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NASA 2012 SBIR Phase II Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A1.01-9814
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL11P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: RIDES: Raman Icing Detection System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Richey
crichey@michiganaerospace.com
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Inflight icing of engines and airframe presents a significant hazard to air transport, especially at lower flight elevations during take-off or on approach. Ice accretions on the wings affect the smooth flow required for proper lift. A thin layer of coarse ice can reduce the lift by 30 percent and increase drag by up to 40 percent. In addition, accretions can also reduce the air intake in engines and affect readings from a (heated) Pitot tube. Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) proposes to continue the development of an integrated LIDAR instrument capable of identifying icing conditions while also allowing for air data sensing as well as other hazard detection capabilities. The resulting Raman Icing Detection System (RIDES), when coupled with MAC's optical air data solution, will provide unprecedented situational awareness and aircraft safety. The proposed solution will operate without protrusions into the flow, behind a common flush-mounted window on the skin of the aircraft, mitigating the risk of ice build-up during operation and therefore providing a critical redundancy through dissimilar measurement of air data parameters while greatly enhancing a pilot's awareness of potential icing hazards. MAC will build on its successful Phase I trade-study and design effort through the fabrication and demonstration of a Phase II prototype in an icing wind tunnel.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside NASA, military and civil aviation is often affected by icing, sometimes severely (e.g., Comair flight 3272 in 1997, Air France flight 447 in 2009) and the ability to detect these conditions so as to avoid or at least account for them (activating de-icing systems, etc.) would be of tremendous safety value, suggesting a substantial market. Michigan Aerospace Corporation is already working on NASA projects for clear-air turbulence (CAT) detection and volcanic ash detection ahead of an aircraft. Adding SLD to these optical air data system (OADS)-derived capabilities will lead to a powerful suite of optical instruments capable of measuring air data (air speed and direction along with air density and temperature) and warning of icing conditions, volcanic ash and clear-air turbulence, all without protruding into the flow around the aircraft and without ports or probes that can clog with debris or ice up.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An airborne icing condition detection and characterization system, such as RIDES, will have wide applications in the study of the threat icing conditions pose to aircraft. In addition, the system will allow for climate change studies that look at aerosol concentration and distribution, including water vapor/liquid water content, in the atmosphere. There is potential to combine such a system with MAC's optical air data system and turbulence-detection systems into a unified system that would sense both icing conditions and turbulence hazards ahead and report airspeed along with air, temperature and density routinely.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A1.02-8929
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CC18P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inflight Icing Hazard Mitigation Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Droplet-Sizing Liquid Water Content Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anasphere, Inc.
106 Pronghorn Trail
Bozeman, MT 59718-6081
(406) 994-9354

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Bognar
jbognar@anasphere.com
106 Pronghorn Trail
Bozeman,  MT 59718-6081
(406) 994-9354

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Icing is one of the most significant hazards to aircraft. A sizing supercooled liquid water content (SSLWC) sonde is being developed to meet a directly related need for in-situ measurements of both total supercooled liquid water content and droplet size distribution. This data will support the development of remote sensing instrumentation to detect icing conditions, support aircraft certification activities for flight into known icing conditions, and support the development of new icing-related operational weather forecast products. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility of the SSLWC sonde's measurement technique. The sonde airframe was designed, built, and tested, mathematical models relating the sonde's raw data to the target variables were completed, a data processing algorithm was developed and implemented, and a proof-of-concept sonde was built. Phase II will involve refining the sonde design, adapting the mathematical algorithms into their final application environments, conducting additional studies of sonde elements in an icing wind tunnel, and undertaking two field missions to obtain intercomparison data between the SSLWC sonde and other accepted approaches to such measurements. At the end of Phase II, the SSLWC sonde will be proven to the point that it can be marketed with confidence for the application areas outlined above.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aircraft certification activities, private sector development of remote sensing techniques, and new icing weather forecast products are three areas of application foreseen for the sonde. Other scientific agencies, particularly NOAA, DOE, and NSF, are likely to have applications for the sonde in the areas of in-situ cloud research and the development of remote sensing techniques for cloud characterization. Operational meteorology applications are also foreseen for the FAA (likely through the National Weather Service) in support of new icing safety programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA will be able to use the SSLWC sonde to support the development of remote sensing methods for cloud properties and for fundamental research into icing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A1.03-8396
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL13P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Deck Interface Technologies for NextGen
PROPOSAL TITLE: Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems, VACMS NextGen, from simple to complex architectures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southern Air Aviation, Inc.
2100 Palomar Airport Road, #205
Carlsbad, CA 92011-4404
(619) 917-4299

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Doinita Serban
serban@southernairaviation.com
2100 Palomar Airport Road # 205
Carlsbad,  CA 92011-4404
(619) 917-4299

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Technological advances (GPWS, TCAS, FMS, WAAS, ESV, ADS-B) improved flight safety but engendered more complexity and increased pilot/computer interaction and workload with aviation accident rate unchanged for the past decade. Cockpit interactions would be safer and more efficient thorugh Voice Communication. Though Voice Recognition systems are becoming widely used, in flight environment conditions usage has been limited due to the unique challenges of elevated noise levels, specific cockpit lexicon, limited cockpit hardware, and lack of standardization. SouthernAir Aviation Inc. has developed a NextGen Voice Activated Cockpit Management system with applications for flight procedures, emergency procedures, control of aircraft systems and flight management systems. From simple to complex architectures, the system syncronizes software applications and aircraft systems in a unified model of both language and safety critical development environment to voice activate functions using NextGen Voice Recognition with heuristic pilot response. Procedures are enabled through wireless Bluetooth connection or wired communication. Additional tools of the system include a novel HMM Model comprising a decision management algorithm and synthetic lexicon for parsing and contiguous recognition. All the performance requirements are met within a 2% time-slice of a 700MHz Power PC processor and within 1 GB of memory. Unique key capabilities include: Automatic Lexicon Development, Phonetic Distance Analysis, Coarticulation Handling, Accent Tolerability. The NextGen advanced performance relies on allophone parsing and reduced recognition error with data processing in real-time, ideal for critical emergency situations. This system is remarkable in that it achieves very high recognition rates (98%) with a very large command set (131,000 unique words and thousands of word combinations). We gratefully acknowledge NASA SBIR Phase I Support.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA Commercial and General Aviation Applications of NextGen SAA Inc. Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems into small, medium and large aircraft include Voice Activated NextGen - Emergency Systems; - Instrument Systems (ILS, LOC, GPS, RNAV) and TACAN Control; - Communications Systems Control; - Frequency Selection; - Targeting and Assignment; - Flight Plan Entry and Automated Navigation Control; - Autopilot Control; - Automated Weather Control; - System Information Requests and Control; - Lights Control; - Transponder entry and Control to name a few. All these applications entitle development of additional Software and Product upgrades via SD storage cards. Non-NASA Federal Government Applications of NextGen Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems developed by SAA Inc. include DOD and FAA Flight Training Programs, Education Programs, and Mission Programs including aircraft fleet. Some education management applications include: Public School Students and University Students. Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems advance the boundaries of aeronautical knowledge for the benefit of the Nation and the broad aeronautics community: partners in academia, industry, and government agencies. Our integrated systems interface with multiple emerging applications and revolutionary concepts enabling radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft through advanced levels of automated support and efficiency to support the NextGen vision.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Immediate NASA applications of our Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems are: flight management testing, cockpit simulation and certification studies of the Aeronautics and Human-In-The-Loop Programs at NASA Langley Research Center, and potential for cockpit integration of voice function into rotary wing, and high speed wing vehicles with applicability into the studies developed by the Airspace Systems and the Aeronautics Test Programs in addition to the fixed-wing vehicle cockpit of the Aviation Safety Program at NASA ARMD Center. Applications of SAA Inc. Voice Recognition Technology and Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems to NASA Technology Taxonomy Mapping includes Air Transportation and Safety, Autonomous Systems and Autonomous Control, Attitude Determination and Control, Avionics Control and Monitoring, Command and Control, Computer Systems Architectures, Condition Monitoring, Knowledge Management, Operating Systems, Process Monitoring and Control, Sequencing and Scheduling, Transport/Traffic Control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Fusion
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Transport/Traffic Control
Operating Systems
Programming Languages
Verification/Validation Tools
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Lifetime Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A1.03-8451
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL14P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Deck Interface Technologies for NextGen
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Formal Approach to User Interface Design Using Hybrid System Theory

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bong-Jun Yang
jun.yang@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Based upon the feasibility demonstrated in the Phase I research, Optimal Synthesis Inc.(OSI) proposes to develop a software tool that can be used validate aircraft flight deck user interfaces over the entire flight envelope. The approach is based on a mathematical formalism derived from hybrid systems theory. The correctness of information content in user interfaces is analyzed by a special observability test that takes into account of the limitations in human cognition and psychology. A possible mismatch between an operational mode perceived by the human operator and the one active in the aircraft is detected using an algorithm that compares the inferred intent of the human operator to that of the machine. Metrics-based performance evaluation will be carried out to demonstrate the benefits of the prototype software developed under the Phase II research. The feasibility of employing the software on the flight deck as a real-time pilot aid will also be analyzed in the Phase II research.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technologies and the software developed under the proposed research will be applicable to FAA for certifying future interface. Analysis methodologies developed under the proposed research will be useful to NTSB in flight accident investigation by detecting cognitive mismatches in a flight data record. These technologies can be used by companies developing flight deck technologies for use in the next-generation commercial and military aircraft. Other applications of these technologies are in the design of hospital equipment and human-robot workstations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The software developed under the proposed research can support Automated Discovery of Previously Unknown Precursors to Aviation Safety, Automation Design Tools, Assurance of Flight Critical Systems, Advanced Flight-Deck Operations and Human-Computer Interactions tasks under the Aviation Safety Program. Additional programs to which the software can contribute, include Unmanned Aerial Systems integration into the National Air Space, the Automax concept, and Single Pilot Operations under the NextGen Airspace Operations program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Command & Control
Quality/Reliability
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A1.03-9714
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL15P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Deck Interface Technologies for NextGen
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dimension Technologies, Inc.
315 Mt Read Boulevard
Rochester, NY 14611-1982
(585) 436-3530

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jesse Eichenlaub
jbe@dti3d.com
315 Mt Read Boulevard
Rochester,  NY 14611-1982
(585) 436-3530

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display that features switchable 2D & 3D operation, full LCD resolution in both 2D and 3D modes, a wide viewing area without head position restrictions, and high brightness. The display will be configured for installation and testing in a Boeing 787 cockpit simulator for evaluation and testing at the end of Phase II. Given positive results this could be followed by modification and installation in a test aircraft in Phase III. The display will be based on Rockwell's 15" flight deck displays currently in use and be designed to fit inside the existing display volume envelope. Code will be written to allow Boeing's existing simulator software to produce 3D images on DTI's displays. Presentation of images in 3D should increase the pilot's ability to extract information, particularly situational awareness from cluttered displays, as indicated by various studies at NASA and the US Air Force. Boeing has agreed to partner with DTI in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DTI is partnering with Boeing on the Phase II project for development of a prototype glasses free 2D/3D display for testing in their 787 cockpit simulator during Phase II/Phase III, ideally leading to licensing. The display developed under Phase II could have wider application in the avionics industry - a successful Phase III program could result in the opening of other avionics markets. The US Army Tank Command also has an interest in 3D technology for remote controlled vehicle use. An automotive company and a point of sale display company have already expressed interest in DTI's full resolution face tracking display technology. The following long term potential markets have been investigated by DTI: Patient Education - The 150,000 dentists in the U.S. could generate an annual volume of 10,000 3D units. Student Education - Market Research has determined that 3D content yields a 30% higher retention rate than 2D content in an education environment. This could lead to a annual demand for 250,000 3D monitors for each of the following five years. Medical - 3D visualization systems in the operating rooms are estimated to be a $2 billion market annually, including stereoscopic endoscope systems. Consumer games and Television - The home television market is expected to have great demand for glasses-free 3D. Variations on DTI's face tracked display that could providing 3D to more than one person are a potential solution.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
After initial discussions and a meeting with NASA, it was apparent that NASA's interest in this project is primarily for purposes of improving commercial transport aircraft safety, as opposed to any internal NASA project or NASA aircraft or spacecraft. Nevertheless, the technology will potentially be of benefit in NASA aircraft and spacecraft cockpits for purposes of increasing situation awareness, as well as in NASA telerobotic applications, such as the space station based manipulator arm and Robonaut, where display in stereoscopic 3D is of proved benefit for human controlled robot systems. During discussions NASA personnel have also expressed interest in glasses free 3D for workstation applications, especially those that require viewing of complex representations of data sets like atmospheric information obtained by satellites. Scientific workstation applications have long been recognized as a potential market for glasses free 3D displays, and therefore is one of the markets that DTI will seek to license into. DTI's strategy is to license to major monitor manufacturers who can commercialize and mass produce 3D displays with DTI technology inside, making them available to NASA and others at low cost for a variety of applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Display


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A1.06-9011
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL53P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Assurance of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Scalable Semantics-Based Verification System for Flight Critical Software

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Runtime Verification, Inc.
60 Hazelwood Drive, Suite 230-2
Champaign, IL 61822-7460
(217) 418-0418

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Meredith
pmeredit@gmail.com
60 Hazelwood Drive, Suite 230-2
Champaign,  IL 61822-7460
(217) 418-0418

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flight-critical systems rely on an ever increasing amount of software—the Boe- ing 777 contains over 2 million lines of code. Most of this code is written in the C programming language. We need a scalable static formal program verification tool that is able to prove the functional correctness of flight-critical software, limiting any failure of flight critical software to hardware faults. This project seeks to leverage the matching logic verification framework. Matching logic is generic in an operational semantic of a given programming language, so we also seek to give a semantics of a subset of C, called CIL, which is guaranteed to be deterministic. While we already have a semantics for the entirety of C, CIL is more representative of flight-critical software, and the simpler, deterministic semantics will result in a more efficient, and thus more scalable, static program verification tool. We are also building a new unification- based rewrite engine that will result in a more powerful version of the Matching Logic Framework. In order to make the tool more commercially feasible, we will develop new techniques in pattern inference, so that loop invariants and some pre/post conditions can be determined automatically. We will perform a thorough evaluation of our tool on a large-scale piece of software with similar characteristics to a flight system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TAM for our work would be the entire software industry. Realistically, we do not have the manpower to target the entirety of the software industry. A more reasonable SAM would be those companies in the software industry where correctness is key, either because bugs are very expensive to fix (Microsoft) or where bugs are disastrous to life and limb (NASA/Boeing/medical device manufacturers). We feel that our realistic SOM is larger software development corporations that would be willing to pay larger amounts for site licenses as well as be willing to hire on verification engineers from our Runtime Verification, Inc. This will allow us to leverage our smaller number of employees in a way that results in maximal possible profits, versus marketing to smaller software developers, which will be less willing to pay for site licenses. We can move into that segment of the market later, once Runtime Verification is able to grow. Initially, we would like to focus on Aerospace companies (Boeing), Automotive (Toyota-ITC, DENSO), Finance (2Sigma), Microsoft (in particularly Windows and Office), Apple (OS X), the US Military, NSA, the large hadron collider, and Facebook (they have already shown themselves amenable to formal methods tools).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We anticipate that our tool and definition of CIL will be used in verification of all safety and mission critical flight systems. NASA has shown themselves to be very amenable to formal methods techniques in the past. Our technical contact within NASA expects such a tool to be used on vehicles targeted at manned space missions as well as mission critical systems such as the rockets, probes, space telescopes, and landers/rovers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A1.06-9692
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL55P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Assurance of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Specification Editing and Discovery Assistant

