SBIR Phase I Solicitation  STTR Phase I Solicitation    Abstract Archives

NASA 2012 SBIR Select Phase I Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E2.01-8514
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Air Traffic Management Research and Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: METROSIM: Metroplex-Wide Flight Planning and Optimization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frederick Wieland
fwieland@i-a-i.com111
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5268

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
MetroSim is a Metroplex-based arrival, departure, and surface optimization. Linking with both the NASA-developed Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) tool as well as the NASA-developed System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) tool, MetroSim allows airport planners, traffic flow management experts, airline dispatchers, air traffic controllers, and pilots to reduce the uncertainty in operations planning, recover quickly from disruptive events, maintain high throughput even in adverse weather conditions, and handle the uncertainties associated with weather forecasts. To accomplish all these goals simultaneously, the MetroSim architecture contains a collection of different tools, some of which are simulations, some of which are physics-based computations, and some of which are mathematical optimization calculations. These tools all interoperate in a distributed computational environment to provide real-time airport planning and optimization at the Metroplex level for all operations—arrivals, departures, and surface movements. The type of each tool is chosen to be the best and fastest at what it is required to compute.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other Government. We anticipate that MetroSim will eventually be tested in "shadow mode" in a backroom of a TRACON. In this mode, live traffic feeds will be fed to MetroSim and its response will be recorded, compared to what actually happened, and an assessment of the best path forward will be made. This application falls in the domain of the Federal Aviation Administration. Commercial. MetroSim can be used by airlines as a route planning tool, allowing them to experiment with different arrival and departure route choices on their flight plans, determine the interaction with other flights into and out of the Metroplex, and determine the approximate fuel burn for their choices. With this tool, dispatchers and other operators can better manage their operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA researchers will find the tool useful for exploration of new concepts. The MetroSim scheduler will allow them to experiment with different concepts of operations for interval management, fuel management, arrival route structure, and even rule changes and reduced wake vortex separation standards. NASA can also use the tool as a driver for traffic in human-in-the-loop simulations, allowing researchers to concentrate on the salient aspects of the controller interaction without worrying about the background traffic that must be present to emulate a real scenario. Finally, NASA can integrate MetroSim with its Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), allowing full flight optimization from the enroute through the terminal area.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Sequencing & Scheduling
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E2.01-8873
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Air Traffic Management Research and Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: Algorithm Development for a Coherent Fiber Lidar as a Wake Vortex Monitoring Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SibellOptics
815 Beauprez Avenue
Lafayette, CO 80026-3419
(303) 913-1772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Higgins
rhiggins@sibelloptics.com111
3120 Ogden Court
Colorado Springs,  CO 80920-7250
(719) 339-4245

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The capacity of coherent Lidar systems to produce a continuous, real-time, 3D scan of wind velocities via detection of backscatter of atmospheric aerosols in clear-air conditions gives this technology a clear advantage over other technologies. LIDAR has proven its value in a number of applications, including the detection of clear-air turbulence, wind shear, and aircraft wake vortices. Of interest under this NASA sub-topic is the development of Lidar systems capable of detecting and measuring aircraft wake vortices in order to enhance aircraft separation criteria. To perform this task well a Lidar must have certain characteristics and be paired with a highly optimized wake processing algorithm. Key areas of development include: - Pulse energy / pulse repetition frequency (PRF) combination to adequately sample a region of space containing the wake vortices. - Pulse width for optimally sampling the wake disturbance. Determination of the optimal range resolution for measuring wakes is algorithm dependent and is an area of current research. - Scanner capable of efficiently scanning the region of interest. The scanner needs to be able to report the elevation and azimuth accurately so that wake positions can be estimated. - Raw data acquisition and signal processing for generating range resolved Doppler spectral estimates. Processing should produce periodograms over the 2D or 3D region of interest with adequate frequency resolution, velocity bandwidth and with minimal distortion. - Wake vortex algorithm for detecting, tracking and estimating the circulation strength and position of the vortices from the Doppler spectral estimates. SIBELLOPTICS proposes a Phase 1 SBIR to determine the feasibility of its compact, innovative fiber LIDAR sensor, now in Phase II development, to detect and measure wake vortices using spatially dependent spectral matched filter algorithms similar to those currently being developed for NASA by Coherent Research Group.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Windimager has been designed to be an extraordinarily flexible, general purpose, wind measurement platform with applications in a number of different industries, including: 1. Wind Energy Wind energy generation is one of the fastest growing industries in the world and LIDAR technology is gaining a great deal of momentum in this market segment. Windimager can perform both wind assessment and power operations improvement, replacing multiple LIDARS or anemometer towers. 2. Yachting Maritime markets potentially include ocean-going vessels as well as subscription wind data and weather sales to harbors and ports. There are four opportunities to address in this market: (1) the owners of luxury yachts, (2) the yacht manufacturers, (3) the yacht charter operators and (4) the harbor market where ships of all types operate. 3. Meteorology Environmental scientists have successfully used Lidar systems to accurately track the direction and dispersion of factory atmospheric emissions and volcanic ash, as well conduct studies of the formation of typhoons. 4. Homeland Security With its ability to monitor aerosol movements over large areas Windimager is an ideal platform to track the dispersion of atmospheric contaminants. 5. Firefighting Successful suppression of any large scale fire depends on an understanding of environmental factors which effect fire behavior. Wind speed and direction are among the most important environmental influences.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Next Generation Air Transportation System program was developed to address the problems associated with the ever-increasing growth of aviation by improving efficiency at airports around the US. A major component of this effort is to reduce aircraft separation, which is highly dependent upon the development of instrumentation that can accurately monitor and measure wake vortices. The development and assessment of fast-time vortex models for use in optimizing aircraft separation during approach and departure operations is one example for which a thorough understanding of wake vortex dynamics is needed. At present there is no current operational system that will meet all of the requirements of a useful wake vortex sensor. In the wake vortex sensing mode Windimager operates at a high PRF (20 kHz) and transmit a narrow pulse in order to sample the wake region with high longitudinal spatial resolution. The localized scan and high PRF will allow Windimager to measure a tighter array of radial wind velocities commensurate with wake vortex estimation transvers resolution requirements, with range gates as short as 7.5m. With regard to wake vortices, of significant interest is Windimager's potential to achieve relatively short pulses (<100 ns) of sufficient energy (~200 uJ). This capability, coupled with a near optimal wake vortex estimation algorithm, has the potential to yield a system that can provide very accurate estimates of vortex circulation strength and position.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Transport/Traffic Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E2.01-9632
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Air Traffic Management Research and Development
PROPOSAL TITLE: Control by Exception for Tactical Departure Scheduling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 306
Leesburg, VA 20175-5685
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Day
kday@mosaicatm.com111
13800 FAA Blvd.
Fort Worth,  TX 76155-2104
(817) 797-7505

