element meshes as input for solution and provide metric output for adaptive refinement. The following represent example applications in three categories: 1. Evaluation Evaluating the initial design space for future missions by complementing experimental studies with simulation results. This can be applied to the modeling of air (terrestrial and otherwise) and space vehicles under various conditions. 2. Design/Redesign Making design decisions or modifications to existing designs based on predictive simulation and experimental validation of concepts. 3. Assessment Determining the flight-dynamics of current platforms (Constellation vehicles, the Mars ARES scout, and others). This may lead to redesign activities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation can be leveraged by Ciespace to address commercial problems in a number of categories: CFD analysis problems with high-flow conditions and defined flow feature orientations. High-deformation problems in impact, crash, or thermal change. Analysis of high stress or vibration across a model. Electromagnetic analysis driven by varying field conditions across a surface or volume. These problem sets are applicable across a number of markets, including aerospace, automotive, electronics, and heavy equipment manufacturing, serving large-scale enterprises as well as mid-market parts suppliers. Inclusion of the innovation in the Ciespace integrated solution supports differentiation in the product through improved control over high aspect ratio meshes, as well as the ability to demonstrate tighter bi-directional integration with industry solver technologies addressing these problems, including: CFD solvers, such as Fluent, FUN3D, and others Injection molding simulation solutions, such as 3DTIMON, Moldflow, and Moldex3D Crash simulation solutions, such as PAM-CRASH and LS-DYNA Non-linear structural and mechanical simulation solutions, such as ABAQUS and ANSYS Electromagnetic solvers, such as IBM EMSURF, JMAG, and Ansoft

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic Thrusters
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Cooling
Thermal Insulating Materials
Structural Modeling and Tools
Attitude Determination and Control
Fluid Storage and Handling
Aircraft Engines
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T9.01-9927
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF78P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Human and Robotic Space Exploration Propulsion Design and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extremely High Suction Performance Inducers for Space Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Concepts ETI, Inc.
217 Billings Farm Road
White River Junction, VT 05001-9486
(802) 280-6170

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brigham Young University
A285 ASB
Provo, UT 84602-0002
(801) 422-2970

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kerry Oliphant
kno@conceptsnrec.com
217 Billings Farm Road
White River Jct,  VT 05001-9486
(802) 280-6183

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation provides a way to design low flow coefficient inducers that have higher cavitation breakdown margin, larger blade angles, thicker more structurally robust blades, and better off-design flow stability than the current state-of-the-art designs. The technology will increase the structural, stability, and suction margin of inducers designed in the currently acceptable flow coefficient range of about 0.06 to 0.1. In addition, it will allow for stable and structurally robust designs at much lower flow coefficients than previously thought possible (down to at least 0.02) for the capability to operate in near zero net positive suction pressure inlet environments. The innovation is based upon a synergistic coupling of Concepts NREC's patented cavitation control device with a new blade design approach that takes full advantage of the CCD's characteristics for optimal suction performance. The technology significantly enhances the capability of rocket engine systems through increased thrust-to-weight, specific impulse, simplicity, operational safety, and turbopump life. It will also reduce turbopump and propellant tank weight and system costs by eliminating boost pump systems and allowing for lighter lower pressure tanks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology could be used as a retrofit onto current, in development, or future rocket engines for launch vehicle or in space propulsion that require high suction performance, high turbopump efficiency, and wide operating range. It is ideally suited for clean sheet engine designs where the full advantage of moving a key system constraint, pump suction performance, can be used to optimize the entire launch system. The technology could also be used for propellant ground handling systems and aircraft fuel pumps were fuel vaporization is an issue. Ultimately, the technology opens up the rocket engine/vehicle design space and allows for a large increase in vehicle performance by significantly moving the pump suction performance constraint from its current position.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology could be used for any situation where it is necessary to pump a low vapor pressure fluid. Nuclear reactor boiler feed pumps, vehicle fuel pumps, cryogenic fluid transfer pumps, high speed industrial pumps, and super critical C02 power cycles pumps are all potential commercial applications. In addition, the inducer suction performance predictive capability that will be validated and enhanced during this project will be incorporated into Concepts NREC's suite of commercially available turbomachinery design software tools.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Feed System Components
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T9.01-9969
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF79P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Human and Robotic Space Exploration Propulsion Design and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Unsteady Turbulent Combustion Simulation Capability for Space Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Streamline Numerics, Inc.
3221 North West 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville, FL 32609-2189
(352) 271-8841