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GrammaTech, Inc.
531 Esty Street
Ithaca, NY 14850-3250
(607) 273-7340

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Cok
dcok@grammatech.com
531 Esty Street
Ithaca,  NY 14850-3250
(607) 273-7340

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Accurate safety analysis of software suffers from a lack of appropriate tools for software developers. Current automated tools require approximate analyses; fully-assured verification with formal methods is expert-intensive. A key to improvement is machine-checkable specifications for software modules. Specifications are also needed to express the intent of software. Further, to scale to wide use, engineers who are not formal methods experts must have usable tools, as automated as possible, integrated into their usual software development environments (IDEs). Our proposal, SPEEDY, is a user experience (UX) design for convenient generation, manipulation, and checking of specifications, directly in a common IDE (Eclipse). The tool's design integrates automated specification suggestion using current tools and published techniques. The tool also enables checking and debugging specifications directly in the IDE, with information presented in the context of the source code. The proposal targets C/C++ programs, particularly for embedded software development. Phase I of SPEEDY assessed current specification languages and prototyped the key UX mechanisms: we are now confident that they can be implemented in the Eclipse IDE. We also integrated several analysis tools, demonstrating that SPEEDY can obtain specification suggestions from external sources. We assessed many specification suggestion algorithms, selecting some to be implemented and evaluated on realistic software in Phase II. Phase I also prototyped the integrating specification checking tools and specification debugging features. We demonstrated SPEEDY on NASA software from the NASA open software site. The Phase II proposal presents a plan for scaling up the successful Phase I prototype in many dimensions: more language features; more sophisticated user guidance in generating and debugging specifications; more specification suggestion algorithms; scaled up to realistic program size.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our target market for the eventual SPEEDY product is safety and security-critical software development engineers and organizations. We are building on the current trend toward more logical formality in software development. The bulk of that market develops embedded software; this is the same market space that is addressed by GrammaTech's existing products. We believe there is an early-adopter segment of that market that is willing to increase the level of model checking/software verification/formal reasoning during software development. But we are sure this need will be satisfied only if there are tools that provide the right capabilities, in the developers' working environment, targeted to non-formal-methods experts. This market growth will be particularly the case for embedded (and robotic) software, as such software will be increasingly important to an ever more technological society. We will initially focus our (non-NASA) marketing efforts on current customers who manufacture avionics systems, medical devices, and other safety-critical embedded systems (e.g. automotive software) – e.g., FDA, Covidien, Lockheed-Martin, and Honeywell. A second tier of relevant customers is development groups doing security analyses, security certification, and reverse engineering for understanding or maintenance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We envision these use cases for SPEEDY's specification discovery and manipulation features: 1) Developers creating implementation and specifications together, with continuous automated checking 2) Developers writing code to specifications previously created by experts who have designed and verified core algorithms 3) Understanding and reverse engineering existing (legacy) code 4) Code Review of code under development 5) V&V teams inspecting developed code NASA has applications across these use cases. There are four particular categories of potential users. 1) NASA developers implementing safety-critical avionics or space-flight software can use SPEEDY in use cases 1, 2 and 4 above. SPEEDY helps them introduce formal methods into their work processes without having to swim (and sink) in the details of logics, provers, and verification conditions. 2) NASA formal methods teams have the task of verifying core designs and protocols. But once designed, the result must be communicated to developers and implemented correctly. Formal specifications provide a way to enable and check this communication, and SPEEDY provides a tool in which to accomplish it easily. This is use case #2. 3) NASA V&V teams can make ready use of use cases #4 and #5. 4) NASA developers faced with old code or changing team members will welcome the capabilities of use case #3.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Development Environments
Programming Languages
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A2.01-8343
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL18P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration into the National Airspace System Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Phased Array Terrain Interferometer (PathIn): A New Sensor for UAS Synthetic Vision and Ground Collision Avoidance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc.
3179 Main Street, Unit 3, P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable, MA 02630-1105
(508) 362-9400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Delwyn Moller
dkmoller@remotesensingsolutions.com
3179 Main Street, Unit 3, PO Box 1092
Barnstable,  MA 02630-1105
(508) 362-9400

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal introduces an innovative sensor to advance ground collision avoidance for UAS platforms by providing real-time height maps for hazard anomaly detection. This sensor will also provide enhanced vision to overcome reduced visibility in fog, drizzle and light rain and the detection of hazards/obstacles on runways for landing and takeoff applications. Specifically, this effort will build upon a developing synthetic vision system for landing piloted aircraft to: 1) customize the design and feasibility for targeted unpiloted autonomous systems (UAS), and 2) incorporate interferometry for terrain mapping and hazard detection. Dubbed "PathIn", the proposed sensor is comprised of a Ka-band digitally beamformed (DBF) radar interferometer that will provide a real-time data interface for ground-collision avoidance systems. The proposed effort is aligned with the effort to integrate UAS into the National Airspace (NAS). The Phase II will realize a prototype of the PathIn sensor, leveraging our extensive radar, interferometry and DBF experience and key technology capabilities. In particular a FPGA-based digital receiver system will be extended for real-time beamforming and interferometry. At the end of the Phase II, a technology readiness level of 5 will be achieved.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the commercial space, the need for landing systems to assist pilots in low visibility conditions is great. The NEXTGEN project and emphasis on improving airport runway utilization along with the savings in costs from aborted landings or delayed landings have combined to prompt the FAA to seek improvements in aircraft based systems to assist in this manner. A PathIn based 2D and 3D Electronic Flight Vision System (EFVS) would provide the measurements or imagery necessary to validate aircraft and runway location as well as hazard detection. Its integration into a Heads Up Display (HUD), showing anomalies detected with comparisons to the DEMs would provide Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) with the verification and detection needed. Eventually, a PathIn based sensor could meet the FAA certification requirements to allow zero-zero (aircraft touchdown in zero visibility conditions) landing in the near future.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate NASA application of PathIn is for Ka-band interferometry to provide 3D platform-relative mapping over a relevant field of view in support of safe UAS operation in the national airspace and also piloted operation during limited low visibility conditions (i.e. fog, drizzle, etc.). The PathIn Ka-band radar interferometer electronic vision systems would complement existing synthetic vision and automated ground-collision avoidance systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Perception/Vision
Antennas
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Transmitters/Receivers
Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)
Command & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
3D Imaging
Display
Image Analysis
Image Capture (Stills/Motion)
Image Processing
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Electromagnetic
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Positioning (Attitude Determination, Location X-Y-Z)
Radiometric
Microwave
Multispectral/Hyperspectral


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A3.01-9938
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL21P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structural Efficiency - Airframe
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Structural and Material Concepts for Low-Weight Low-Drag Aircraft Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ping-Chih Chen
pc@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 9

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall technical objective of this multi-phase project is to develop and validate a so-called 'AAW-Process' that consists of (i) the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) technology of employing multiple control surfaces in tandem for achieving loads alleviation and drag minimization using the over-determined trim capability of ZONA Euler Unsteady Solver (ZEUS), and (ii) the aeroelastic tailoring technique for optimum stiffness distribution and weight minimization while satisfying structural design constraints using ZONA's Automated STRuctural Optimization System (ASTROS). The technical objectives specific to Phase II effort are twofold: (1) Analytically design the four Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) wind-tunnel models that employ Distributed Multiple Control Surfaces (DMCS) and Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) to achieve the weight and drag benefits, and (2) Fabrication of one of these four designed models to validate the AAW-process experimentally by a future wind tunnel testing. As per the first specific objective, four wind tunnel models will be designed for high speed Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) testing along with their detailed fabrication and wind tunnel testing plans. These four models are carefully chosen to incrementally demonstrate the benefits of applying AAW technology and aeroelastic tailoring technique by potential future fabrication and wind tunnel tests. As per the second specific objective, the fabricated wind tunnel model will be delivered to NASA along with its target performance improvement predicted by AAW-process for validation with a near-term wind tunnel testing. In order to ensure the safety of the wind tunnel models during the TDT testing, flutter suppression and gust load alleviation controllers will be designed for those models that are not aeroelastically tailored and have analytically displayed potential flutter instability problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since AAW-process developed in this effort can lead to a minimum-weight and minimum-drag design, it will be highly desirable to both military and commercial aircraft companies. ZONA plans to use the results of the wind-tunnel test of DMCS model as a showcase for demonstrating the capabilities of AAW-process. With the experience gained and lessons learned during the Phase II effort, ZONA will have an increased level of confidence to assist the aircraft companies for applying the AAW technology to their designs. Furthermore, since the application of AAW technology requires a set of ZONA commercial software, the ZONA software will be increasingly used by the aircraft design companies, thereby expanding ZONA's software market share. The AAW technology and aeroelastic tailoring technique explored in Phase I + II of this effort can be effectively extended for application towards many categories of flight vehicles including X-56A MUTT, X-48B blended wing-body, joined-wings, sub/supersonic transports, morphing wing aircraft, space planes, reusable launch vehicles, and future military aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Phase II effort is highly relevant to several on-going and future NASA projects in NASA's fixed wing project under Fundamental Aeronautics Program such as the elastic aircraft flight control and Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) development. NASA is currently studying the application of the VCCTEF to a generic transport model (GTM) and plans to perform a wind tunnel test for measuring its drag characteristics in FY2014-2015. The AAW-process can be adopted by NASA to calculate the optimum SMA actuations for minimum drag prediction to provide a guideline for establishing a viable wind tunnel test plan. NASA also plans to extend the VCCTEF concept to the TBW configuration with a planned wind tunnel test in FY2016-2017. Upon completion of the proposed Phase II effort, a wind tunnel model for the baseline DMCS configuration will already be submitted to NASA and can be readily tested in the wind tunnel for validation of load alleviation and drag characteristics. Thus, NASA can perform a wind tunnel test on this baseline DMCS wind tunnel model as an intermediate step prior to the VCCTEF-TBW testing to validate the AAW-process. Once validated, the AAW-process can be used to establish a viable wind tunnel test plan for the VCCTEF-TBW model. It thus can be seen that through the research planned to be conducted during Phase II of this effort, NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program will benefit significantly, thereby largely expanding NASA's technology portfolio.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Composites
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A3.02-8545
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL22P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Quiet Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plasma Fairings for Quieting Aircraft Landing Gear Noise

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Technology Applications, Co.
P.O. Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006-6971
(314) 373-3311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Nelson
ccnelsonphd@gmail.com
6712 183rd St. SW
Lynnwood,  WA 98037-4255
(425) 778-7853

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II SBIR project deals with the design, development, and testing of a "Plasma Fairing" to reduce noise on the Gulfstream G550 landing gear. The plasma fairing will use single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators to reduce flow- separations and impingement around the landing gear, which are the dominant sources of landing gear noise. The Phase I project successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the plasma fairing concept on a generalized tandem cylinder configuration that shared important features of key sections of the G550 landing gear, specifically the relationship between the strut and the torque arm. The Phase II extends the concept to a more complex geometry: G550 landing gear. We will develop aeroacoustic simulations using University of Notre Dame's state-of-the-art plasma actuator model and Exa Corporation's flow solver PowerFLOW, coupled with experiments in an anechoic wind tunnel with both aerodynamic and acoustic measurements on a scaled G550 nose gear model to design and optimize a Plasma Fairing configuration that provides significant noise reduction on the G550 landing gear. We anticipate a technology readiness level (TRL) of 5 at the end of the Phase II project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications for the plasma actuators include design of revolutionary subsonic and hypersonic aerospace vehicles for commercial and military (DoD) purposes, use in turbomachinery systems, noise-control on landing gears of commercial aircraft, design of smart wind turbine rotor blades, drag reduction on ground vehicles, smart helicopter rotor blades, tip-casing clearance flow control for reduced turbine losses, control of flow surge and stall in compressors, and turbulent transition control experiments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The plasma fairing technology directly addresses research/technical challenges for two NASA projects under the NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate: (1) Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project (research challenge: reduce aircraft noise by 1/8 compared with current standards); and (2) The Fixed Wing Project - Quieter Low-Speed Performance (research challenge: reduce perceived community noise by 12 dB cum with minimal impact on weight and performance). While the main thrust of this SBIR work is to develop Plasma Fairings for reducing landing gear noise, these fairings can be effectively configured to reduce noise caused by the high-lift devices such as wing flaps and slats. Other potential NASA applications of the plasma technology include lift enhancement and drag reduction on aircraft wings, high angle-of-attack operation using plasma actuators as lifting devices, enhanced performance and efficiency of propulsion (S-ducts, inlets) and aerodynamic (control surfaces) systems at both on- and off-design conditions, and improved cycle efficiency of NASA's air-breathing propulsion systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Actuators & Motors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A3.03-9094
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CC20P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Emissions/Clean Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fine-Filament Magnesium Diboride Superconductor Wire for Turboelectric Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper Tech Research, Inc.
539 Industrial Mile Road
Columbus, OH 43228-2412
(614) 481-8050

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Rindfleisch
mrindfleisch@hypertechresearch.com
539 Industrial Mile Rd
Columbus,  OH 43228-2412
(614) 481-8050

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase II proposal overcomes technology barriers for developing highly efficient all electric aircraft systems for the future, with limited impact to the environment. Turboelectric propulsion for aircraft applications is envisioned, and cryogenic and superconducting components are sought. In particular, low AC loss superconducting wires for the stator windings and superconducting wires with filaments less than 10 micrometers in diameter are of interest. There is an intense push in the aircraft industry to ultimately develop an all-electric aircraft, with liquid hydrogen and fuel cells being considered as the prime generation source for aircraft propulsion. The U.S. is in competition with Europe for the development the next generation all-electric aircraft. Superconductivity especially magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconductors are considered an enabling technology that is being investigated by NASA, Air Force, Rolls-Royce, Airbus and EADS. This means the need for a low cost, low AC loss (fine filament superconductor) that can operate in the 10-25K temperature range in 0-2 tesla fields for superconducting stators for motors and generators. This wire is need by 2016-2017 time frame so all cryogenic motors and generators can fabricated and tested in the NASA test bed. In the Phase I Hyper Tech has shown that fine filament MgB2 wires can be fabricated and there is potential for low AC losses in the 60-400 Hz range for stators. In the Phase II Hyper Tech will continue to work on developing, manufacturing, and testing fine filament MgB2 wire. The wires will also be twisted to reduce coupling losses. The wires will be tested for their superconductor and engineering current density and AC losses. The result of this work will be a low AC loss MgB2 superconductor wire for enabling all-electric aircraft development and allow the U.S. industry to lead the world in this needed and rapid developing technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For Non-NASA commercial applications, MgB2 superconductor wires for DC applications are: rotor coils for motors and generators, background magnets for MRI systems to eliminate liquid helium bath cooling, inductive type superconducting fault current limiters. Low speed 5-20 MW direct drive wind turbine generators. For AC applications fine filament MgB2 wire being developed in this Phase II would benefit 50-400 Hz stators for generators and motors, transformers, reactors, inductors, and resistive fault current limiters.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides stator coils for the all-electric aircraft, magnesium diboride superconductors can benefit NASA for many applications where light weight power components are required such as generators, motors, transformers, inductors, power conditioning equipment and ADR coils. Other magnet applications that magnesium diboride wires can be considered for are magnetic bearings, actuators, MHD magnets, propulsion engines, magnetic shielding in space, and magnetic launch devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Superconductance/Magnetics
Conversion
Generation
Actuators & Motors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A3.04-8924
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL27P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamic Efficiency - Drag Reduction Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Energy-Deposition to Reduce Skin Friction in Supersonic Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physics, Materials, and Applied Mathematics Research, LLC
1665 E. 18th Street, Suite 112
Tucson, AZ 85719-6808
(520) 903-2345