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Tactical Departure Scheduling (TDS) is a common activity in Air Traffic Control (ATC) in the National Airspace System (NAS) that requires significant coordination for individual flights and that has the potential to impose delay on impacted flights. Some of the delay that is imposed through the TDS process is necessary, but some of the delay may be unnecessary. The current TDS process is implemented through the Call for Release (CFR) process, which is also referred to as the Approval Request (APREQ) process. In this process, the Traffic Management Unit (TMU) informs the Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) that a specific group of flights cannot be cleared by the ATCT to take off until the departure release is approved by the TMU on an individual flight basis. When such CFR programs are in place, an ATC Specialist (ATCS) in the ATCT must contact the TMU via a voice line to request approval for a flight to depart. Once the TMU provides a release time window for the flight, the ATCS in the ATCT must then maneuver the flight to make sure that it takes off within the release time window, or else a new release time must be requested. The purpose of this proposal is to address research and development on the TDS by Exception process, or TDS-E. The TDS-E concept includes a computer automation system that monitors traffic demand in the en route streams of traffic, as well as demand of flights that will depart from airports under the en route stream and climb into the overhead stream. Instead of requiring all such departures to receive individual approval before they take off, under the TDS-E concept, the computer automation system will provide advisories to the TMU and to the ATCT to indicate when CFR procedures are required, and specifically which flights should be subject to CFR. Additional features of the TDS-E capability may provide guidance indicating that some of the normal CFR restrictions can be relaxed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The TDS-E concept can provide valuable information for airlines and other flight operators about the potential constraints and congestion that flights will experience in the NAS. The ability of TDS-E to predict when a CFR program is needed can be used by flight operators to know which of their flights may be subject to additional ground delays within a CFR program. Flight operators can then use this information to make operational decisions such as flight prioritization, crew and resource scheduling, and passenger notification and accommodation. Additional areas of potential use of the prediction and scheduling capabilities of the TDS-E concept include the management of complex coordination processes in the presence of uncertainty. Such operations may include the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian airspace in the near future.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As this innovative concept is directly related to the air transportation system, the most appropriate application of the TDS-E concept and prototype will be further research on ATM operational improvements. NASA currently operates the NTX research station at the Ft. Worth FAA ARTCC facility. The TDS-E concept is well positioned for continued evaluation within NASA's Airspace Systems Program. Mosaic ATM has provided significant support on numerous projects in the successful transfer of NASA research into the operational inventory of the FAA. Our approach to this technology transfer is to provide support for the transfer process, but to remain within the direction of NASA and the FAA at all times. Using this approach, the research is properly recognized as NASA technology, and the FAA receives in-depth support from an organization that already knows the details of the technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Sequencing & Scheduling
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.01-8239
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Power Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: 500C/3.8 kW-class Resonant-Mode Power Converter featuring SiC Super Junction Transistors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GeneSiC Semiconductor Inc.
43670 Trade Center Place, Suite 155
Dulles, VA 20166-2123
(703) 996-8200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Siddarth Sundaresan
siddarth.sundaresan@genesicsemi.com111
43670 Trade Center Place; Suite 155
Dulles,  VA 20166-2123
(703) 996-8200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Capitalizing on a potent confluence of expertise in III-Nitride epitaxy, GaN-Si power device designs, and wide-bandgap power electronics, researchers at GeneSiC Semiconductor and Cornell University jointly propose a SBIR program focused on the development of 15 kW/300 C-rated power converters using AlGaN/GaN-Si MOS-HFETs and Schottky rectifiers. The proposed AlGaN/GaN-Si power converters to be developed in this program will usher in a new generation of high-efficiency, low-cost, and radiation-hard power conversion units on-board future NASA spacecraft. Phase I of this proposed work will focus on the optimization of the design and fabrication of the AlGaN/GaN-Si MOS-HFET and NSJ SBR devices. Phase II will be focused on the design and integration of Si/GaN gate-drive circuitry with the power SBRs and transistors to create high-power integrated circuits. Another major objective during Phase II will be the construction of Rad-Hard packaging for the power ICs. At the end of Phase II of this program, a fully-functional 15 kW/300C rated power converter IC equipped with AlGaN/GaN-on-Si MOS-HFETs, Natural SuperJunction (NSJ) SBRs as free-wheeling diodes and on-chip SiC or III-Nitride gate drive circuitry will be demonstrated at a switching frequency of &#8805; 1 MHz and at a temperature of &#8805; 300 C. As compared to the existing state-of-the-art power electronics technology, the proposed AlGaN/GaN-on-Si power converters will offer (A) Lower on-state losses, 300 C operation and 1 MHz switching capability (B) A Lateral device architecture, which is highly desirable for construction for monolithic power integrated circuits (C) Possibility of hybrid interconnection of III-Nitride Power Devices with on-chip Rad-Hard AlGaN/GaN Gate Drive Circuitry (D) Desirable Normally-OFF Power Switches.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The specifications of the power switch to be developed in this program are ideally suited for most Air Force applications. This includes propulsion system externals like actuators, pumps, and starters, weapons ejection, fuel transfer, lighting, avionics, RADAR, landing gears & breaks, steering, powered doors and ramps, gun drives, anti-icing, environmental control and auxiliary emergency power systems. Conventional bus voltage of military and commercial aircrafts is 270 V, which requires a 600 V power switch to be developed in this program. The realization of a high power density switchmode power supplies and DC-DC conversion circuits will benefit Army's Future Combat System (FCS) by offering it an important part of the subsystem. An electric and hybrid vehicle technology directly affects the M113 APC, Bradley infantry fighting vehicle, HMMWV, 5-ton M939A1 truck, AAAV, 50-ft personnel boat and a more electric aircraft by making them highly deployable, sustainable, survivable, lethal and affordable. An integrated electric power system made using SiC high power devices will increase component placement flexibility within vehicles, double fuel economy by continuously operating smaller engines under optimum conditions, and reduce armor protected volume. It will also enable an increased acceleration and maneuverability due to immediate torque to the wheels or tracks, reduce vehicle thermal and acoustic signatures and reduce system cost and logistics requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed here is fundamental to a wide range of NASA PMAD and motor control applications. For DC-DC converters, the power ICs developed in this program will connect power sources in a wide variety of NASA mission systems with power sources as Solar arrays, Brayton rotating unit, stirling radioscopes, and fuel cells with various loads like electric propulsion, communications systems, instruments and actuators. The radiation-hardness, high-temperature capability, fast switching speeds, compact form factor and low mass offered by the proposed AlGaN/GaN-on-SiC power integrated circuit will be invaluable for future NASA science missions. A power IC is also the building block for the interface between energy storage devices like batteries and flywheels with the energy sources and loads. Switchmode power supplies improved by high frequency, high temperature power switch is critical for NASA synthetic aperture RADAR's (SAR) antenna array T/R modules. T/R modules typically operate in a pulsed mode, drawing current pulses from a power supply on a periodic basis determined by the operation of the overall RADAR system. The ripple in the output voltage of the T/R module power supply impacts the performance of the RADAR system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Storage
Project Management
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
In Situ Manufacturing
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Nonspecified
Electromagnetic
Inertial
Ionizing Radiation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.01-8354
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Power Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Energetic Ion Mitigation Methodology for High Power Plasma Thruster Cathodes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ElectroDynamic Applications, Inc.
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor, MI 48105-1570
(734) 786-1434

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Davis
davis@edapplications.com111
3600 Green Court, Suite #300
Ann Arbor,  MI 48105-1234
(734) 786-1434

