SBIR Select Phase I Solicitation  STTR Phase I Solicitation    Abstract Archives

NASA 2014 SBIR Phase I Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A1.01-9257
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Direct Write Lightning Protection and Damage Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MesoScribe Technologies, Inc.
7 Flowerfield, Suite 28
St. James, NY 11790-1514
(631) 686-5710

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rob Greenlaw
rgreenlaw@mesoscribe.com
5445 Oceanus Drive
Huntington Beach,  CA 92649-1007
(714) 894-8400

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project aims to improve conventional lightning strike protection in composite aircraft and proposes a novel method to monitor structures for damage upon lightning strike. Metallic fasteners joining composite parts must be properly grounded to reduce lightning damage and fire risk. Composite panels in the most critical areas e.g., near fuel tanks, incorporate lightning strike protection (LSP), an outer ply of conductive foil to handle large currents in the event of a lightning strike. Direct Write conductor traces deposited along fastener lines will connect fasteners together, via coated countersinks. The proposed improvement will be demonstrated through Direct Effect Lightning Testing. In addition, the Company's Direct Write process will be used to print SansEC sensors onto composite materials, demonstrating an effective method of sensor integration. Open circuit resonator patterns will be used to detect cracking through shifts in resonant frequency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improved lightning strike protection will also benefit private aircraft, military air vehicles, composite launch vehicles, and ground based wind turbines. Direct Write printed SansEC sensors will provide a damage detection capability benefiting the Air Force Structural Integrity Program (ASIP), optimizing manual inspection cycles, decreasing maintenance costs, and increasing asset availability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Support Aviation Safety Program mission of atmospheric hazard mitigation, through improved lightning strike protection of composite aircraft. Contribute to Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies to ensure safe flight in atmospheric hazards, by fortifying lightning protection of fasteners in critical flight structures. The SansEC sensor traces will also provide a new damage detection capability to assess the structural integrity of aircraft structures and improve upon the methods of evaluation and monitoring of future NASA platforms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A1.01-9906
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer for Aviation Hazard Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Julia Dupuis
jdupuis@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc (PSI) proposes the development of a longwave infrared (LWIR) imaging spatial heterodyne spectrometer (I-SHS) for standoff detection of clear air turbulence (CAT) and wake vortices from an airborne platform. PSI will team with Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) who has produced significant research on the application of LWIR hyperspectral imaging for detection of these and other air hazards. The research has produced extensive simulations, however, the predicted spectral radiance signatures are an order of magnitude below the noise floor of state of the art in LWIR hyperspectral imagers. The proposed LWIR I-SHS will offer this order of magnitude improvement in noise equivalent spectral radiance through a combination of high throughput and minimal noise-inducing sampling errors owing to the stationary interferometer. A preliminary systems analysis predicts a per-pixel NESR of 1E-9 W/(cm^2 ster cm^-1) at 16 cm^-1 spectral resolution. In Phase I, PSI will formalize a system performance model and will produce and characterize a breadboard I-SHS which will be used to demonstrate a molecular imaging measurement as a surrogate for a wake vortex. With the support of GTRI, PSI will generate requirements and a conceptual design for a TRL 5 system to be developed in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include multi-aviation hazard detection for commercial airlines (airborne) and airports (ground based). The solution will also support high frame rate hyperspectral imaging applications including ground based and airborne information, surveillance, and reconnaissance. The technology is also ideal for chemical and biological plume imaging for DoD, DoE, and DHS applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA commercial application for the proposed system is airborne and ground based aviation hazard detection, including clear air turbulence, wake vortices, runway icing, volcanic ash, visibility, and runway obscurants.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Image Processing
Gratings
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Radiometric
Thermal
Infrared
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A1.02-8970
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inflight Icing Hazard Mitigation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging Method for the Measurement of Complex 3D Ice Shapes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
goginesp@gmail.com
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
When ice accretes on a wing or other aerodynamic surface, it can produce extremely complex shapes. These are comprised of well-known shapes such as horns and feathers but also include other shapes such as the scallops that are associated with swept wing icing. The development of the larger ice shapes is generally believed to be influenced or built up from smaller scale surface structures such as roughness elements which can grow into the precursors of feathers or scallops seen on larger swept wing ice accretions. Feathers and scallops are often comprised of complex interlocking geometries that can contain a large number of voids. Hence it is important to characterize the geometries of these ice shapes, not only to ensure an adequate representation of the geometry for subsequent aerodynamic effects studies but also to provide data to validate icing codes, understand the basic physics involved with the ice accretion, and provide a basis for modeling the ice accretion. To address the above issue, we propose to use an X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging method to demonstrate that X-ray CT scanning can be used to measure 3D ice features of the form seen in aircraft ice accretions. We also propose to conduct a preliminary trade/design analysis to establish directions for a more detailed Phase II study that would address specific recommendations to integrate X-ray CT imaging with icing wind tunnels which can be used at NASA Glenn and commercial aerospace companies. It is anticipated that the proposed imaging method could provide a radically new way to visualize and characterize extremely complex 3D ice shapes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If the X-ray CT imaging techniques prove to be successful and if a reasonable path can be identified in Phase II to create X-ray testing devices that can be adapted for use in icing tunnels then X-ray CT imaging could impact a wide range of government and commercial testing facilities. This technique would provide an alternate means to characterize complex 3D wing icing, engine icing and icing on more complicated three-dimensional geometries that are difficult to characterize by other methods. If materials can be identified that are suitable for tunnel testing and are transparent to X-rays then the X-ray CTs could also provide a unique means to measure icing within confined geometries (such as the blade passage of a compressure).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
X-ray CT imaging will provide a potentially revolutionary capability to characterize and measure complex three-dimensional ice shapes. There are a number of technical questions and potential hurdles that need to be overcome. However, if successful, this technique will provide a means to measure the exterior and interior details of extremely complex over-lapping feathers and scallops. This would provide unique measurement capabilities that, to the best of the authors knowledge, have never been available in any other icing facility. It should also be noted that the authors believe that there is no fundamental limitation to operating an X-ray CT scanner in cold temperatures, down to -25C.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
3D Imaging
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Atmospheric Propulsion
Surface Propulsion
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A1.02-9174
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inflight Icing Hazard Mitigation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mixed-Phase Ice Crystal and Droplet Characterization and Thermometry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Artium Technologies, Inc.
470 Lakeside Drive, Unit C
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-4720
(408) 737-2364

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Bachalo
wbachalo@artium.com
470 Lakeside Drive, Unit C
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-4720
(415) 999-2679

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This effort proposes to design, build, and demonstrate a new instrument for icing research and flight safety capable of discriminating liquid water from ice while simultaneously measuring the diameter, velocity, and temperature of droplets or the velocity and size for ice crystals. From these individual particle characteristics the total liquid water content (LWC) and the total water content (TWC) of the flow may be found. This non-intrusive, laser-based, point measurement diagnostic will operate in an off-axis, backscatter configuration at a range of working distances appropriate to characterize laboratory-scale experiments, icing tunnel flows, free jet test facilities, or flight conditions at altitude. The proposed instrument will apply phase-Doppler interferometry, polarization ratio phase discrimination, droplet rainbow thermometry, and cross-polarization imaging to each particle measured. This will provide joint measures of liquid/solid phase, velocity, diameter or particle size, and droplet temperature. Furthermore, there is redundancy built into the measurements. For instance, the droplet diameter can be measured both by phase-Doppler interferometry and by rainbow thermometry and all four measurement techniques can discriminate solid ice from liquid droplets. While no single instrument can measure all possible cloud droplets, the proposed instrument can be configured to measure droplets from as small as 3 um to larger than 3 mm in diameter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This innovation will be offered as an option to our current PDI products. We believe there will be demand in industries such as spray drying and deposition, painting and coating, and general multi-phase flow research. While of obvious interest to meteorologists and icing researchers, we believe that the larger market is that of spray combustion, propulsion, and transportation. Moreover, there are a wide range of food processing applications using spray drying. Efficient energy utilization and product quality are key concerns in these applications. Within the meteorology and icing research markets there is potential to create two separate product lines. Some researchers will prefer an in situ device that can be placed in a large wind tunnel flow or mounted to an aircraft exterior. Others may prefer an ex situ instrument that can be placed outside of the flow – the solicitation specifically mentions the profiling across the span of an engine duct. The proposed diagnostic methods are all suitable for both styles of measurement. Furthermore, since the proposed layout involves the use of backscatter collection, such an instrument could be deployed from within an aircraft's fuselage and pointed out a window with no impact on the flow or external mounting requirements. Such an instrument configuration could move beyond a research tool and be used as a real-time flight safety instrument to characterize the icing threat to the airframe.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR effort will lead to a fully-developed instrument capable of simultaneously and redundantly measuring multiple physical properties of droplets and ice crystals. NASA's research into flight safety and aircraft propulsion would benefit from the successful commercialization of this instrument. Other governmental, academic, and industrial research groups in the areas of aircraft and flight safety, air-breathing and rocket propulsion, transportation, spray drying, and other industrial processes would all stand to benefit from a diagnostic capable of exceptional phase discrimination and/or remote droplet diameter/temperature measurement. There are several possible paths to commercialization of this work either as improvements on our current commercial products as entirely new products.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Image Analysis
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Lenses
Mirrors
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A1.03-9133
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Real-Time Safety Assurance under Unanticipated and Hazardous Conditions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Virtual Redundancy for Safety Assurance in the Presence of Sensor Failures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alec Bateman
barron@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Both autopilot systems and human pilots, particularly human pilots operating in instrument meteorological conditions, rely heavily on sensor feedback to safely control aircraft. The loss of reliable information for even a single state feedback signal can easily initiate a chain of events that leads to an accident. Even when hardware redundancy is employed, common-mode failures are a significant hazard that can make hardware redundancy ineffective for achieving the desired system reliability. For example, multiple pitot tubes can experience a common-mode failure during an icing event, depriving the pilot of vital airspeed information. The proposed virtual redundancy approach can significantly improve flight safety by identifying failed sensors and estimating the correct output values as replacements for those failed sensors. Estimates are based on a rigorous statistical formulation that makes optimal use of all available information including feedback from all remaining physical sensors, nonlinear models of vehicle dynamics, and models of actuator and sensor responses. The proposed research will also develop strategies for enabling pilots to make effective use of the virtual sensor outputs, including guidance algorithms that identify a trajectory that maximizes the likelihood of maintaining safety of flight and cueing techniques that allow the pilot to follow the resulting trajectory while minimizing the increase in workload.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For potential non-NASA commercialization, Barron Associates will pursue additional development funding from other agencies and DoD to help further advance the technology. Then, once high TRLs are achieved, we will team with industry partners, makers of unmanned air systems, large airframers, and sensor manufacturers to develop integrated software/hardware sensor suites that include the developed virtual sensor tools. This will lay the foundation to pursue marketing avenues of the technology in the aerospace industry, including manufacturers of unmanned aircraft, military aircraft, and both commuter and large commercial transport aircraft. At the same time, we will pursue other industries where application of fault detection, isolation and recovery are critical for ensured safety of operations, such as the nuclear power industry, mass transit control, and medical devices and systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation directly addresses several key needs identified under the Aviation Safety Topic, particularly with regards to safety assurance under unanticipated conditions. The proposed technology is designed to assure the integrity of information required for safe aircraft operation in the presence of multiple sensor failures. It utilizes information from all available sensors and high-fidelity models of the aircraft system to detect, isolate, and mitigate sensor failures in real time. In addition, it incorporates real-time flight safety management components to evaluate flight safety risks associated with the particular failure scenario, determine an optimal response to ensure a margin of flight safety, and provide pilot cueing to enforce those safety margins.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Data Fusion
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A1.03-9134
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Real-Time Safety Assurance under Unanticipated and Hazardous Conditions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Damage Adaptive Guidance for Piloted Upset Recovery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Richards
barron@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2496
(434) 973-1215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft Loss-Of-Control (LOC) has been a longstanding contributor to fatal aviation accidents. Inappropriate pilot action for healthy aircraft, control failures, and vehicle impairment are frequent contributors to LOC accidents. These accidents could be reduced if an on-board system was available to immediately guide the pilot to a safe flight condition (including cases of control failure or vehicle impairment). Barron Associates previously developed and demonstrated (in pilot-in-the-loop simulations) a system for finding appropriate control input sequences to recovery from upset conditions, and for cueing pilots to follow these sequences. The proposed work would add several innovative capabilities to the existing architecture. One of the most significant proposed enhancements is the addition of adaptation to address off-nominal vehicle responses. Off-nominal vehicle responses can occur for a number of reasons including adverse onboard conditions (e.g., actuator failures, engine failures, or airframe damage) and external hazards, especially icing. The addition of adaptation capabilities will allow the proposed system to provide appropriate upset recovery guidance in cases of off-nominal vehicle response. The proposed system is also specifically designed to be robust to variations in pilot dynamic behavior as well as provide enhanced robustness to pilot deviations from the recommended recovery strategies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate application for the proposed technology is in the civilian aerospace sector to improve aviation safety and security. However, the technology will readily extend to military aviation and space exploration. The increasing prevalence of remotely-piloted UAVs for military and homeland security applications, their consideration for terrestrial science missions and planetary exploration in the near-to-mid term, and the likely ubiquitous commercial roles of these vehicles in the longer-term, provide numerous opportunities for the transition of the proposed SBIR technologies. Application potential is not limited to the aerospace industry, but is extensible to all systems where a human operator can be assisted by a robust guidance module.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the overarching goals of the NASA's Aviation Safety Program is to improve aircraft safety for current and future aircraft. As loss of control accounts for a significant percentage of the fatal accident rate, developing systems that improve the response to upset conditions in flight are critical to achieving this goal. The proposed research addresses three of the top ten challenges for the AvSP including: (1) "Assuring Safe Human-Systems Integration" (2) "Improve Crew Decision-Making and Response in Complex Situations" and (3) "Assure Safe and Effective Aircraft Control under Hazardous Conditions." The DAGUR system is explicitly structured around pilot acceptance by providing robust performance in the face of variations in pilot dynamic behavior (Challenge 1). The closed-loop guidance provided by DAGUR will aid pilots during upset recovery preventing a high stress situation from developing into a full-blown loss of control event even in cases of vehicle failures and impairments (Challenges 2 and 3).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A1.03-9215
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Real-Time Safety Assurance under Unanticipated and Hazardous Conditions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sensor integritY Management and Prognostics Technology with On-Line Fault Mitigation (SYMPTOM) for Improved Flight Safety of Commercial Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jovan Boskovic
jovan@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSCI proposes to develop and test the Sensor integritY Management and Prognostics Technology with On-line fault Mitigation (SYMPTOM) system. The SYMPTOM assures system integrity by fusing available information from a variety of similar and dissimilar sensors and other sources with advanced signal processing and dynamic equations of motion to arrive at high-confidence estimates of the current sensor health, rapidly and accurately detect and isolate the fault, and mitigate its effect before the information from the sensor has been sent to the flight controller and the cockpit display. The SYMPTOM system uses all available information relevant for flight-critical sensor Fault Detection, Identification and Accommodation (FDIA), fuses it to build virtual and software sensors, and applies advanced statistical tests, nonlinear estimation and prediction, and parameter estimation schemes to accurately detect, isolate and accommodate the faults in both individual sensors and sensor suites. The SYMPTOM leverages our previous work on single-thread sensor FDIA. In Phase II of the project, Boeing Phantom Works (Dr. Kevin Wise) will provide technical and commercialization support.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SYMPTOM technology will find applications in minimization of adverse effects of critical sensor failures in manned military aircraft and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The SYMPTOM technology is also applicable to ground vehicles, process and power industry, and other fields where there is information available from diverse sources and sensors, and there is a need for minimization of unfavorable effects of sensor faults and failures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SYMPTOM system is consistent with the main objectives of the IVHM component of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. In particular, the SYMPTOM system addresses the problem of detection, identification and mitigation of faults and failures in sensors and sensor suites in aerospace vehicles by fusing system-wide information from diverse and dissimilar sources. Hence the proposed SYMPTOM system can be used in NASA Programs such as the Aviation Safety and Space Exploration Programs where there is a need for a comprehensive FDIA system to improve system safety and integrity in the face of a variety of faults and failures of flight-critical sensors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A1.04-8768
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Prognostics and Decision Making
PROPOSAL TITLE: Handheld Electronics EHM Sensor Probe for Determination of Remaining Useful Life