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Tichenor
ntichenor@physics-math.com
200 Discovery Drive Suite 102
College Station,  TX 77843-7546
(979) 485-9232

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has drawn attention to an impending need to improve energy-efficiency in low supersonic (M<~3) platforms. Aerodynamic efficiency is the foundation of energy-efficient flight in any regime, and low drag is one of the fundamental characteristics of aerodynamic efficiency. For supersonic aircraft, drag can be broadly decomposed into four components: viscous or skin friction drag, lift-induced drag, wave or compressibility drag, and excrescence drag. The relative impact of these four drag forces depends upon vehicle-specific characteristics and design. However, viscous skin friction drag stands out as particularly significant across most classes of flight vehicles. Therefore, effective techniques to reduce skin friction drag on a vehicle will have a major and far-reaching impact on flight efficiency for low supersonic aircraft. In an effort to address the need for increased aerodynamic efficiency of low supersonic vehicles, PM&AM Research, in collaboration with Texas A&M University, propose to build upon our successful Phase I effort to mature/develop our novel energy deposition technologies, using basic, well-demonstrated energy-deposition techniques along the surface in supersonic flow to control/compress/forcibly-move the boundary layer fluid by creating a low-density "bubble-like" region, thereby reducing the viscous skin friction. Once matured, this solution will reduce the drag experienced by a low supersonic platform, allowing vehicles to exhibit increased aerodynamic efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our technology can be used to improve the aerodynamic efficiency of a wide range of supersonic Government and industry platforms including supersonic business jets, commercial and military access to space vehicles, supersonic cruise vehicles, and high-speed delivery platforms, among others

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our technology can be used to improve the aerodynamic efficiency of a wide range of supersonic NASA programs, including access to space platforms and prototype aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Conversion
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Transport/Traffic Control
Actuators & Motors
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Lasers (Weapons)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A3.05-8427
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CC22P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Controls/Dynamics - Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Active Combustion Control Valve

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
WASK Engineering, Inc.
3905 Dividend Drive
Cameron Park, CA 95682-7230
(530) 672-2795

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wendel Burkhardt
wendel.burkhardt@waskengr.com
3905 Dividend Drive
Cameron Park,  CA 95682-7230
(530) 672-2795

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the operational range of gas-turbine combustors. Active Combustion Instability Control (ACIC) controls the combustion process such that the heat release profile is modulated to dampen the naturally occurring thermoacoustic instabilities. A major challenge to effective implementation of active combustion control is the availability of valves and actuators that provide adequate flow modulation control authority. The majority of the published work revolves around valves designed to modulate the main combustor flow. At present these valves are not designed to operate in a harsh environment and as such are required to be located outside the main flow path, reducing their control authority. To effectively meet the challenge, valves and sensors that are smaller, more responsive and robust must be developed. Ultimately the control valves are co-located with the fuel injection manifold. The trade-off for the harsh environment operation is the ability to maximize the flow modulation control authority. The objective of this research is to integrate the required control authority into an operational environment. This research continues the development of a light weight fast-acting fuel control valve for harsh environment operation. In the Phase 1 effort, the valve demonstrated the ability to modulate fluid flow at 1,000 Hz. This demonstrated the valve will allow the precise time dependent fuel control required for lean-burn combustor operability. In this Phase II research a Prototype valve is designed, fabricated and flow tested using commercially-available driver circuitry to demonstrate valve operation in harsh thermal environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The valve has a direct application to active combustion control in gas turbines. The valve allows precise time dependent fuel control required for lean-burn combustor operability. The small size, internal cooling capability and high frequency modulation capability of 1,000 Hz makes it directly applicable for use in this application. The benefit of harsh environment operation is the ability to maximize the flow modulation control authority due to close proximity to the fuel injector. The valve also has application to combustion stability control in commercial liquid fueled rocket engines. Using active combustion control in rocket engines has the potential to save millions of dollars in development costs and reduce development schedules

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include those application where a valve can cycle at high frequencies. These applications include liquid rocket engine combustion stability control, where the principles being applied to combustion control for gas turbine engines can be applied. In this application, the ability to modulate the propellant flow at frequencies above 1,000 Hz may be advantageous. A second potential application is in high frequency valves for pulsing space engines such as the Pulse Inductive Thrusters. These units require valves that operate a flow rates and pulse frequencies similar to the current ACCV. In addition they require very long life, as these low force thrusters operate for very long periods of time. The effort being proposed will provide solutions that are applicable to both of these applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Process Monitoring & Control
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Active Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A3.05-8475
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CD12P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Controls/Dynamics - Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Small-Scale Turbine Generator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metis Design Corporation
205 Portland Street
Boston, MA 02114-1708
(617) 447-2172

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rory Keogh
rory@metisdesign.com
1501 Mariposa St, Suite 416
San Francisco,  CA 94107-2367
(617) 447-2172

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a power conversion technology that will help achieve NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) goals of reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency for high speed flight. NASA's objective to increase the specific power of high efficiency electric components in order to make a 10 mega-watt onboard power generation and/or utilization feasible for propulsion requires the development of sub-scale technologies to support the development and validation of newer turbo-electric aircraft and embedded boundary layer electric propulsion systems. Compact and lightweight turbine generators scaling from the kW to MW class are needed to transition high speed aircraft to hybrid electric propulsion systems. Metis Design Corp is developing a lightweight, compact, gas turbine generator that draws on recent innovations in the fields of permanent magnet generators and turbomachinery, to achieve a target power density of over twice the state-of-the-art and the potential to scale to 100's of kW. The proposed turbine engine uses a lightweight, two-spool configuration that eliminates the need for the heavy reduction gearbox required by state-of-the-art systems. Phase II of this SBIR effort will develop a detailed design, then fabricate and test the complete turbine generator sub-system in a laboratory environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There will be many commercial applications for this technology beyond NASA. First would likely be to provide additional electrical power for new electronic warfare systems on existing aircraft platforms. Second would be new DoD aerospace applications such as hybrid electric aircraft, UAVs and UCAVs. Outside of DoD there are other commercial applications such as auxiliary power units for business jets, regional jets and commercial rotor-craft. Potential automotive applications include backup generators for battery electric vehicles (range extenders).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are three basic areas of potential applicability to NASA. The first is for experimental aircraft programs, both manned and unmanned. This technology will give the ability to develop hybrid-electric aircraft with extended range and endurance vs. electric only aircraft, and more generally help NASA characterize hybrid-electric aircraft technologies. The second is for "Green taxiing" systems that are critical to NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program goals of reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency for high speed flight. The system uses two 50kW electric motors integrated onto the breaking systems of each of the two main landing gear. Finally, NASA's FAP objective to increase the specific power of high efficiency electric components in order to make a 10 MW onboard power generation and/or utilization feasible for propulsion requires the development of sub-scale technologies to support the development and validation of newer turbo-electric aircraft and embedded boundary layer electric propulsion systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A3.07-8351
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL56P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Responding Pressure-Sensitive Paint for Large-Scale Wind Tunnel Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Crafton
jwcrafton@innssi.com
2766 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 630-3012

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work focuses on implementing fast-response pressure-sensitive paint for measurements of unsteady pressure in rotorcraft applications. Significant rotorcraft problems such as dynamic stall, rotor blade loads in forward flight, and blade-vortex interaction all have significant unsteady pressure oscillations that must be resolved in order to understand the underlying physics. Installation of pressure transducers is difficult and expensive on rotorcraft models, and the resulting data has limited spatial resolution. Application of a fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint should provide unsteady surface pressure distributed over the blade surface. Fast PSP measurements have been demonstrated at NASA Langley on a 2-meter rotor model in hover and in forward flight by the ISSI/OSU team using two single camera systems. More recently, measurements were conducted in forward flight using multiple cameras and lasers at two azimuthal positions. We propose expanding this system for production testing. During Phase I, a lens controller + pan/tilt stages with Ethernet control and presets was developed. This device will be used to control the field of view of the system remotely. Mitigation of motion blur at the tip was demonstrated using a galvanic mirror. A temperature measurement capability using TSP was added to the system to allow temperature corrections to be applied to the PSP data. Fast efficient data processing software that included automatic image registration and scripting of repetitive operations was investigated to speed up data processing. These new tools and software will be integrated into the data acquisition package and data processing package to improve accuracy and productivity during testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is considerable interest in measurements of unsteady pressure for evaluation of computational models and study of flow physics on hypersonic inlets, compressors, aeroelasticity, and rotorcraft aerodynamics. This system will provide advancement of the state-of-the-art in this field as the proposed research will develop a system for the measurement of continuous distributions unsteady pressure that requires no physical modifications to the model and produces data with high spatial resolution. ISSI has sold several production PSP systems world-wide. There is significant interest among these customers in fast responding PSP. ISSI is currently involved in discussions with several commercial aircraft manufactures regarding the potential of a fast responding PSP system for flight testing. Development of this system for wind tunnel testing is seen as a first step in this process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is considerable interest in measurements of unsteady pressure for evaluation of computational models and study of flow physics on hypersonic inlets, compressors, aeroelasticity, and rotorcraft aerodynamics. This system will provide advancement of the state-of-the-art in this field as the proposed research will develop a system for the measurement of continuous distributions unsteady pressure that require no physical modifications to the model and produces data with high spatial resolution. This technology could be deployed to wind tunnels at Ames, Glenn, and Langley for testing on a variety of programs that have need of unsteady pressure measurements. Specific applications include Rotorcraft Aerodynamics, Open Rotor, and Supersonic Inlets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Image Processing
Acoustic/Vibration
Pressure/Vacuum


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A3.08-9001
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CC26P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency - Turbomachinery Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Sensors Using Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowires

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HARP Engineering, LLC
2779 Southwest 103 Street
Gainesville, FL 32608-9077
(480) 205-1202

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kate Caldwell
kcaldwell@harpengineering.com
2779 SW 103 Street
Gainesville,  FL 32608-9077
(205) 205-1202

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA requires instrumentation technologies that can be applied to measure flow under extreme temperatures where traditional sensing methodologies cannot be used. The proposed Phase II SBIR research effort will seek to create wall shear sensors that can be applied to measure signals at temperatures in excess of 1,100

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond the specific applications identified for the extreme environments in NASA applications, the proposed sensors can be applied to the broader commercial accelerometer market. MEMS accelerometers currently represent a $1.7 billion dollar market and may be the most successful MEMS technology ever commercialized. While MEMS devices can be produced on a large scale through wafer level manufacturing, they require complex manufacturing processes and costly equipment which has generally been a limiting factor in the production of MEMS devices over the past two decades. The high operation cost of such equipment has also led to a consolidation of the market for MEMS foundry services removing many small businesses. The MEMS scale sensors developed are fabricated without the need for complex and expensive lithography, physical deposition and etching tools that are required in traditional MEMS processing. The proposed nanowire arrays only require a single growth step and can be fabricated onto surfaces or substrates of varying composition. Furthermore, the process does not require the hazardous and environmentally toxic chemicals widely used in traditional MEMs processing. This unique approach will allow the rapid and low cost development of the sensors at HARP Engineering and without significant capital required for equipment purchases. This low cost will provide HARP with a competitive advantage over competing MEMS technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed MEMS sensors can be applied to the measurement of both flow and acceleration in extreme environments and therefore the commercial potential of the technology is broad. Current high temperature flow sensors are limited to optical MEMS and laser-Doppler anemometers. However these technologies have a large probe volume, have not demonstrated accuracy better than 10% under fluctuating shear conditions and do not offer direct, dynamic, time-resolved skin friction measurements with sufficient frequency response and accuracy to resolve transitional or turbulent flows. The proposed sensors can be designed as a surface mount package and does not function based on optical measurements which require costly signal conditioning electronics, thus creating a significant opportunity for commercialization. Beyond future use in flow sensing, the nanowire arrays offer acceleration sensitivity and thus may find use in a wide range of additional applications in structural dynamics or condition monitoring. Accelerometers have become a ubiquitous technology in modern electronics yet require costly and complex manufacturing processes and are unstable in extreme environments. The proposed sensors were shown to be accurate high bandwidth accelerometers while being processed using simple and low cost methods. With this technology being the only MEMS scale accelerometer compatible with the extreme environments found in turbomachinery, the sensors have excellent commercialization potential.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Nanomaterials
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A3.08-9070
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CC27P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Efficiency - Turbomachinery Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Plasma-Based Compressor Stall Control System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Kaszeta
rwk@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 640-2441

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Modern aircraft gas turbine engines utilize highly loaded airfoils in both the compressor and turbine to maximize performance while minimizing weight, cost, and complexity. However, high airfoil loading increases the likelihood of flow separation at lower mass flow rates. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators have been shown to be a very promising technique for compressor stall control. DBD devices can either be installed directly on rotor/stator surfaces or the compressor endwalls to control rotor tip flow. A fundamental challenge in driving DBD actuators is providing appropriate electrical waveforms to the devices. Creare proposes the development of an innovative compressor stall system which enables (1) substantially higher produced thrust than existing DBD actuator systems, (2) implements a unique excitation waveform that optimizes thrust production by DBD actuators, and (3) provides the potential ability to control spike-type compressor stall through controlling compressor tip leakage flow.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to military and NASA customers, a fully developed active flow control technology for turbomachinery may also prove useful in commercial applications in which separation phenomena are known to cause performance issues, including turbine engines (for both power generation and aircraft use) and aerial vehicles. The implementation of an effective and efficient compressor stall control system can greatly improve the operational envelopes for both existing retrofitted compressors, as well as enable new compressor designs with significantly lower stall limits.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology supports NASA's mission to help improve the performance of commercial aviation through development of advanced gas turbine engine systems. The technology also has the potential for enabling improved gas turbine engine performance for applications as far reaching as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) proposed for extraterrestrial exploration. An efficient DBD actuator system can provide active stall control for compressor blading and low-pressure turbine blades. Implementation of a practical DBD actuator system, including the necessary driving and control electronics, should allow significantly improved low mass flow operation of turbine engines, as well as greatly increased operational envelopes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Actuators & Motors
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 A3.09-9350
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CD05P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground and Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: ePHM System Development, Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing, Fault Tree, and FMECA Applied to and Integrated on NASA Hybrid Electric Testbeds

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, Inc.
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach, CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Schiltgen
benjamin.schiltgen@esaero.com
P.O. Box 595
Pismo Beach,  CA 93448-9665
(805) 275-1053