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Michigan
Wolverine Tower, First Floor, Room 1061, 3003 S. State St.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1274
(734) 763-2171

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Siddharth Thakur
st@snumerics.com
3221 Northwest 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville,  FL 32609-2189
(352) 352-8841

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation proposed here is a high performance, high fidelity simulation capability to enable accurate, fast and robust simulation of unsteady turbulent, reacting flows involving propellants of relevance to NASA (GOX/GH2, LOX/LH2 and LOX/LCH4). The key features of this proposed capability are: (a) Hybrid RANS-LES (HRLES) methodology, and (b) flamelet modeling for turbulent combustion, incorporated in a proven existing solver called Loci-STREAM which has been developed by the proposing personnel under funding from NASA over the last several years. Basic flamelet methodology has been incorporated in Loci-STREAM during Phase 1 work and tested on gas-gas injectors of relevance to NASA. The enhancements in Loci-STREAM resulting from Phase 1 work have demonstrated an order of magnitude improvement in simulation turnaround times relative to existing capability for turbulent reacting flow applications at NASA. The work proposed during Phase 2 will extend the flamelet methodology to real-fluid flows, wall heat transfer and variable pressures. This will ultimately result in a state-of-the-art design and analysis tool to enable the accurate modeling of for multiphase combustion in solid and liquid rocket engines, combustion stability analysis, etc. which constitute critical components of versatile space propulsion engines part of NASA's deep space missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The outcome of Phase 2 activities will be a powerful CFD-based design and analysis tool for propulsion engines of relevance to NASA. This tool is envisioned to be useful for full rocket engine simulations, injector design, etc. Specific applications at NASA of this capability include: (a) design improvements of injectors of SSME, J-2X and RS-68 engines as well as potential novel designs to be developed for NASA's proposed heavy lift vehicle, (b) modeling of multi-element injectors coupled with fuel and oxidizer feedlines and manifolds, (c) prediction of stability and stability margins, (d) design of acoustic cavities for combustion stability, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The computational tool resulting from this project will have wide-ranging commercial applications. The Hybrid RANS-LES methodology can be used for a wide variety of engineering applications involving unsteady turbulent flows. The reacting flow capability can be used for simulating combusting flows in various industrial applications, such as gas turbine engines, diesel engines, etc. The real-fluids methodology can be used in a large number of industrial flow situations involving both chemically inert and reacting flows. With additions of multi-phase combustion modeling capability, the applicability of this tool can be further broadened.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Simulation Modeling Environment


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T10.01-9906
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF80P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Test Area Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hydrogen Recovery System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sustainable Innovations, LLC
160 Oak Street
Glastonbury, CT 06033-2336
(860) 652-9690

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The University of Connecticut
438 Whitney Road Ext. Unit 1133
Storrs, CT 06269-1133
(860) 486-3622

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Trent Molter
trent.molter@sustainableinnov.com
160 Oak Street
Glastonbury,  CT 06033-2336
(860) 860-9690

