Currently, NASA uses dietary countermeasures for astronauts to aid in radiation exposure as foods can act as radioprotectors and/or mitigators. Drugs that can be used as radioprotectors and/or mitigators are not currently used because when administered to astronauts at effective concentrations, they are accompanied by side effects such as weakness, fatigue, nausea, and hypotension. These drugs will remain inadequate until a proper drug delivery technology is developed that can deliver them with appropriate biodistribution, while maintaining safety in vivo. As it stands now, there are no drug delivery systems that meet the need for delivering an effective concentration of a radioprotector and mitigator drug for GCR to astronauts.
In order to address this critical need, ChromoLogic LLC (CL) has developed a multilamellar vesicle (MLV) drug delivery platform capable of encapsulating high concentrations of the hydrophobic radioprotector and mitigator drug, JP4-039. The MLV nanoparticles can be administered intravenously where they provide sustained release of the therapeutic. The particles are stable in lyophilized form, allowing the drug to be stored for prolonged periods of time before being reconstituted and injected. This strategy for therapeutic drug delivery, facilitates the use of hydrophobic therapeutics that are otherwise nonviable due to their poor solubility.
Radioprotection of astronauts on long-term space missions. Radiation-induced injury is a major health concern for astronauts and available countermeasures do not adequately address the risks. JP4-039 targets the mitochondria and reduces oxidative stress, improving survival in mice exposed to x-ray, neutron, and proton radiation. By encapsulating JP4-039 in a MLV, the JP4-039-MLV reduces the need for frequent administration, allows for longer term storage, and can reduce negative side effects.
Radioprotection of DoD personnel. The DoD needs a radiation countermeasure to protect personnel at risk of exposure to radiation.
Mitigation after a RAD-NUC incident. The US Government has a need for a national stockpile of radiation mitigators to respond to a RAD-NUC incident. JP4-039 has been shown to increase survival in vivo when administered 24–48 h after exposure to total body irradiation.