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nokomis, Inc.
310 5th Street
Charleroi, PA 15022-1517
(724) 483-3946

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Davis
wdavis@nokomisinc.com
5330 Heatherdowns Blvd
Toledo,  OH 43614-4649
(419) 866-0936

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
National Aeronautical and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program "seeks capabilities furthering the practice of proactive safety management." Specifically, one of the key interests in Topic A1.04 are proposals for Remaining Useful Life prediction techniques. In response, Nokomis is proposing to develop an Electronic Health Monitoring (EHM) Sensor Unit which would be able provide accurate estimates of the Remaining Useful Life of avionic systems. This sensor module would identify changes in the unintended electronic emissions of various flight-system electronic components to determine the current health state and predict the future reliability of the scanned system. Designed as a handheld unit which would allow for system scans of components while installed in the aircraft, the EHM Sensor Unit would be capable of scanning and returning results in as little as 3 seconds per system scanned. This speed would allow for frequent maintenance monitoring, including during the brief turnaround periods experienced at the gate. This technology would allow NASA, as well as flight-system and aviation maintenance providers, to better monitor the electronic health of these critical avionic components, as well as better predict their future lifespan, allowing for systems to be repaired or replaced prior to an unanticipated failure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other potential applications outside of NASA and the aviation industry include any industry where premature detection of potential electronic failure would be of benefit. Specifically, high-reliability industries, such as the defense, space, medical, and automotive electronics industries would be able to immediately apply this technology. Defense applications extend to the periodic monitoring of long-term storage weapon systems, as well as maintenance monitoring of avionic systems. For medical applications, monitoring of the electronic health of implantable electronics would be possible with this technology. Commercial Space and automotive applications would be similar to those of the general aviation industry, allowing for monitoring and maintenance of key electronic systems prior to complete failure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The intended application is to augment the Aviation Safety Program's (AvSP) ability to improve upon overall aviation safety throughout the industry. These sensor systems would meet the AvSP goal of seeking capabilities furthering the practice of proactive safety management. This technology would provide the AvSP with a powerful useful tool for the determination of Electronic Health and prediction of Remaining Useful Life of avionics. Additional applications within NASA extend to the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). Both the IVHM and ESMD applications for this technology would extend to the monitoring of Electronic Health of systems in both manned and unmanned space vehicles. For unmanned vehicles, the proposed technology can be adapted as an integrated sensor, while manned vehicles could support both an integrated and the handheld systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Quality/Reliability
Electromagnetic
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A1.04-9455
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Prognostics and Decision Making
PROPOSAL TITLE: Diagnosis-Driven Prognosis for Decision Making

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
99 East River Drive
East Hartford, CT 06108-7301
(860) 257-8014

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Somnath Deb
sudipto@teamqsi.com
99 East River Drive
East Hartford,  CT 06108-7301
(860) 761-9344

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One cannot build a system-level Prognosis and Health Management (PHM) solution by cobbling together a bunch of existing prognostic techniques; it will have a very high rate of false-positive indications. On the other hand, if a system-level health management solution could identify the individual degradations and indictors associated with those degradations, and thereby decouple the problem into smaller pieces, the existing prognostic techniques could still be used to predict time to failure, and could therefore drive an effective Condition Based Maintenance and Decision Support System (CBM+). Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) and Vanderbilt University team seeks to develop a system-level diagnostic and prognostic process and a "sense and respond capability" which first uses error codes and discrete sensor values to correctly diagnose the system health including degradations and failures of sensors and components, and then invoke appropriate prognostic routines for assessment of remaining life and capability. Thus, QSI's Testability Engineering And Maintenance System (TEAMS) real-time reasoner will enable the use of many existing prognostics techniques in the broader context by decomposing the complex system into local datasets of degradations and associated sensor data sets, thereby limiting the problem-space for the prognostic techniques to their limited design scope. Indeed, it is well established in the contexts of parameter estimation and model-based fault identification (i.e., fault isolation and severity estimation) that feature selection and diagnosis, respectively, followed by parameter estimation provides major improvements in estimation performance (measured in terms of computational time as well as the standard deviations of the estimated parameters) when compared to full parameter estimation which provides biased estimates for all the parameters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential applications for DoD and Commercial users are even larger. This is because they are likely to operate multiple systems, a fleet of vehicles for example, that have the opportunity of periodic preemptive maintenance. To address these customers' needs, we will develop a decision-support module on top of the proposed capability here that will allow the customer to define his own business rules. Such business rules will help the customer answer questions like "if the system has a scheduled downtime window of 2 hours tomorrow, what pre-emptive repairs should I perform within that maintenance window so as to minimize the chance of unscheduled downtime (due to failure) in the next 10 days". For enterprise-wide logistic planning, this decision-making capability will also help optimize the cost of additional opportunistic maintenance versus the cost of additional downtime if such maintenance were not performed. The capability developed here is key to proving the business case for prognostics in commercial and military applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is developing increasingly autonomous systems that can perform missions with a high degree of certainty with minimal human intervention. Examples of such mission include rovers operating in Mars, where the missions are extremely long, and therefore multiple components and subsystems will degrade and fail over the duration of the mission. However, due to the long communication delays between Mars and Earth, these systems can be monitored and diagnosed by mission control like any other near-earth mission. The proposed capability will be invaluable to NASA for such operations by (a) Predicting failures before they disrupt the mission, (b) Reducing false positives of such prediction with the proposed diagnosis-driven prognosis, and (c) identifying the remaining useful capability of the system. This will enable NASA to focus on the mission planning and recovery aspects, and manage the health of the system, rather than being blindsided by unexpected failures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Data Processing
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A1.04-9788
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Prognostics and Decision Making
PROPOSAL TITLE: Programming Useful Life Prediction (PULP)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles River Analytics, Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138-4555
(617) 491-3474

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Avi Pfeffer
apfeffer@cra.com
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge,  MA 02138-4555
(617) 491-3474

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Accurately predicting Remaining Useful Life (RUL) provides significant benefits—it increases safety and reduces financial and labor resource requirements. Relying on just one methodology for RUL prediction is unsuitable because certain methods of prediction perform better for certain use cases and conditions. Approaches must be combined to maximize accuracy. Encoding these hybrid methods is challenging because their models are complex, change frequently, and represent a wide range of devices, components, and systems. The algorithms associated with these models also require deep mathematical understanding. We propose using probabilistic programming (PP) to integrate physical models and data-driven methods into a probabilistic model that can predict RUL under the Programming Useful Life Prediction (PULP) project. We will use Charles River's Figaro™ probabilistic programming language (PPL) to fuse physical models of critical fault modes and data-driven methods in a hybrid approach to accurately predict the RUL of critical flight systems. Figaro is an ideal solution because it eases construction of Probabilistic Relational Models (PRMs). PRMs can represent a wide range of complex, constantly changing domains that involve uncertainty and require flexibility. Figaro also contains a vast library of reasoning algorithms that can be applied to models, so users do not need deep mathematical expertise.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect the full-scope PULP framework to have immediate and tangible benefits for a number of military prognostic and health-monitoring applications. PULP technologies will enable more accurate Remaining Useful Life (RUL) prediction during maintenance operations by using a hybrid approach to RUL prediction and increasing the efficiency of analysts performing RUL computations. We envision a number of commercial applications, particularly in the aerospace, aviation, and transport industries. We also plan to incorporate new PULP technology into our Figaro probabilistic modeling and analysis framework, which will enable us to use the tool to provide consulting services based on Figaro to customers within NASA, the DoD, other Government agencies, and commercial markets. Technology developed under the PULP effort will enhance Figaro's dynamic reasoning and integration capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The mature research developed under PULP will provide NASA with the ability to accurately predict Remaining Useful Life (RUL). PULP will provide analysts the ability to easily integrate model-based and method-based approaches in their predictions, taking full advantage of available data and leveraging the strengths of both approaches. Primary NASA commercial candidates include many projects led by the Prognostics Center of Excellence in support of potential NASA systems health management work. Other applications cited by NASA's Discovery and Systems Health (DaSH) may also become candidates as this technology matures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Knowledge Management
Programming Languages
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A1.05-8550
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Identification of Sequences of Atypical Occurrences in Massive Heterogeneous Datasets Representing the Operation of a System of Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: AIRSAFE: Analytics to Improve Reliability & Safety in Flight Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ssu-Hsin Yu
ssu-hsin.yu@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The increased system complexity resulting from interaction of human and automated systems in aviation programs introduces new challenges that need to be addressed. Many notable flight incidents can be wholly or partially attributed to crew error, either due to inexperience with the aircrafts automated control systems or in response to component failures or adverse conditions. Flight safety experts can piece together information and data from multiple sources to identify the cause after an accident or incident has occurred whether it is due to human errors, machine failures or a combination of both. It is therefore reasonable to expect that much of the information is already dispersed in various databases and, with the right tools, flight safety experts can identify deficiencies and factors that may provide indicators or serve as precursors of accidents. Such actionable knowledge will lead to better training, design and/or onboard systems to ensure safety. In response to this need, SSCI proposes to build Analytics to Improve Reliability & SAfety in Flight Environments (AIRSAFE), a software toolbox that assists flight safety analysts in discovering key factors and their interactions among a large number of potentially relevant factors, testing one's hypothesis on the key factors to safety, and identifying previous incidents that support the hypothesis. The software toolbox is built on our previous and on-going efforts, such as DARPA's XDATA program, in BigData machine learning.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The AIRSAFE software itself will be of great use to agencies such as the NTSB, commercial airlines, the U.S military and the commercial space industry. In addition, the real-time, automated, information extraction and analysis tools will be applicable in number of industries where human-machine interaction is becoming prevalent such as healthcare, energy, transportation, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The AIRSAFE system will be most directly applicable to NASA programs whose goals is to improve the safety and reliability of air/space travel and transportation. Currently, these programs include the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), the Aviation Safety program and the Integrated Systems Research program. However, beyond the air safety applications, the algorithms developed for AIRSAFE can be used in wide variety of BigData applications of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Intelligence
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Fusion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A2.01-8547
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Razor UAS Test and Evaluation System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adsys Controls Inc.
16 Technology Drive, Suite 148
Irvine, CA 92618-2327
(303) 579-8071

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adam Diedrich
adiedrich@adsyscontrols.com
16 Technology Drive, Suite 148
Irvine,  CA 92618-2327
(949) 682-5430

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Adsys Controls' Razor UAS Test System is a high fidelity simulation and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) test system. Razor provides extensive existing capability for high fidelity real world modeling, extensive I/O capability, real-time execution, system fault simulation, full test automation, and extensive diagnostics. Razor was developed not just as a 6DOF simulator, but as a whole vehicle simulator for testing of state of the art UAS for all avionics and software. Razor has a proven track record within the UAS market where it has been used to support development and testing of various vehicles by Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin. Northrop Grumman used Razor for their Firebird prototype development program. Lockheed Martin used Razor for various programs including the development of their Fury UAS. Under this program, Adsys Controls will enhance the Razor UAS Test System such that it provides a platform for testing and evaluation of UAS in support of Safety Analysis and Autonomous Operations. The objective system will result in a comprehensive tool for modular UAS simulation, HIL testing, extensible scenario generation, and fault testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Razor flight simulator will provide commercial developers of UAVs a tools for modeling the design of their UAV systems and provide analysis to support trades of configuration, performance, components, and control software options. Thus, the system can be optimized for a particular license of operation and function. The Razor flight simulator is extensible to address growing fleet requirements, purpose analysis (e.g., fire fighter or crop management) and mixed fleet performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Razor flight simulator will enable accurate and efficient validation of UAV vehicle performance across the spectrum of operational scenarios. This will allow developers to focus on system improvements needed to achieve performance margins required for safe operation within the National Airspace System (NAS), as well as the operating constraints under which the class of UAV may operate. Further, Razor will be a valuable tool for government authorities to track the development and eventual certification and testing of individual UAV designs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Command & Control
Training Concepts & Architectures
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Display
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Development Environments
Operating Systems
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A2.01-8634
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dynamic Airspace Concepts for Integration of UAS into the NAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
540 Ft. Evans Road, Northeast
Leesburg, VA 20176-4098
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Brinton
brinton@mosaicatm.com
540 Ft. Evans Road, NE
Leesburg,  VA 20176-4098
(703) 980-3961