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rocket test operations at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) result in substantial quantities of hydrogen gas that is flared from the facility and helium gas that is vented. One way to save on the cost of test operations is to recover these gases using an electrochemical system. This Hydrogen Recovery System (HRS) selectively removes hydrogen from the mixed stream, leaving behind high-value helium. The system then removes residual water vapor from this helium and compresses it to commercial storage pressure. The heart of the HRS is a system platform under commercial development by Sustainable Innovations, termed H2RENEW<SUP>TM</SUP>, an electrochemical system package that separates and compresses hydrogen using Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) technology. The system being developed in this Phase II STTR program targets a hydrogen removal rate of 1.77 scfm, an outlet hydrogen pressure of 200 psi, and a product helium pressure of 2,000 2,500 psi. This system leverages a robust novel Expandable Modular Architecture (EMA) electrochemical cell stack that is capable of being constructed with a very large production capacity and high operating pressure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are several NASA applications that can take advantage of the underlying technologies that support Sustainable Innovations' HRS. Primary needs are to separate and recover hydrogen and helium from rocket engine test stands. For in-situ resource utilization there are needs for recirculation of hydrogen and to facilitate pneumatic transport. Terrestrial NASA applications include capturing, purifying and compressing purge gas for various experimental test stands. The requirement to separate hydrogen from CO2 and CO exists in life support applications. The HRS being developed here supports efficient separation of these constituents without moving parts. Hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell systems are being studied as a means of providing efficient energy storage for many different NASA missions. Long-term missions are hampered by the fact that residual helium often exists in the hydrogen fuel tanks. An HRS can alleviate this problem by removing the helium.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The emergence of hydrogen-based economy necessitates the ability to pump and compress large amounts of hydrogen. A range of products based on the HRS will help deliver hydrogen to fueling stations and provide compression for vehicular refueling. Assuming the adoption of a pipeline hydrogen-based infrastructure, there is a need to pump the hydrogen along the pipeline to fueling stations. A medium to large size fueling station would require 300 lbs per day of hydrogen, which at 500 psi is 1,730 cf. A 30 CFM HRS would allow a fueling station to store a day's worth of fuel in 2 hours. Hydrogen powered vehicles require hydrogen at 6,000 10,000 psi to facilitate efficient volumetric storage. Therefore an HRS with a high capacity, high pressure cell design would be a valuable tool to support a hydrogen-based economy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Manipulation
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Cooling
Tankage
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Fluid Storage and Handling
Production
Portable Life Support
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Energy Storage
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T10.01-9918
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF81P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Test Area Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Gaseous Helium Reclamation at Rocket Test Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sierra Lobo, Inc.
102 Pinnacle Drive
Fremont, OH 43420-7400
(419) 499-9653

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
University of Hawaii
2530 Dole Street, Sakamaki D250
Honolulu, HI 96822-2309
(808) 956-8890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Haberbusch
mhaberbusch@sierralobo.com
102 Pinnacle Drive
Fremont,  OH 43420-7400
(419) 499-9653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
GHe reclamation is critical in reducing operating costs at rocket engine test facilities. Increases in cost and shortages of helium will dramatically impact testing of rocket engines for launch vehicles and space propulsion systems as the global supply of this non-renewable element diminishes. Extremely large quantities of helium are being used during rocket engine testing each year at various test facilities. It is critical for program successes to minimize developmental and testing costs by reclaiming helium utilized in those programs and, equally important, to preserve this rare element for future generations. Phase I innovative solution efforts have proven the effectiveness of utilizing hydrogen (H2) Proton Exchange Membrane Electrochemical Cell (PEMEC) technology to purify an inert gas stream of helium (He) consisting of hydrogen contaminants in a cost-effective manner. This method allows in-situ, on-site helium re-utilization, returning the helium to cleanliness standards required for rocket engine test facility use. Phase I identified the challenges for dilute hydrogen operation of the PEMEC and provided viable solutions for improved efficiency, which allows the PEMEC's to provide high purity, 99.995% helium. Phase I also identified a possible configuration in which the exit stream of H2 can be added to a fuel cell operating in the galvanic mode to provide power back to the GHe reclamation system. Although Phase II efforts will not utilize that configuration, Phase I verified its feasibility and future system growth potential. Phase II efforts will build upon all the results of Phase I to deliver a fully functional prototype system for further evaluation in an operational environment. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at the end of Phase I was five (5), while phase II will progress that level to six (6): System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PEMECs are an attractive option for purifying inert gas streams containing hydrogen as an impurity because they can be operated efficiently in two methods, which enable separation of hydrogen from the inert gas stream. PEMECs can be operated in a galvanic cell mode where useful electricity can be obtained or, in an electrolytic mode, where the PEMEC is attached to an external power source. In the latter case, hydrogen is separated from the inert stream by electrically driving hydrogen ions across a membrane. Utilizing this technology will significantly reduce vented GHe into the atmosphere at all NASA test sites where helium is consumed in rocket engine testing and will allow the reclamation of GHe for future testing and launch services. This cost-saving technology will save NASA millions of dollars in helium costs over the course of each developmental/test program. Cost savings from our technology allows more funds to be applied to the development and testing of new rocket engines/rocket engine designs, instead of the helium required to test those engines, while minimizing the effects of helium cost increases. Further commercial applications of this technology will allow reclamation of unused hydrogen from the system. This potential NASA application can be used to generate power and water on future lunar vehicles while reclaiming on-board GHe. Our proposed technology allows NASA to continue using helium as a standard purge gas, while reducing operational costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications share the same benefits. Utilizing PEMEC technology to purify an inert gas stream of helium, reclaiming it, allows other Government agencies, private space companies, commercial space ventures, launch providers, and vehicle/system developers to benefit from cost savings. Helium, a non-renewable commodity, factors in the cost to develop and test newly designed rocket engines/systems and to test/maintain currently developed engines/systems. Cost savings from our technology allows more funds to be applied in the development and testing of these new rocket engines and systems/technologies, while minimizing the effects of helium cost increases. These savings allow for a bold new commercial approach that invests in the building blocks of a more capable method of space exploration and national defense. Millions in savings can be applied to various Government and commercial testing and design programs instead of helium operating costs associated with those programs. Other non-NASA commercial applications can also include hybrid systems that not only reclaim helium, but also provide electrical power and water by reclaiming hydrogen. This technology will prove highly beneficial to those organizations developing both manned and unmanned planetary landers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Testing Facilities
Fluid Storage and Handling
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-2 T10.02-9869
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX10CF82P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Conservation and Sustainability
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Solid State Lighting Replacements for Industrial and Test Facility Locations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energy Focus, Inc.
32000 Aurora Road
Solon, OH 44139-2814
(440) 715-1300