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development with validation and demonstrations during ground and eventually flight testing. Intelligent health management will be paramount to any future ground and flight testing activities planned by the industry on HEDP systems. To support this, an intelligent prognostics and health management (ePHM) system will be designed and executed for the HEDP system on the NASA Dryden Hybrid Electric Integrated System Teststand (HEIST) (AirVolt optional), which will be developed as part of a parallel Phase III SBIR by ESAero, the proposer here. Most developments in PHM surround air vehicle subsystems and avionics, specifically on the electronic board level, and many of these are integrated after the systems are designed. These developments have or are establishing the ability to monitor the degradation of a subsystem in real-time, making it conceivable that actionable information can be fed to a Integrated Autonomous Controller for self-repair decisions, leveraging the Propulsion Airframe Integration benefits. Reliability can be calculated and maintenance can be planned ahead of time rather than at the point of failure, significantly increasing safety. General Atomics, Electromagnetic Systems Group (GA) will continue to play a vital role.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As mentioned, the team is in a unique position as General Atomics has developed RPA and other large PHM systems and their sister company, GA-ASI, manufactures RPA payloads and a major RPA asset (MQ-9 Reaper). Most of the considerations outlined above for NASA also apply to the Air Force Research Labs. The ePHM system immediately developed and implemented during Phase II can be modified for direct use on AFRL's testing assets with very little investment. For these same reasons, AFRL becomes another potential partner to contribute to the Phase III activities. GA plans to market this health monitoring platform and solution as an addition to existing defense programs that are already underway at GA. GA plans to market the final product to the commercial and defense market. An immediate customer for the proposed ePHM product is Navy UCLASS UAV, Air Force MQ-9 UAV and Army MQ-1C Gray Eagle UAV. GA's business network in the area of nuclear power generation will also benefit from the capabilities of ePHM technology. GA is interested in partnering with ESAero and NASA Dryden in this program for the purposes of enhancing the safety and performance of the hybrid-electric propulsion technology. The results of this work are applicable to any systems with distributed energy architectures, including aircraft, locomotives, mining trucks, cars or other vehicles, electrical distribution networks, commodity management (cement plants, etc.), oil & gas extraction and distribution, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phase II will, at minimum: validate the specific HEDP model from Phase I and develop additional specific HEDP and TeDP models from the qualitative considerations from Phase I. This includes detailed piece part FMECA to validate the functional FMECA from Phase I upon which the models are based for the AirVolt and HEIST capabilities. The ePHM provides NASA an immediate testing and reliability capability for HEDP aircraft in conjunction with the separate Phase III HEIST and AirVolt efforts with NASA Dryden. This capability can be established beyond Dryden's efforts at the conclusion of the proposed Phase II, for independent technologies being developed at Glenn or systems at Langley. This capability, when implemented, will help NASA and all participating parties create the performance, safety, reliability, maintainability and self-repairing requirements for all of the required future technologies. Integrating PHM now will help NASA introduce electric aircraft with "supercontrollers" which are safer, more reliable, and as capable as those flying today. The PHM system can manage the health of all of the subsystems and disciplines, providing actionable data to air vehicle controller to increase safety and reliability and even make decisions on maintenance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Distribution/Management
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical
Electromagnetic
Inertial
Verification/Validation Tools
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H1.01-9513
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CM06P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Methanation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2218

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mahesh Waje
mahesh.waje@lynntech.com
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station,  TX 77845-6023
(979) 764-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In situ production of methane as propellant by methanation of CO2, also called Sabatier reaction, is a key enabling technology required for sustainable and affordable human exploration of Mars. The Sabatier reaction is conventionally carried out in a fixed bed catalyst at high temperatures of 350-400 ?C. For the long duration future Mars missions (~ 18 months expected stay on Mars), the fixed bed Sabatier reactor design however is inadequate due to performance and catalyst durability issues. In addition thermal management within the reactor is a major issue due to exothermicity of the reaction. Lynntech has demonstrated the feasibility of a novel low power, low temperature plasma assisted catalysis process for addressing these limitations with the methanation of CO2 at a scale of 14 g/h methane production rate. In the Phase II project, Lynntech proposes to build and demonstrate a full scale (0.55 kg/h methane production rate) Sabatier reactor for NASA application. The anticipated Technology Readiness Level at the beginning and ending of Phase II will be 3 and 4, respectively.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Sabatier technology can be used for CO2 sequestration or as an intermediate processing technique for fuel or chemical production in the commercial market. The primary and sub-markets for Lynntech's Sabatier technology are as follows: (1) CO2 sequestration with SNG formation for a number of areas including power plants and petrochemical industry. (2) CO removal (specific methanation) technology for purification of reformate or hydrogen streams from fuel reformation. (3) Reformation processes such as dry reforming of methane with CO2. The plasma assisted catalytic reactor design has several applications in following areas: (1) Gas purification (such as impurity removal from biogas, natural gas, LPG, etc.), (2) Diesel exhaust gas purification for NOx and SOx abatement, (3) Fuel reformation for hydrogen generation and (4) Sluggish catalytic reactions requiring high activation energies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lynntech's non thermal plasma assisted Sabatier reactor technology provides an energy efficient, low temperature and durable product for the generation of methane from CO2 for following NASA applications: (1) Propellant production on Mars from the Martian CO2, (2) Atmospheric revitalization of the cabin environment for utilization of CO2 in the cabin.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In Situ Manufacturing
Resource Extraction
Fuels/Propellants
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H1.01-9614
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CJ10P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Electrolyzer & Sabatier System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 East Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ 85714-2221
(520) 903-1000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christine Iacomini, Ph.D.
ciacomini@paragonsdc.com
3481 East Michigan Street
Tucson,  AZ 85714-2221
(520) 382-4824

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Paragon Space Development Corporation (Paragon) and ENrG Incorporated (ENrG) are teaming to provide a highly efficient reactor for carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide (CO/CO2) conversion into methane (CH4). The system is a gravity-independent, compact, leak-tight, Solid Oxide Electrolyzer (SOE) system with embedded Sabatier reactors (ESR). Applying Corning Incorporated (Corning) Intellectual Property (IP), ENrG and Paragon can leverage an all-ceramic, efficient, and low mass solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that remains leak-tight after hundreds of thermal cycles. Paragon proposes that incorporation of the all-ceramic technology into our SOE/ESR system will result in a design that will: 1) be thermally shock tolerant and capable of hundreds of on-off cycles at faster cycles than compared to the metal-to-ceramic SOE designs, 2) be lighter, smaller, and require less power than existing designs, 3) allow for high (>90%) single pass utilization of feedstock, and 4) achieve a thermodynamic efficiency of up to 80%. Our Phase II effort includes laboratory tests to optimize operation of an all-ceramic design for increased single pass utilization of the feed stock and mitigation of carbon deposition. Engineering analyses and component testing will be performed to inform the design of a stack. The stack will be built and tested to verify requirements. Results will be used to size a full system with recommendations for integration. An engineering development unit will be built and delivered to NASA. Integrating cells that operate as either an electrolyzer or a Sabatier reactor simplifies operations, lowers hardware complexity, and increases reliability. The proposed system can perform multiple functions without modifications, making it a readily deployable technology for various missions from ISRU on the Moon and Mars to regenerating 100% of a crew's oxygen in spacecraft or habitats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SOE/ESR development could allow less massive oxygen systems in commercial spacecraft vehicles currently under development. A point underscored by Paragon's existing relationships with industry. SOE/ESR oxygen regeneration systems can also be utilized in underwater research facilities, submarines, high altitude aircraft, or emergency bunkers. Hazardous material handlers, rescue personnel, or other professionals performing in extreme environments would benefit greatly from a self-contained oxygen supply system that requires no external supply of consumables. Also, SOE operated as a regenerative fuel can be used in back-up emergency power systems or as relief systems during high energy-use periods of the day.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SOE/ESRs can be used to produce oxygen from in situ planetary resources and to regenerate 100% of the oxygen needs of a crew from crew-produced CO2 and H2O vapor. The SOE/ESR can be designed to satisfy various missions, regardless of destination or the technology chosen for using the extraterrestrial resources (e.g., hydrogen vs carbothermal lunar regolith reduction). SOE operated as a regenerative fuel can supply power, for example when solar power is unavailable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Generation
Storage
Ceramics
Fuels/Propellants
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H2.01-9033
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CC30P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Reliable, Efficient Cryogenic Propellant Mixing Pump With No Moving Parts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Weibo Chen
wbc@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Refueling spacecraft in space offers tremendous benefits for increased spacecraft payload capacity and reduced launch cost. However, there are several key challenges with space refueling associated with the storage and handling of liquid cryogens in space. To meet these challenges, we propose to develop a reliable, compact, efficient cryogenic mixing pump with no moving parts. The mixing pump will prevent thermal stratification of the cryogen and simplify pressure control for storage tanks. The mixing pump uses an innovative thermodynamic process to generate fluid jets to promote fluid mixing, eliminating the need for mechanical pumps. Our innovative mechanism will be able to self-prime and generate a high-pressure rise. The device will significantly enhance the reliability of pressure control systems for storage tanks. In Phase I, we demonstrated the feasibility of our approach through building and testing a proof-of-concept mixing pump, optimizing the mixing pump design by analysis, and developing a preliminary layout design of a prototype pump. In Phase II, we will build and test a laboratory-scale cryogenic mixing pump, demonstrate its performance in a representative cryogenic environment, and deliver the pump to a NASA research lab for further evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this project has applications in reliable two-phase pumps for cryogenic fluids and refrigerant flows. Applications include cryogenic two-phase cooling systems for superconductors. The technology also has applications in thermal management systems for advanced electronics and photonics systems, as well as advanced environmental control systems for future military vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this project will enable reliable long-term and short-term cryogenic propellant storage in space for refueling. The mixing pump will enable effective pressure control for cryogenic tanks by maintaining a uniform fluid temperature. Its high reliability will significantly enhance the effectiveness of the pressure control mechanism. The device developed in this project can also be used as a two-phase cryogenic pump with no impellers or pistons to enable reliable cryogen transfer for space applications. The technology also has application in low-G propellant liquid mass gauging by serving as a reliable compression mass gauge.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H2.01-9448
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CG09P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Speed Compressor for Subcooling Propellants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barber-Nichols, Inc.
6325 West 55th
Arvada, CO 80002-2707
(303) 327-8630

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Preuss
jpreuss@barber-nichols.com
6325 West 55th Ave
Arvada,  CO 80002-2707
(303) 421-8111

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The most promising propellant subcooling systems for LH2 require compression systems that involve development of significant head. The inlet pressure for these systems is typically on the order of 1.4 psia with a discharge pressure requirement above atmospheric pressure. In the past this has required multiple stages of compression by machines operating at high speeds on ball bearings. The bearing life in these machines was at most a few hundred hours. While this is feasible to use for a proof of concept test system, it is not acceptable for the H2 compressors in application at the launch pad. It is desired to replace these grease-packed ball bearings with foil bearings to greatly increase compressor life. Additionally higher speed can eliminate several stages thus reducing complexity and cost of the system. If this technology proves feasible it could finally make densified LH2 propellant a reality for future launch and space applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are also numerous applications outside of NASA. Numerous private companies are currently designing and building rockets that use turbopumps. Many of these applications are seeking longer bearing life and would greatly benefit from this technology. Grease-packed ball bearing cryogenic H2 circulators are currently in use for neutron sources and flux reactors at facilities around the world. In each of these applications longer bearing life along with the possibility of attaining even higher speeds are needed. There are also numerous other applications involving cryogenic He expanders and compressors in superconducting magnet cooling and refrigeration that could greatly benefit from this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential applications for this technology at NASA are widespread. In addition to propellant densification for use in liquid rocket engines at launch, there are also applications that involve long term in-space storage of the propellants to be used on vehicles over months or years. By subcooling the propellant it drastically reduces boil-off of the cryogens over time and thus improves storage life. The applications include on-vehicle propellant storage for long range mission and propellant depots that are planned for space. Liquid cryogenic injection at the foil bearing also makes sense for rocket engine turboumps. This bearing innovation for LOX and LH2 turbopumps could greatly increase life over the ball bearings currently used which will be especially appealing for the long range missions planned for the future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H2.02-8607
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CC33P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost Manufacturing Technique for Advanced Regenerative Cooling for In-Space Cryogenic Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Analytical Services, Inc. (ASI)
350 Voyager Way
Huntsville, AL 35806-3200
(256) 562-2100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Haymond
Thomas.Haymond@asi-hsv.com
350 Voyager Way
Huntsville,  AL 35806-3200
(256) 562-2157

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of the proposed effort is to use selective laser melting (SLM, an additive manufacturing technique) to manufacture a hot fire-capable, water-cooled spool piece that features an advanced regenerative cooling technique that combines high heat flux performance with low pressure drop. SLM enables us to "print" the spool piece in days, despite the complexity of the regenerative liner's inherent flow passage complexity. This reduction in manufacturing lead time, combined with the fact that SLM manufacturing costs are driven in large part by the amount of raw powder used during fabrication, results in a substantial cost reduction for future regeneratively-cooled rocket engines. Additionally, the proposed advanced regenerative cooling approach features a heat-pickup efficiency that is at least two orders of magnitude higher than traditional milled channel liners and/or brazed tube bundle chambers. As a result of our Phase I activity and confidence in our commercialization path, we will be making a capital investment to stand up an SLM manufacturing capability in house. We plan to augment that investment with an internally-funded trade study that we will use to derive main combustion chamber performance requirements for a future expander cycle engine. Those requirements will feed into Phase II design requirements and, ultimately, to supporting our commercialization opportunity presented by the Affordable Upper Stage Engine Program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We are already actively pursuing a non-NASA opportunity with the Missile Defense Agency (MDA), which is forced to fly very expensive foreign missile systems as targets for interept missions. Today, these targets cost about $40M per mission. We have identified a low cost target that we can upgrade with a version of our SLM-manufactured advanced combustion chamber that will improve the range of that target, such that it can be used instead of the expensive foreign systems. If we are successful with the design, development and testing, MDA could fly our targets and save a massive $39M per intercept test.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Affordable Upper Stage Enginer (AUSE) is our primary NASA application. The upper stage engine, which will replace the RL10, will benefit from our SLM-manufactured MCC in three ways. First, SLM is known to reduce the cost of component manufacture by 50-70%, which will help satisfy affordability requirements. Second, the pressure drop penalty incurred by using our advanced cooling approach is reduced by about an order of magnitude over current state of the art, which will reduce turbompump requirements, which will also contribute to lower cost. Third, our approach provides a dramatic increase in heat flux to the regenerative propellant, which will enable an increase in expander cycle engine performance, by increasing its potential for doing work across the turbine. The Space Launch System (SLS) Program is another opportunity, particularly since the core stage will use the RS-25 engine, a staged combustion cycle that will likewise benefit from reductions in cooling jacket pressure drop. The Altair ascent and descent engines would also both benefit from our technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Metallics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion
Active Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H2.02-8782
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CM07P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fine Grained Tungsten Claddings for Cermet Based NTP Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, LLC
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John O'Dell
scottodell@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In October 2011, NASA initiated the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) program to evaluate the feasibility and affordability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). A critical aspect of the program is to develop a robust, stable nuclear fuel. One of the nuclear fuel configurations currently being evaluated is a cermet-based material comprised of uranium dioxide (UO2) particles encased in a tungsten matrix (W). To prevent excessive fuel loss from reaction with the hot hydrogen gas and uranium hydride formation, dense, fine-grained tungsten claddings are needed. Recently, advanced additive manufacturing techniques (EL-Form and Vacuum Plasma Spray Forming) have been developed that enable the deposition of coatings and near-net-shape refractory metal components with high density and tailored microstructures. The Phase I investigation produced fine-grained W claddings using EL-Form and VPS processing techniques. Testing showed the W claddings were well bonded to surrogate nuclear fuel element materials, and the W claddings were vacuum tight. During Phase II, the techniques developed during Phase I will be optimized, and W claddings on full size cermet fuel elements will be developed and characterized. Subscale and full-size test articles will be produced and delivered to NASA-MSFC for hot hydrogen testing in the Compact Fuel Element Environment Test (CFEET) facility and the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Both government and commercial entities in the following sectors use advanced high-temperature materials for the following applications: coatings, defense, material R&D, nuclear power, aerospace, propulsion, automotive, electronics, crystal growth, and medical. Targeted commercial applications include net-shape fabrication of refractory rocket nozzles, crucibles, heat pipes, fuel rods, and propulsion subcomponents; and advanced coating systems for x-ray targets, sputtering targets, turbines, and rocket engines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications that would directly benefit from this technology include Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Space nuclear power and propulsion are game changing technologies for space exploration. Initial NTP systems will have specific impulses roughly twice that of the best chemical systems, i.e., reduced propellant requirements and/or reduced trip time. Currently, NASA's Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) project is working to demonstrate the viability and affordability of NTP. The proposed Phase II effort would greatly assist NASA with achieving the goals of the NCPS project. Potential NASA missions include rapid robotic exploration missions throughout the solar system and piloted missions to Mars and other destinations such as near earth asteroids.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Characterization
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Fuels/Propellants
Spacecraft Main Engine
Destructive Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H2.02-9050
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CC34P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lifetime Improvement of Large Scale Green Monopropellant Thrusters via Novel, Long-Life Catalysts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Company, Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Tsay
mtsay@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023
(508) 655-5565