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address these critical needs associated with the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the airspace, we propose to conduct research on the application of Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) concepts and algorithms to the challenge of accommodation and integration of UAS into the NAS. The resulting algorithms and capabilities will provide real-time recommendations to Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) in the ATC system regarding the airspace boundaries that should be adopted, when the airspace boundaries should be changed and how long they should remain in place, and the necessary flight routes and other procedures that should be assigned to flights (both manned and unmanned) to ensure the safety and efficiency of all operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If proven successful, the concepts and algorithms to be developed through this research effort for the integration of UAS into the NAS via DAC could be used to support the FAA strategic and tactical traffic flow management. We also anticipate that the coordination of UAS operations in the NAS will require additional infrastructure and procedures to handle route coordination, airspace segregation, communication and surveillance. Thus, the work to be conducted in this effort will also provide a structure for develop of commercial tools to support UAS operators in their effort to operate in the NAS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Significant opportunities exist for the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the NAS, particularly for commercial applications. In this proposed effort, we will develop a set of optimization/simulation models to support the accommodation and integration of UAS into the NAS. These optimization/simulation models will be based on previously-developed DAC algorithms which we will adapt to accommodate UAS. At the end of each Phase of the effort, these concepts and algorithms will be transferred to NASA. These models are expected to support evaluation of NextGen concepts and consequently expedite the NAS transformation, and can be used by NASA within other NASA simulation environments and technology to handle airspace management functions related to UAS.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A2.01-8733
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airline Operational Control (AOC)/UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) Collaboration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Innovation Laboratory, Inc.
2360 Southwest Chelmsford Avenue
Portland, OR 97201-2265
(503) 242-1761

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jimmy Krozel
Jimmy.Krozel@gmail.com
2360 SW Chelmsford Ave.
Portland,  OR 97201-2265
(503) 224-5856

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to form a network and a set of tools that will create a shared situation awareness with Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Ground Control Stations (GCSs) and airline dispatchers at Airline Operations Centers (AOCs). Our solution is motivated by the Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) community in commercial aviation, where the CDMnet was created back in 1997 to facilitate collaboration between airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The CDMnet continues to exist today to allow airlines to collaborate on Traffic Flow Management (TFM) decisions that are made by airlines and FAA Air Traffic Service Providers (ATSPs) every day. Today, with the introduction of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS), there is a need for collaboration between UAS, ATSP, and AOCs in UAS Traffic Management (UTM) in order to share airspace resources. Thus, the focus of this SBIR effort is to build a network that allows UAS GCSs to share information and collaborate with airline AOCs in order to create a shared situation awareness and to share and coordinate NAS airspace resources.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Airline dispatchers are in need of situation awareness for UAS flying in the NAS. Furthermore, UAS operators will benefit from collaboration with the airlines in order to find a collaborative solution to flying in the NAS. Airlines and UAS operators are thus non-NASA commercial applications of interest.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is tasked to explore the challenge of integrating UASs into the NAS. Part of that integration challenge is ensuring that UASs can fly in the NAS in the same airspace as civilian aircraft, without segregation through Special Use Airspace (SUA) or Special Activity Airspace (SAA). Furthermore, the FAA has stipulated that they do not want to create any new airspace classes to facilitate UAS flight in the NAS. In order to achieve this goal, UAS will have to share airspace resources with other stakeholders; mainly commercial airlines in Class A airspace, and General Aviation (GA) in lower altitudes. The introduction of UAS in Class A airspace is likely to cause pushback from the airlines, who already find airspace resources congested in many parts of the NAS. NASA and the industry must find a way to share resources with UAS, Airlines, and GA in a way that they all can pursue their flight operations in a fair and equitable way. The emphasis of this SBIR effort is to form a basis for the sharing of resources by a collaboration between AOCs and GCSs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Network Integration
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A2.01-8766
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Asynchronous Sensor fuSion for Improved Safety of Air Traffic (ASSIST)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jovan Boskovic
jovan@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSCI proposes to develop, implement and test a collision detection system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), referred to as the Asynchronous Sensor fuSion for Improved Safety of air Traffic (ASSIST). The ASSIST system is robust to ADS-B spoofing, and will associate the EO/IR and airborne radar (ABR) tracks generated onboard the UAV with those generated by the ground-based radar (GBR) to minimize false tracks generated by EO/ABR due to clutter. Under this project, we plan to leverage our FORECAST technology (Fast On-line pREdiCtion of Aircraft State Trajectories) that fuses the ground-based radar information with airborne radar and transponder data to achieve accurate track generation and efficient prediction of potential NMACs in a high-density airspace. We will also leverage our SAFESEE (Sense and Avoid using Fusion and Expansion SEgmEntation) technology - a collision detection system that uses pixel-level fusion of EO/IR optical-flow features to achieve robust probability of detection and low FAR under realistic operating conditions. SAFESEE has been recently flight tested at the Air Force Bombing Range at Avon Park, FL. Under our FORECAST project we developed a capability of simulating communication delay between the ground station and the UAV. We plan to extend this capability and carry out a study of effects of the communication delay on the ASSIST system. Specific Phase I tasks include: (i) Acquire target tracks and FAR related to existing capabilities from NASA; (ii) Develop, implement and test the ASSIST system; and (iii) Carry out a trade study of the effect of the communication delay on the ASSIST system. In Phase II we plan to carry out extensive analysis and simulation testing of the ASSIST system, and arrive at a flight testing plan for the continuation of the work beyond Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides facilitating UAV access to the NAS, effective SAA systems can be used for maintaining safety during aerial combat training involving UAVs and, when the GBR is available, for gaining improved situational awareness in military theaters of operation. Commercial applications of the ASSIST technology are envisioned in commercial aircraft where additional information on the non-cooperating intruders has a potential to improve the overall flight safety.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Effective SAA systems that fuse ground-based radar information with that provided by onboard sensors have great potential to improve the quality of autonomous SAA tracking technology, bringing the integration of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) into the National Airspace closer to reality. This has immediate implications in the safety improvement in the NextGen program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Perception/Vision


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A2.01-9144
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: UAS Demand Generator for Discrete Airspace Density

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
540 Ft. Evans Road, Northeast
Leesburg, VA 20176-4098
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Wargo
cwargo@mosaicatm.com
540 Ft. Evans Road, NE, Suite 300
Leesburg,  VA 20175-4098
(443) 994-6137

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A key component to solving many engineering challenges of UAS integration into the National Airspace System is the ability to state the numbers of forecasted UAS by airframe and mission/operation type being performed within discrete airspaces. UAS growth is a function of locational based businesses and public use needs, in addition to increases in UAS uses and future aircraft types. Being able to forecast this growth requires time consuming and highly detailed configuration and model development, consensus between different organizations, and flexible tools tunable to changing perspectives. Availability of a common cloud based application integrating varying growth curves and linking geospatial aspects of UAS operations will greatly enhance and stabilize system level analysis of issues such as: radio spectrum usage, safety case analysis, economic forecasts, etc. Individuals and organizations would benefit in using a community centric tool with the ability to shared data and projections while still allowing individual researchers to set up paradigms for their own, unique forecasts. The overall project objective is to design, develop, and study the feasibility and potential benefits of a UAS Demand Generator for Discrete Airspace Density (UAxpan) system which allows for common solutions in complex forecasts of growth and uses of numerous unmanned systems and mission/operational types. This will be accomplished by developing and testing a prototype system and performing the key functionality objectives using real industry, UAS, geographic, and NAS data.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The UAS demand tool, UAxpan, will provide valuable forecast data to non-NASA users in the Federal Government (FAA, DHS, DOT, EPA, DoA, DoI), Armed Services, state and local governments, universities, standards organizations (RTCA, ICAO, AEEC, AUVSI, JARUS) and defense and commercial business. All these organizations need to support investment planning, perform engineering, determine market needs, or establish international standards and agreements based upon the projected use of UAS which goes beyond just having aggregated U.S. totals. The U.S Congress is driving the introduction of UAS through the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2012 and their staffs would be able to benefit from UAS projections by industry and governing domains. UAxpan will also be the source of analytics and projection data that can be offered to users through the emerging "big data" businesses. These firms are offering aviation system information to operational research staffs of major airlines or airport operators for the purpose enhancing operation effectiveness.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
UAxpan is an innovative concept for a UAS Demand Generator that is directly related to fostering NASA's achieving results in driving UAS integration in the NAS. Our UAS demand forecast system will provide valuable input to the R&D being performed by the NASA UAS Program. The Control & Communications Project (NASA GRC) and the Certification & Safety Project (NASA LaRC) will directly benefit by having the number UAS forecasted operations soundly based upon real world constraint knowledge and industry SMEs – and based upon industry markets, UAS types, use by mission, and discrete airspace classes associated with geographical location and time. This forecast data is needed to validate the communication systems engineering work on channel bandwidth sizing, signal-in-space specification (especially for shared channel access techniques) and for planning of spectrum reuse. Without this UAS demand data the selection of differing approaches to form consensus on standards for civil aviation will be delayed. The UAxpan project will also be essential in the development of another NASA emerging project for the UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System which is targeted to enable low-altitude civilian applications of UAS. The UTM will greatly benefit from accurate forecast of planned UAS use in low altitudes as input data to traffic flow and control simulations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Command & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Transport/Traffic Control
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A2.01-9219
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: SOAR - Stereo Obstacle Avoidance Rig

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (OKSI)
19805 Hamilton Avenue
Torrance, CA 90502-1341
(310) 756-0520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Foes
scott@oksi.com
19805 Hamilton Ave
Torrance,  CA 90502-1341
(310) 756-0520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ultimate goal of the SOAR program is to develop robust hardware and algorithms for low light, passive terrain sensing. The SOAR system will provide NASA with a solution for real-time obstacle avoidance for large and small unmanned air platforms. During Phase-I, we will collect images with all of the leading low-light camera technologies. The image data will be used to derive, test, and enhance a passive terrain sensing algorithm based-on state-of-the-art, visual odometry and dense stereo algorithms. At the end of Phase-I, we will recommend the optimal hardware, algorithm, and computing platform for full prototype development during Phase-II. The factors used to make the recommendation include cost, range accuracy, size, power consumption, algorithm execution time, etc.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications: Once the proper FAA regulations are in place, commercial companies can use the technology develop during this program for low cost delivery of goods. Defense applications: Any missions that require low altitude unmanned aircraft CONOPS including: surveillance, weapons delivery, communication relays, asset placement, and asset extraction.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include tracking wildfires, weather monitoring, terrain mapping, cargo transportation, communication relays, emergency disaster relief, search and rescue, climate research, and crop surveying.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Perception/Vision
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
3D Imaging
Image Analysis
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A2.01-9239
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: UAS Power Amplifier for Extended Range of Non-Payload Communication Devices (UPEND)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nu Waves Ltd.
122 Edison Drive
Middletown, OH 45044-3269
(513) 360-0800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tim Wurth
tim.wurth@nuwaves.com
122 Edison Drive
Middletown,  OH 45044-3269
(513) 360-0800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS) requires a robust, reliable communication link between the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and its operators. Constant communication is a necessity. New and innovative approaches are needed to provide high-bandwidth Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC). To enable the CNPC system and increase the utility of UAS in the NAS, NuWaves Engineering has teamed up with Auriga Microwave (http://www.aurigamicrowave.com/) of Chelmsford, MA to propose the UAS Power amplifier for Extended range of Non-payload communication Devices (UPEND) project. UPEND combines a very high-efficiency radio frequency (RF) power amplifier (PA) with innovative linearization techniques in a miniature package capable of being integrated into UAS platforms as small as the venerable Boeing/Insitu ScanEagle. NuWaves' UPEND leverages advanced Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology, as well as efficiency and thermal design, to minimize size, weight, and power (SWaP) of a PA module, while maintaining the linear output required by complex modern communications waveforms, such as 802.16.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed high-efficiency, high-linearity C-band power amplifier technology is ideal for a variety of applications. A high linearity PA enables the transmission of high PAPR signals, such as OFDM and QAM, without distortion. These modulation waveforms enable greater data throughput, leading to a reduction in overall system latency. Non-payload applications include telecommand, telemetry, navigation aid data, air traffic control (ATC) voice relay, air traffic services (ATS) data relay, sense and avoid data relay, airborne weather radar data, and situational awareness video. However, this proposed linear power amplifier technology also applies to payload communications, including but not limited to command & control (C2) uplink, sensor downlink, video downlink, etc. Non-NASA customers may include major UAS suppliers who may be required to use an interoperable data link for CNPC in NAS in the near future. Additionally, communication system integrators for both terrestrial and space-based communications could be potential commercial users.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-payload applications include telecommand, telemetry, navigation aid data, air traffic control (ATC) voice relay, air traffic services (ATS) data relay, sense and avoid data relay, airborne weather radar data, and situational awareness video. However, this proposed linear power amplifier technology also applies to payload communications, including but not limited to command & control (C2) uplink, sensor downlink, video downlink, etc. Phased-array Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems for airborne land mapping science would require linear power amplifiers. Target programs include NASA/GSFC's L-band "DBSAR," and P-band "ECOSAR." Space-based SAR systems may include "SPACESAR" and "SESAR." NASA/GSFC also has a number of airborne weather RADAR at X-, Ku-, Ka-, and W-bands that use linear solid state amplifiers. The projects include "XRAD," "HIWRAP," and "CRS." Studies on putting similar capabilities into space, specifically focusing on the Ka- and W-band measurements, have been commissioned.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Transmitters/Receivers
Command & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A2.01-9248
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent Autonomous Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Near Earth Autonomy, Inc.
5001 Baum Boulevard, Suite 750
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1856
(412) 513-6110

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sanjiv Singh
ssingh@nearearth.aero
5001 Baum Blvd. Suite 750
Pittsburgh,  PA 15213-1856
(412) 855-3675