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The presence of energetic ions, that appear under high cathode current operation, stand as a showstopper to the realization of high power electric propulsion. Physical barriers such as the use of carbon electrodes (e.g. NEXT) are no longer sufficient as ion energies measured greatly exceed the sputter threshold of even carbon. Unless this problem is addressed, the prospect of inadequate life looms. The benefits of high power electric propulsion missions supporting human operations in particular would be left unfulfilled. This effort aims to fully characterize the conditions under which energy ions occur by documenting ion energy spectra over a range of representative operating conditions. At these conditions, the effort will implement two novel methods of essentially defeating the energetic ion production mechanism: 1) magnetic shorting and 2) gas injection. While the concept of injecting gas to quench energetic ion production has been demonstrated in the past, we take the approach a step further by 1) elucidating the mechanism by which gas injection actually quenches energetic ion production and 2) implementing a novel gas applicator that would conserve propellant thereby allowing for gas implementation without a significant efficiency sacrifice. Past studies have shown that energetic ions form under conditions of high current. No satisfactory understanding of how these are formed or how to mitigate has been communicated. This effort aims to address both issues. The focus of the proposed effort directly addresses a problem that stands in the critical path for the development of high power electric propulsion. Without a solution to the energetic ion lifetime issue, it is difficult to imagine the actual implementation of high power electric propulsion for actual missions. This proposed effort aims to generate a methodology and apparatus for the elimination of energy ions in high current cathodes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The presence of energetic ions is not germane to high current cathodes though as was observed in the NSTAR long duration test. In this regard, the technology developed from this effort would also eliminate this failure mechanism for cathodes presumably over essentially all operating ranges. The technology therefore is generally applicable to Hall and ion thrusters used for government and commercial satellite station keeping. Indeed, the technology would be a life extender for commercial sector satellite makers. Commercial GSO market expects to launch of order 21 satellites per year and commercial NGSO of order 13 launches per year over the next 10 years. Electric propulsion is an onboard propulsion option for these vehicles and in this regard there is a stable market for this cathode life extension technology. The approach investigated here does not constitute a significant modification to the cathode rather it's essentially a retrofit featuring a novel, adaptable technology. This would in turn save costs to satellite venders by reducing development time of long life cathodes based on this technology proposed. Additionally, the long life cathodes can also be used in commercial materials processing application such as vacuum plasma assisted CVD coatings. Hollow cathodes are desirable for such applications because of the associated high plasma densities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The direct application of long life, high current hollow cathodes is that of supporting NASA missions involving high power electric propulsion. This includes those high power missions, which are envisioned to support human operations in space. Under this phase I effort, contact will be made with hollow cathode stake holders to fully assess the impact of successful implementation of this technology. In particular, findings will be directly communicated to NASA. Successful embodiments will be sent to NASA for validation testing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Quality/Reliability
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.01-9064
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Power Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Input Voltage Hall Thruster Discharge Converter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Jaquish
judy@busek.com111
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall scope of this Phase I/II effort is the development of a high efficiency 15kW (nominal) Hall thruster discharge converter. In Phase I, Busek Co. Inc. will design, fabricate and test a nominal 7.5kW breadboard discharge converter module. Busek proposes a converter topolgy called the Leading Edge Auxiliary Phase Shifted (LEAPS) Bridge, which is a modification of the standard phase shifted bridge that uses an energy-recovering auxiliary circuit to force the transition from output inductor freewheel to power flowing through the main transformer. Based on preliminary measurements with this topology the converter module demonstrated >97% efficiency at reduced power. A 300V line input and 300-400V output range are the benchmark for the discharge converter in Phase 1. The most reasonable path with higher input voltage for higher power converters involves the use Wide Band Gap FETs. MOSFETS represent the greatest payoff in terms of efficiency improvements and are a primary focus for a discharge converter to achieve an efficiency of 98% or greater. With the design maturity gained from the Phase I breadboard, the Phase II objective will be the production of a 15kW brassboard PPU in a flight-like form factor that incorporates conductive cooling.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A nominal 15kW thruster with the capability to throttle down to 5kW should find broad applications on DoD and commercial ComSats. Hall thrusters could enhance many high power DoD and commercial missions such as satellite servicing, orbit maintenance, orbit raising and lowering, inclination changes, and repositioning. The system could also find near term application on an all-electric upper stage derived from Busek's ESPA orbit maneuvering system (OMS), a free flying spacecraft based on the ESPA ring that is being developed in cooperation with United Launch Alliance (ULA). A low power system presently utilizes four BHT-1500 Xe Hall effect thrusters and capable of delivering up to five ESPA class spacecraft to multiple orbits. The high power (30kW) version would be used for transportation of propellant to a LaGrange positioned fuel depot.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has identified 30kW-class SEP systems as a high-value intermediate step toward higher power systems due to broad cross-cutting capability. Current NASA investments include advanced next-generation solar arrays and higher power electric propulsion technologies to enable 30kW-class SEP. The ESPA ring is one approach being considered for partner-based mission concepts and those capable of being launched as secondary payloads. In addition NASA is investing in EP development of 15kW class HET system using either direct-drive and/or high voltage power processing unit. The possibility for using Hall thrusters for lunar and Mars missions has also been well investigated. Hall thrusters have been found to be a good choice for Mars cargo missions and other studies have found Hall thrusters to be viable options for supporting lunar and Mars exploration. Another NASA study indicates that a cluster of eight 100 kW Hall thrusters would be well sized for manned Mars missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Superconductance/Magnetics
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.01-9065
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Power Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Direct Drive Unit with Autonomous Cathode Current Regulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Ehrbar
eric@busek.com111
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An approach for maximizing Hall thruster electrical system efficiency is to power the thruster directly from a high voltage solar array by a method commonly referred to as direct-drive. These direct drive system designs eliminate the power processing unit (PPU) and therefore have a substantial advantage in terms of overall electrical efficiency and mass savings. This Phase I/II proposal effort is comprised of the development of a Hall thruster direct drive unit (DDU). The DDU will include a method for cathode current sharing such that multiple thrusters can be operated in parallel from a single power source. In Phase I cathode current sharing approaches will be experimentally investigated. Approaches to be evaluated include passive and active methods of cathode current control. Active approaches involves independently controlled voltage sources placed in series with each cathode while passive approaches involve controlling cathode emission using heater and keeper power. In Phase II we will develop a nominal 15kW proto-flight brassboard level DDU and deliver it to NASA for additional characterization testing. The DDU unit will include the balance of PPU per specifications provided by NASA for thruster magnets, cathode heater and keeper etc. operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A nominal 15kW Hall thruster system with the capability to throttle down to 5kW should find broad applications on DoD and commercial ComSats. Hall thrusters could enhance many high power DoD and commercial missions such as satellite servicing, orbit maintenance, orbit raising and lowering, inclination changes, and repositioning. The system could also find near term application on an all-electric upper stage derived from Busek's ESPA orbit maneuvering system (OMS), a free flying spacecraft based on the ESPA ring that is being developed in cooperation with United Launch Alliance (ULA). A low power system presently utilizes four BHT-1500 Xe Hall effect thrusters and capable of delivering up to five ESPA class (180kg) spacecraft to multiple orbits. The high power (30kW) version would be used for transportation of propellant to a LaGrange positioned fuel depot.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has identified 30kW-class SEP systems as a high-value intermediate step toward higher power systems due to broad cross-cutting capability. Current NASA investments include advanced next-generation solar arrays and higher power thrusters using either direct-drive and/or high voltage power processing units. Direct-drive is a method of maximizing Hall thruster electrical system efficiency by powering the thruster directly from a high voltage solar array. Studies suggest significant mass savings may be realized by implementing a direct-drive concept. As a result, NASA established the National Direct-Drive Testbed to develop direct-drive capability. The possibility for using Hall thrusters for lunar and Mars missions has also been well investigated. Hall thrusters are a good choice for Mars cargo missions and other studies have found Hall thrusters to be viable options for supporting lunar and Mars exploration. Another NASA study indicates that clustered Hall thrusters would be well sized for manned Mars missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Superconductance/Magnetics
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.01-9072
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Power Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vlad Hruby
vhruby@busek.com111
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek proposes to develop a flight version of a high power Hall Effect thruster. While numerous high power Hall Effect thrusters have been demonstrated in the laboratory, no flight qualified options exist. The baseline thruster would be tentatively sized at the 15kW power level. Busek proposes to work with NASA to improve upon laboratory designs by incorporating both NASA and Busek unique HET product knowledge. Specific features to be implemented include the use of Hiperco magnetic alloy, improved magnet field distribution using magnetic shielding, high temperature magnet coils and an advanced propellant distribution methodology. Particular attention will be paid to thruster lifetime through a combination of magnetic modeling and erosion analysis using the JPL developed Hall-2DE code. In Phase I, we will prepare a detailed engineering design of the baseline thruster Using internal funds and therefore at no cost to the Phase I effort, Busek will procure the Hiperco raw material for the thruster, have it forged to rough dimensions, heat treated and samples sent to an outside laboratory for magnetic property characterization. This material will be held in inventory to support the thruster build in Phase II. ULA will provide at no cost to NASA engineering support by performing a top level assessment and preliminary system engineering for incorporating a 30kW propulsion module (with two15kW thrusters) with the MegaFleX and RollOut solar array onto the ESPA. In Phase II we will build and conduct performance and environmental testing of the thruster to raise the maturity level to TRL 6 at the end of the Phase II program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A nominal 15kW thruster with the capability to throttle down to 5kW should find broad applications on DoD and commercial ComSats. Hall thrusters could enhance many high power DoD and commercial missions such as satellite servicing, orbit maintenance, orbit raising and lowering, inclination changes, and repositioning. The system could also find near term application on an all-electric upper stage derived from Busek's ESPA orbit maneuvering system (OMS), a free flying S/C based on the ESPA ring that is being developed in cooperation with United Launch Alliance (ULA). The low power system ESPA-OMS utilizes four BHT-1500 xenon Hall effect thrusters and is capable of delivering up to five ESPA secondary payloads to various earth orbits. The high power (30kW) version would be used for transportation of propellant to a LaGrange positioned fuel depot.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has identified 30kW-class SEP systems as a high-value intermediate step towards higher power systems due to broad cross-cutting capability. Current NASA investments include advanced next-generation solar arrays and higher power electric propulsion technologies to enable 30kW-class SEP. The ESPA ring is one approach being considered for partner-based mission concepts and those capable of being launched as secondary payloads. In addition NASA is investing in EP development of 15kW class HET system using either direct-drive and/or high voltage power processing unit. The possibility for using Hall thrusters for lunar and Mars missions has also been well investigated. Hall thrusters have been found to be a good choice for Mars cargo missions and other studies have found Hall thrusters to be viable options for supporting lunar and Mars exploration. Another NASA study indicates that a cluster of eight 100 kW Hall thrusters would be well sized for manned Mars missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Attitude Determination & Control
Conversion
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Structures
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Electromagnetic
Lifetime Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.01-9611
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Power Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scandate Cathode for High Power Long Life Electric Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
e-beam, inc.
21070 Southwest Tile Flat Road
Beaverton, OR 97007-8739
(503) 628-0703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bernard Vancil
bernie@ebeaminc.com111
21070 Southwest Tile Flat Road
Beaverton,  OR 97007-8739
(503) 628-0703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Scandate cathodes are proposed as a way to boost performance and life for electric space propulsion systems. This company has recently demonstrated breakthrough performance on these cathodes in other formats. We have demonstrated emission of 5 Amps/cm2 at 850 degrees CB, which is 200 degrees C below that of conventional cathodes. At this temperature they should live at least 100,000 hours. This makes scandate cathodes a candidate for use in deep space missions. In Phase I we propose construction and testing of several hollow scandate cathodes. We propose to do both vacuum and ion environment characterization on them. In Phase II we will begin active collaboration with NASA to test these cathodes in complete ion thrusters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Department of Defense is also interested in ion thrusters, but its interest is confined to near-earth applications. Its primary interest is for linear beam amplifiers for communications and radars. It is also interested in terahertz sources and amplifiers. In the commercial sector, there are several requirements for highly loaded, long-life cathodes. For example, e-beam stimulated lasers could be used as backlights for high power projection displays. These could also be used to generate high intensity UV light for curing inks and sterilization. E-beam lithography systems for making 20-30 nanometer line width masks for the semiconductor industry are now cathode limited. These systems need electron beams in the 20-30 Amps/cm2 range. Some micro-focus x-ray inspection tools are also now current density limited.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA needs the cathode in ion thrusters, amplifiers for RF space communications, and terahertz sources and amplifiers. These tubes need very small cathodes with very high emission levels. The most pressing need is for space communications, primarily high-speed transmissions of video images from outer space. The frequencies most likely to use this cathode are 32 GHz and higher. This cathode must be miniaturized, an e beam specialty. But a larger cathode with low beam convergence in tubes below 32 GHz is also an option. In space applications, long life has been the overruling priority and cathode loading was secondary. But given the upsurge in high data rate applications, cathode loading is going up. e beam has worked with NASA Glenn and JPL to develop cathodes for these applications. Another NASA application is atmospheric research to excite molecular resonances in the 600 GHz to 1200 GHz region. JPL has been looking for sources and amplifiers such as reflex klystrons, BWOs (backward wave oscillators) or traveling wave tubes. The third NASA requirement is for ion thrusters. e beam received a contract from NASA Glenn to produce the RF source for the ion engine for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter in 2004. Two approaches were taken: 1) use an RF source to excite the ions inside the ion chamber; 2) directly excite the ions with electrons produced by a hollow cathode. Both approaches require long life, and high cathode loading, such as proposed here.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine
Lifetime Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.02-8486
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nano/Micro Satellite Launch Vehicle Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible Low Cost Avionics for NanoSatellite Launch Vehicle Control and GPS Metric Tracking