RESEARCH INSTITUTION: (RI Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Carroll University
20700 North Park Boulevard
University Heights, OH 44118-4581
(216) 397-1657

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roger Buelow
rbuelow@efoi.com
32000 Aurora Rd
Solon,  OH 44139-2814
(440) 715-1251

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed effort will develop a solid-state LED replacement lamp for rocket engine test stand lighting and more general hazardous-location lighting. The LED lighting will produce a smoother lighting spectrum compared to the existing arc lamp sources which will improve the visual accuracy and quality of high-speed engine photography. The LED lighting will also last significantly longer than arc lamps which require frequent replacement in hazardous-gas environment. A specialized array of optical collectors will redirect the light more effectively to the needed test areas using principles on non-imaging optics. The result will be improved lighting for engine diagnostics, lower operating costs for the test stand, much longer lamp life and a safer environment by reducing or eliminating lighting maintenance operations in an explosive environment. The housing will also be shock, vibration and heat resistant to be able to withstand the proximate effects of live-fire rocket engine testing. The electronic controls for the lighting will be sited remotely from the lamp head to be consistent with the existing facility and for thermal and reliability considerations. Additionally, a hazardous-location LED lighting device for general illumination which is not for high-speed engine diagnostics will also be developed and tested.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications include increasing the energy efficiency, lighting quality and maintenance effectiveness in all gantry and test-type facilities where there are hazardous or explosive gasses or materials. This includes but is not limited to Stennis, KSC, Goddard, Dryden, White Sands, Langley, Wallops, Glenn.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The number of non-NASA applications is vast. A high-intensity solid-state hazardous-location lighting fixture will have direct application in the following areas: petroleum refineries, oil drilling rigs, sugar refineries, grain silos, coal mines, sawmills, industrial painting facilities, chemical processing plants, steel mills, subways tunnels, tunnel roadways, sewers, rail yards, natural gas storage and distribution centers, liquefied gas depots, gasoline pumping and refueling stations, navy vessels, army ammunition and fuel depots, airports, and hazmat field response deployment units.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Renewable Energy