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and, in particular, intelligent, autonomous aircraft operating in the National Airspace (NAS) have the potential to significantly impact modern society. They could perform difficult and dangerous tasks such as fire fighting, border patrol, and search and rescue, and dull tasks such as surveying crops. The elimination of a cockpit and the pilots makes UAS operation attractive from an economic standpoint. In addition, much of the technology used for autonomy could benefit manned flight as a pilot's aid to help in tasks such as landing on an oilrig in the high seas. Open questions remain, however, about how unmanned autonomous aerial vehicles can be safely incorporated into the NAS. UAS's operating in the NAS must sense and avoid other vehicles, follow air traffic commands, avoid the terrain and land without operator intervention, react to contingencies, and be reliable and cost-effective. The current approach for UAS integration relies on radio links and the operator's acuity to direct them. Lost links, however, are unavoidable. UAS's must have the capability to make their own decisions based on information available via databases and information discovered by onboard sensors. Near Earth Autonomy proposes to develop technologies and capabilities leading to fully autonomous systems that are able to discover and adapt to unpredicted changes in their environment, and yet still accomplish the mission, with minimal or no human involvement. The proposal focuses on developing autonomy in the form of sensors and computer software that will enable UAS's of the future to operate safely in the NAS. Additionally, the proposal addresses how the technical challenges can be met and how the technology developed can be shown to be both trustworthy and commercially viable for general aviation. This is aligned with NASA's current initiative for safe integration of UASs in the national airspace led by Langley Research Center.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government agencies, both military and civilian, will comprise a much larger market for the technology. The commercial sector will eventually be the largest market sector. A recent market analysis in Composites World magazine, drawing on work from both the Teal Group and AUVSI, indicates a global military market of approximately 57,000 UAS, with about 19,000 for the US military services–primarily in the reconnaissance and attack configurations, with growing utilization of utility and cargo configurations. Additionally, the analysis forecasts a commercial market of as many as 160,000 air vehicles, most of which would be in the public safety and precision agriculture segments. But there will be growth into numerous other areas that are now serviced by piloted aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NEA envisions the initial NASA market to be primarily units for testing and validation at both the system level and at the air vehicle level. The autonomous capabilities that NEA proposes will contribute to NASA's testing and validation of the technologies and concepts for UAS operations in the NAS. Additionally, NEA's autonomous technology will provide an enhanced capability, enabling UAS more comprehensive flight-testing, for NASA's collaborative efforts with the FAA to accommodate UAS operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). As the autonomous flight capabilities mature and are integrated into air vehicles, they will be of direct use to NASA in their flight testing of ground-based air navigational aids and guidance systems located in remote areas, such as Antarctica. NEA's autonomous technology will enable greater utilization of UAS in other NASA areas, particularly for experimentation and testing in the various research centers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Perception/Vision
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A2.01-9364
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Uninhabited Traffic Management System Evaluator (UTME)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frederick Wieland
fwieland@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5268

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The key innovation of this effort is the development of an Uninhabited Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Manager Evaluator (UTME) specifically targeted at evaluating potential air traffic systems for handling low-altitude UAS flights. It has been estimated that over 90% of future UAS flights will be low altitude (less than 6,000 feet above ground level). At such low altitudes, the conventional air traffic management systems are ineffective, primarily because both communication and surveillance coverage is limited at those low altitudes, and communication latencies among the controller, remote pilot, and UAS vehicle will be higher than controllers are accustomed to today. Therefore the current approach of treating low-altitude piloted flights distant from a major airport with Visual Flight Rules (delegating separation to the pilot in visual meteorological condition) may lead to unacceptably low levels of safety (high probability of accidents). In part because of these concerns, NASA is considering developing a low-altitude air traffic control system specifically for UAS flights—what is called here a system for UAS Traffic Management, or UTM. But how should such a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system be structured? What are the fundamental requirements? How can different proposals for handling such traffic be evaluated? A UTM evaluator, which is the system proposed herein, will help answer these questions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Once a UAS system is defined, UAS manufacturers would need an evaluation system to determine how their designs might perform in a UTM environment. UTME could therefore be used by commercial companies to determine whether changes in their design would be necessary, or, at the minimum, to identify the operating characteristics of their systems early enough in the design cycle to allow them to modify the design if needed. As a communication medium, UTME results could be shared with the public, members of Congress, or other decision makers to show the safety, performance, and environmental compliance of the proposed UTM system. As a commercial product, UTME could be configured with whatever UTM system NASA and FAA finally decide upon, allowing industry to vary the flight data (including flying their own aircraft in the virtual world), in order to understand the impacts of the UTM system on their aircraft. They can then use the results to modify their aircraft design in one or more dimensions to improve its performance vis-a-viz the UTM system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA researchers can directly use UTME to evaluate tradeoffs when designing a UAS Traffic Management system. For example, in considering whether a UTM system should be sector-based or based on something else (such as UAS mission), researchers might consider the number of controllers that would be needed for both systems. UTME could provide an estimate that NASA researchers can use to compare the two systems. UTME could also be used by NASA to pinpoint areas of UAS operations where current research has not considered, thereby helping define the future NASA research program. Some of the tradeoffs that can be investigated by NASA researchers include: should communication between a UAS flying in a remote area and its pilot be relayed via other, higher-flying UAS aircraft? Or through a network of ground stations strategically located in different parts of remote regions? What latencies are observed with these two designs, and if the error rates are different, how large should the protection bubble be to ensure safe separation? The answer to these questions can help evaluate different UTM designs and provide direction for further research at NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A2.01-9435
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost, Low Profile Steerable SATCOM Antenna

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
FIRST RF Corporation
5340 Airport Boulevard
Boulder, CO 80301-2312
(303) 449-5211

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dean Paschen
dpaschen@firstrf.com
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder,  CO 80301-2312
(303) 449-5211

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The small size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms along with the need to reduce drag to increase flight time creates a need for low-profile antennas. The oldest solution, a mechanically steered parabolic reflector, does not provide a low profile. The modern electronically steered phased array is an alternative that does provide a low-profile antenna solution, but the cost of these antennas has prevented wider use. Hybrid antenna solutions that are partly mechanically steered and partly electronically steered are an approach to maintain the low profile of a phase array at much lower cost. Although existing hybrid solutions offer potential, there have been limitations in scan speed and Field-of-View (FOV). FIRST RF has demonstrated the initial proof-of-concept capability of an innovative low-profile hybrid scan phased array antenna that reduces cost by nearly an order of magnitude relative to a conventional phased array for low profile applications and removes the limitations of previous designs in scanning and FOV. This approach uses small mechanical actuators to reduce the parts count of the active components in the electronic steering portion of the aperture. Unlike other hybrid scan solutions, which have asymmetrical fast and slow steering, this approach provides symmetrical fast electronic steering at angles near boresite with slower mechanical steering for large off-boresite angles. The scan loss of this approach is actually lower than for fully electronic scanned phased array antennas, and the FOV is greater. This technology is applicable for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
After development of a STAMPS type antenna terminal in this program, commercial airborne SATCOM terminal antennas would become available and cost-effective. These SATCOM antenna terminals would be applicable for both manned and unmanned aircraft, but other platforms may find similar benefits based on the reduced cost relative to conventional phased arrays and the modular assembly approach for other frequency bands of interest. The commercial airline industry will be the target non-NASA market. A commercial Ku/Ka SATCOM system will provide greater flexibility in mobile networking markets by increasing data capacities and availability to airborne users for the airline industry. The combination of electro-mechanical and active array pointing capabilities would allow for lower cost navigation units to be used in all applications of the system. This can be accomplished by using the coarse pointing properties of the navigation system and the electro-mechanical positioner and the fine pointing capability of the active array and a signal strength feedback network. The commercial market is significantly larger than the government market. There are currently 8000 passenger aircraft in the U.S. With domestic and foreign sales the total market is roughly 10x this quantity (about 100,000 aircraft). It is estimated that this system will sell competitively in civilian markets. Initial deployment is expected to exceed 10% of this market size.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
After development of a STAMPS type antenna terminal in this program, NASA SATCOM terminal antennas would become available and cost-effective. These SATCOM antenna terminals would be applicable for both manned and unmanned aircraft, but other platforms may find similar benefits based on the reduced cost relative to conventional phased arrays and the modular assembly approach for other frequency bands of interest. A commercial Ku/Ka SATCOM system will provide greater flexibility in mobile applications by increasing data capacities and availability to airborne users. The combination of electro-mechanical and active array pointing capabilities would allow for lower cost navigation units to be used in all applications of the system. This can be accomplished by using the coarse pointing properties of the navigation system and the electro-mechanical positioner and the fine pointing capability of the active array and a signal strength feedback network. The market size can be viewed at around $50M for the NASA and government market, which is based on outfitting approximately 100 airborne platforms, of which there are several hundred currently in the DoD's inventory. It is estimated that this system will sell competitively in this market. Initial deployment is expected to exceed 10% of this market size. Smaller systems could be used to support ground vehicles. Full size systems would also be applicable to maritime use.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Antennas
Prototyping
Actuators & Motors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A2.01-9452
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact, Wide Area Surveillance 3D Imaging LIDAR Providing UAS Sense and Avoid Capabilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Red Hill Avenue, B3-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626-4526
(714) 444-8700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Medhat Azzazy
mazzazy@irvine-sensors.com
3001 Red Hill Ave, B3-108
Costa Mesa,  CA 92626-4526
(714) 444-8756

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Eye safe 3D Imaging LIDARS when combined with advanced very high sensitivity, large format receivers can provide a robust wide area search capability in a very compact package. This search LIDAR concept, when deployed on UAS, can provide target detection, tracking and identification of sufficient quality to enable search and avoid actions when other air traffic flies near UAS platforms in the National Air Space. Current fiber laser technology, operating at a 1.5 micron wavelength, has sufficient pulse energy and pulse rates to illuminate large areas around the UAS platform. The relatively low energy per pulse of the fiber laser is compensated by a new development in large format , compact receivers ( 2,000 x 32 or 1000 x 1000) which exhibit near photon counting capability in very small pixels (~ 15 microns).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Autonomous operations of unmanned air systems in the National Air Space is a recognized need across the spectrum of US, State , and Local government organizations for such needs as air system development and testing, crop surveys, surface mapping, police and other security related functions. These needs extend directly into the civil sector of the US economy. Of particular interest are the autonomous landing capabilities of rotary wing vehicles enabled by this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of the proposed Sense and Avoid sensor suite is directly applicable to the operation of high altitude unmanned vehicles that are/will be used in supporting NASA missions. The need for such Sense and Avoid systems to enable autonomous operations is recognized in the SBIR solicitation under topic S3.04. The large volume and highly accurate 3D mapping capabilities enabled by the proposed advanced receiver technology could aid in missions requiring autonomous landing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Prototyping
3D Imaging
Image Processing
Filtering
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Infrared
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A2.01-9910
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Parametric, Closed-Loop Testing of Autonomy in Unmanned Aircraft Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive, Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538-6003
(970) 461-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Adaska
jason.adaska@numerica.us
4850 Hahns Peak Drive, Suite 200
Loveland,  CO 80538-6003
(970) 461-2000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed Phase I program aims to develop new methods to support safety testing for integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace (NAS) with a particular focus on testing the collision avoidance (CA) algorithms of a UAS Sense-and-Avoid (SAA) system. The two primary issues addressed by this research are: (i) the risk that incorrect/mismatched modeling assumptions will skew simulation analyses and (ii) the fundamental difficulty of verifying the performance of autonomous systems that dynamically react to the environment. In particular, this research program would develop novel methods for conducting non-parametric, closed-loop simulation testing of collision avoidance algorithms. The technology generates a campaign of simulation experiments that automatically adapt to the algorithms in question. The purpose of this innovation is to expose potential vulnerabilities in UAS autonomy that are generated through the interaction of autonomous UAS algorithms with other agents such as an intruding aircraft operating under ``right of way rules". This work augments both the probabilistic open-loop testing methods, where agents do not react, and closed-loop testing where agent behavior is fixed a priori.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications would include those for programs of interest within the DoD. Program offices with potential application for the technology developed include the Army DTC and OTC, AFOTEC, and N-UCAS. We have also identified the JUAS-ME initiative as one specific transition application. The technology could also potentially be applied to a much broader autonomous robotics market.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate NASA application is safety analysis for the UAS Integration in the NAS program. In particular, this work would support the Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI) and Integrated Test and Evaluation (IT&E) subprograms within this effort through tools to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of fast-time and HITL simulation testing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.01-8571
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Aeroservoelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Morphing Wing Design with an Innovative Three-Dimensional Warping Actuation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Technologies Corporation
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe, CT 06468-3209
(203) 502-8682

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Changkuan Ju
cju@aboutmtc.com
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe,  CT 06468-3209
(203) 502-8682

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced wing configurations where traditional control surfaces are replaced by dynamically controlled distribution of wing twist and/or camber can provide significant benefits to aircraft performance, such as reduced vibration and noise, increased fuel efficiency. Elimination of traditional control surfaces such as flaps can lead to smoother wing surfaces which are especially important in reducing electromagnetic signature of the wings in military aircraft. In this research and development program, Materials Technologies Corporation (MTC) and its team members propose a three-dimensional warping concept in which the typically closed airfoil section is cut open to create a torsionally compliant mechanism that acts as its own amplification device without needing additional mechanisms whatsoever. Deformation of the airfoil is entirely controlled by out-of-plane warping, a purely geometric effect.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed concept will have applications in the Worldwide Wind Turbine industry for power generation. An effective camber/twist change is needed to benefit most from the dynamic airflow through wind turbines. The potential for this rapidly growing "green" power generation industry is enormous.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed 3D warping actuation concept has potential application to all fixed wing and vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Applications of 3D warping include both civilian and military aircraft. 3D warping can reduce the empty weight of aircraft by lessening the weight dedicated to vibration suppression, thus allowing more payload and/or flight range. Additionally, to the extent that variable airfoil twist can improve L/De, the proposed warping concept will result in further improvements in payload/ flight range.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.01-8587
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Aeroservoelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aeroelastic Benchmark Experiments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M4 Engineering, Inc.
4020 Long Beach Boulevard
Long Beach, CA 90807-2683
(562) 981-7797

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Roughen
kroughen@m4-engineering.com
4020 Long Beach Boulevard
Long Beach,  CA 90807-2683
(562) 981-7797

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
M4 Engineering proposes to conduct canonical aeroelastic benchmark experiments. These experiments will augment existing sources for aeroelastic data in the transonic regime. Models will be constructed with well characterized engineering materials and will include measurement of high frequency pressure data. A variety of transonic conditions will be tested to provide opportunities for validation of aeroelastic response of transonic flows not previously available.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Initial application of the knowledge gained through this research will likely be targeted at supersonic transport configurations operating at transonic conditions. This insight into aeroelastic behavior will also improve aeroelastic and ASE analysis methods for a variety of other applications. These methods could be applied to a variety of applications including defense and civil. Demand for the results of this research will be found in the government and at major airframe manufacturers. Satisfying the existing demand for appropriate transonic aeroelastic validation data will provide a tremendous potential for this research.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The experimental data collected during Phase II of this effort will provide an invaluable resource to the aeroelastic community. The methods employed in the development of these experiments will provide an experimental dataset that provides additional confidence that published structural dynamic behavior is consistent with the experimentally derived flutter boundary. Pressure measurement will provide an additional resource for code validation and for gaining insight into discrepancies between experimental and analytical data. Data at a variety of angles of attack will generate more data in the transonic regime that will be highly value for validation of computational methods. The advances in knowledge gained through this benchmark experiment have the potential to lead to improved performance in aerospace vehicles ranging from transports, to fighters, to launch vehicles. The proposed research has the potential to dramatically improve the aeroelastic design and analysis process for aerospace vehicles. Phase II development will result in a rich dataset for aeroelastic method validation. Application of these methods during the design process will provide better insight into aeroelastic and ASE behavior resulting in reduced weight and increased structural efficiency. This will result in improvements in overall vehicle performance that will be especially critical to new configurations such as truss braces wings, high speed transports, and blended wing body configurations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.01-9013
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Aeroservoelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Variable-Fidelity Aeroservoelastic Analysis Tool for Concept Evaluation, Design and Wind-Tunnel Test Support