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems LLC
295 N Willow Springs Road
Orange, CA 92869-4535
(805) 704-9756

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roland Coelho
roland@tyvak.com111
295 N Willow Springs Road
Orange,  CA 92869-4535
(805) 704-9756

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposal, Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems LLC (Tyvak) will develop nano-launch vehicle avionics solutions based on the latest commercial electronics products and protocols. These systems will address the unique avionic challenges of dedicated NanoSatellite launch vehicles (NLV). Tyvak will utilized heritage and lessons learned from its CubeSat avionic systems to modify and optimize its current products for use with this new class of launch vehicles. The major technical objectives will be: - Provide compatibility with the all NLV systems in development - Determine and provide appropriate performance and reliability metrics while maintaining the low-cost/low-mass made possible by commercial electronics systems - Determine the feasibility of the latest network protocols (in particular wireless systems) in the NLV environment - Demonstrate the reliability of low-cost/low-mass/low-power GPS based automatic flight termination system (AFTS) by combining the latest generation of commercial miniature GPS systems with high performance computer systems based on mobile computer technology

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Currently there are over 100 CubeSat developers worldwide building CubeSats, which comprise of government agencies, commercial entities, non-profits, universities, and high schools. With other U.S. Government agencies building technology demonstration and operational CubeSats, they will benefit from this rapid low cost access to space. The U.S. Army currently has a program called SWORDS and DARPA has a program called ALASA, which both try to increase the technology readiness level of NanoSatellite and Small Satellite class launch vehicles. The technology developed under this NASA SBIR, could have direct tangible benefits to these other two U.S. Government programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The interest in CubeSats from both a spacecraft/payload and launch perspective has grown exponentially over the last decade. NASA has played a significant role in fostering the growth of the CubeSat community. Despite the growing interest in CubeSat and NanoSat missions, launch opportunities for this class of spacecraft are only available as secondary payloads. NASA and other government agencies have recently expressed interest in the development of small launch vehicles specifically designed to carry NanoSats as primary payloads. An example of this interest is a NASA Kennedy Space Center RFQ titled "Nano-Satellite Launch" (Solicitation # NNK11LB41Q). This RFQ will provide an ideal platform to develop and demonstrate the capabilities and benefits of the avionics suite being proposed. If awarded Phase I, Tyvak can work closely together with the winning contractor of NNK11LB41Q, Garvey Spacecraft Corporation (GSC), to define the avionics requirements. If awarded the SBIR Phase II, Tyvak will develop flight hardware for integration and testing on these flight opportunities. In the past, Tyvak personnel have worked with multiple Prospector high altitude flights, providing a P-POD deployer and backup LV avionics packages. In addition, Tyvak was awarded a NASA contract to develop a CubeSat deployer for use in NLV. As part of this contract Tyvak is working closely with GSC to incorporate Tyvak development hardware in additional Prospector flights.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Antennas
Transmitters/Receivers
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Prototyping
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Ranging/Tracking
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)
Operating Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.02-8729
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nano/Micro Satellite Launch Vehicle Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Flight Safety Inference Engine (AFSIE) System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MILLENNIUM ENGINEERING AND INTEGRATION COMPANY
2231 Crystal Drive, Suite 711
Arlington, VA 22202-3724
(703) 413-7750

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robertson Augustine
raugustine@meicompany.com111
600 Jackson Court
Satellite Beach,  FL 32937-3933
(321) 757-1503

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop an innovative Autonomous Flight Safety Inference Engine (AFSIE) system to autonomously and reliably terminate the flight of an errant launch vehicle. This proposed phase 1 research is innovative in that it combines proven NASA-developed AFS algorithms, real-time hazard assessment algorithms and hazard envelopes generated from Joint Advanced Range Safety System Real Time (JARSS RT) and an on-board vehicle simulator into a refined onboard software inference engine that monitors navigation states, mission flight rules and onboard anomaly instrumentation. An autonomous flight safety system must be able to reliably perform accurate and autonomous navigation so as to determine the vehicle position, velocity and attitude states in real time. Reliability requirements for AFS are high due to stringent loss-of-life constraints, often leading to redundant navigation sensors with attendant cost impacts. Our innovative solution proposes to satisfy RCC accuracy and reliability requirements by exploiting the low-cost COTS sensor and processor architectures that are currently being baselined for the Common NanoSat/Launcher Avionics Technology (CNAT) study and a Nano launch vehicle avionics design. This dual use hardware implementation will greatly reduce the recurring costs for the production of an autonomous flight safety system. This has significant implications for reducing the costs for launch vehicles, particularly Nano and Micro Satellite Launch Vehicles (NMSLV), where range safety costs currently consume a burdensome percentage of the launch cost. Under this proposed phase 1 effort, we will 1) identify the range requirements and develop a plan for range safety for approval of the system, 2) identify reliable low-cost COTS hardware that satisfies the range accuracy and reliability requirements and, 3) develop an end to end simulation to demonstrate the AFSIE Concept of Operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our AFSEI system is applicable to multiple vehicle types that may operate in the National Airspace System (NAS) or at a federal range that is required to have a Flight Safety System (FSS). The FAA's14 CFR Chapter III governs the NAS requirements; RCC 319 governs the federal range requirements; and AFI 91-710 and 91-712 have additional requirements associated with flights from Air Force Space Command's Eastern and Western Ranges. The documented autonomy, redundancy, precision and implicit cost requirements currently differ greatly by vehicle type and purpose, so the inherent software and hardware modularity of our AFSIE system will support the broad application spectrum. Further, we wish to develop and qualify a future modification of AFSIE that is able to support vehicle GNC functions Autonomous Flight Safety and Guidance System (AFSGS), with options for providing navigation services via electrically-isolated communications, or directly providing GNC services from AC-AFSS. The vehicles that might fly an AFSEI include, but are not limited to, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs), sounding rockets, Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) and Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). Per the CFR, the Flight Safety System (FSS) may result in the following actions: flight termination (i.e. mid-flight destruct); thrust termination where the vehicle glides to a safe landing (UAS, RLV) or crashes into an uninhabited region, or even a flight trajectory modification to an alternate safe landing site.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Once developed and demonstrated our Autonomous Flight Safety and Inference Engine Systems (AFSIE) will radically reduce range and operations costs and provide a commercial device that NASA can use for both Launch Vehicles and Unmanned Aerial Systems. Our AFSIE system will provide the Nano/Micro Satellite Launch Vehicle community and NASA with an affordable, reliable low cost alternative to the current command destruct systems. The use of an automated flight safety system will allow more responsive launches, significantly reducing the time required for launch preparation. Our Inference Engine monitors navigation and vehicle condition sensors to detect anomalous conditions and predict fault conditions that will result in a violation of the safe flight rules. This robust module system capability is applicable to a broad spectrum of NanoLauncher and Unmanned Systems. Commercial production of these units will enable NASA to improve the frequency of Nano and Micro Satellite launches and reduce the lead time.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.02-9091
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nano/Micro Satellite Launch Vehicle Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Incremental Evolution of a 10/250 NLV into a 20/450 NMSLV

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Garvey Spacecraft Corporation
389 Haines Avenue
Long Beach, CA 90814-1841
(562) 498-2984

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Bostwick
cbostwick@garvspace.com111
389 Haines Avenue
Long Beach,  CA 90814-1841
(562) 498-2984