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek proposes to develop and life-test a flight-weight, 5N class green monopropellant thruster in Phase II. The most important feature that sets this thruster apart from other similar devices will be the use of an innovative, long-life catalyst. This proprietary catalyst, constructed without any bed plate or ceramic substrate, has the potential to suppress catalyst-related performance degradation problems that often plague monopropellant thrusters. The Phase II thruster in essence will be a matured version of the highly-successful Phase I prototype, with the addition of high-temperature nozzle material. To further demonstrate the design's scalability, a 100N class thruster will be developed and demonstrated at the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The market size for green monopropellant thrusters is very large. In addition to NASA, all branches of the military are interested in deploying them for tactical or in-space applications. The non-toxic storable feature of the propellant enables preloaded propulsion systems that can accommodate rapid launch operations. Because Busek's thrusters have the potential for extended life without performance degradation, developers of GEO communication satellites will likely consider them for both reaction control and primary propulsion. This versatility will help broaden market access. A successful Phase II program will lead to direct sales or licensing of the thrusters and the associated catalyst technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications of both the 5N and 100N green monopropellant thrusters include missions to low Earth orbits and beyond. Near-term examples are the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at GEO, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) at GEO, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) at L2, and the next Mars robotics mission scheduled for 2020 launch. As with state-of-the-art reaction control rockets Busek's green monopropellant thrusters are radiation-cooled and restart-able, making them a simple yet reliable propulsion option. In addition, the green propellant's storability and low-toxicity will be attractive for NASA's future manned spaceflight. Without the need for excessive safety measures, overall operational cost for the manned missions will be reduced.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H2.03-8644
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CS02P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Technologies for Propulsion Testing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polymer Derived Rare Earth Silicate Nanocomposite Protective Coatings for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vince Baranauskas
vince@nanosonic.com
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke,  VA 24136-3645
(540) 626-6266

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Leveraging a rapidly evolving state-of-the-art technical base empowered by Phase I NASA SBIR funding, NanoSonic's polymer derived rare earth silicate EBCs will provide a paradigm breaking advancement for NTPs by extending the operational utility of NTP rocket thrust chambers and nozzles. Unlike competing deposition technologies severely limited by substrate size and dimensions, NanoSonic's rare earth silicate coatings may be spray deposited under ambient conditions onto large area complex substrates and converted to mechanically robust, thermally insulative EBCs on a production basis. In fact, legacy spray equipment employed for hardcoat deposition within the marine, automotive and aerospace industries has been used for successful EBC deposition. Simulated NTP testing completed by the University of Washington on coated Inconel 625 substrates indicate five candidate EBCs have exceptional environmental, dimensional, and adhesive durability within flow conditions representative of NTP rocket engines. In fact, zero spallation, erosion, or any other form of coating degradation was observed at the thermal limit of testing of 1,950 C. All candidate resins may be transitioned to 200-gallon batch production quantities within an established manufacturing infrastructure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Broad secondary commercial and DoD applications will be continuously sought for NanoSonic's polymer derived rare earth silicate EBCs. Of particular interest is the foreseen return-on-investment for aerospace, marine and automotive engine components and subcomponents integrating NanoSonic's EBCs for enhanced thermal insulation, corrosion and erosion durability. Additionally, NanoSonic's polymer derived EBC coating technology may serve as an integral enabling technology for the use of fiber reinforced polymeric composites in closer proximity to engine systems by providing highly efficient, thin (<75 microns) insulative coatings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NanoSonic's yttrium silicate coatings will serve as a next-generation alternative to line-of-sight vacuum assisted EB-PVD coatings for lifetime and performance gains on nozzle, throat and core rocket engine components. Since the technology is spray deposited using legacy HVLP equipment under ambient conditions, literally any rocket propulsion component may be coated during a continuous or semi-continuous process during vehicle construction, as well as retrofitted on existing large area, irregularly shaped structures in need of high temperature thermal, corrosive and erosion protection.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Fire Protection
Characterization
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Astronautics)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Surface Propulsion
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H3.02-9063
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CJ21P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring and Fire Protection for Spacecraft Autonomy
PROPOSAL TITLE: A First Response Crew Mask for Ammonia, Hydrazine and Combustion Products

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2347

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gokhan Alptekin
galptekin@tda.com
12345 West 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2349

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The increasing frequency of International Space Station (ISS) egress operations contaminates the spacecraft environment with propellant residues (such as anhydrous hydrazine) and their decomposition by-products, as well as coolants such as ammonia and Freon. NH3 and N2H4 have a 24 hour Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 7 ppm and 0.3 ppm, respectively. TDA Research Inc. is developing a new adsorbent that can remove these contaminants to sub ppmv concentrations with high activity and capacity. The sorbent can be integrated as a thin layer into an existing cartridge used in the ISS first response crew mask; the new media will greatly extend the capability to protect against the NH3 and hydrazine for extended duration under high contaminant challenges, without undermining the ability of the cartridge to filter out other combustion by-products. In Phase I, we successfully completed all proof-of-concept demonstrations at the bench-scale elevating the TRL to 3. The new adsorbent can provide over 1,400 minutes of protection when challenged with 50 ppmv NH3 and over 450 hrs with 1 ppmv anhydrous N2H4, even at a bed aspect ratio as low as 0.1 and at gas-solid contact times as low as 0.11 sec. The NH3 and N2H4 capacity of the sorbent exceeds 1.8% wt. and 1.4% wt., respectively, with bed outlet concentrations maintained at less than 40 ppbv. In Phase II, we will continue to optimize the sorbent formulations and scale-up the production. We will design and fabricate full-scale experimental prototype cartridges at TDA to support demonstrations in an environmental chamber using a breathing apparatus. Based on the results, we will design and fabricate high fidelity cartridges based on the flight qualified ISS Fire Recovery Respirator Cartridge and complete high fidelity demonstrations in an environmental chamber to fully demonstrate its capability (non-human testing at TRL 6). These will be provided to NASA for additional testing and demonstrations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a potential commercial opportunity for our technology in commercial safety devices and personal protection systems. We estimated a total market in the U.S. and Europe could exceed 250,000 units per year, assuming an average shelf life of two years for the respirator. The new adsorbent may also find applications in preventing "ammonia slip" from Selective Catalytic Reduction based NOx Emission Control Units used in power plants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main product of our research of our research to NASA is a highly capable cartridge to be used in a first response crew mask to protect the astronaut against NH3 and hydrazine, as well as other combustion by-products. The new cartridge will extend the capabilities of the current cartridge used at the ISS and provide further protection to the crew person against an ammonia and/or hydrazine challenge.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fire Protection
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H3.02-9850
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CP09P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Monitoring and Fire Protection for Spacecraft Autonomy
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Preconcentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thorleaf Research, Inc.
5552 Cathedral Oaks Road
Santa Barbara, CA 93111-1406
(805) 308-1937

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Holland
pholland@thorleaf.com
5552 Cathedral Oaks Road
Santa Barbara,  CA 93111-1406
(805) 308-1937

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thorleaf Research, Inc. has demonstrated feasibility in Phase I and now proposes a Phase II effort to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume preconcentrator for monitoring trace levels of contaminants in liquid water under microgravity conditions. Our innovative design for the preconcentrator combines high water sampling flow rates with low dead volume, thus enhancing preconcentration. This is designed to meet monitoring needs for NASA's Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEGs) and addresses a key technology gap for long-duration human spaceflight, since standard techniques will not function without gravitation to stabilize phase boundaries. Human exploration of the solar system will depend on such technology, since water must be recycled and the option of returning grab samples to Earth for analysis from beyond low-Earth orbits does not exist. During Phase II, we plan to incorporate this technology into a miniaturized water preconcentrator module. Based on our Phase I results we project that it will be possible to develop this module with a mass of about 0.5 kg and average power consumption of <1 watt.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Analysis of commercial instrumentation markets shows that two of the three major growth areas for analytical instrumentation are real-time analysis and environmental monitoring, with projected annual growth rates of more than 15%. Our modular design approach for the miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume preconcentrator for trace levels of contaminants in water under microgravity conditions should allow it to be adapted for miniature field portable analytical chemical instrumentation to meet specialized environmental monitoring needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thorleaf Research's miniaturized water preconcentration module will be designed to interface with spacecraft instrumentation for air-monitoring, such as the Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) which has now successfully completed two-years of testing on the International Space Station. It should also be possible to adapt our high flow, low dead volume design to the next generation of miniature air-monitoring instrumentation, such as the micro-Gas Monitor (mGM) currently under development at NASA/JPL, or other instrumentation. This will enable NASA's goal of long-term monitoring of trace contaminants in both air and water using a single instrument. Since we intend to follow a modular design approach in our Phase II development, this core instrumentation can be adapted to other detectors of interest, and for other NASA needs. For example, our preconcentrator technology may be applicable in process monitoring for the extraction of planetary resources such as water from Lunar or Martian soils, especially where this water will be used for human consumption. It may also be possible to adapt our preconcentrator sampling system for use in non-aqueous solvents. For example, an important future NASA planetary mission application might arise for preconcentration of trace organic compounds in the cryogenic methane-ethane lakes on Saturn's moon Titan.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H3.03-8904
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CJ23P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Accommodations and Water Recovery for Long Duration Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silver Ion Biocide Delivery System for Water Disinfection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reactive Innovations, LLC
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford, MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kimble
mkimble@reactive-innovations.com
2 Park Drive, Unit 4
Westford,  MA 01886-3525
(978) 692-4664

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
U.S. space exploration missions have long considered returning to the Moon and exploration of Mars that challenge life support systems. For these long duration missions, NASA is interested in replacing the iodine water treatment system with ionic silver. Although iodine treated water has been used successfully with the International Space Station, its use requires that the iodine be removed before being consumed by astronauts due to its adverse effects on the thyroid. For long duration exploration missions, minimal mass systems are desired that lessen logistical supply requirements for storing and distributing potable water. In particular, it is imperative that an effective biocide is used that prevents microbial growth, biofilm formation, and microbially induced corrosion in the water storage and distribution systems. To address these needs, Reactive Innovations, LLC successfully demonstrated a Phase I program that developed an electrochemical silver ion generator to produce an effective biocide solution for disinfecting water throughout the water storage and distribution system. A follow-on Phase II program will further develop and optimize this cell and control system. This biocide delivery system will be demonstrated in a relevant environment showing its long life performance for preventing biofilm growth.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Silver ion water treatment systems have been used in commercial systems for treating potable water. The proposed technology produces a better distribution of silver ions in the water system that minimizes gradients that affect primary current distributions that deposit silver elsewhere in the water flow system. Low energy and inexpensive materials help drive the technology toward commercial viability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A potable water treatment process is needed to prevent microbial growth and biofilm formation in the water storage and distribution system for long duration missions. Silver ions have been proven by NASA to be effective for such microbial control, however, there remain significant challenges with the biocide delivery system and materials of construction that are compatible with silver. Our proposed process produces an effective delivery system with a control system that prevents silver deposition on the wetted materials of construction. This offers expanded degrees of freedom for designing the water system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Biomass Growth
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Fluids
Polymers
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H3.04-9629
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CJ26P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LoadPath
933 San Mateo Boulevard Northeast, Suite 500-326
Albuquerque, NM 87108-1862
(866) 411-3131

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Derek Hengeveld
dhengeveld@loadpath.com
933 San Mateo Boulevard NE, Ste 500-326
Albuquerque,  NM 87108-1862
(866) 411-3131

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For spacecraft design and development teams concerned with cost and schedule, the Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool (QuickSTAT) is an innovative software suite that will significantly reduce labor costs and effort associated with the design, analysis, and optimization of spacecraft. Unlike traditional analysis where highly-trained engineers spend days to months developing, running, and evaluating high-resolution models, QuickSTAT provides the similar results in near real-time to a broader range of users. QuickSTAT will enable, on one hand, highly skilled thermal engineers to more effectively explore complex design spaces, while on the other hand give better engineering design access to less skilled engineers and program stakeholders. For thermal analysts involved in multi-dimensional trade studies, QuickSTAT provides the means to rapidly compare hundreds or thousands of discrete design points and identify trends that lead to more optimal design solutions. For designers of low-cost spacecraft, QuickSTAT can enable quick and efficient thermal design trade studies without investing in a high-end thermal analysis tools.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similarly to NASA unmanned missions, this proposed design tool will be of interest to other Government spacecraft procuring agencies such as the Air Force, Navy, National Reconnaissance Office, and Operationally Responsive Space Office; as well as, prime contractor spacecraft developers such as ATK, Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Northrop Grumman, Sierra Nevada Corporation, Raytheon, and Surrey. In addition, QuickSTAT will be highly useful within the CubeSat market which includes Government, industry, and university customers. Beyond spacecraft thermal control system modeling, the proposed Phase II effort will develop a design tool ready for efficient transition to new aerospace applications as well as alternate industries. The design tool could be applied to virtually any engineering analysis, regardless of industry. Potential product extensions span from adjacent engineering analysis applications such as stress and fluid analysis, to new industries such as energy system modeling.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
QuickSTAT will enable the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) chartered responsibilities of; 1 reduce costs of future human space flight, and 2) providing a tool that will reduce the cost and time required for design and analysis of spacecraft TCS. Specifically, the International Space Station (ISS) and its visiting vehicles are programs that stand to benefit from the design tool. Potential ISS visiting vehicles are the Orion CEV, SpaceX Dragon capsule, Boeing CST-100, and Sierra Nevada Dream Chaser.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H3.04-9801
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CM14P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Powered Magnetothermal Fluid Pump

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Prime Photonics, LC
1116 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5548
(540) 961-2200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Gray
david.gray@primephotonics.com
1116 South Main Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-5548
(540) 808-4281