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Glen Whitehouse
glen@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ongoing work in advanced air-vehicles, such as ultra-light-weight truss-braced and elastically tailored concepts is beginning to provide the insight necessary to meet NASA's N+3 transport system goals. Unfortunately, contemporary analysis methods are unsuited for aeroservoelastic analysis of such configurations suffering from accessibility, usability, fidelity or resource constraints. Design tools have typically been developed using configuration dependent low-fidelity approaches that are unsuitable to reliably analyze advanced configurations. Contemporary aeromechanics solvers (i.e. viscous compressible Computational Fluid Dynamics coupled to Finite Element structural models) can analyze advanced concepts, but require significant user input to support advanced configurations, not to mention extensive computational resources. What has long been needed is an approach that bridges the middle ground to enable aeroservoelastic analysis at the "appropriate level of fidelity for the problem at hand", while reliably permitting the novel application of aeroelastic knowledge to new concepts, in addition to supporting wind-tunnel and flight tests by enabling the efficient investigation of flight dynamics, flutter, stability and control. By exploiting Continuum Dynamics Inc.'s extensive experience developing fully-coupled aeromechanics methods, we propose the development of a new rapid, reliable, variable–fidelity first-principles physics-based aeroservoelastic analysis to support concept evaluation, wind-tunnel/flight testing and design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A successful SBIR effort will produce a variable–fidelity first principles physics-based aeroservoelastic analysis tool for the design, analysis and evaluation of advanced air-vehicle concepts and components. Significant commercialization opportunities are anticipated from licensing the new modeling tool and validated software components to major air-vehicle manufacturers and other branches of the government involved in air platform development and support. In addition, because of the physics based nature of this tool, it will be able to support to design and development of emerging technologies such as unsteady flow control devices and distributed active control systems under development to enhance the performance of current and next generation air-vehicles

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort directly supports NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program's work on structural efficiency by developing a variable–fidelity first principles physics-based aeroservoelastic analysis tool for concept evaluation, design and wind-tunnel support. Specifically, this proposed tool would directly address the program needs by being able to evaluate new concepts to provide insight into state-of-the-art advances into aeroelasticty, to undertake aeroservoelastic analysis "at the appropriate level of fidelity for the problem at hand" and to efficiently undertake the development of mathematical models of wind-tunnel test articles to predict flight dynamics, stability, flutter, control issues and how to predict and alleviate gust loads. The proposed effort supports NASA's N+3 subsonic (and supersonic) transport system goals along with more general long-term advanced aircraft systems design/analysis as well as active aerodynamics, flow control and load control concepts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.01-9499
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Aeroservoelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Unsteady Design Optimization for Aeroelasticity Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vineet Ahuja
vineet@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Rd.
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aeroelasticity plays an important role in the design and development of highly flexible flight vehicles and blended wing body configurations. The operating margins on these flight systems are limited by non-linear unsteady phenomena such as stall, flutter, gusts, limit cycle oscillations, vortex roll-up which exhibit strong coupling between the aero-loads and structural deformations. The use of high-fidelity time domain methods such as CFD/FEM during the design phase has been limited by the cost of computing the unsteady physics. In this proposal researchers from CRAFT Tech and Georgia Tech offer a collaborative inter-disciplinary design optimization approach to aeroelasticity problems with high fidelity aerodynamics analysis and structural dynamics. This approach is primarily feasible because of the development of a novel unsteady analysis procedure that reconstructs the unsteady dynamics with high accuracy and nominal cost. The reconstruction procedure combines CFD and FEM with a modified Proper Orthogonal Decomposition method and an Artificial Neural Network to simulate the unsteady aeroelastic features associated with different shape designs with good reliability. Furthermore, the process of reconstructing the unsteady solution permits the incorporation of control strategies and time variant system responses making it appealing for the aeroservoelasticity class of problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the biggest beneficiaries of this technology would be the wind energy industry. Wind turbine blades are susceptible to aeroelastic effects and the problems are compounded in wind farms and sites close to the ocean where wind gusts are prevalent. The rotorcraft industry directly benefits from this technology as it can be used in the design of rotor blades where retreating blade stall is a big concern. Other commercial applications include gas turbine technology, commercial pump companies and the aerospace industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The design tools developed have wide applicability at NASA. The primary focus of the proposal is related to the design of flexible wing configurations used in HALE class of flight vehicles. However, the technology can have a significant impact on NASA's fixed wing program in guiding design of ultra-high bypass ratio engines and open rotor propeller systems from an aeroelasticity perspective. The smaller blades that are used in the ultra-high bypass ratio engines have very different aeroelastic characteristics and threshold criteria for fatigue and structural failure from traditional engines. The modern open rotor propeller systems are designed as a twin rotor configuration where there is significant interaction between the forward and aft rotors making the blades susceptible to flutter. Lastly, boundary layer flow distortion in BWB configurations can result in large dynamic pressures on fan blades in the embedded engines resulting in the increased risk of flutter.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.01-9708
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Aeroservoelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nonlinear Parameter-Varying AeroServoElastic Reduced Order Model for Aerostructural Sensing and Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Notrhwest, S
Huntsville, AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yi Wang
yxw@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way NW, Suite D
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall goal of the project is to develop reliable reduced order modeling technologies to automatically generate nonlinear, parameter-varying (PV), aeroservoelastic (ASE) reduced-order models (ROMs) for aerostructural sensing and control. The Phase I effort will focus on developing several key engines, including parameter-varying aerodynamic ROMs (AeroROM), structural dynamics ROM, as well as a scheme to integrate the AeroROM, structural ROM, sensor, actuator, and control law for integrated ASE analysis in the entire flight envelope. A modular software framework will be established for automated data exchange, PV AeroROM and structural ROM generation, ROM integration, computation, and verification. The feasibility of the proposed technology will be demonstrated for several ASE test problems of NASA interest (e.g., Aerostructures Test Wing and X-56A MUTT). The Phase II effort will focus on: (1) ROM engine optimization in terms of functionality, execution efficiency, and automated parameter selection; and (2) software environment enhancements with direct interfacing to NASA-relevant simulation and controller design tools, and fully automated ROM process for technology insertion and transition; and (3) extensive software validation and demonstration for ASE and flight control analysis of realistic aircrafts of current NASA interest.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA markets and customers of the proposed software are enormous and include various aerospace, aircraft, and watercraft engineering sectors (involving fluid-structure-control interaction). Potential end-users and customers include various government agencies such as US Air Force, Missile Defense Agency (MDA), US Army, Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC) and US Navy, as well as aircraft, and automobile industries. In addition, the proposed technology will also find broad markets in other industries such as aircraft and aerospace, combustion, power, propulsion, chemical processing, and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The proposed research would directly contribute to these vital areas by providing a powerful tool to generate fast ROMs, which can be extensively used to (1) analyze the operating processes for fault diagnostics and optimized design (e.g., structure and fatigue analysis, real-time flow control and optimization, hardware-in-loop simulation); and (2) develop advanced strategies for on-line process monitoring and control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will provide a fast and accurate analysis tool for aeroservoelastic simulations of aerospace vehicles and aircrafts. NASA applications of the technology include: (1) rapid and computationally affordable analysis for optimal aerodynamic and structural design of aerospace vehicles; (2) development of advanced, reliable aeroservoelastic control strategies (such as controlled maneuver, and aeroelastic instability control, e.g., buffet, flutter, buzz, and control reversal); and (3) arrangement of test procedures for rational use of instruments and facilities. The success in the proposed research will markedly reduce the development cycles of aerospace vehicles and aircrafts at reduced costs. NASA programs like aerostructures test wing, active AeroElastic Wing (AEW) and active twist rotors, Multi-Use Technology Testbed (MUTT) will also stand to benefit from the technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Process Monitoring & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.01-9716
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Aeroservoelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aeroservoelastic Suppression of LCO due to Free-Play Using a Combined Analytical and Experimental Approach

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 Hawthorne Boulevard
Hawthorne, CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Danowsky
bdanowsky@systemstech.com
13766 Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aerodynamic control surfaces with excessive free-play can cause limit cycle oscillations (LCO), a sustained vibration of constant amplitude that is caused by a combination of aeroservoelastic effects and free-play. The LCO can impact handling qualities, ride quality and can cause structural fatigue, ultimately leading to structural failure. Due to the negative impacts of free-play induced LCO, very stringent absolute free-play limits have been established for control surfaces on both military and commercial aircraft. Systems Technology, Inc. (STI) and Boeing propose to develop an innovative, robust, and reliable active control concept that alleviates the adverse effects of control surface free-play, relieving costly requirements associated with manufacturing, inspection, and part replacement. The solution involves a novel linear fractional transformation framework for relevance to models of varying complexity and a robust control approach that exploits the piecewise-linear nature of the free-play nonlinearity. To aid in control design and to provide practical real-world relevance, a combined analytical and experimental approach is proposed by the STI-Boeing team. The proposed solution is minimally intrusive, providing for application to a wide array of existing and future aircraft (including both high speed fighters and transport aircraft), ultimately resulting in significant cost savings and increased pilot safety.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting LCO suppression control solution will benefit both commercial and military aircraft that suffer from free-play induced LCO. This solution is applicable to both manned and unmanned aircraft. The initial target market envisioned for this product is the worldwide aircraft manufacturing industry and the civilian and military flight test facilities. A desirable and unique aspect of the proposed approach is the generalized applicability that is unobtrusive to existing aircraft flight control systems by design. This opens the market up to a vast number of existing aircraft that are plagued by free-play induced LCO. New aircraft programs will also benefit from this solution by providing relaxation to the stringent free-play requirements from the beginning. This solution will result in significant cost savings to the aircraft industry associated with the relaxation of stringent requirements resulting in reduced manufacturing, inspection, and hardware replacement cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is a research leader in aeroservoelasticity, including recent advances in innovative experimental excitation mechanisms for more accurate vibration data, signal processing, nonlinear system identification, and robust flutter boundary prediction. The proposed work naturally follows and complements these topic areas. The resulting LCO suppression control solution will benefit the many NASA programs that involve the design, analysis, and test of air vehicles. This includes flight test programs that use aircraft ranging from high speed fighters to low speed transports, encompassing both manned and unmanned platforms. NASA does not develop aircraft; therefore this solution is attractive due to the fact that it is minimally intrusive by design and can be applied to the existing aircraft systems in NASA's fleet. A control solution for free-play induced LCO will result in a reduction in certification requirements, providing for more concentration on the primary objectives of the flight test programs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Actuators & Motors
Structures
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.01-9973
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency-Aeroservoelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Linearized FUN3D for Rapid Aeroelastic and Aeroservoelastic Design and Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shuchi Yang
shuchi@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall objective of this Phase I project is to develop a hybrid approach in FUN3D, referred herein to as the Linearized FUN3D, for rapid aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic (ASE) design and analysis. The Linearized FUN3D solves a linearized Euler equation with a transpiration boundary condition using the FUN3D steady N-S solution as the steady background flow to efficiently generate a Reduced Order Model (ROM) in the form of the frequency-domain Generalized Aerodynamic Forces (GAF) matrices due to the structural modes, control surface kinematic modes and gust excitation. The Linearized FUN3D can generate an accurate unsteady aerodynamic solution in the small perturbation sense about a nonlinear steady flow condition. It also can avoid the moving mesh problem associated with applying the exact N-S boundary condition which requires additional computational resources, and becomes very complex in dealing with the discontinuous displacement in mode shapes such as the control surface modes for which generating a computational mesh could be a very tedious effort. In order to enable the Linearized FUN3D to perform frequency-domain open-loop and closed-loop aeroelastic analysis and to generate a plant model in terms of state space equations, several modules in ZAERO, ZONA's flagship commercial software for aeroelastic, ASE, and gust analysis, will be incorporated into the Linearized FUN3D. One can directly import such a plant model into MATLAB to design a flutter suppression and Gust Loads Alleviation (GLA) control system using the modern control design schemes available in MATLAB. The accurate flow field prediction of the wing pressures when a spoiler is deployed is currently beyond the capabilities of the existing aeroservoelastic codes. The wind tunnel measured unsteady pressures on the Benchmark Active Controls Technology wing will be selected to validate the proposed Linearized FUN3D for unsteady aerodynamic prediction due to spoiler oscillations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The design of an efficient maneuver, and Gust Load Alleviation (GLA) as well as flutter suppression controller requires an enormous amount of wind tunnel testing and flight testing to tune the control laws. An accurate aeroservoelastic model based on the Navier-Stokes flow equations would greatly enhance the early design of the controller and reduced wind tunnel and flight test time. The Linearized FUN3D can provide accurate steady and unsteady aerodynamics and can be applied to many categories of flight vehicles including blended wing-bodies, joined-wings, sub/supersonic transports, morphing aircraft, space planes, reusable launch vehicles, and similar revolutionary concepts pursued. Hence, the proposed research and its outcomes will be highly needed for designing the next generation of civil as well as military aircraft to meet the stringent future performance goals.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Phase I effort is highly relevant to on-going and future NASA projects in NASA's fixed wing project under Fundamental Aeronautics Program. NASA's fixed wing projects involving several non-conventional design concepts such as the Truss-Braced Wing (TBW), Blended Wing Body (BWB), and Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ). Because of the BWB's flying-wing-type and the SBJ's slender fuselage designs, these designs are prone to the BFF (Body Freedom Flutter) problem. In addition, it is expected that the gust loads, on the high aspect ratio wing of the TBW configuration, will be one of the critical design loads. The proposed work will offer a computational tool to the NASA designers for early exploration of technologies and design concepts that exploit the trade-off between the passive and active approaches for mitigating the potential aeroelastic problems associated with those non-conventional configurations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.02-8995
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Technology MEMS-based Acoustic Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation
5745 Southwset
Gainesville, FL 32608-5504
(352) 359-7796