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technical innovation proposed here is the continued functional evolution and concept refinement of an incremental series of test vehicles that will ultimately provide dedicated, low-cost, reliable, on-demand routine space access for the emerging nano and micro satellite markets. Initial orbital operational capability for delivering 10 kg to a 250 km circular LEO is achieved with a two-stage, pressure-fed "10/250" Nanosat Launch Vehicle (NLV) that will pathfind performance, production, regulatory and operational challenges. This NLV will then be followed by a clustered "20/450" Nano/Micro Satellite Launch Vehicle (NMSLV) that addresses this topic's primary objective of providing a capability to place nano and micro satellites weighing up to 20 kg into 450 km circular LEO. Aggressive leveraging of our team's existing NLV development initiative enables significant hardware development and the start of static fire testing during Phase I, followed by actual flight testing in Phase II for TRL-7 technology evaluations. These tests have incrementally introduced state of the art capabilities like advanced propellants (LOX/propylene) and structures (composite cryogenic tanks). The Phase I effort focuses on the development of the next class of test vehicle &#150; a high altitude suborbital single booster stage (the "P-K") that features closed-loop thrust vector control (TVC) and candidate avionics technologies for guidance and navigation, as well as eventual autonomous flight termination systems (AFTS) for range safety, TRDRSS-based telemetry and tracking functions. In addition, it will incorporate features needed to implement the clustered first stage configuration and second stage separation method associated with the 20/450 NMSLV. The Phase II effort will then focus on the further development of an NMSLV-type first stage with two additional core boosters, for a total of three, and the conducting of a high-altitude demonstration flight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Current NLV-class test vehicles are now being used to manifest and evaluate a variety of new launch vehicle technologies, including composite cryo propellant tanks, alternative hydrocarbon fuels (methane, propane and propylene), wireless data networking, and advanced vortex engines under TRL-6 and 7 environments. The next generation of NMSLV-based test vehicles will expand these to TRL 8 and 9 conditions, while still providing secondary payload opportunities for small developers and STEM initiatives. Longer term, the resulting operational NMSLV can support the implementation of CubeSat-based commercial earth monitoring constellations, global space weather monitoring constellations for the Air Force, and rapid response for such organizations as the Army's SMDC and DOD Special Operations Command, as well as providing dedicated launch services for the DOD Space Test Program, Operationally Responsive Launch Office and the NRO's Colony II initiative.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Currently, 10/250 NLV-class test vehicles are already providing suborbital reusable launch services for NASA. The next generation of such pathfinder test vehicles developed under this program will extend the test envelope for enabling launch technologies and operations needed to effectively implement orbital NMSLV-based operations. Longer term, the NMSLV configuration that emerges from this effort will be able to support such NASA programs like LSP's ELaNA and the Edison small satellite research initiative. These can then be followed by launch and maintenance of global monitoring systems that feature low-cost CubeSat-class spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Actuators & Motors
Fasteners/Decouplers
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Launch Engine/Booster
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.02-9215
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nano/Micro Satellite Launch Vehicle Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regeneratively-Cooled, Pump-Fed Propulsion Technology for Nano / Micro Satellite Launch Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ventions, LLC
1142 Howard Street
San Francisco, CA 94103-3914
(415) 543-2800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adam London
adam.london@ventions.com111
1142 Howard Street
San Francisco,  CA 94103-3914
(415) 543-2800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ventions proposes the development of a pump-fed, 2-stage nano launch vehicle for low-cost on demand placement of cube and nano-satellites into LEO. The proposed vehicle uses high T/W and Isp pump-fed engines that operate at chamber pressures >750psi without the weight penalty of high pressure tanks, thereby realizing payload fractions in the 1-2% range. Ventions has already completed several component-level demonstrations in the area, and is proposing additional optimization / testing of a 5,000lbf LOX / RP-1 turbopump-fed engine as part of this Phase I in-order to demonstrate a flight-ready 1st stage propulsion system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications for the same will include DoD and military missions requiring rapid on demand access to space from anywhere in the world (based on ground or air-launch), as well as university and research satellites. Additionally, the small-scale thrust chamber assemblies and turbomachinery technology components developed for the launch vehicle are also expected to have widespread applications in other in-space propulsion systems, upper stages, and orbital insertion / maneuvering thrusters, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed nano launch vehicle is aimed at providing low-cost and on-demand insertion of NASA cube- and nano-satellites into LEO as primary payloads. This will change the current model of launching such satellites as secondary payloads (which are often constrained by requirements of the primary payload), thereby extending this capability to a wider range of NASA experimental missions requiring on-demand and low-cost insertion of small sattelites into specific orbits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.02-9219
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nano/Micro Satellite Launch Vehicle Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: SWIFT-nanoLV Avionics Platform

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nestor Voronka
voronka@tethers.com111
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With the increased demand for and utility of nano- and micro-satellites, the demand for responsive, low-cost access to space has also increased. To meet this demand, multiple private companies are pursuing the development of nano- and micro-launch vehicles (NMLV). However, NMLV builders lack suitable avionics platforms for both development and operational needs. Traditional launch vehicle avionics platforms exceed the SWaP requirements of an NMLV due to their use of redundant, aerospace grade components. To service the needs of NMLV builders, TUI proposes to develop the SWIFT-nanoLV avionics platform by leveraging its existing portfolio of SWIFT software-defined radios and other small satellite component technologies. Through the careful use of COTS components, modular design techniques, and software-defined architectures, the SWIFT-nanoLV avionics platform will not only meet the SWaP requirements of an NMLV, but will also help minimize the operating costs of NMLVs. After developing a concept design and testing brassboard prototypes in the Phase I effort, TUI will build and test a fully functional avionics platform in the Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A number of government agencies within the DoD and private companies are pursuing the use of small satellites for a variety of missions. The availability of low-cost, responsive nano/micro launch vehicles will increase the ability for these agencies to field those missions. A modular avionics platform that is specifically designed for these launch vehicles will decrease both development and operating costs. Additionally, the proposed SWIFT-nanoLV avionics package is ideal for use as a flexible, high-performance small satellite bus. The tight integration of a flight computer, INS/GPS, and TT&C transceiver in a modular, SWaP efficient package means the proposed technology can be utilized in a wide variety of mission profiles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SWIFT-nanoLV avionics platform will provide nano/micro launch vehicle builders with a robust, flexible, and lightweight solution for the entire life cycle of a launch vehicle, from development to operations. NASA's goal is to increase commercial access to space for low-cost, responsive missions. The primary commercial application for the proposed technology is its use as an avionics package for these launch vehicles. In addition to launch vehicles, the proposed technology is well suited for use as a high-performance bus for small satellites, including CubeSats. The tight integration of a flight computer, INS/GPS, and TT&C transceiver in a modular, SWaP efficient package means the proposed technology can be utilized in a wide variety of mission profiles. Because of their low cost, there is an increasing interest at NASA in the use of small satellites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Network Integration
Transmitters/Receivers
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Inertial (see also Sensors)
Ranging/Tracking
Telemetry (see also Control & Monitoring)
Inertial
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.02-9537
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nano/Micro Satellite Launch Vehicle Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wireless Intra-vehicle Communication System (WICS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Invocon, Inc.
19221 IH 45 South, Suite 530
Conroe, TX 77385-8746
(281) 292-9903

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Zymowski
paul@invocon.com111
19221 IH 45 South, Suite 530
Conroe,  TX 77385-8746
(281) 292-9903

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Invocon's Wireless Intra-vehicle Communication System (WICS) is being designed as an enabling technology for low-cost launch vehicles. It will reduce the cost of these vehicles in primarily three ways: 1. Minimizing vehicle weight by decreasing bulky cables and connectors - this increases the useful payload and decreases the propulsion requirements. 2. Minimizing physical interconnects - this simplifies integration, testing, and launch control and thereby decreases the labor involved in these tasks. 3. Enabling testing at the vehicle or module level - this reduces the total amount of testing at the component level resulting in a smaller required test budget. It also reduces the mass of enclosures required in the vehicle. WICS will operate wireless networks as part of the closed-loop Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system and the vehicle's data acquisition system. The two networks share many characteristics while diverging in a few areas based on their specific constraints. The TVC network must minimize latency and maximize both throughput and reliability. The data acquisition network must include paths from many locations througout the vehicle. In order to maximize the return from Phase I, Invocon will concentrate its effort on developing proof-of-concept hardware and emphasize initial software development for the critical control application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many potential Non-NASA applications of this technology exist, particularly in the aerospace industry. Specifically, there is a large backlog of CubeSats waiting for launch. The low-cost launch vehicles that WICS will enable are intended to help reduce this backlog and provide the industry with consistent, low-cost access to space. The military is also interested in low-cost, quick access to space for mission-specific CubeSats as well as for low-cost target missiles. The proposed technology is an excellent resource for these purposes. In addition to launch vehicles, wireless control technology can be used to decrease the weight and cost of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA applications include the enabling of low cost launch vehicles and sounding rockets. This will contribute to NASA's ability to more economically launch its small satellite experiments. Other NASA flight vehicles that can make use of this instrumentation include fixed wing, rotor wing, and lighter-than-air.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Ad-Hoc Networks (see also Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Acoustic/Vibration
Pressure/Vacuum
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.03-8342
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ross Remiker
remikerr@orbitec.com111
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53717-1961
(608) 229-2746