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advances in the capabilities of electronics have enabled high power density devices. However, even in light of advances in electronics efficiency figures, the increased power density operational points result in the generation of excess heat. In order to maintain efficiency and to product sensitive components from thermally-induced failure, intelligent rejection of thermal energy is often a critically limiting constraint in system development. Novel concepts for thermal management are particular necessary in applications with finite energy stores, such as long-duration space missions. The Prime Photonics magnetothermal fluid pump provides for game-changing, autonomous self-powered thermal management systems. Our self-powered pump converts excess thermal energy into point-of-use mechanical energy with a low mass insertion penalty. The operational frequency of the pump is proportional to the magnitude of the thermal gradient, supplying additional pump capacity in response to increased thermal loads.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-density electronics cooling: With the exponential growth of cloud computing, social media, and internet commerce, large server farms are necessary to handle the vast data uploads and throughputs necessary maintain high bandwidth quality. Energy required to power thermal rejection technologies reduces profitability of companies, increases carbon footprints, and results in a reliance on grid power. The autonomous, self-powered magnetothermal pump proposed here would alleviate much of the costs associated with powering cooling systems, and with associated control systems. Concentrated solar energy generation: Modern multi-junction silicon photovoltaics demonstrate efficiencies far beyond those available even several years ago. However, even at 20% efficiency, significant portions of the 1kW/m2 solar irradiation incident on the panels must be converted to heat. However, in order to operate at mutli-sun concentration, advanced heat rejection systems are required in order to maintain sufficiently low junction temperatures so as not to decrease quantum conversion efficiency with PVs. Often, the power required for active cooling cannot be offset economically through increases in PV output power. As such, typical concentrated solar arrays are passively cooled with pronounced fined aluminum heat sinks. The incorporation of a self-powered fluid pump would shift the optimization of the cooling system, allowing for further solar concentration with no added energy cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cubesat thermal management: For smaller craft thermal rejection or management requirements, a self-powered pump would allow for the design and implementation of systems that do not consume limited electrical power resources. Remote sensor thermal management: The autonomous, self-powered pump scavenges all operational energy requirements from the thermal gradient under management, requiring neither electrical leads for device powering nor for any control signals. Long duration lunar lander projects: Actively pump thermal management concepts for lunar lander missions have in general not been considered due to parasitic power consumption. The self-powered, autonomous capability of the magnetothermal fluid pump allows for advance heat spreading and alternative thermal management system design with no additional power consumption. EVA or astronaut thermal control: Our technology can be tuned to operate with very small thermal gradient excitation with a wide range of absolute temperature ranges. As such, thermal management, including heat or cooling, could be powered through astronaut body heat, or scavenged thermal energy from avionics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Actuators & Motors
Thermal
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Heat Exchange
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H4.02-8749
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CJ31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Life Support and Avionics Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Holmstedt
EOSProposals@poc.com
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance,  CA 90501-1510
(310) 320-3088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA need for an extravehicular activity (EVA) information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to advance development of a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display (Pro/Ref-HUD) based on innovative integration of liquid crystal display (LCD) screen projectors, partially see-through optical reflectors and unique ergonomic designs. This approach enables the displayed image to meet NASA EVA requirements and is completely decoupled from the user's head while achieving full sunlight readability with automated rapid ambient light response. The Pro/Ref-HUD offers full-color, high-resolution collimated images, with large fields of view, highly suited to the space and weight constraints inside an astronaut's suit. In Phase I, POC successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the Pro/Ref-HUD system by designing, building, and testing a TRL-4 prototype. In this Phase II, POC proposes to develop a fully functional prototype to demonstrate sunlight readability and SXGA resolution, investigate thermal and radiation issues, and analyze ignition safety due to a 100% oxygen operating environment as well as vacuum and extreme temperature environments. The results to be developed and demonstrated in Phase II will offer NASA capabilities to perform EVA operations with heads-up displays internal to the helmet enhancing crew situation awareness, comfort, and safety.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
See-through HMD technology advances made possible by the successful development of the proposed Pro/Ref-HUD system will lead to cost-effective commercialization. In particular, this new HMD system will find numerous real time 3D virtual-reality and augmented-reality applications. The military has significant and various needs for HMD technology, including Distributed Mission Training, pilot and combat vehicle crew HMDs, thermal sights, Soldier's Integrated Protective Ensemble (SIPE), and logistics and training. In addition, we anticipate widespread appeal of the Pro/Ref-HUD technology to such entertainment industry applications as gaming HUDs, gaming flight simulators, and other immersive and augmented display systems, including medical and CAD/CAE 3D image displays, virtual-reality displays for endoscopy/laparoscopy, and displays for environmentally hazardous professions such as bomb disposal and hazmat clean up. Medicine, avionics, education, law enforcement, firefighting, space exploration, and video games represent major markets for compact, low-cost, lightweight HMDs in the private sector.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Pro/Ref-HUD technology will provide new capabilities for astronauts during EVA with a see-through display system that allows the astronauts to monitor the conditions around them while being provided visual instructions and direction in a hands-free format. This technology will allow astronauts to be more productive and take on less risk, and eventually translate to boresighted overlays for augmented-reality-based information. Applications include space walks on the International Space Station (ISS) where navigating the structure can be completed with maps and repairs completed with heads-up manuals. Harsh-environment training can also be completed with the HUD by providing assistance and navigation for improved safety such as dealing with Martian dust storms and facilitating asteroid landings.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Navigation & Guidance
Tools/EVA Tools
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Command & Control
Mission Training
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Prototyping
Display
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H4.02-8807
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CJ32P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Suit Life Support and Avionics Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regenerable Sorbent for Combined CO2, Water, and Trace-Contaminant Capture in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108-3720
(860) 528-9806

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marek Wojtowicz
marek@AFRinc.com
87 Church Street
East Hartford,  CT 06108-3720
(860) 528-9806

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA objective of expanding the human experience into the far reaches of space requires the development of regenerable life support systems. This proposal addresses the development of an integrated air-revitalization system for the space suit used in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The proposed innovations are: (1) a single CO2, trace-contaminant, and H2O management unit; (2) a single sorbent possessing the capability to remove CO2, trace contaminants, and H2O; (3) monolithic sorption unit to provide the following functions: (a) CO2 sorbent; (b) trace-contaminant sorbent; (c) H2O sorbent; (d) low pressure drop; (e) good thermal management (heat transfer and low heat of adsorption); (f) resistance to dusty environments; and (4) regenerable operation. The overall objective is to develop a CO2/trace-contaminant/H2O removal system that is regenerable and that possesses weight, size, and power-requirement advantages over the current state of the art. The Phase 1 objectives were: (1) to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using a novel CO2 sorbent; and (2) to demonstrate effective CO2, ammonia, and H2O sorption and regeneration. These objectives were successfully accomplished. The Phase II objectives are to optimize sorbent properties and performance, to design, construct, and test a prototype, and to provide guidelines for the integration of the proposed concept with the PLSS. This will be accomplished in the following tasks: (1) Sorbent Development and Optimization; (2) Testing in Subscale Systems at Hamilton Sundstrand; (3) Prototype Design; (4) Prototype Construction; (5) Prototype Testing; and (6) System Evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Greenhouse gas mitigation is a potential application. DOE is aggressively pursuing technologies beyond pumped aqueous amine systems that can be used for point source reduction of CO2. These systems must offer lower cost of capture compared to the pumped amine systems. Our sorbent can offer an attractive alternative for better CO2 removal compared to the pumped amine systems. This can translate into smaller systems, lowering capital costs. Our system is also expected to provide more efficient regeneration (lower thermal energy requirement), thus reducing operating costs. The monolithic support also offers pressure-drop advantages for CO2 capture from the flue gas. European and US manufacturers are having more difficulty with single-use CO2 scrubbers due to the increased disposal costs. Regenerable technologies will provide advantages when the overall life cycle costs are counted (e.g., disposal). The proposed technology may also find an important application in air-revitalization on board U.S. Navy submarines and in future air-conditioning systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main application of the proposed technology would be in spacecraft life-support systems, mainly in extravehicular activities (space suit) but, after modifications, also in cabin-air revitalization.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Protective Clothing/Space Suits/Breathing Apparatus
Remediation/Purification


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H5.01-9013
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL31P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable/Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Tubular Extendible Lock-Out Composite Boom (STELOC)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Composite Technology Development, Inc.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026-3359
(303) 664-0394

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Taylor
robert.taylor@ctd-materials.com
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette,  CO 80026-3359
(303) 664-0394

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mass and volume efficient solar arrays are sought by NASA, DoD and commercial space to enable high power missions from 20-50 kW in the near term and eventually up to 350 kW. Currently, the maximum power available from conventional solar arrays, for a given spacecraft, is limited by either the weight or stowage volume of the honeycomb panel substrates. Flexible substrate arrays can enable higher power spacecraft by improving specific power (W/kg) and specific volume (kW/m3) as well as improving the deployed natural frequency. Typical designs for flexible substrate array require a stiff boom mechanism to deploy the array and provide the deployed structure. Heritage flexible substrate arrays have used metallic slit-tube or coilable longeron booms. To be feasible, large, next-generation flexible substrate solar arrays require deployable booms that are more thermally stable than metallic slit-tubes (STEMs), and less expensive and lighter than coilable longeron booms (i.e. AstroMast). To address this need, CTD has developed the Stable Tubular Extendible Lock-Out Composite Boom (STELOC Boom). The STELOC Boom can provide stiffness equivalent to coilable longeron booms with a significantly reduced volume, mass and cost. The Phase I program demonstrated feasibility of the STELOC boom as the deployment actuator and primary structural component of a 15 kW solar array wing. The proposed Phase II program will advance the STELOC Boom to TRL 5 through the design, fabrication and testing of a flight-like Engineering Development Unit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Power systems compromise nearly 30% of a spacecraft's mass on average, thus improvements in specific power (W/kg) will enable either a reduction in spacecraft mass or an increase in capabilities. Near term Air Force satellite missions require more capable solar arrays with more total power on the same or smaller platforms. This includes enabling the GPS III Dual Launch variant which can leverage significant cost savings, and overcoming power challenges for Advanced EHF and classified missions. More powerful arrays must also have better specific power, decreased stowage volume and increased deployed stiffness in order to maintain other performance parameters of the spacecraft. Flexible blanket solar arrays can provide all these improvements by eliminating the heavy, bulky honeycomb panels used for conventional arrays. The STELOC boom will enable flexible arrays with all these qualities that could save $50 million per satellite and more than $1.5 Billion for a notional 30 satellite constellation of the GPS III Dual Launch Variant. The next-generation solar arrays being designed by Lockheed Martin are also intended for use on commercial geostationary satellites. Larger arrays will enable more transponders per spacecraft. Solar electric propulsion variants with high power, very stiff arrays can arrive on orbit more quickly and provide longer lifetimes. All these benefits translate to higher total revenues per spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advancement of high power and high specific power arrays and large robust arrays are both listed as critical requirements in NASA's technology roadmap. Advanced arrays are required to enable scaling up to 350 kW systems for interplanetary missions using solar electric power (SEP). While increased efficiencies of PV cells and power distribution will contribute to a portion of this power increase, very large arrays with very stiff support structures will be necessary to reach powers in the hundreds of kilowatts. In addition, large arrays which are structurally and dynamically durable under deployed conditions will require stiff, stable deployable structures to carry the deployed load and provide deployment forces. The stiff, lightweight STELOC booms provide the efficient structural performance necessary to achieve both very large arrays and robust deployed arrays. Therefore, successful achievement of the objectives defined for this program can provide a significant capability to NASA and NASA contractors to aid in the development of a SEP spacecraft tug or SEP for deep space missions. And in the near term, the 10cm twin-boom STELOC mast will enable robust 30 kW array systems for an SEP demonstrator or other high power missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Composites
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H5.01-9476
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL34P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable/Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design and Analysis Tools for Deployable Solar Array Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATA Engineering, Inc.
11995 El Camino Real
San Diego, CA 92130-2566
(858) 480-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cory Rupp
cory.rupp@ata-e.com
1687 Cole Boulevard, Suite 125
Golden,  CO 80401-3321
(303) 945-2368

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being the top challenge in meeting the overall goals of the NASA Space Technology Roadmap. The use of analysis to drive design from an early stage is critical to their success, yet conflicting design requirements and demanding space constraints make traditional design/build/test methods challenging and expensive. The proposed SBIR program focuses on overcoming this through the development of a user-friendly multi-disciplinary design and analysis software toolkit that can rapidly perform parametric studies and design optimization of solar array concepts. The software package will provide a graphical user interface and analysis procedures to evaluate critical performance metrics, while eliminating the unnecessary pre-processing and computational overhead associated with current approaches. Analysis capabilities will include flexible multi-body dynamics, array deployment, modal analysis, and response simulation. Model creation will be simplified through the use of an extensible, hierarchical blockset solution and a library of blocks specific to deployable solar array analysis. The Phase II effort will focus on the development of advanced analysis and design capabilities and further validation of the tool through test-correlated modeling of a state-of-the-art solar array system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The tools developed in this program will have broader applications than just the design and optimization of solar array structures. Development of the toolset will provide a modular, open-architecture tool that is easily extensible and customizable to integrate with other systems, software tools, and architectures across other industries. The fundamental approach of using Modelica as the core of a lightweight, graphics-based, intuitive, and efficient computational tool for design and analysis can be extended to a wide variety of other structural analysis and design optimization applications including lightweight booms, frames, expandable/inflatable structures, and associated mechanisms. Furthermore, the underlying architecture of the toolset allows it to be easily expanded and/or customized to enable additional analysis solutions, geometry modules, control systems, interactions, and componentry relevant to a vast array of other products. The software will eventually prove to benefit the design and analysis of any product that has several disparate components that must work in an integrated way. Examples include heavy equipment, robotics (terrestrial and space-based), industrial manufacturing, spacecraft, aircraft, automotive, and energy applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate opportunity for the tools that will be developed under this SBIR is to assist NASA and its contractors in performing design trade studies of large mass-efficient deployable solar array systems. NASA has recently awarded two contractors&#151;ATK and DSS&#151;Phase I contracts to advance their concepts through hardware development and verification testing. One design will move forward to a multiyear Phase II flight demonstration program. The tools that will be developed under this SBIR will allow rapid design trade studies of these systems to be carried out by NASA and the manufacturers so that the designs can be optimized for critical performance requirements such as deployment reliability, stiffness, strength, and control. These studies will allow a more complete exploration of the design space and substantially reduce risk in expensive hardware manufacture and testing on these and future deployable systems. Additional areas of expressed interest for NASA include using the tools for control-structure interaction studies of structures with flexible components as well as simulating thermal-gradient effects on the structure. Control-structure interaction is important for a wide variety of NASA interests, one of which is attitude control. Using a flexible structure in the simulation of the control system dynamics will greatly enhance the accuracy of simulations and provide valuable insight into the actual performance of the control system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Actuators & Motors
Deployment
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Photon Sails (Solar; Laser)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H5.01-9689
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL35P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable/Deployable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: TRUSSELATOR - On-Orbit Fabrication of High Performance Support Structures for Solar Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hoyt
hoyt@tethers.com
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Trusselator technology will enable on-orbit fabrication of support structures for high-power solar arrays and large antennas, achieving order-of-magnitude improvements in packing efficiency and launch mass while reducing life-cycle cost. The Phase I Trusselator effort successfully demonstrated fabrication of continuous lengths of high-performance carbon fiber truss using a novel additive manufacturing process, establishing the technology at TRL-4. The initial truss samples displayed bending stiffness efficiency superior to SOA deployable mast technologies. The Phase II effort will address the key technical risks and mature the Trusselator technology to TRL-6. We will do so by first refining the additive manufacturing process elements to improve process reliability and increase structural performance of the truss products. We will then design and prototype a Trusselator capable of operation in the thermal-vacuum environment of space, incorporating design improvements to reduce weight and stowed volume. Demonstration of fabrication of multi-meter lengths of truss in a vacuum environment will establish the technology at TRL-6. We will also develop an automated process for integrating the fabricated truss with thin-film solar cell blankets, and demonstrate this process with a solar cell blanket simulator. These Phase II efforts will prepare the Trusselator for flight demonstration in Phase III efforts to enable its adoption into the critical path for flight missions requiring high-power solar arrays.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Trusselator will also enable on-orbit fabrication of large apertures and baselines for DoD space systems to enable order-of-magnitude improvements in bandwidth, sensitivity, resolution, and power for a wide range of tactical, strategic, and national security missions, including SATCOM, geolocation, SIGINT, and Earth observation. It will also enable affordable construction of large antennas for GEO commercial communications satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Trusselator is a key element of the NIAC "SpiderFab" architecture for on-orbit fabrication and integration of space systems. This technology will enable order-of-magnitude improvements in performance-per-cost for a wide range of mission, including: - High Power Solar Arrays for SEP Exploration Missions - Multi-Hundred-Meter Solar Sails for Outer Planet Missions - Arecibo-scale Antennas for High-Bandwidth Communications with Mars and Deep-Space Missions - Kilometer-Scale Masts for Long-Baseline Interferometric Astronomy - Kilometer-Scale Sparse Apertures for Exoplanet Imaging