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Horowitz
steveh23@gmail.com
5745 SW 75th, 364
Gainesville,  FL 32608-5504
(256) 960-9520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation proposes a technological advancement of current state-of-the-art acoustic energy harvester for harsh environment applications. Due to the advancement of propulsion systems and increasing power requirements, the development of a renewable energy source is ideal to overcome the related issues seen in systems powered by batteries (limited lifespan, recharge issues, accessibility and replacement). We propose the innovation of a mesoscale, acoustic energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator and a piezoelectric composite backplate using high temperature materials. Additionally, a high temperature power rectifying circuitry will be developed to convert the output of the time-varying output of the energy harvester into a useable form. The target application is to power feedback or embedded sensor systems to enable self-sustaining functionality to the devices.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond aerospace applications and customers, other potential markets include commercial aircraft, automotive and array-based feedback/embedded sensor systems for structural health monitoring. The investigators have an established relationship with Boeing and have identified other target customers such as Northrop Grumman, GE Transportation, Rolls Royce, Airbus, Honeywell, and Pratt & Whitney.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed power reclamation technology has the potential to be transportable across multiple NASA facility classes as well as implemented across government-owned, industry and academic institution test facilities. The target market is acoustic energy harvesters for the aerospace industry and the AEH device can be adapted towards multiple aircraft or flight applications with minimal redesign required. Given the capability of the proposed device's ability to withstand harsh environments, the technology would support multiple NASA GRC facilities such as Aero-Acoustics Propulsion Laboratory, Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig, Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig, Advanced Noise Control Fan Rig and NASA LaRC facilities such as the Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR), and the Grazing Flow Impedance Duct (GFID).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.02-9794
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Phased Array Technique for Low Signal-To-Noise Ratio Wind Tunnels

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
OPTINAV, Inc.
10914 Northeast
Bellevue, WA 98004-2928
(425) 891-4883

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Dougherty
rpd@optinav.com
10914 NE 18 ST
Bellevue,  WA 98004-2928
(425) 891-4883

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Closed wind tunnel beamforming for aeroacoustics has become more and more prevalent in recent years. Still, there are major drawbacks as current microphone arrays are rather larger and hard to install and conventional beamforming and deconvolution techniques do not work well in low signal-to-noise environments. Outlined in the proposal is a phased airfoil imaging microphone array located inside the wind tunnel which utilizes Functional Beamforming, a modification of conventional beamforming. A completed unit would be comprised of several airfoils with microphones placed in a linear fashion along the leading edges. Functional Beamforming is a breakthrough algorithm that will allow for much better beamform mapping with much smaller arrays than what is currently available. Because of the potential small size of the array, it would be easy to install and implement. Placing the array in the tunnel also allows for numerous viewing angles of the test models as opposed to a single view provided by wall arrays. Phase I will focus on designing, building, and testing the multi-arm airfoil array to troubleshoot operation and eliminate showstoppers. Functional Beamforming software is currently available and does not require further development the rights of which are owned by OptiNav, inc. The PI has a plethora of experience and knowledge in acoustical testing and phased imaging arrays and was a key investigator in early closed wind tunnel acoustical testing. The proposal outlines a work plan which includes testing in the Kirsten Wind Tunnel at the University of Washington which has already agreed to support the tests.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation would also appeal to all other government, university, and private closed wind tunnel facilities around the world. Open wind tunnels would also be another application although not the primary target. Basically, any wind tunnel facility with an interest in testing acoustics would be a potential customer. Functional Beamforming has an even greater number of applications. The software can extend too many other fields including underwater acoustics, cellular telephone networks, radio astronomy, seismology, medical imaging, and any other field that relies on conventional beamforming.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation would primarily appeal to NASA owned closed wind tunnels like ATP facilities including the 9x15 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC, the 14x22 foot Subsonic Tunnel, and the National Transonic Facility at LaRC.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Acoustic/Vibration
Non-Electromagnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.02-9830
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Liners for Broadband Noise Reduction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Hermiller
hermillerjm@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will combine the advantages of adaptive materials with the simplistic passive design of state-of-the-art acoustic liners to provide the ability to tune them for specific operational frequencies (ex. take-off/cutback, cruise, and approach). The main deterrent to implementing these methods is not having the materials on hand to provide the functionality needed in a simplistic way. Many proposed solutions are not practical from a manufacturing/cost perspective: too complex or add weight to the aircraft that is not justifiable. CRG has already demonstrated feasibility of the ability to implement adaptive technologies into acoustic liners. The next step is to demonstrate repeatable liner control performance supported by more extensive acoustic testing runs to understand the initial shifting and increased suppression behaviors that have been observed. Also, automated cyclic testing of a given adaptive liner parameter will be executed to demonstrate the durability of the adaptive material and applicability to this application. CRG will focus liner adaptive design initially on demonstration of tuning liner reactance to TRL 3 in Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed adaptive acoustic liner technology has high potential for application in public and private sector commercial airline jet engine systems. This project's technologies, developed for NASA liner concepts, would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include improvements in noise reduction, prediction, measurement methods, and control for subsonic and supersonic vehicle systems, including fan, jet, turbo-machinery, and airframe noise sources operated by the DoD and all major commercial aviation companies. This technology's attributes for commercial jet engine manufacturers should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for implementation of tunable characteristics for turbofan engine acoustic liners. Additionally, CRG also sees a future for resulting commercialization of the adaptive liner technologies with commercial turbine generators, marine turbine systems, and the rail industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting several of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate projects and the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, this project's technologies directly address requirements for improvements in noise reduction and control for subsonic and supersonic vehicle systems, including fan, jet, turbomachinery, and airframe noise sources. This project's technologies offer system-level improvements in noise, emissions, and performance. The resulting adaptive liner capabilities could potentially be used by NASA to more quickly study different passive liner concepts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.02-9894
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Unstructured, High-Order Scheme Module with Low Dissipation Flux Difference Splitting for Noise Prediction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
701 McMillian Way Notrhwest, S
Huntsville, AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
H Yang
hqy@cfdrc.com
701 McMillian Way NW, Suite D
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2923
(256) 726-4800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thorough understanding of aircraft airframe and engine noise mechanisms and the subsequent acoustic propagation to the farfield is necessary to develop and evaluate noise mitigation concepts. Therefore, continued assessment and development of advanced prediction methodologies and tools is essential. Despite significant progress made in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in past several decades, some production unstructured CFD codes used at NASA for noise prediction are only 2nd order accurate at best. In this SBIR study, we propose to develop a modular high-order scheme with low dissipation flux difference splitting that can be integrated into existing CFD codes for use in improving the solution accuracy and to enable better prediction of complex physics and noise mechanisms and propagation. The salient features of our proposed approach include: (1) high-resolution schemes with physics-based low-dissipation flux-difference splitting; (2) very low memory requirements; and (3) modular structure for easy integration into existing CFD codes. During Phase I, a module providing 3rd order accurate schemes will be developed and integrated into FUN3D code. Verification and validation studies will be conducted to demonstrate the improved solution accuracy. During Phase II, 4th order accurate schemes will be developed and implemented with FUN3D, and the performance of improved schemes will be assessed for realistic aeroacoustic problems. Adaptive use of high-order schemes near solution discontinuities (such as shocks) will be investigated. Phase II plans will also consider integration of the high-order module with other unstructured CFD codes such as USM3D and Loci/CHEM.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FAA spends millions of dollars a year buying out homes, or making acoustic improvements to homes in accordance with FFA regulations. There is a huge market for efficient aeroacoustic analysis tools, which is driven by new aircraft, missile, and reusable launch vehicle design and by the need for multiple aeroacoustic analyses over time as a consequence of aircraft modifications and expanded/changing missions. These are important areas for defense contractors. The proposed technology provides a viable tool for several commercial applications such as wing-trailing vortex dynamics of large civil aircraft, analysis of noise generated by landing gear of civil aircraft, and others. The present high-order low-dissipation CFD technology is also applicable to a wide range of applications that involve embedded flow features requiring high resolution with limited grid size. Such applications include turbomachinery, cavitation, biomedical, electronic cooling, and many others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The work proposed in this effort will advance the state-of-the-art of unstructured CFD technology not only for aeroacoustics problems but also in other areas such as high-lifting surfaces, airframe design and propulsion. The developed high-order and low dissipation unstructured CFD technology for noise source prediction can also be directly applied to several of NASA's multidisciplinary noise and vibration programs such as the prediction of noise mechanisms and propagation for engine, fan, duct, propellers, and airframes, and for the analysis of wake/frame interaction induced noise and vibrations. It can be used for the design of revolutionary aircraft with innovative configurations and technologies for minimum noise signature, and for the improvement of current aircraft noise performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.03-9123
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions/Clean Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Kinetic Mechanisms for Petroleum-Derived and Alternative Aviation Fuels

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
goginesp@gmail.com
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To be useful for computational combustor design and analysis using tools like the National Combustion Code (NCC), low-dimensional chemical kinetic mechanisms for modeling of real fuel combustion chemistry must be sufficiently compact so that they can be utilized in multi-dimensional, multi-physics, reacting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Despite advances in CFD-appropriate kinetic mechanism reduction for kerosene-range fuels, significant combustion property variation among current and prospective certified fuels remains a challenge for meaningful CFD-advised design of high pressure, low-emissions combustors. The proposed project will leverage Princeton's ongoing work in aviation fuel surrogate formulation and modeling as well as kinetic mechanism development for emissions and high pressure combustion to produce and demonstrate a meta-model framework for automated generation of fuel-flexible compact chemical kinetic mechanisms appropriate for 3-D combustion CFD codes. Phase I will demonstrate the novel meta-model approach by providing compact kinetic mechanisms for both a "typical" Jet A/JP-8 (POSF-4658), as well as a synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) derived from natural gas (POSF 4734). Phase II of this proposed work would generalize the Phase I results to span the combustion property parameter space relevant to both conventional and next-generation alternative aviation fuels. The commercial product foreseen from this SBIR program is a stand-alone, novice-friendly real fuel kinetic mechanism generator software package that can interface with commercially-available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Potential customers may include the companies supplying ANSYS, CFD-ACE+, or COMSOL, as well as industrial users with proprietary in-house codes. Tools to yield compact real fuel kinetic models has similar broad appeal for computational simulations in automotive, aerospace (both defense and civilian), and marine propulsion industries.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial product foreseen from this SBIR program is a stand-alone, novice-friendly real fuel kinetic mechanism generator software package that can interface with commercially-available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Accordingly, potential customers may include the companies supplying ANSYS, CFD-ACE+, or COMSOL, as well as industrial users with proprietary in-house codes. Application of compact real fuel kinetic models has broad appeal to automotive, aerospace, and marine propulsion industries, both for civilian and DoD applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Technical Objectives presented in this Phase I proposal directly address a topic in the NASA SBIR solicitation for low emissions/clean power aircraft combustors. The "compact" low-dimensional chemical kinetic mechanisms proposed for modeling of real aviation fuel combustion chemistry will support physics-based CFD development of next-generation engines such as those employing lean direct injection (LDI) technology. Reacting flow simulation platforms like NASA's National Combustion Code (NCC), as well as ANSYS, KIVA, and OpenFOAM, require mechanisms sufficiently compact so as to be tractable for multi-dimensional, multi-physics, CFD simulations, but which also preserve the predictive fidelity of more detailed kinetic mechanisms. Importantly, the present framework permits the consideration of a variety of real fuels, including alternative fuels derived from a variety of non-petroleum resources. Evaluation of such alternative fuels is among the major NASA research thrusts under the general topic of propulsion.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Ablative Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Surface Propulsion
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.04-8808
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency
PROPOSAL TITLE: Camber Configuration Control for Performance Optimization (C3PO)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert McKillip
bob@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel actuation concept previously used for trailing edge tab control is to be extended for use in spanwise camber control for enhanced aerodynamic performance of next generation aircraft designs. The key features of its low-power, two-position (bistable) nature and small size permit its application as secondary structure within wing assemblies, thereby allowing for flight-dependent customization of the spanwise camber to optimize vehicle aerodynamic efficiency. The proposed Phase I program will leverage previous development success of the actuation concept to scale design applications for ultimate use on transport-category aircraft, and provide risk reduction via demonstration wind tunnel tests on a scaled wing half-span model. A byproduct of the scaling law will be its incorporation within a Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) tool for ease of exploration of the actuation features in the context of novel vehicle configurations having flight control for performance adjustment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The aerospace industry can benefit from having additional design options for the incorporation of advance controls for use in optimizing the performance of their vehicles. Operators would be able to realize better fuel economy, lower emissions, and improved payload weight fraction by using embedded controls that both enhance aerodynamic efficiency while removing actuator weight from transport category configurations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Better understanding of embedded actuation for aircraft performance optimization would expand the modeling capabilities of NASA's MDAO toolset, and help provide information on anticipated technology investment benefits toward aeronautics advancement. Such actuation technology could provide the next logical step in the realization of a performance-driven control implementation for next generation aircraft concepts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.04-9214
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency
PROPOSAL TITLE: Drag Identification & Reduction Technology (DIRECT) for Elastically Shaped Air Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jovan Boskovic
jovan@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA and Boeing Phantom Works have been working on the Elastically Shaped Future Vehicle Concept (ESFVC) and have shown that aircraft with elastically shaped wings have great potential to save fuel by minimizing drag. Main feature of the ESFVC is that it uses Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCC-TEF) flight control surfaces to bend & twist the wing to a "drooped wing" configuration that was shown capable of achieving drag reduction. However, elastic wings are characterized by reduced stiffness, which may result in lower flutter margins. Hence flutter suppression is an important aspect of the ESFVC. In order to address this technical challenge, SSCI and Boeing Phantom Works propose to design, implement and test an innovative Drag Identification & Reduction Technology (DIRECT) approach to drag reduction and flutter suppression in flexible-wing aircraft. The approach is based on leveraging prior work by SSCI and includes on-line identification of flutter modes using real-time subspace identification techniques, flutter suppression control law development, and the selection of the optimal control allocation that minimizes drag based on the CFD/FEA analysis. The approach will be tested on aircraft dynamics simulation, developed by Boeing, that includes a large number of relevant flexible modes. Boeing Phantom Works (Mr. James Urnes, Sr) will provide technical and commercialization support under the project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed DIRECT system is applicable to future flexible-wing commercial vehicle concepts where the main objective is to enhance fuel efficiency while reducing noise and emissions. The approach will also be applicable to military versions of HALE UAVs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are designed to cruise above 60,000 ft and to fly missions ranging from a few days to a few years. Such a unique flight profile allows the use of these aircraft as platforms for scientific research. The implementation of the concept of flexible wings and the DIRECT technology in HALE UAVs would result in lowering the costs of NASA scientific research by reducing fuel consumption, and in contributing to environmental protection by lowering emissions and noise.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.04-9573
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aerodynamic Optimization for Distributed Electro Mechanical Actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
4 Cambridge Center, 11th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142-1494
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marty Sweeney
msweeney@aurora.aero
4 Cambridge Center, 11th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1494
(617) 229-6822