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple waterborne pathogens with minimal consumables and crew time. The Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector (RMMD) amplifies the genetic material in a liquid sample to allow near real-time identification of specific genetic sequences of predetermined bacteria and fungi. This easy-to-use device incorporates a patented polymerase enzyme that enables rapid RNA amplification by reagents with superior long-term shelf life and thermal stability. To operate, a water sample is injected into the RMMD, where it is concentrated and mixed with the reagent. The RMMD is rapidly heated and maintained at an elevated temperature for approximately 15 minutes, then quickly cooled back to room temperature to amplify the genetic material in the sample, which is detected in real time by changes in fluorescence due to dye binding, thus providing quantification. pathogenic cells in the water sample can be rapidly detected quantitatively based on the time of development of fluorescence. Phase 1 activity will result in prototype hardware and software genetic amplification and detection of several pathogenic bacteria and fungi that will bring the technology to TRL 5. The anticipated results of the Phase 2 are an engineering development unit that consists of an amplification/detection process controller, sample cartridges, and reagents, that can be tested in space.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The combined goals of this proposal will have a significant impact on terrestrial water quality management and on current diagnostic capability for detection of waterborne disease, especially in areas that are currently not well served. Enhanced access to in-the-field diagnosis of locally relevant diseases will improve sanitation among populations in resource-limited settings. The technology will also promote better understanding of the epidemiology of emerging zoonotic and pandemic pathogens in real-time, will significantly reduce the response time to serious outbreaks, and could help combat any potential future biological threats. The military can use the product for water testing in remote or resource limited environments. RMMD technology can be used for surface water quality testing for research and surveillance. In the area of potable water monitoring for pathogenic bacteria and fungi, the rapid turn-around time offered by the RMMD approach provides a benefit to the consumers wishing to quickly test samples for real estate, new well, and new construction applications. In addition, RMMD technology can be used for water quality assessment for aquaculture, an industry that provides the primary protein source for approximately one billion people. Production and food safety of all species are dramatically impacted by water quality.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The RMMD provides quantitative indication of the presence of multiple waterborne pathogenic bacteria and fungi simultaneously within 60 minutes of sampling, with minimal consumable hardware. The RMMD reduces crew time by eliminating the need to unstow, check, and restow a test kit after 2 days, and again after 5 days. Unlike the Water Microbiology Kit (WMK), there is no need for a syringe of growth media, and the RMMD microbial capture device is smaller and lighter than that of the WMK. Another advantage of the rapid test is that if an infection is suspected in space, potential sources can be tested, and results determined quickly, so additional infections can be avoided. This technology can be used on the ISS and on future long-duration spaceflight missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Medical
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.03-8501
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Zero G Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Richter
richterr@orbitec.com111
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53717-1961
(608) 229-2726

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Zero G Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) will provide the ability to quantify the mass of objects up to 2,000 grams, including live animal specimens in a zero G environment, an innovative because there currently are no such devices available to perform mass measurement of smaller masses (< 2000 grams) in space. At present there are no tools on board the International Space Station (ISS) to measure low mass objects, which is a capability that is extremely important for biological research. The ZGMMD would provide the capability to quantify the mass of an object, while limiting the acceleration applied to the object. The ZGMMD would be capable of being used in the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) or could someday be integrated with payloads such as the Plant Habitat (PH). The ZGMMD innovation provides a fundamental capability (measuring mass of an object) that would increase the capabilities of NASA's fundamental space biology program. A significant amount of fundamental biology has occurred on the ground that has utilized mass measurements; therefore to compare zero G results with previously conducted ground experiments, mass measurement capabilities should be provided. Successful completion of Phase I and II efforts would provide these previously mentioned capabilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications are limited because the proposed device is most useful in zero G environments; however there is some potential for use with commercial zero G flights. Should commercial spaceflight ever become common, private researchers may desire mass measurements during a time of no gravity. The measurement of the mass of an object is one of the most common measurements taken in scientific fields. ZGMMD would be available for future research needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application for NASA would be to use the ZGMMD within the LSG on board the ISS. However this device could be integrated with future payloads to provide the ability to autonomously measure the mass of objects. Integrating a device such as the ZGMMD, would increase scientific significance and data collection, while reducing necessary crew intervention for measuring mass of low mass objects.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Actuators & Motors
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Electromagnetic
Inertial
Biophysical Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.03-9062
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design and Development of a compact and ruggest phase and flouresence microscope for space utilization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
east west enterprises inc.,
suite 228, 555 sparkman dr
huntsville, AL 35816-3400
(256) 704-4103

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Niyom Lue
Niyom.lue@ewehsv.com111
555 Sparkman Dr suite 228
Huntsville,  AL 35816-3400
(617) 755-2067

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR Phase 1 we propose to develop a novel microscope by integrating Fourier phase contrast microscopy (FPCM) and epi-fluorescence microscopy. In FPCM, the high degree coherence of low power laser source provides well resolved spatial frequency bands in the Fourier plane and the retardation is generated by photo-thermally induced phase transitions in a liquid crystal by varying the intensity of the laser. Further the controlled phase shift induced by the liquid crystal cell will be utilized for quantitative phase imaging. On the whole, the system offers simultaneous recording of Fourier phase contrast and epi-fluorescence images shot at the same time (at the speed of the camera). Similarly it is also possible to perform simultaneous quantitative phase and epi-fluorescence imaging in real time. The proposed microscope offers several unique advantages over the commercially available state-of-the-art technology. Our system is physically robust, user friendly, maintenance free, with no moving parts and frequent alignment, consuming minimum power. The modular system built with inexpensive optical components is versatile. It will be extremely useful in the biological and biomedical research labs. The system can be conveniently installed in International Space Station for high throughput live cell imaging.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If successful, this technology could be used for: Rapid investigation of living cells: morphology and physiology. Combined with fluorescence functionalized specificity cancer targeting Since the imaging system of this purposed instrument is a complete optical technique, the real-time high throughput cytopathology is possible. Ready to be integrated to any exist microscope and this instrument can provide the most information available about the sample in real time. As a result the technology has potential to revolutionize the way we look and study live cells and organisms World microscopy market is expected to grow from $2.7 billion in 2010 to $4.5 billion in 2015, at an estimated CAGR of 10.8% from 2010 to 2015. The optical microcopy segment currently dominates the microscopy market. Technological advances that enhance ease of usage, automation, better quality imaging, faster/better analysis have also had a huge positive impact on the market. Customers would include research facilities in universities, government and industry, particularly biotech pharmaceutical and medical research. Currently prominent industry players include Carl Zeiss, FEI Company, Hitachi High Technologies, Jeol, Leica Microsystems, and Olympus. We estimate that the total addressable microscope market would be about 15% of the total annual microscope market, ~6,000 units. This is a great potential owing to the recent advances in pharmaceutical industries and nanotechnology

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Health monitoring of space vehicles as well as astronauts and space vehicle interior environment

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Biomass Growth
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Remediation/Purification
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
3D Imaging
Display
Image Analysis
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Adaptive Optics
Lasers (Medical Imaging)
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Visible
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E1.03-9368
SUBTOPIC TITLE: International Space Station Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized Variable-Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Sorensen
phs@creare.com111
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 640-2340

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has recognized the need to develop new on-orbit analysis capabilities. This need arises because of the high cost associated with returning samples to Earth for analysis, the limited availability of crew time, and the relatively modest capabilities and interfaces of the existing hardware on the International Space Station (ISS). The goal of this project is the development of a miniature variable-pressure scanning electron microscope (MVP-SEM) that can be rapidly developed, space qualified, and deployed on the ISS. The MVP-SEM is a cross-cutting tool for in situ topographical imaging and compositional X ray fluorescence mapping of uncoated conductive and non-conductive samples useful to multiple disciplines, including nondestructive imaging of inorganic and organic materials, surface contamination analyses, and scientific studies. We can achieve our goal by leveraging previous NASA investments in the development of an electron gun control system, an electron focusing column design, and scanning and imaging system technology at NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center; a novel cathode from Applied Physics Technologies Incorporated (APTech); and space-qualified vacuum system technology and electronics from Creare. With the head start provided by these previous investments, the MVP-SEM technology will provide flight qualified hardware that is similar to commonly used tools in biological and material science laboratories and could allow for an increased capacity of on-orbit analysis.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Scanning electron microscopes are one of the most indispensable laboratory tools for making analytical measurements. The market for electron microscopes is expected to exceed $4 billion by 2017, and the clear trend in the market is a shift to smaller, lighter, and more portable units. Our miniature variable pressure scanning electron microscope will be uniquely positioned to benefit from growth in this segment of the market due to its small size, low power, small mass, and excellent measurement capabilities. The fact that our system will facilitate measurements in support of biology and biotechnology, Earth science, physical science, human research, technology development, and will also facilitate assessment of the health of materials and structures, suggests that potential commercial applications for the technology are wide and deep.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An MVP-SEM will provide the ISS with an additional on-orbit analytical tool which will allow for increased capacity of on-orbit analysis, thereby reducing the number of samples that must be returned to Earth. The variable-pressure SEM is a cross-cutting tool for in situ topographical imaging and compositional X ray fluorescence mapping of uncoated conductive and non-conductive samples useful to multiple disciplines, including nondestructive imaging of materials (inorganic and organic), surface contamination studies, and scientific analyses. This tool would also provide the ISS with a new capability for maintaining and understanding ISS structures (e.g., space weathering) and for scientific studies, thus reducing the required number of sample returns to the Earth. For Mars exploration, a variable-pressure SEM will allow for the simultaneous study of organisms and the geological substrates they might live on, provide shape and size-scale information, detail how they interact with their environment, and impart context for other studies that provide detailed chemical information. Morphological and chemical characterization of lunar regolith in laboratories on Earth has been routinely accomplished using a SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Our SEM would allow similar analysis in situ. A miniature variable pressure SEM would support both Medium (New Frontiers) and Large (Max-C) type missions, as outlined in the Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2013-2022.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E3.01-8453
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Laser Transmitters and Receivers for Targeted Earth Science Measurements
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Rugged and Low-Cost Atmospheric Ozone DIAL Transmitter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bridger Photonics Inc.
2310 University Way, Bldg, 4-4
Bozeman, MT 59715-6504
(406) 585-2774