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Textiles
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H5.02-9371
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CL38P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Manufacturing and Material Development for Lightweight Metallic Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Additive Friction Stir Deposition of Aluminum Alloys and Functionally Graded Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Schultz-Creehan Holdings, Inc (DBA Aeroprobe)
200 Technology Drive
Christiansburg, VA 24073-7384
(540) 443-9215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kumar Kandasamy
kumar@aeroprobe.com
200 Technology Drive
Christiansburg,  VA 24073-7384
(540) 443-9215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
State-of-the-art additive manufacturing technologies for metal parts have evolved primarily around powder metallurgy and fusion welding-based processes. These processing methodologies yield parts with inferior mechanical and physical properties as compared to wrought metal of the same composition. Additionally, the production rates for even the fastest processes are relatively low, the part envelopes are limited to a few cubic feet, and often the process must be conducted in an atmospherically controlled chamber. Aeroprobe's additive friction stir (AFS) process is a novel high-speed, large-volume wrought metal additive manufacturing technology that will enable affordable, full-density, near net-shape component manufacturing from a wide range of alloys, including aerospace aluminum alloys, nickel-based super alloys, and metal matrix composites. The ability to rapidly fabricate large-scale, complex wrought and functionally graded aluminum components from three-dimensional models will be an enabling manufacturing advancement in exploration launch vehicle fabrication, for parts such as those on the Orion Crew Module. A scaled representation of the window frame structure proposed for the Orion Crew Module was fabricated from 6061 Al using Aeroprobe's additive friction stir process during the Phase I program. To move AFS up the TRL ladder to full-scale demonstration and deployment, two major technical objectives must be met: (1) develop process/structure/property relationships for AFS deposition of aluminum aerospace alloys, such as 2219, which can be used for process control and material property optimization; and (2) demonstrate net-shape, large-scale aluminum launch vehicle and aerospace components (including a functionally graded structure) with mechanical properties comparable to traditional wrought metals.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary applications for early adoption of AFS are high-value propositions for which AFS enables some performance that is not achievable by traditional processing methods. One of the key benefits of AFS is that consolidation and deposition occur in the solid-state, thus highly engineered microstructures can be retained throughout processing. For, example AFS is being applied to large-plate and component manufacturing using ultra-fine-grained (UFG) Mg. Fabrication of UFG Mg components at a large-scale is currently not feasible and AFS is proving to make this possible. Aeroprobe is currently working with commercial defense and aerospace primes on proprietary AFS demonstration projects with commercial applications. Other commercial applications of AFS under development include coating of shaft journals for use in extreme wear and corrosion applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Additive manufacturing via AFS has the potential to lower the cost and improve the performance of NASA exploration launch vehicles, such as the Orion Crew Module. Additionally, AFS also offers a means of fabricating advanced aluminum airframe structures such as bulk heads and stiffened panels. AFS offers the ability to locally control composition, which can be used to impart functional gradients in components, thus improving part performance. High buy-to-fly ratios are often attributed to subtractive manufacturing of webbed and ribbed components to reduce the structural weight while maintaining required stiffness. Manufacturing such components using additive manufacturing could drastically reduce the machining operations, material requirement, energy consumption, and part specific tooling. Using AFS to additively manufacture components on NASA exploration launch vehicles and airframes has the potential to reduce total system costs while maintaining wrought metal performance of traditionally fabricated parts and the design flexibility of additive manufacturing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H6.01-8567
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CA24P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomy and Space Mission Automation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Constraint-Checking Editor for Procedure Tracking (ConCEPT)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adventium Enterprises, LLC
111 Third Avenue South, Suite 100
Minneapolis, MN 55401-2551
(612) 280-9843

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Boddy
mark.boddy@adventiumlabs.com
111 Third Avenue South, Suite 100
Minneapolis,  MN 55401-2551
(651) 442-4109

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Constructing, maintaining, and adapting operational procedures for manned space operations is a complex task, requiring the procedure author to satisfy constraints resulting from the system configuration, current state, and a set of procedural constraints imposing additional restrictions on these procedures. For operations on NASA's International Space Station (ISS), these procedural constraints may be of several different types. Notes, Cautions, Warnings, and Inhibits are all relevant types of procedural constraints. Phase I of the Constraint-Checking Editor for Procedure Tracking (ConCEPT) established the feasibility of constructing a constraint-checking system for procedures represented in the Procedure Representation Language (PRL). Using automated translation and Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) generation technologies developed on previous projects, ConCEPT assists users in identifying conflicts and inconsistencies in PRL procedures as they are developed. The user edits a PRL procedure in the Procedure Integrated Development Environment (PrIDE), using procedure steps that have been annotated with procedural constraints. As the procedure is being developed, ConCEPT automatically and continuously gathers appropriate procedural constraints and checks them against the procedure. ConCEPT then alerts the user to any violated constraints. Phase I defined relevant scenarios of use and established feasibility by demonstrating a proof-of-concept system to relevant NASA flight controllers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other near-term potential applications for ConCEPT include domains where complex, partially-manual operations are implemented in terms of, and decomposed into, simpler, local actions, checks, and sensor readings. Specific examples include industrial process control and operations, unmanned autonomous vehicle operations, and possibly logistics and transportation applications. ConCEPT will allow for the gradual adoption of automated procedures that are integrated with planning systems (e.g., enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems). Military domains have complex operational constraints derived from both relevant doctrine and operation-specific "rules of engagement," much like NASA's flight rules and procedural constraints. ConCEPT will allow combat commanders from the brigade to the company level to generate efficient plans that integrate human and robotic units. Longer-term potential applications would extend that set to fully-automated applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This effort will support users of the Procedure Representation Language (PRL) and the PRL authoring tool PrIDE. The mission scenarios eval- uated in Phase I were provided by the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). PRL and PrIDE are being actively used or evaluated for use for a wide variety of mission operations. MOD has used PrIDE to write over 100 International Space Station (ISS) procedures over the past several years and is currently evaluating PrIDE for use to author all procedures, ground and on-board, for Orion and future space vehicles. The JSC Rapid Prototyp- ing Laboratory (RPL) uses PrIDE to author experimental Orion procedures. The JSC Morpheus project currently uses PrIDE, as does the JSC Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project. The addition of ConCEPT to PrIDE will provide automated constraint checking for authoring procedures for a large and increasing range of mission applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Man-Machine Interaction
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Mission Training
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H6.01-8798
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CA26P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Autonomy and Space Mission Automation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Balancing Autonomous Spacecraft Activity Control with an Integrated Scheduler-Planner and Reactive Executive

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Red Canyon Software
1200 Pennsylvania Street
Denver, CO 80210-2562
(303) 864-0556

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Caroline Chouinard
caroline.chouinard@redcanyonsoftware.com
1200 Pennsylvania St., Suite 100
Denver,  CO 80203-2562
(303) 864-0556

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spacecraft and remote vehicle operations demand a high level of responsiveness in dynamic environments. During operations it is possible for unexpected events and anomalies to disrupt the mission schedule, and in the case of critical faults, even threaten the health and safety of the spacecraft. The planner's relatively slow response time to unexpected events (changes in resource levels, failed activity indications, flight software fault indications) during dynamic and critical operations means that it does not suffice as a sole solution to the vehicle autonomy when the primary purpose is to keep it safe and ensure mission success. Mission success can also be enhanced through the use of a sequence engine that provides reactive capabilities. Traditional sequence engines execute commands without regard to the overall safety of the vehicle. Through the use of a reactive sequence engine that utilizes State Machine technology vehicle further enhances safety and the probability of mission success. The Integrated Scheduler-Planner And Reactive Executive (I-SPAREX) architecture utilizes a layered software architecture (an approach proven successful on previously flown autonomous demonstration missions such as EO-1) and incorporates an existing goal-based, planning solution as well as an advanced, real-time, decision-making sequence engine. Specifically, we plan to study and demonstrate the feasibility of integrating NASA JPL's CASPER (Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Re-planning) as the Continuous Planning Layer (CPL), and VML 3.0 (Virtual Machine Language) as the Reactive Sequencing Layer (RSL) providing programmable heuristic control. We choose to focus on CASPER and VML in this proposal, given the demonstrated flight heritage of both components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
After this architecture and implementation is demonstrated on a functional spacecraft simulator, it will find a number of military, commercial, and commercial applications. These include: a) Surveillance and intelligence missions, b) UAV operations, c) Autonomous Underwater vehicles, Autonomous land vehicles, and e) remote commercial operations such as oil fields. The Red Canyon Team predicts that our proposed work of integrating the planning environment with the real-time execution software will have far-reaching commercial and R&D applications. For instance, the entire range of remotely operated vehicles, to include: - Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPVs) (a.k.a. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)) - Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicles (ROUV) - Remotely Operated Ground Vehicles (ROGV) (a.k.a. Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV)) - Tele-Robotics, in general would benefit greatly from this integrated environment. RPVs in the National Airspace (NAS), as one example, could capitalize on the fault-tolerance, model validation, and the dynamic/evolving shared model concepts that are developed here. Red Canyon Software has already been involved in discussions with ADSYS Controls, a company experienced with the development of RPV flight control systems, to determine the commercial application of our proposed system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
I-SPAREX architecture is directly applicable to all NASA onboard spaceflight operations. This includes LEO, Near-Earth, and especially Deep Space Missions. Any mission that requires remote autonomous operations can utilize this technology. Examples of these types would be rovers, planetary science, and asteroid science.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Computer System Architectures
Knowledge Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H6.02-9860
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CM17P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rad Hard Non Volatile Memory for FPGA BootLoading

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Micro, Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121-1526
(858) 332-0700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bert Vermeire
bvermeire@spacemicro.com
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego,  CA 92121-1526
(858) 332-0700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiation-hardened non volatile memory (NVM) is needed to store the golden copy of the image(s) has not kept pace with the advances in FPGAs. Consider that a single image of a Xilinx V5 FPGA typically is roughly 50 Mb large. If a designer wants to store several such images in a satellite, then a sizable amount of highly reliable, radiation-hardened memory is needed. Traditional Rad hard memory for space (CRAM, FRAM, MRAM) is not sufficiently dense and extremely expensive. As a consequence, there exists a clear need and market opportunity for highly reliable, higher density, NVM for storing program code, calibration tables and images of reprogrammable FPGAs. The goal of this SBIR project is to develop a highly reliable and fault-tolerant, radiation-hardened hermetic memory multi chip module (MCM), which can be used to configure and scrub reconfigurable FPGAs. The MCM will contain a simple radiation-hardened microcontroller and three (3) commercial flash nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices which have been radiation characterized. Our integrated device will support the needed standard interfaces that are commonly used for reconfiguring FPGAs, including Xilinx SelectMAP and JTAG. The output of our Phase II SBIR is a 32Gb device which meets at least 150Krads (Si) total dose. Space Micro has full capability to introduce and market this device into the international space business market.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR will benefit many commercial space platforms, both LEO and GEO telecommunication satellites, such as Intelsat, Direct TV, XM radio, Orbcomm and Iridium Next telecom constellation replenishment, plus standard industry busses including Lockheed's A2100, and Boeing's HS-702. Civil earth sensing applications such as weather/metrology applications e.g. (NOAA GOES and Landsat). The large DoD space industry, including USAF, MDA, NRO, and new Army nanosat programs at SMDC will directly benefit. Among these programs are AEHF upgrades, GPS follow-ons, MDA's STSS and PTSS, USAF TacSat family, Plug and Play (PnP) sats, Operationally Responsive Space (ORS), and Army SMDC nanosat family. The entire CubeSat initiative would benefit. This memory product will also address emerging MDA radiation threats. These programs include CKV, AKV, THAAD, AEGIS, MKV, and GMD for Blocks 2018 and beyond. A specific example here is the CKV (Common Kill Vehicle) where the advanced missile needs high density radiation hard memory for avionics. With the new challenge of atmospheric neutrons to High Altitude Airship (HAA) programs and NASA or Air Force UAV programs, this affordable product will be a timely solution. Other military applications are strategic missiles (Trident and Air Force Minuteman and MX upgrades. Space Micro will insert in our image processing computer (IPC-5000), star tracker, and Software Defined Radios (SDR).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Virtually all NASA space programs have a demand for this technology and resulting space qualified non volatile memory product. NASA applications range from science missions, space station, earth sensing missions e.g. (EOS), and deep space missions. This device will enable improved docking, proximity operations, and landing missions. NASA programs/missions that will benefit include new lunar landers and orbiters, Mars missions (MAVEN), solar system exploration e.g. (Titan, Juno, Europa, comet nucleus return, New Discovery, and Living with a Star (LWS). NASA programs which hopefully will continue to be funded by Congress include the next generation heavy launch vehicle called SLS, the Orion Multipurpose Crew Exploration Vehicle, Commercial Crew Development Vehicle (CCDev2) and Commercial Orbiter Transportation Service (COTS) will benefit. Space products evolving from this SBIR , and marketed by Space Micro, would have been enabling for NASA programs such as RBSP, GRAIL, LADEE, IRIS, Dawn, SDO, Aquarius, Kepler, Ocean Vector Winds, and space interferometry (SIR). New missions which hopefully will be funded include BARREL, CLARREO, GEMS, solar orbiter, Osiris-Rex asteroid sample return mission, solar probe plus, and ILN.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Transmitters/Receivers
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H6.03-9076
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CA55P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Manipulation Subsystem
PROPOSAL TITLE: Planning for Planetary Science Mission Including Resource Prospecting

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Astrobotic Technology, Inc.
2515 Liberty Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15222-4613
(412) 682-3282

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Peterson
kevin.peterson@astrobotic.com
2515 Liberty Ave
Pittsburgh,  PA 15222-4613
(412) 682-3282