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Traditional hydraulic actuation and control surface layout both limit span wise control of lift distribution, and require large volume within wing cross-section, ultimately reducing efficiency. Mounting and support structures for traditional actuators, also necessitate drag-inducing protrusions in otherwise ideally smooth airfoils. Consequently, hydraulic systems are heavy and energy intensive as compared to electromechanical counterparts. Coupling distributed EMAs with novel controls optimizing lift distribution in real-time during flight allows lighter, thinner, and more flexible wing structure. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization used to couple control formulation for any point in flight with aeroelastic model of the wing. Parametric distribution of EMAs will guide actuator placement and aid design and sizing of flexible wing system that maximizes L/D. Aurora has used both distributed local flow sensors and on-board fiber-optic strain sensors, which along with novel control algorithms allow for on-board, near real-time control calculations to be completed, creating adaptive wing shapes, and optimize L/D within the flight envelope.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications for the distributed EMA technology span from commercial aviation to the military UAS markets. After the actuation system has been thoroughly vetted through integration into Aurora products, Aurora and Moog will aim to sell the EMA to outside customers as a stand-alone product as well as an integrated system. Moog will be the primary actuator manufacturer while Aurora will act as a value added reseller, customizing integration and installation methods and developing actuator control laws as appropriate for the intended use of the EMA. Depending on configuration selection, this system could be packaged as an actuator and casing to replace actuation systems in existing aircraft, a structural panel to be incorporated into newly designed aircraft, or a custom designed system where Aurora and Moog partner closely with a customer to tailor the EMA to specific aircraft needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort has direct applications to NASA's next gen commercial aviation efforts. Specifically The coupling of distributed EMAs with a novel control system that attempts to optimize the lift distribution real-time during flight will allow lighter, thinner, and more flexible wing structures to be developed. These wings will in turn be more efficient both structurally as well as aerodynamically. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) will be used to couple the control law formulation for any point in the flight with an aeroelastic model of the wing. Parametric distribution of the EMAs will guide actuator placement and aid in the design and sizing of a flexible wing system that will maximize L/D. Aurora has previously used both distributed local flow sensors and on-board fiber-optic strain sensors, which along with novel control algorithms allow for on-board, near real-time control calculations to be completed. This is employed to increase total system efficiency, create adaptive wing shapes, and optimize L/D within the flight envelope. Wing redesign using the innovation described here could be implemented directly on the NASA N+3 D8 Concept, on which Aurora is a subcontractor to MIT, or the Common Research Model (CRM) wing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Actuators & Motors
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.04-9972
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency
PROPOSAL TITLE: CFD-Based Over-Determined Trim Analysis for Optimum Aerodynamic Efficiency

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ping-Chih Chen
pc@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall objective of this Phase I project is to develop a nonlinear trim module in FUN3D for enabling the determined and over-determined trim analyses to be performed by FUN3D with static aeroelastic effects. Based on an optimization formulation, the over-determined trim analysis can determine the optimum control surface scheduling of multiple control surfaces to achieve the best aerodynamic efficiency of the aircraft using the high-fidelity Navier-Stokes (N-S) solver in FUN3D. At the critical loads flight conditions, the optimum control surface scheduling can minimize the design loads; leading to a lighter and more flexible structural design. At the cruise conditions, the optimum control surface scheduling can aeroelastically deform the more flexible structure to an optimum shape for induced drag minimization at cruise. One non-conventional design concept under investigation by NASA is the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system that utilizes multiple advanced actuators such as shape memory alloys (SMA) to achieve an optimum continuous deformed wing shape for obtaining the best aerodynamic efficiency. The VCCTEF design concept for the aerodynamic efficiency improvement will be ultimately verified by wind tunnel testing. However, such a wind tunnel testing will be impractically without a viable wind tunnel test plan that can provide a guideline for seeking the optimum actuation scheduling in the multi-dimensional design space. This viable wind tunnel test plan for testing the VCCTEF concept can be established by the FUN3D nonlinear trim module.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FUN3D nonlinear trim module can provide accurate prediction of optimum flap scheduling and can be applied to many categories of flight vehicles including blended wing-bodies, joined-wings, sub/supersonic transports, morphing aircraft, space planes, reusable launch vehicles, and similar revolutionary concepts being pursued. Hence, the proposed research and its outcomes will be highly needed for designing the next generation of civil as well as military aircraft to meet the stringent future performance goals.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Phase I effort is highly relevant to several on-going and future NASA projects in NASA's fixed wing project under Fundamental Aeronautics Program. Initiatives such as the elastic aircraft flight control and Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) development will benefit from the research conducted in the proposed Phase I effort. NASA is currently studying the application of the VCCTEF to a generic transport model (GTM) and plans to perform a wind tunnel test for measuring the drag characteristics of this VCCTEF-GTM configuration in FY2014-2015. The FUN3D nonlinear trim module can be adopted by NASA to calculate the optimum SMA actuations for minimum drag prediction to provide a guideline for establishing a viable wind tunnel test plan.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.05-8588
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Conceptual Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-Based Conceptual Design Tools

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M4 Engineering, Inc.
4020 Long Beach Boulevard
Long Beach, CA 90807-2683
(562) 981-7797

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tyler Winter
twinter@m4-engineering.com
4020 Long Beach Boulevard
Long Beach,  CA 90807-2683
(562) 981-7797

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the current proposal, M4 Engineering will develop and evaluate the feasibility of an innovative concept aimed at enhancing previously developed databases with physics-based weight and load estimation relationships (via stochastic response surfaces) for unconventional (and conventional!) conceptual wing and fuselage designs. The main goal for this effort will be to develop a software tool capable of generating weight and load responses for unconventional designs from physics-based simulations. In an effort to minimize risk and expedite development, the proposed software tool will utilize two previously developed in-house robust toolsets for rapidly generating finite element models and constructing stochastic response surfaces.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed development has the potential to dramatically improve the weight and loads predictions capabilities within NASA for unconventional applications. Phase II development will result in a commercial software package including a user friendly interface. In addition to being offered as a commercial software package, this software tool will strengthen M4's engineering services offering. The current demographics in the engineering workforce make this a very attractive market. Due to the aging workforce and the relative shortage of excellent talent, the engineering services/consulting market is very active, and is expected to remain so for years to come. This is readily apparent by simply looking at the current hourly rate for contract engineers, which can easily top $130/hour for experts in the LA area. The technology developed in the proposed work will give M4 a technical edge over the competition in terms of tools and processes, and will also enhance our team's experience base and marketability for performing engineering services work. While there are many competitors in the engineering services area, we are confident that our team can continue to thrive and grow this business element given the current market conditions. Potential applications will include the use of the developed software within any complex integrated system needing weight and loading predictions. The software could be utilized by companies such as Lockheed, Boeing, and Northrop Grumman.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications will include the use of the developed technology for estimation of weight and loads for any new generation aircraft system including the blended wing body (BWB), truss-based high lift wing, and any other unconventional configuration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Structures
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.05-9362
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Conceptual Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Variable Complexity Weight Estimation for Conceptual Aircraft Design Optimization (VaC-CADO)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nikhil Nigam
nnigam@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-4255

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The defense and the commercial sectors in US have been undergoing severe energy issues, with the prices and demand of fuel increasing over the years. Thus investigations into advanced fuel efficient designs have become inevitable. With increase in air traffic, environmental concerns of noise and emissions have also been brought to the forefront. This has resulted in NASA's ambitious N+3 vision, as exemplified in the Subsonic Fixed Wing projects's four corners of the design trade space. Also, the burgeoning interest in UAS platforms promises significant departures from traditional aircraft designs. To enable introduction of new aircraft into the inventory, the conceptual design of advanced concepts is critical. However, the aircraft design community realizes a need for introducing physics based analysis early in the design space. In particular weight estimates based on statistical relations are inadequate for new concepts, and there is a need for improved weight estimation. For this purpose, Intelligent Automation proposes VaC-CADO, a variable complexity conceptual aircraft design tool for the design of advanced airplanes by combining multi-fidelity optimization and MDO with FEM-based weight estimation. This is a novel technique leveraging on state-of-the-art in aircraft design and enhancing it using our extensive experience in this field.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several DOD groups, such as the AFRL conceptual design group under the Propulsion System Directorate, have been conducting research to develop novel conceptual design tools for analysis and design of new concepts. This becomes critical while acquiring new technology and helps guide the programs within DOD. VaC-CADO with its application to novel concepts will directly address this critical need. We have also been discussing this particular challenge of physics-based MDAO tools with several OEMs including Boeing and Lockheed, who have expressed considerable interest in this technology. Of immediate interest is the Advanced Vehicle Concepts Study where Boeing is evaluating Preferred Systems Concepts for passenger and cargo transport aircraft. And there are several other programs at Boeing that can greatly benefit from development of technologies that optimize aircraft design at the system level. This tool will also benefit academic researchers as well as smaller contractors and has great potential for commercialization.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We anticipate that by the end of Phase II, we will have matured the concept sufficiently to embed it and test it in NASA systems. An example program of interest is the Fundamental Aeronautics Program at NASA (including subsonic fixed wing, subsonic rotary wing, supersonics, and hypersonics programs). One of the major goals of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the inclusion of physics-based analysis in modern MDO tools, which is the particular innovation in VaC-CADO. This tool for design of unconventional aircraft will also enable NASA to analyze new concepts that revolutionize the aerodynamic performance and meet N+3 goals of NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.05-9368
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Conceptual Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-Based Wing Structure Design, Analysis and Weight Estimation Conceptual Design Tool for Hybrid Electric Distributed Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc.
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach, CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Gibson
andrew.gibson@esaero.com
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach,  CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As HEDP systems have proven worthy of further consideration by approaching NASA's goals for N+2 and N+3 energy consumption, noise, emission and field length, conceptual design tools to expedite the design cycle are desired. During this Phase I effort ESAero will progress the development of the hybrid-electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) TOGW tool developed in the previous Phase I SBIR (NNX13CC24P) by producing a physics-based wing structure analysis and weight estimation module. The layout of the structural members will be estimated using heuristic trends and top-level design assumptions, and the members will be sized according to classical beam theory. The interaction between HEDP configuration and aircraft weight is important to understand, as one primary advantage of the configuration is the ability to place smaller propulsors at virtually any location on the aircraft, leveraging pre-existing airframe supports. By delving into the structural analysis of HEDP designs, progress can be made toward determining how sensitive aircraft structural weight is to propulsion configuration. This new module will replace the modified, empirically based equations used in the current TOGW framework. By incorporating this capability, the novel architectures and configurations of HEDP systems, as well as other advanced aircraft concepts, could be analyzed and sized with greater fidelity. Furthermore, this effort may start to unravel concerns over other structural members paving the way for further investigation in a Phase II. Other potential Phase II tasks may include integrating this structural analysis and weight estimation into other conceptual design tools, such as OpenVSP.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As with ESAero's other conceptual design tools, the obvious commercial application of this wing structural weight module is to use it and the TOGW framework it is associated with to support conceptual design groups in their research and development of hybrid-electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) aircraft. This tool will be among the first conceptual design tools to study the effects of propulsion system integration options on structural design and weight. The tool may be used to guide aerospace primes and AFRL toward the identification of feasible HEDP configurations and support component manufacturers who are interested in how their technology would affect the leading edge in HEDP design and performance. AFRL would benefit as they are conducting in-house studies and supporting ESAero in other related areas. IARPA and the FAA will also benefit, as the tool will be distributed within the government FOUO. ESAero has indentified the government and industry partners to develop this type of technology near term (Boeing, General Electric, Lockheed Martin) and longer (NASA, AFRL, IARPA etc).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential NASA applications for this proposed effort will focus on integrating this module into the TOGW framework developed in ESAero's 2012 Phase I SBIR (NNX13CC24P). The tool itself is part of a larger MDAO framework for hybrid-electric synthesis, benefitting multiple NRA projects, and other direct NASA efforts, both internal and external. This effort further chips away at the various nuances native to hybrid-electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) configurations, developing some sense of how distributed propulsion effects structural weight. These new hurdles have not been addressed in previous textbook methods or efforts, but play a significant role in determining the feasibility of these new aircraft configurations. As one of the major benefits to a decoupled energy management system is the freedom of placing propulsors, this tool would show, with higher fidelity, how sensitive wing weight structure is to that distributive freedom. The wing weight module can be utilized by other tools written in the MATLAB language as it is capable of operating independent of the TOGW framework. In Phase II work, more of the structural group could be studied to show similar sensitivities to hybrid-electric architectures, and the tool could potentially be integrated into OpenVSP, creating a more comprehensive conceptual design tool for HEDP.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Distribution/Management
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Structures
Development Environments
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.05-9369
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Physics-Based Conceptual Design Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-Based Radiator Design, Sizing & Weight Estimation Tool for Conceptual Design of More-, Hybrid-, and All-Electric Next Gen Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc.
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach, CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Schiltgen
benjamin.schiltgen@esaero.com
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach,  CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hybrid electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) systems have proven worthy for further consideration by approaching NASA's goals for N+2 and N+3 energy consumption, noise, emission and field length. The thermal management associated with these systems has been recognized as a major challenge to be overcome. ESAero's recent 2012 Phase I SBIR (NNX13CC24P) identified the radiator as a driving component within the thermal management system (TMS). Its design has profound first order effects on the weight, performance, and aerodynamic drag of the TMS, and second order effects on the weight and performance of the overall propulsion system. During the proposed Phase I SBIR, ESAero will upgrade the existing physics-based radiator design, analysis, and weight estimation conceptual design tool by improving the flexibility and fidelity of thermodynamic analysis and predicting the effects of integrating the radiator core within a well-designed duct. ESAero will call upon existing techniques to design a robust tool that more accurately predicts the "as-built" behavior of the component. These modifications are expected to dramatically improve the predicted weight and performance of the radiator and negate nearly all of the radiator drag by employing the Meredith Effect, as seen on the P-51 Mustang.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As with ESAero's other conceptual design tools, the obvious commercial application of the improved radiator module is to use it and the TOGW framework it is associated with to support conceptual design groups in their research and development of hybrid-electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) aircraft. The tool may be used to guide aerospace primes and AFRL toward the identification of feasible HEDP architectures and support component manufacturers who are interested in how their technology would affect the leading edge in HEDP design and performance. AFRL would benefit as they are conducting in-house studies and supporting ESAero in other related areas. IARPA and the FAA will also benefit, as the tool will be distributed within the government FOUO. ESAero has indentified the government and industry partners to develop this type of technology near term (Boeing, General Electric, Lockheed Martin) and longer (NASA, AFRL, IARPA etc).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This tool itself is part of a larger MDAO framework for hybrid-electric synthesis, benefitting multiple NRA projects and other direct NASA efforts both internal and external. This effort further chips away at the various nuances native to hybrid-electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) configurations by developing a sense of how distributed propulsion relates to thermal requirements. By developing conceptual design tools that are sensitive to coupled relationships between multiple disciplines, faster design cycles with increased depth and breadth of detail can be achieved. This module can be utilized by other tools written in the MATLAB language as it is capable of operating independent of the framework, thus allowing it to support non-HEDP aircraft designs as well. Phase II options include full HEDP integration studies including TMS considerations and potentially integrating these components and features into OpenVSP to create a more comprehensive conceptual design tool for HEDP.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Distribution/Management
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Development Environments
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.06-8620
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Validated Design and Analysis Tool for Small Vertical-Lift Unmanned Air Vehicle Noise Prediction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Delta Group International, LLC
14660 Latrobe Drive, Suite U3
Colorado Springs, CO 80921-2609
(719) 646-4525