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mike Thorpe
thorpe@bridgerphotonics.com111
2310 University Way, Bldg, 4-4
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 585-2774

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Bridger Photonics Inc. (Bridger) proposes to develop the most compact, efficient and low-cost ultra-violet ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) transmitter available. This system will use a frequency-doubled, conductively-cooled, q-switched Nd:YAG laser to pump a combination optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and sum frequency generation (SFG) cavity to deliver 6 ns, 1.5 mJ and 1 kHz pulses at three wavelengths within the 280 nm to 316 nm ozone DIAL band. Bridger will employ mechanically robust and environmentally insensitive monolithic laser and OPO designs making the transmitter well suited for continuous DIAL measurements from ground-based, airborne and space-based platforms. Bridger estimates that the high efficiency and compact packaging offered by the proposed pump laser and OPO will result in an ozone DIAL transmitter that weighs <30 kg (including the control electronics), consumes less than 550 W of power at 110VAC, and costs less than $75,000 per unit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The pump laser for the proposed design would be the most compact and high energy kilohertz-rate Nd:YAG laser on the market. Bridger envisions a wide variety of applications for this laser including gas sensing lidar, hard-target ranging, ablation applications including mass spectrometry, nonlinear spectroscopy and as general purpose OPO pump. Within the gas sensing LIDAR market specific applications include detection of illicit methamphetamine labs, on-site pollution detection, verification of carbon sequestration sites, methane pipeline monitoring, and chemical weapons detection. The global market for sensors was estimated at $62.8 billion in 2011 and is expected to increase to $67.7 billion in 2012 and then to nearly $91.5 billion by 2016, at a compound annual growth rate of 7.8%. The market for biosensors and chemical sensors is expected to experience the highest growth, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.6% during the 4-year period from 2012 to 2016.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's primary application for the proposed transmitter would be widespread deployment of ground-based, airborne and space-based DIAL sensors to map atmospheric ozone with high spatial and temporal resolution. This application is well aligned with NASA's Earth Science Directorate and immediately relevant to the TOLNet program. This proposal will allow NASA to deploy networks of ozone sensors with smaller and/or more affordable DIAL transmitters than are currently available to meet multiple mission needs and make the best use of limited resources. Additionally, our base pump laser can be parametrically shifted to the SWIR with a laser diode seeded OPO for sensing other atmospheric trace gasses including: CO, CO2, CH4, H2O and N2O. Other potential applications include visible systems for profiling of cloud and aerosol backscatter, ice mass and phytoplankton measurements, and direct-detection Doppler LIDAR wind measurements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E3.01-9470
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Laser Transmitters and Receivers for Targeted Earth Science Measurements
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solid State Transmitters for Water Vapor and Ozone DIAL Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ti Chuang
tchuang@fibertek.com111
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon,  VA 20171-4603
(703) 471-7671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We have developed a common architecture for laser transmitters that address requirements for water vapor as well as ground and airborne ozone lidar systems. Our innovative approach to these requirements has the advantages of reducing size, weight and power (SWaP) as well as hardware cost for all of the applications envisioned. Under this Phase I SBIR program Fibertek proposes to demonstrate operation of laser systems at wavelengths required for both water vapor and ozone DIAL systems and power scaling to desired levels. In the Phase II follow-on, Fibertek will build and deliver laser transmitters and frequency converters designed to meet NASA requirements for both water vapor and ozone lidar systems. The use common technology for the two DIAL applications provides NASA a lower cost and risk path to development of next-generation DIAL systems sought under this select SBIR opportunity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Planned NOAA water vapor DIAL systems

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Replacement/upgrade of NASA water vapor DIAL systems including LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) Enhancement of Airborne ozone DIAL systems including GOLD (Global Ozone Lidar Demonstration) Lidar transmitter component for ground based ozone sensing station demonstration and network Future space-based earth-bserving atmospheric sensing systems

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E3.01-9948
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Laser Transmitters and Receivers for Targeted Earth Science Measurements
PROPOSAL TITLE: Atmospheric Lidar with Cross-Track Scanning

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Litespar, Inc.
7010 N Doane Dr
Tucson, AZ 85718-1118
(520) 302-5506

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Austin
baustin@litespar.com111
7010 N Doane Dr
Tucson,  AZ 85718-1118
(520) 404-7982

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An eye-safe, multispectral cross-track scan subsystem with a large receiver aperture and a narrow FOV is proposed for the NASA Cloud Physics Lidar to increase horizontal area coverage. The +/-15 degree cross-track scan capability will cover +/- 5 km from nadir at a 20 km altitude. The cross-track scanner uses a whiskbroom pattern with three simultaneous scans and independent receiver FOV's which provides 30,000 points per sweep. Solar background is reduced with a narrow bandpass filter and a narrow transmitter linewidth with center wavelength control. The scanner accounts for the return pulse lag angle due to pulse time of flight. Vertical resolution is maintained at 30 m. Photon counting SPAD detectors and PMT's are used with photon counting modules and multichannel scalers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial and military applications for a UAV based compact, efficient, wide field of regard scanning lidar include active multispectral imaging for day night missions such as crop management, forest and forest fire management, 3D imaging for law enforcement, and Imaging Laser Altimetry. Sensor fusion is also possible with this scan approach and would enable simultaneous thermal imaging and UV, visible, and/or NIR imaging with high 3D resolution in a compact, efficient scanning lidar that could operate at high altitude with a large field of regard.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology provides a scanning solution to increase the horizontal scanning area for the CPL lidar system used in NASA Earth Science missions. The mission is remote sensing of atmospheric clouds and aerosols, and cloud-aerosol interactions. The CPL system operates from the Global Hawk, ER-2 and Proteous platforms. The transmitter/scanner subsystem is scalable to operate in applications such as remote sensing from Satellites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
3D Imaging
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E3.02-8944
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Technology Telescope for Balloon Mission
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost, Cosmic Microwave Background Telescopes (P-NASA12-003)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vanguard Space Technologies, Inc.
9431 Dowdy Drive
San Diego, CA 92126-4336
(858) 587-4200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Schlocker
mschlocker@vst-inc.com111
9431 Dowdy Drive
San Diego,  CA 92126-4336
(858) 587-4210

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I objective is to develop a preliminary design and manufacturing plan for carbon fiber composite reflectors and/or a carbon fiber telescope that are traceable to the requirements of current and future CMB missions. The Phase II objectives are to complete the design and manufacturing planning, fabricate necessary tooling, manufacture hardware components that include two reflector support structures, integrate and align the reflectors and confirm telescope optical performance via analysis of as-built mechanical alignment and surface accuracy data. To prepare for and conduct the PDR within six months, the proposed Phase I tasks will include: 1) Develop telescope requirements in conjunction with CMB researchers and/or NASA with the goal of resolving sufficient detail to evaluate CFRP technology for CMB missions, 2) Compare the requirements to CFRP heritage, as-built results, and experience, 3) Develop a concept based upon high (currently 4-9) TRL CFRP component technologies, 4) Predict the performance of the concept, 5) Develop a pricing model to predict recurring cost, 6) Define a preliminary manufacturing plan that includes predicted versus budgeted errors, 7) Develop a summary technical/cost compliance matrix that summarizes all technical and cost predictions versus requirements, 8) Summarize all engineering, manufacturing, and cost information in preparation for PDR including the envisioned path to telescope TRL6 during Phase II, and 9) Conduct a PDR with support from mechanical, optical, structural, thermal, materials, and manufacturing engineers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Renewable energy interests have indicated a desire to field an ever-growing number of large solar concentrators. The maturing of system competencies could benefit DOE and DoD. Large, accurate, thermally stable telescopes are needed for broadband spacecraft. The need to provide Internet service in remote locations has service providers and spacecraft manufacturers considering constellations of spacecraft. Lightweight, large-aperture, thermally stable telescopes with micron level tolerances will be needed to increase traffic capacity per spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The capabilities proposed are relevant to Space and Earth science missions with immediate technology insertion for CMB. Potential applications include balloon, space, and ground-based astronomy and remote sensing missions, e.g. High Altitude Scientific Balloon Flight Program, SMLS, and CCAT. Reflectors (mirror facets) for large concentrators are required to develop terrestrial solar devices for sustainable energy and lunar oxygen generation devices. Mission study groups at JPL, Cornell, GSFC, University of Pennsylvania, and LaRC (LIDAR) are likely customers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Antennas
Composites
Structures
Mirrors
Infrared
Terahertz (Sub-millimeter)
Microwave
Radio


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E3.02-9771
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Technology Telescope for Balloon Mission
PROPOSAL TITLE: Affordable, Ultra-stable CVC SiC UVOIR Telescope for BENI Mission

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Trex Enterprises Corporation
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121-4339
(858) 997-9508

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Goodman
bgoodman@trexenterprises.com111
2701 Pan American Fwy NE, Suite C
Albuquerque,  NM 87107-1647
(858) 437-3899