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advances in computer-aided mission planning can enhance mission operations and science return for surface missions to Mars, the Moon, and beyond. While the innovations envisioned by this program are broadly applicable, they serve an immediate and urgent need for missions to prospect for volatiles at the lunar poles (i.e., the NASA Lunar Resource Prospector Mission, currently in Phase A). These missions must be rapid and precise, covering multiple kilometers in approximately 10-12 Earth days to complete mission objectives in one lunar light cycle. This calls for the ability to drive intentionally and efficiently to precise drilling destinations. Polar operations encounter low angle lighting; this creates shadows which confront robot operations with challenges in power production, thermal control, and operator situational awareness. This demands robust path planning for efficient mission planning and execution. The proposed work develops a computer-aided mission planning tool that balances the competing demands of efficient routes, scientific information gain, and rover constraints (e.g., kinematics, communication, power, thermal, and terrainability) to generate and analyze optimized routes between sequences of locations. Planner-computed statistics about the set of viable paths enable mission planners, scientists, and operators to efficiently select routes considering a range of priorities including risk, duration, and science return. This planner will serve an invaluable role in preplanning missions and as a tool for rapidly understanding the impact of changes in mission profile during the mission execution.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial need is for efficient planning and intuitive planning &#150; particularly for those that operate in complicated environments. Planning technologies could benefit unexploded ordinance survey, Special Operation Forces, mining, transit planning, search and rescue operations, and agriculture. Unexploded Ordinance (UXO) is a quarter of a billion dollar a year industry encompassing surveying and disposal. In the US there are 16,000 UXOs sites with an EPA estimated cost of cleanup at least $14 billion. The worldwide need notably includes UXOs from WWI & WWII in France, Belgium, and Germany; approximately 80 million unexploded ordinances in Laos; and approximately 1 million in Lebanon. While the market is vast, manual techniques are labor intensive and costly. The technology proposed here can readily be integrated into planning for automated UXO survey to dramatically improve efficiency and reduce downtime. Unmanned vehicles play a rapidly expanding role in warfare. UGVs and UAVs offer a particularly good fit for resource-constrained planning. Streamlined coordination and planning of multiple robots is crucial to reduce operator workload and improve mission execution. DoD stealth operations, such as Special Operations Forces may use a similar planner for operations in changing environments with objectives of non-visibility to the enemy and communication link availability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovations in planning can drive dramatic improvements in mission planning and operator awareness efficiency to enable highest-science-value robotic surface missions and enable future human exploration. These technologies open up new opportunities for cost-effective missions to Mars, the Moon, asteroids, and beyond. The immediate markets within NASA are for exploration and science missions to surface destinations on the Moon and Mars. Phase II development is in the context of a mission to the lunar pole (i.e., NASA's Lunar Resource Prospector mission, currently in Phase A). The proposed work could also be incorporated into ground data systems for current or future rovers on Mars, such as MSL and Mars 2020 to reduce operator workload and improve path planning results. With additional modifications to the vehicle model, it could be used to plan trajectories for vehicles that explore the surface of Near Earth Asteroids. The technology could also be applied to plan traverse routes for crewed transport vehicles. This work will serve the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate's need for exploration technology development and the Science Directorate's need for investigation of high-value targets at the lunar poles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Man-Machine Interaction
Perception/Vision
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control
Telemetry/Tracking (Cooperative/Noncooperative; see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Teleoperation
Display
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H6.03-9331
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CK15P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human-Robotic Systems - Manipulation Subsystem
PROPOSAL TITLE: NanoDrill: 1 Actuator Core Acquisition System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
460 West 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com
398 West Washington Blvd.
Pasadena,  CA 91103-2000
(510) 207-4555

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to design, build, and test a sample acquisition drill weighing less than 1 kg. The drill uses a novel method of core or powder acquisition, and is suitable for both use by both robotic platforms and astronauts. The core acquisition bit can be used for either a rock core, icy-soil or loose regolith acquisition. The continued development of robust sample acquisition and handling tools is of critical importance to future robotic and human missions to Mars, the Moon, Asteroids, and other planetary bodies. For these missions, consolidated or unconsolidated core samples (as opposed to, say, scooped regolith or collected drill cuttings) are of particular interest. We will conduct testing in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate the drill's effectiveness both in relevant environments, in relevant operational scenarios.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Scientists often use small drills to acquire core samples for the study of everything from geological classification to ocean drilling and surveying. Traditionally, petroleum engineers will use large cores to extract information about boundaries between sandstone, limestone, and shale. This process is time consuming so smaller cores are sometimes taken. This method of sampling is called sidewall coring and provides more information to the petroleum engineer than simply logged data. Scientists studying earthquake mechanics could also benefit in a similar fashion. Automation of this process would save time and money; enabling the science goals of the research with reduced schedule and budget risk/impact. The arm-deployed coring tool also has applications in the study of terrestrial biology, such as coring into rocks in the Arctic and Antarctic, among other desirable locations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future robotic astrobiology and geology missions such as Mars Sample Return, Venus In Situ Explorer, Comet Sample Return, and South Pole Aitken Basin Sample Return missions will benefit greatly from the ability to produce and capture rock and regolith cores, using a compact, low mass, low power device, and hermetically seal the samples in dedicated containers. A system utilizing a surface drill and a suite of bits for different applications could be deployed during lunar and asteroid sortie missions by astronauts (i.e., hand held coring drill) since it is more manageable to bring small cores back as opposed to large rocks.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Man-Machine Interaction
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H7.01-8531
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CA27P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: NDE for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453-7013
(781) 642-9666

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Washabaugh
andrew.washabaugh@jenteksensors.com
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham,  MA 02453-7013
(619) 421-8139

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This program addresses the need for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods for quality assessment and defect evaluation of thermal protection systems (TPS). Novel linear drive eddy current methods are proposed for NDE of carbon-based TPS materials, such as felts, rigid materials, and three dimensional woven fiber composites. Using a combination of physics-based models of layered media, including an eddy current micromechanical model extension for composites, multivariate inverse methods, high resolution imaging, and innovative sensor array constructs, the developed methods will independently measure the material characteristics of interest. In Phase I, the focus was on adapting methods developed for carbon-based composite structures and laminates and demonstrating feasibility of these methods for felts, rigid materials, and three-dimensional woven composites. In Phase II, the focus is on maturing this method, including the instrumentation hardware, models, and sensor designs, to provide scanning assessment and in-situ monitoring capabilities for TPS material condition assessment. JENTEK's MWM-Arrays have a linear drive that permits both scanned type imaging and permanent installation for monitoring of anisotropic properties, temperature, and stresses at multiple depths. The projected depth of the magnetic field into the test material can be adjusted through the sensor dimensions and excitation frequencies; this enables inspection of materials more than 1.0-in. thick and supports measuring far-side surface recession in ablator materials. JENTEK delivered the MWM-Array solution used by NASA KSC on the Space Shuttle Leading Edge to detect damage of the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection tiles; thus JENTEK is well-positioned to deliver a practical TPS NDE solution.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous applications in which NDE measurement and analysis tools are needed to verify design requirements or structural integrity during usage of advanced carbon-based composites, such as three-dimensional woven materials. These include applications for commercial aircraft, wind turbines, land vehicles and composite repairs for pipelines and structures. Examples are inspection of commercial jet engine blades and fuselage components, wind turbine blades, land vehicle frames and liquid natural gas fuel pressure vessels and other structures where proper woven fiber orientation and defect free structures are critical for strength and fatigue life. It is expected that this technology could also be transitioned to support military aircraft fleets which contain substantially composite structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If the program is successful, it will demonstrate the capability of the MWM-Array technology to measure relevant material properties and structural damage in the advanced materials in spacecraft thermal protection systems. This technology will be suitable for flexible and rigid carbon-based materials. This type of analysis tool for detection of damage may be useful for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV's), exhaust nozzles, and other critical composite structures. NASA customers that may benefit from these analysis tools include the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) spacecraft manufacturers and other interplanetary programs such as science exploration mission vehicles and human crew vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H7.01-8667
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CA29P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Calculation of Effective Material Strengths for 3D Woven Hybrid Preforms and Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design, Inc.
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kerry Hopp
kerry.hopp@m-r-d.com
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The design concepts being considered for Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) rely on the use of 3D woven carbon fiber preforms. Therefore, there is a need to be able to predict the properties and performance of a woven material. Validation of predictive modeling tools would allow for the use of these tools to design and optimize the 3D weaves, significantly reducing the cost of fabrication and testing of a variety of configurations. While there are proven tools for the prediction of laminate composite properties, textile composites are relatively new materials and much less effort has been focused on modeling this class of materials. Therefore, MR&D is proposing to use the lessons learned from the Phase I effort, to improve the strength prediction capabilities, evaluate the effects of porosity and molding of curved panels, and deliver a beta version of a 3D weave design optimization tool. A combined analytical and experimental program has been proposed. The analytical effort involves modifying the current version of the 3D weave modeling tool, based on the lessons learned in the Phase I program, to include things such as unique bundle strengths for the different yarn types and improved failure criteria to improve the strength prediction capabilities. It also includes increasing the current capabilities to allow for estimating properties of 3D woven composites with varying levels of porosity or that have been molded into curved panels. The experimental effort involves fabrication and testing of various 3D woven reinforced composites (flat, curved, partially densified). The properties obtained from this experimental effort will enable improved calibration of the modeling tools. Finally, the final portion of the Phase II effort will focus on the preparation of a beta version of the 3D weave design optimization tool for delivery to NASA for use in heat shield design as well as other applications requiring the use of 3D woven preforms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the potential NASA applications, there is also potential for applications within the Department of Defense (DoD). The use of 3D woven preforms in ballistic armor applications creates a need for design and predictive modeling capabilities of these materials as well. Finally, there would also be potential for applications from the weavers themselves. Companies such as Textile Engineering and Manufacturing and Bally Ribbon Mills have an interest in the predictive capabilities of both material properties and strengths for various weave configurations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the Phase II program would directly benefit the Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project, which is using 3D woven preforms in the current designs. The ability of a predictive tool to generate material properties and strengths for a variety of 3D weaves would allow for the evaluation of multiple design configurations and fiber types to be evaluated in a much more efficient and cost effective manner than having to fabricate and test panels to generate data to be used for downselection of the best candidate designs. In addition, a validated design tool of this kind would also be very useful to the mission design community to optimize materials for specific missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Composites
Textiles
Verification/Validation Tools
Destructive Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H7.01-9290
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CA32P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Recession-Tolerant Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MesoScribe Technologies, Inc.
7 Flowerfield, Suite 28
St. James, NY 11790-1514
(631) 686-5710

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rob Greenlaw
rgreenlaw@mesoscribe.com
7 Flowerfield, Suite 28
St. James,  NY 11790-1514
(714) 894-8400

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase II project will develop a suite of diagnostic sensors using Direct Write technology to measure temperature, surface recession depth, and heat flux of an ablative thermal protection system (TPS) in real time, which can be integrated to support TPS evaluation and in-situ diagnostics during planetary entry. Standalone heat flux sensors and those fabricated by direct deposition will be developed and demonstrated for integration within TPS materials for use in extreme re-entry conditions. The intent is to use the sensors for real time temperature/heat flux measurements to validate new materials and systems, as well as for flight structures where space and accessibility are limited. Methods for incorporating thermocouples, heat flux and recession sensors using Direct Write technology will be developed to provide accurate sensing capabilities. Notably, recession tolerant heat flux sensors will be designed and fabricated to demonstrate feasibility of this new heat flux sensor technology and subsequent instrumentation capability for TPS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Opportunities for sensor integration onto manned and unmanned vehicles not only exist within NASA, but are becoming more prevalent in the commercial sector including space travel as well as other areas. Sensors are needed to monitor the health and condition of the heat shield during re-entry for the COTS and ccDEV programs. Outside of space applications, harsh environment sensors are in high demand, spanning a range of industries including power generation, commercial and military turbo-machinery, aerospace structures, and solar. DoD applications for harsh environment diagnostic sensors are primarily aerospace and rotorcraft, specifically seeking instrumentation for short term testing at the component-level and long-term monitoring/prognostics as part of a comprehensive health management solution. Application demand is driven by gas turbine engine designers for industrial power generation equipment (gas turbine, steam, boilers), aero propulsion systems (gas turbine and hypersonic engine components), aerospace, chemical processing, oil & gas, and other commercial applications. Diagnostics are also sought for air-breathing scramjets and other hypersonic vehicles (e.g. sounding rockets) to enable integrated condition monitoring and advanced prognostic capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has communicated a need for advanced TPS sensing to improve laboratory performance evaluation of new TPS materials as well as in-situ monitoring for manned and unmanned missions. Testing and evaluation of new TPS materials represents a significant activity in the planning of all missions. Typically, the TPS requirements are fairly well identified with respect to heat flux profile, duration, atmosphere, etc. based upon the specific mission. However, ruggedized sensors for monitoring heat flux in-situ are not yet available for TPS validation or fielding. The Orion capsule, being developed by NASA under the MPCV (Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle) program, calls for a number of TPS sensors where real time heat flux data would be invaluable. Challenging opportunities exist at JPL in developing TPS systems for unmanned sample return missions from both a Near Earth Object (NEO) and Mars. The competing requirements for low mission weight and increased TPS performance due to increased thermal loads from higher re-entry speeds results in a need for improved sensors for TPS development.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Ablative Propulsion
Thermal
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H8.03-9492
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CC44P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Nuclear Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Turbo-Brayton Power Converter for Spaceflight Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Breedlove
jfb@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA space missions require advanced systems to convert thermal energy into electric power. These systems must be reliable, efficient, and lightweight. In response, we propose to develop a turbo-Brayton power converter with high efficiency and specific power. The converter will use gas bearings to provide reliable, maintenance-free, long-life operation. It will also consist of discrete components that can be packaged to fit optimally with other subsystems, and its continuous gas flow can communicate directly with remote heat sources and heat rejection surfaces without ancillary heat transfer components and intermediate flow loops. Creare is well suited to succeed because we have a long history of developing advanced turbomachines, heat exchangers, and Brayton systems for challenging spaceflight applications. We completed detailed analyses, trade studies, fabrication trials, and preliminary designs for the components and converter assembly during Phase I, and we now plan to fabricate and test a breadboard converter during Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Terrestrial versions of our converter can be used to produce electric power for military and civilian applications. These converters would be coupled with non-nuclear heat sources such as fossil fuel combustion, biofuel combustion, refuse burning, and concentrated solar energy. The resulting systems can be applied wherever electric generators are currently used. They will be particularly attractive for mobile applications because they have high specific power. Their hermetic, closed-loop configuration will also make them desirable in environments that have contaminants such as sand, dirt, and dust, and in environments that are exposed to corrosive substances such as sea water.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many potential NASA applications for our converter technology. The converter can be sized for coupling with radioisotope heat sources to support low-power devices such as space exploration probes and unmanned surface rovers. Our converter can also be sized for significantly greater power levels and coupled with fission reactors to support larger spacecraft as well as manned exploration of the lunar and Martian surfaces. Other applications include nuclear electric propulsion and space station power systems. Alternative heat sources include concentrated solar radiation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:12-2 H8.03-9876
PHASE-1 CONTRACT NUMBER:NNX13CC45P
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Nuclear Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601-5688
(717) 295-6061

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Calin Tarau
Calin.Tarau@1-act.com
1046 New Holland Ave.
Lancaster,  PA 17601-5606
(717) 295-6066

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA GRC is developing fission power system technology for future space transpo