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudarshana Koushik
NSud@dgilink.com
9707 Bristol Avenue
Silver Spring,  MD 20901-3208
(240) 997-1911

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A procedure and supporting computer code for the prediction of noise that radiates from small, vertical lift UAV aircraft is proposed. The resulting building block procedure is theoretically based but is verified experimentally at several output stages. Noise source models for rotors, lift-fans, engines etc. are developed and validated through specially designed experiments and stored in a component digital library. For a given small lifting UAV configuration, these noise source models are combined into a hemispheric representation of the total radiated noise. The total radiated field is governed by the operating state of the vehicle as described by the governing performance model for the chosen configuration. Standard propagation effects and subjective weightings are used to radiate hemispheric noise levels to ground observers. The resulting computer program can be mathematically flown along prescribed trajectories to estimate ground noise radiation of several small UAV aircraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a validated external noise prediction code for small vertical lift UAVs will have a large impact on the potential military uses of these vehicles. Excessive and distinct small UAV noise radiation reduces the mission effectiveness by alerting the enemy that a UAV is in the area. In addition,the UAV's distinct acoustic signature presents the enemy with targeting opportunities – thus reducing the survival rate on each mission. When fully developed, the acoustic prediction tool can be used to help determine the best vehicle performance design within detection acoustic constraints and/or the quietest detection design within the performance constraints of the vehicle. The prediction tool can also assess quiet methods of flying the small vertical lift UAV to minimize the likelihood of acoustic detection. The tool will also be useful to the military in planning non-detectable UAV missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a validated external noise prediction code for small vertical lift UAVs will have a large impact on the potential commercial uses of these vehicles. Vehicles that are noisy are likely to have restricted operations because of their acoustic intrusiveness. Designing and operating small vertical lift UAVs so they operate quietly will help facilitate their application potential. When fully developed, the acoustic prediction tool can be used to help determine the best vehicle performance design within acoustic constraints and/or the quietest design within performance constraints. The prediction tool can also assess quiet methods of flying the small vertical lift UAV to minimize annoyance to surrounding communities. The tool will also be useful to the government in assessing how small UAV aircraft can quietly operate within the United States air transportation system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Actuators & Motors
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Acoustic/Vibration
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.06-8898
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Computational Tool for High Advance Ratio Configurations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sukra Helitek Inc.
3146 Greenwood Road
Ames, IA 50014-4504
(515) 292-9646

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luke Novak
nappi@sukra-helitek.com
3146 Greenwood Rd.
Ames,  IA 50014-4504
(515) 292-9646

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Newer vertical lift configurations consider speed as an important design parameter with forward speeds upwards of 230 Knots, which is well above the acceptable incompressible flow regime. In such high speed vertical lift configurations, even though the aircraft may be cruising at compressible Mach numbers, incompressible flow pockets can occur in the wake of the fuselage. Hence, in contrast to most helicopters currently in use, these configurations need to be analyzed across a wide range of speed regimes including incompressible, compressible and mixed regimes. The present proposal offers to extend the design tool ``RotCFD'' to viscous all-speeds with mixed incompressible and compressible regions. In general, the algorithms used in CFD are designed for incompressible flow or compressible flow, depending upon the primary usage. RotCFD, being an Integrated Design Environment (IDE) for rotors, can be developed to seamlessly work in both regimes without additional input besides the operating speed from the design community. Additionally, this proposal offers to extend RotCFD to include grid generation with bodies in relative motion, such as tilting nacelles and wing tips, which happens in transitioning flight. The proposed extension of RotCFD for all-speed regimes and flows with mixed regimes, if proven successful, will offer the vertical flight scientific community a moderate fidelity, robust and efficient design tool. With the added potential to simulate relative motion of components, the tool will provide an analysis capability for all operational regimes: hover, conversion and cruise.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
RotCFD with mixed speed flow regimes and moving bodies will be an asset to any organization with a need to analyze a high-speed rotorcraft design or develop a new design. The tool will be useful to other government agencies including the Army, Navy and Air Force. In the rotorcraft industry, the proposed tool can be used to assist the design process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's interest in civil rotorcraft research such as LCTR2 prompts for a computational tool which can analyze compressible and mixed regime flows in an easy to learn and robust Integrated Design Environment. The proposed design tool accomplishes this goal, especially in the areas where transitioning flight and moving bodies such as nacelles and winglets are required.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.06-9367
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid-Electric and All-Electric Rotorcraft Analysis and Tool Development

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc.
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach, CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Green
michael.green@esaero.com
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach,  CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During this Phase I effort ESAero will draw upon its knowledge of hybrid-electric propulsion system design and analysis for fixed wing aircraft to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating such systems into rotorcraft designs. Past rotorcraft studies have been conducted in conjunction with Electricore, Inc. and an industry prime, to develop hybrid propulsion system trade studies and develop databases for hybrid propulsion system worthy components. This knowledge will be leveraged to investigate potential areas of improvement including energy consumption, weight, overall efficiency, and safety. Implementing hybrid-electric systems could potentially remove redundant systems, reduce turbine size and allow for electrically powered emergency decent. In addition, decoupled energy management has shown potential benefits for fixed wing aircraft, allowing propulsors to be placed virtually anywhere around the aircraft. The potential benefit specific to rotorcraft may mean a broadening of configuration possibilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The knowledge gained from this Phase I effort can help to support other companies in their hybrid-electric designs studies. As the industry pushes towards investigating hybrid-electric and all-electric designs, with the development of new technologies for electric components and batteries, an understanding of how these technologies are to be integrated and analyzed is required. The results of this effort may also guide aerospace primes and AFRL toward the identification of feasible hybrid-electric and all-electric rotorcraft architectures. The trade studies can serve to inform component manufacturers on how their technology would affect the leading edge of hybrid-electric and all-electric rotorcraft designs to guide future development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This Phase I effort adds breadth to the body of knowledge for hybrid-electric propulsion considerations specific to rotorcraft designs. These designs may have potential in benefitting NRA projects and direct NASA efforts, both internal and external. The nuances of adopting hybrid-electric propulsion have already been somewhat identified, and this efforts seeks to gain some ground in developing the same sensitivity for rotorcraft. With the development of the processes that enable the hybrid-electric rotorcraft to be analyzed and compared to baseline configurations, the potential direction of future design tools will be narrowed. Once the basics of hybrid-electric rotorcraft design and analysis are better understood, a wider variety of propulsion architectures can also be investigated. Once the analysis is better understood, more ground can be broken for investigating sizing methods, structural analysis and health monitoring considerations that have already been initiated for fixed wing designs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Distribution/Management
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Development Environments
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.06-9430
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Small VTOL UAV Acoustics Measurement and Prediction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Wachspress
dan@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Interest in civilian use of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) capability has increased greatly in recent years, and is expected to grow significantly in the future. Research to date has focused on propulsion, batteries, sensors and autonomous control laws, but little attention has been paid to acoustic characteristics. The generation and propagation of noise associated with small VTOL UAVs are not well understood and prediction tools have not been developed or validated for this class of vehicles. Since public acceptance of these vehicles is crucial to their future in civilian roles, it is imperative that NASA acquire the analysis tools and an adequate understanding of the acoustic characteristics associated with these aircraft. The objective of the proposed effort is to create a base of experimental data to characterize the noise generated by this class of vehicle and then to use this data to evaluate and enhance existing rotary-wing design and analysis tools in this area.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new test database and the enhanced analysis tools for small VTOL UAV acoustics will be of great use to rotorcraft manufacturers, DoD agencies and private industry as well as NASA in the coming years. The DoD is seeing a growing use of small VTOL UAV aircraft in surveillance and tactical urban warfare. In these applications, stealth can be critical, and the ability to accurately characterize and predict the UAV noise will be invaluable. The analysis tools developed in this effort will be needed by manufacturers of small VTOL UAVs wishing to include acoustic analysis in their design work. Since the forecast for the implementation of these types of aircraft is burgeoning, not just for NASA and DoD but also for private industry, the market for analysis software and engineering services in this area has a tremendous upside for growth, leading to great potential for commercial applications beyond NASA's needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort directly responds to NASA's SBIR solicitation goal to "develop and validate tools, technologies and concepts to overcome key barriers for rotary wing vehicles" citing in particular an objective to "develop design and analysis tools for the prediction of acoustics for small vertical lift UAVs." The proposed effort will provide valuable test data characterizing the acoustics generated by small VTOL UAVs – an area where current test data is sparse. The proposed effort will also see the enhancement of existing analysis methods to allow accurate prediction of small VTOL UAV noise. These advancements will support future NASA applications developing, designing and operating small VTOL UAVs in the civilian airspace – an area that NASA anticipates will grow significantly in the near future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.06-9495
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for a 4 Passenger VTOL Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc.
5735 Hollister Avenue, Suite B
Goleta, CA 93117-6410
(805) 683-9659

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jonathan Sugar
grants@launchpnt.com
5735 Hollister Avenue, Suite B
Goleta,  CA 93117-6410
(805) 683-9659

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The advancement of hybrid-electric propulsion systems for rotorcraft enables vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicles to take advantage of aerodynamic efficiencies that can reduce fuel consumption and emissions compared to conventional rotorcraft vehicles. Unlike conventional internal combustion engines or high speed turbine engines, the high power-to-weight ratio and energy efficiency of electric motors is conserved when the motor is scaled to a smaller size. A distributed electric propulsion system for a VTOL aircraft can exploit aerodynamic benefits increasing the lift to drag ratio by 4 to 5 times (Fredericks et al, Intl Powered Lift Conf., Aug 2013) compared to that of convectional helicopters. This can yield a 4x increase in range while maintaining the VTOL and hover capabilities of a conventional helicopter. Using LaunchPoint Technologies' brushless electric motor optimization software, controller expertise, and battery technology, LaunchPoint proposes to design a hybrid propulsion system for a VTOL aircraft that has an extremely high power-to-weight ratio, to demonstrate the validity of a concept VTOL vehicle. LaunchPoint Technologies will seek robust system solutions for this hybrid electric propulsion including specifications for motor (propeller) distribution, motor power, lift, drag, a heavy-fuel combustion engine, alternator, battery pack, vehicle range and hover duration. LaunchPoint will then produce a detailed design of the Auxiliary Power Unit (combustion engine and alternator), motors, electrical systems, and power control systems for the aircraft. LaunchPoint will also further develop their dual-Halbach array brushless motor technology by building and testing a carbon fiber composite rotor to increase the specific power density of this propulsion system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology of hybrid electric aircraft propulsion is a transformational technology that could have impacts on aircraft design for decades to come. However, as with any new technology, it will take some time for the technology to mature and the applications to be adopted. This is especially true in the field of manned aviation where there are relatively few and infrequent new designs being implemented due to the high cost of manned systems. In the short term the technology will be more readily adopted by smaller, less expensive and faster moving programs, including UAVs. These programs may use this hybrid propulsion system if VTOL or long range is important to the mission. The system could then be adopted by general aviation applications and possibly commercial jets and rotorcraft. Mark Moore and Bill Fredericks have shown that the range of the majority of daily rotorcraft flight segments is less than 200 miles. Helicopters have very poor flight efficiency while airplanes require a runway to take off. Therefore, creating a highly efficient VTOL aircraft that could hover for short periods of time, but has a longer than 200 mile range, will meet a need currently met by no other commercial aircraft. For example, almost all of the daily flights out to oil platforms would be much more efficiently met with VTOL rotorcrafts instead of helicopters.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has multiple uses for long range rotorcrafts with VTOL capability. We are in contact with NASA research groups developing concepts for fixed-wing distributed electric propulsion (DEP) and VTOL vehicles which would be enabled by our lightweight, efficient, and reliable hybrid electric propulsion system. Demonstrations of these technologies are planned in the next 2 to 3 years, and we expect that these programs will be customers for our hybrid electric propulsion system technology. A LaunchPoint Technologies hybrid propulsion system could directly be applied to long range UAVs that monitor the environment, survey landscapes, are used for telecommunication, or missions that have limited space for take-off and landing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Actuators & Motors
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:14-1 A3.07-8783
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency-Propulsion Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust High Temperature Environmental Barrier Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Gas Turbine Components using Affordable Processing Approach

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Direct Vapor Technologies International, Inc.
2 Boars Head Lane
Charlottesville, VA 22903-4605
(434) 977-1405

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Balvinder Gogia
bgogia@directedvapor.com
2 Boars Head Ln
Charlottesville,  VA 22903-4605
(434) 977-1405