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Working with our System Integrator partner (ITT-Exelis) and Richard Lyon (NASA/GSFC Principal Investigator Compact Achromatic Visible Nulling Coronagraph Technology Maturation) and his telescope expert Lee Feinberg, Trex will perform a preliminary design of a 1-meter aperture, ultrastable, UVOIR telescope made using Trex Chemical Vapor Composite Silicon Carbide (CVC SiC&#153;). The highly athermal silicon carbide telescope provides an affordable solution for the Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BENI) Mission to qualify the VNC, with traceability to the requirements of the ATLAST observatory. Trex also proposes to demonstrate replicated, powered CVC SiC&#153; substrates using a new, polishable graphite mandrel material which allows the release of our CVC SiC&#153; deposit from the mandrel with a spectral finish. The new process eliminates rough and fine grinding of the optical surface, which is directly ready for fine lapping and polishing. The payoff will be at least a factor of 2X reduction in the areal cost of high performance CVC SiC&#153; mirrors, with an associated reduction in schedule on the order of 6-months. Using meniscus mirror designs for lightweighted mirrors in the telescope, rather than a web-based isogrid design, will also reduce the cost and schedule for CVC SiC&#153; mirrors, while not sacrificing weight or stiffness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low cost, lightweight, dimensionally stable SiC mirrors have use in complex telescopes for Astronomy, Imaging and Remote Sensing applications, including optical instruments/telescopes which enable imaging, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions for police and paramilitary units, fire fighters, power and pipeline monitoring, search and rescue, atmospheric and ocean monitoring, imagery and mapping for resource management, and disaster relief and communications. The dual-use nature of complex telescopes will bring affordability to national defense missions as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Astro 2010 clearly states the need for large aperture, lightweight mirrors for future UV/Optical telescopes, and recommends NASA invest in this need during the next 5-years. Table S2-C2 of the 2012 National Research Council report entitled "NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities: Restoring NASA's Technological Edge and Paving the Way for a New Era in Space", calls for a new generation of astronomical telescopes that enable discovery of habitable planets, facilitate advances in solar physics, and enable the study of faint structures around bright objects by developing high-contrast imaging and spectroscopic technologies to provide unprecedented sensitivity, field of view, and spectroscopy of faint objects. The common need cited is a mirror technology that is lightweight, dimensionally stable, high performance, and above all else, cost effective. One of these potential future observatory missions is the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) (Marc Postman et.al., SPIE Journal of Optical Engineering, 51(1), 011007, January 2012).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Structures
Mirrors
Telescope Arrays
Ultraviolet
Visible
Infrared


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E3.03-8875
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environments Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extreme Environment Circuit Blocks for Spacecraft Power & Propulsion System & Other High Reliability Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chronos Technology (Div. of FMI, Inc.)
15302 Bolsa Chica Street
Huntington Beach, CA 92649-1245
(714) 373-8100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kouros Sariri
ksariri@yahoo.com111
15302 Bolsa Chica Street
Huntington Beach,  CA 92649-1245
(818) 907-9655

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Chronos Technology (the R&D division of Frequency Management International, FMI) proposes to deliver a comprehensive, and fully investigated & validated feasibility study (in Phase 1) for a novel approach leading to design & fabrication of extreme Environment Silicon Carbide (SiC) circuit blocks used in a variety of spacecraft power & propulsion system. The circuits shall be used for a wide range of both manned and unmanned space missions. The resulting solutions uniquely enable new extreme environment and high temperature performance levels offered commercially in compact, miniature size & rugged construction. There are no present alternatives for the proposed devices applicable to the extreme environment operating conditions. Based on the technology selection investigation and the road map defined, our proposed technology investigation and the resulting design effort in phase 1 shall conclude with identifying the best fit semiconductor fabrication process as well as component level design & implementation/fabrication methodology plan. With the already stated interest from SiC processing companies such as Cree, we would be focused on targeting device designs for circuits like counter, basic gate, buffer/driver & amplifier, all operating at industry std low voltages In phase 2, we will complete the design/fabrication of successful extreme environment integrated circuit blocks as described that will be used in high efficiency spacecraft power & propulsion systems. We envision to deliver devices that will enable high efficiency power management as well as much improvement in energy density and specific power as required for the state of the art modular power unit architecture. Coupled with the extreme environment, high temperature operation and radiation hardened capabilities the resulting innovative devices will play its significant role as part of the emerging power and propulsion system for future missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Superior power systems, power distribution and management on grid and off would also offer much desired benefits to wide range of other national needs. At the national defense our solution would enable development of much more rugged unmanned aerial vehicles (fuel cells, batteries, wireless power, engine sensors, alternative propulsion). The other variations of such vehicles including unmanned subterranean and underwater vehicle applications are other examples. Strategic non-defense applications start from power converter/inverter systems based on fuel cells, solar wind, geothermal, etc. would all benefit from the availability of the devices proposed. Other significant application would be a wide range of higher efficiency power distribution and management systems that will be developed to bring new paradigm in omni-source intelligent power distribution and management paradigm that is of great interest for our domestic industrial infrastructure assurance including the nuclear reactor power management and control systems. Other non-space related benefits would include the following as related the specific industry sectors: All electric vehicles and hybrids including fuel cell power management, power grid control and management, energy storage systems and solar power (photo voltaic and solar concentrator) systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Primary NASA applications:By significantly helping the power conversion efficiency by at least a factor of 2x and reducing the hardware weight by a factor of 3x, our solution would best fit all NASA manned and unmanned missions with diverse mission objectives. Among such programs are specific NASA space missions intended for Titan, Europa, Moon, Mars (manned and unmanned and/or return sample), comets and any other space missions power management, efficiency and electric propulsion would offer a distinct advantage and much improved mission risk. Overall, our proposed solution delivers its value towards the NASA objectives of scalable and modular power system, power distribution and management where space and weight dominate the overall cost of launch and flight durability. With range of power system applications covering solar array as well as electric propulsion, it offers much lighter and more efficient solutions compared to the conventional alternatives Secondary NASA applications: Given the up and coming missions to Venus and the extreme high ambient temperatures, many new alternatives in telemetry systems and sensors would be enabled by the proposed devices. Many subsystems could be realized with much less concern over operation at temperatures above +430 degree C. It enables NASA to develop generation of new extreme high temperature tools that would no longer be considered as bottlenecks in such missions

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Photon Sails (Solar; Laser)
Pressure/Vacuum
Thermal
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Lifetime Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-1 E3.03-9983
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environments Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Bell Motor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bear Technologies, LLC
1163 Tricounty Dr.
Oilville, VA 23129-2222
(804) 708-0311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jerri Ji
tmyrick@bearmechanisms.com111
1163 Tricounty Dr.
Oilville,  VA 23129-2222
(804) 708-0311

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The National Research Council (NRC) has identified the need for motors and actuators that can operate in extreme high and low temperature environments as a technical gap to exploring deeper into our solar systems. The need for high temperature motors and actuators for robotic mechanisms is critical to explore the surface and atmosphere of Venus, Jupiter and/or Saturn. Bear Technologies, LLC (Bear) proposes to create environmentally tolerant motors for robotic missions. As identified by NRC and NASA there are no commercial actuators or motors that can work in wide variation and high temperature environments (-50 degrees Centigrade to 500 degrees Centigrade). The current approach has been to shield or isolate the environment from these systems. The problem with this approach is that it limits the ability to explore on surface, increases the bulk and is expensive with temperature control systems. The need is to create tolerant technologies that can operate in the extreme environment. Bear Technologies has been exploring motor design for more than 5 years. Currently, Bear is working on a high torque direct drive electric motor under a Phase II award. The concept proposed uses new design concepts coupled with tolerant material to create a temperature tolerant motor (TTM). The proposed motor concept has a fundamentally different design that offers offers higher torque and lower speed than traditional motor design. This novel design will help minimize failure risks at extreme temperatures. By combining certain extreme temperature materials with no ball bearing or lubrication, the Principle Investigator (PI) believes the motor concept has the potential to function for an increased period of time in extreme environments. Motor and actuator technologies that are capable of operating in the high-temperature (460 degrees C) and high-pressure (90 bars) Venus surface environment are needed for multiple robotic systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Earth/Commercial/Science Applications High pressure and high temperature motors are needed in the oil and gas exploration industry. As the oil and gas operators increasingly explore territories with high temperature and high pressure, they are facing many challenges in downhole drilling and enhanced oil recovery systems, such as steam, flood or steam injection. High temperature motors are used for many downhole tool applications, including Electric Submersible Pumps (ESPs). Schlumberger, a world leader in ESPs for 80 years, supplies high temperature ESP systems with motor insulation rating at 300C . The High Temperature Bell Motor could allow the industry operate at greater depths and higher temperature. The Department of Energy has been seeking high temperature tools including high temperature motor for its Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The EGS are engineered reservoirs created to produce energy from geothermal resources that are otherwise not economical due to lack of water and/or permeability. High Temperature Bell Motor will enable the EGS technology to access the earth's vast resource located at depth. Other potential application include precision munitions and weapons control , high altitude balloon maneuvering , and glass and metal work in extreme temperature furnaces.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If the concept proves out for Venus conditions, it will work for cryogenic and hard vacuum environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems