STTR Phase 1 Solicitation    Abstract Archives

NASA 2010 SBIR Phase 1 Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.01-9367
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mitigation of Aircraft Aging and Durability-Related Hazards
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modelling the Effects of Surface Residual Stresses on Fatigue Behavior of PM Disk Alloys

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
N&R Engineering
6659 Pearl Road, #201
Parma Heights, OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Gayda, Jr.
johngaydajr@yahoo.com
6659 Pearl Road
Parma Heights,  OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A finite element based model will be developed and validated to capture the evolution of residual stresses and cold work at machined features of compressor and turbine powder metallurgy superalloy disks. The focus will be to quantify, model and validate residual stress and cold work evolution at stress concentration features during simulated service in aerospace gas turbine engine disk materials. This will be accomplished by first utilizing existing NASA Test data. If the existing test data are insufficient, a minimum number of specimens will be tested if the resources permit. These specimens will have varied surface finish conditions to be determined in consultation with NASA personnel and will be tested using a thermal mechanical load history that will simulate the operating conditions of new generation of gas turbine engines and include the effect of superimposed dwell cycles. The deliverables will include effects of service history on residual stress and cold work depth profile evolutions within notches, and analytical modeling descriptions of the evolution of these parameters as a function of simulated service history. Also included will be models and algorithms extrapolating the predicted residual stresses and cold work to service conditions outside of those tested during the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The long-term goal of this research effort is to improve the life and durability of turbomachinery disk components made from advanced powder metal alloys. These improvements are critical to the success NASA programs such as Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) program. This program has the goal demonstrating technologies that can reduce aircraft emissions and fuel consumption. This requires that components operate at increased temperatures and/or with reduced cooling air. Advanced metal alloy and composite materials can operate under these conditions, but durability and life must be assured. One of ERAs approaches to accomplishing these goals is to focus on "advanced multi-discipline based concepts and technologies," which is exactly the approach of this proposal. Structural, thermal, materials, reliability and systems engineering expertise must be brought together to achieve the objectives in Phase I

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results of this proposal and potential products will be of interest to the commercial gas turbine industry in general. This includes large aircraft engine companies such as General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. This is especially true for smaller companies in the private sector that cannot afford a research effort of this magnitude. Honeywell has expressed specific interest in this work and has provided a letter to this effect, which is provided with this proposal. The methodologies (and supporting analysis/design tools) as well as improved PM disk designs are both considered products of this effort. The primary market for the compressor and turbine disk designs includes gas turbine engines for use in military and civilian aircraft applications. Gas turbine engines are also used for ground power applications. These projects identify advanced materials as key technologies for future power generation systems based on gas turbine engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Generation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Structures
Atmospheric Propulsion
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.01-9476
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mitigation of Aircraft Aging and Durability-Related Hazards
PROPOSAL TITLE: Characterization and Modeling of Residual Stress and Cold Work Evolution in PM Nickel Base Disk Superalloy

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lambda Research
5521 Fair Lane
Cincinnati, OH 45227-3401
(513) 561-0883

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douglas Hornbach
dhornbach@lambdatechs.com
5521 Fair Lane
Cincinnati,  OH 45227-3401
(513) 561-0883

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Powder metal (PM) superalloys used for critical compressor and turbine disk applications are prone to fatigue failures in stress concentration features such as holes and radii, as well as from corrosion pits and inclusions. Residual stress and cold work will have a dramatic impact on the fatigue performance. Shot peening is widely used on PM disks to provide a fatigue benefit however, the relaxation due to thermal and mechanical loads can reduce or even eliminate the compressive residual stresses and increase the risk of a catastrophic disk failure. Up to now the evolution of the residual stress and cold work under typical operating conditions in PM disk superalloys is not well understood. In Phase I proprietary x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques will be used to simultaneously measure the change in residual stress and cold work for fatigue specimens tested in a manner to approximate in-service conditions. XRD residual stress and cold work results will be used to establish the feasibility of applying analytical or empirically based modeling techniques to predict the residual stress and cold work evolution. The modeling technique will first be demonstrated on fatigue samples and further developed and proven on actual disk hardware in Phase II. The anticipated beginning and ending technology readiness levels (TRLs) for Phase I are 2 and 5, respectively.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed development program will provide the following for NASA applications: A multi-functional modeling tool to be used in NASA's Aviation Safety Program to provide longer lasting and safer compressor and turbine disk operation. A means of measuring residual stress and cold work depth distributions simultaneously in critical high stress regions of disks. A software tool that will allow for accurate assessment of the change in residual stress and cold working of disks providing a predictive capability of determining the remaining life of a part. A means of developing surface enhancement processes that can produce the optimal compressive residual stress and cold working for maximum residual stress stability through the life of the part. The model will allow for NASA engineers to understand the full stress state of the disk (applied + residual) as a function of life for a much more accurate interpretation of fatigue life. This development will ultimately assist NASA in achieving their goal of safer and more reliable operation of legacy and new production aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications for quantification and modeling of the residual stress and cold work outside of NASA are significant. Non-NASA applications are much the same as those listed above. Engine OEM's and their suppliers can use the predictive tools developed in this program to thoroughly understand how residual stresses and cold work change during the life cycle disks. Furthermore, the OEMs can use the measurement and modeling tools to develop more robust surface enhancement processes that remain stable at high temperatures and stresses, producing higher fatigue strengths, and safer longer lasting performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Metallics
Destructive Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.02-8073
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capability for Aircraft Aging and Damage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a Computed Tomography Simulator: SimCT, Application to Health Monitoring and Remaining Life Assessment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NDE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1785 Sourwood Place
Charlottesville, VA 22911-7425
(434) 973-0299

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Irving Gray
irving.gray@ndetechnologies.com
1785 Sourwood Place
Charlottesville,  VA 22911-7425
(434) 973-0299

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this activity is to develop a quantitative NDE simulation tool for computed tomography suitable for desktop work using realistic geometry descriptions of complex anisotropic geometry. The increasing demands on NDE to address inspection reliability in the area of health monitoring and remaining life assessment demand that quantitative engineering tools be available so that cost effect engineering analysis on inspectibility limits and optimal inspection protocols be done. Most NDE techniques, as they move to a more digital format, generate terabytes of data for a single scan. X-ray methods generally have high computational needs. Until recently extracting information from massive data sets was impossible due to limited computation capabilities. By applying the emerging massively parallel graphic processing cards (GPU) to a CT simulation, SimCT, we have a means to address the quantitative modeling in an important NDE method needed to characterize materials in support of health monitoring activities. The computational techniques using GPU platforms and the data analysis methods developed in the x-ray area apply to any NDE method. This R&D effort will develop a GPU implementation of the key subroutine in SimCT and demonstrate the capability to handle NDE simulation needs using complex geometry in near real time.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Developing NDE quantitative protocols, as demands on performance of materials increases, becomes increasingly critical and difficult. Quantitative simulation tools capable of assessing the impact of the multitude of inspection parameters provide a cost effective means to determine adequate procedures in safety critical inspections. Developing simulation tools addressing realistic complexity seen in new materials and real field inspections requires an ability to adequately model complex samples; which in turn requires the utilization of the latest computation platforms, namely GPU's. The massively parallel GPU platforms enable the solution a new class of computational problem at one tenth the cost of traditional parallel approaches. The computational methods involved in modeling complex geometry from a Cad format also apply to other NDE methods modeling. Finally developing more robust and polished interface for these engineering tools gives better productivity and access to more people with reduced training needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are currently no competing CT simulation products to SimCT in the market place. The extensions and modifications added to the software under this Project will increase the speed of operation by about 100 times. This allows for new categories of problems to be addressed and investigated in reasonable times or at greater levels of detail. Besides NASA applications, there are analogous uses for SimCT in both DoD and commercial aging aircraft problems. Additionally there is the potential to enter the multi-million dollar medical market and with Homeland Security CT scaning with a swifter easier to operate program. Lastly, these improvements will allow bundling SimCT with hardware systems to improve the overall operation of CT systems. Expected sales increases of the program from these applications are estimated to be in the 150 to 200 unit category or $4 million on the high end.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
3D Imaging
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Radiography
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.02-9326
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capability for Aircraft Aging and Damage
PROPOSAL TITLE: New Wireless Sensors for Diagnostics Under Harsh Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Krystal Engineering LLC
1429 Chaffee Drive, Suite 1
Titusville, FL 32780-7929
(321) 264-9822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christine Rivenbark
ckr@krystalengineering.com
1429 Chaffee Drive, Suite 1
Titusville,  FL 32780-7929
(321) 264-9822

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is an acute need for robust sensors and sensor systems capable of operation in harsh environments. In particular, high temperature passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are highly desirable for improving safety and efficiency in aviation and space vehicles. Such sensors are used for the detection of fuel leaks in engines, fire in its initial stages, fuel flow modulation and control and monitoring, and in-flight NDE and diagnostics of vehicles. In this project, we will 1) develop a relatively new crystal material suitable for high-temperature SAWs; 2) design SAW sensors and investigate extremely high temperature operation (up to 1000<SUP>o</SUP>C) of the SAW sensor embodiments; 3) Integrate the SAW and antenna onto the wafer such that there are no external connections. This will form a fully integrated sensor antenna device without any external bonds or soldering. Phase I will include substantial materials development and characterization for uniformity and repeatability in SAWs. Prototype SAW designs will be developed and high-temperature characteristics evaluated. Phase II will develop a fully integrated sensor antenna and upscale the crystal growth for 3-4in SAW wafers. Probability for Phase III commercialization of both the wireless SAW sensors and SAW wafers is high.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wireless LGT SAW sensors and sensor systems capable of operation in harsh environments will be of immediate use to NASA. Among others, such high-temperature SAW sensors can be used for the detection of fuel leaks in engines, fire in its initial stages, fuel flow modulation and control for engine efficiency and enhanced maneuverability, monitoring and in-flight NDE, and diagnostics of vehicles. Overall they will greatly improve safety and efficiency in aviation and space vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Broader applications: SAW filters for cell phones; touchscreen displays; RFIDs; microfluidic actuation (pumping, mixing, jetting); fixed delay lines for radar systems, oscillators, path lengths equalizers; SAW delay line tunable VHF/UHF oscillators for mobile radio; bandpass filters in TV video game systems; linear and nonlinear frequency modulation chirp filters for radar; adaptive filters for spread-spectrum communications; acousto-optic spectrum analyzers; fixed frequency oscillators with high-short term stability; low-loss bandpass filters applications; plate convolers for fixed- and variable-code detection in radar, electronic counter-measures, air traffic control and handling systems; and many others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Antennas
Coding & Compression
Transmitters/Receivers
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Acoustic/Vibration
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Electromagnetic
Pressure/Vacuum
Thermal
Destructive Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Passive Systems
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.03-9338
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Prediction of Aging Effects
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mesh Independent Probabilistic Residual Life Prediction of Metallic Airframe Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Global Engineering and Materials, Inc
11 Alscot Drive
East Lyme, CT 06333-1303
(860) 398-5620

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Lua
jlua@gem-consultant.com
11 Alscot Drive
East Lyme,  CT 06333-1303
(860) 398-5620

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Global Engineering and Materials, Inc. (GEM) along with its team members, Clarkson University and LM Aero, propose to develop a mesh independent probabilistic residual life prediction tool for metallic airframe structures. The deterministic solver of this probabilistic analysis tool will be developed by integrating our cutting edge extended finite element toolkit for Abaqus (XFA) with a novel small time-scale fatigue crack growth model for mesh independent fatigue crack growth prediction of a complex airframe structural component subjected to multiaxial and variable amplitude loading. The fast matching and narrow band technique will be implemented to track a curvilinear 3D crack growth without remeshing. Both the versatility and the high computational efficiency will make the XFA an ideal solution model for the probabilistic life prediction where the initial defect shape and location can be treated as random variables without user intervention. After the integration of XFA with a general purpose probabilistic analysis framework (PFA), the resulting probabilistic version of the XFA (PXFA) will enable the following: 1) fatigue reliability assessment of an aging component; 2) evaluation of design variables to meet a targeted reliability level; and 3) provision of operational decision support using SHM data on repair, maintenance, and life extension options.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results from this research will have significant benefits to enhance the aviation safety program in NASA. It will result in: 1) a commercially viable, accurate, computationally efficient, and user-friendly probabilistic residual life assessment tool for charactering fatigue crack growth and perform damage analysis with the presence of uncertainties in design and loading parameters; 2) an integrated analysis framework for fatigue damage prognosis and health management of air platform; 3) a virtual testing tool to reduce current certification and qualification costs which are heavily driven by experimental testing under various stress conditions; and 4) innovative probabilistic methods and reliability assessment procedures to facilitate the structural health management. The developed tool integrates advanced computational mechanics, innovative fatigue damage modeling, and efficient probabilistic methods into a seamless framework for probabilistic crack growth analysis and structural damage prognosis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural aging under fatigue loading is one of the most common failure mechanisms in civilian structures such as buildings, bridges, power lines, pressure vessels, and ship structures. The developed probabilistic fatigue life prediction tool can be used effectively and efficiently to assist a designer and rule-maker to answer the following questions: 1) How tolerant of cracks is the location? 2) How long to repair a crack in service? 3) What is the impact of an operational profile change? 4) How often should inspections be made? and 5) How can SHM input be used best? The tool can be used to assist commercial and military industries to reduce the cost of test-driven design and process iterations with the use of the virtual testing tool. Finally, teaming with LM, a highly visible airplane manufacturer, will considerably shorten our development cycle from producing a prototype research orientated tool to commercially accessible design software.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Metallics
Fasteners/Decouplers
Structures
Verification/Validation Tools
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.04-8409
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cloud Liquid Water Content Sensor for Radiosondes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anasphere, Inc.
106 Pronghorn Trail
Bozeman, MT 59718-6081
(406) 994-9354

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Bognar
jbognar@anasphere.com
106 Pronghorn Trail
Bozeman,  MT 59718-6081
(406) 994-9354

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Icing is one of the most significant hazards to aircraft. There is still much research to be completed with regard to developing remote-sensing technologies for accurately identifying where icing conditions exist in clouds. There is a need to provide in-situ measurements of cloud liquid water content to validate the remote measurements. Anasphere, Inc. proposes to develop a modernized version of the classic vibrating wire cloud liquid water content sensor. This modernized version will apply updated technology to the measurement, and more importantly will add a droplet sizing capability that the original versions of these sensors lacked. It will be designed to be compatible with a wide variety of radiosondes. Phase I will see the development and laboratory testing of the improved probe, its incorporation into a droplet sizing system, and finally actual test flights into clouds. Phase II work will involve developing more precise calibration methods, improving manufacturability, and extensive test flights.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA will be able to use the cloud liquid water content sensor to support the development of remote sensing methods for the measurement of cloud liquid water content. This data will support the development of operational meteorology products as well as fundamental research into icing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other government agencies and universities engaged in cloud, precipitation, and related research (such as cloud radiative transfer properties) will be able to use the sensor in their research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.04-8648
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solid State Multiwavelength LIDAR for Volcanic Ash Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Sonnenfroh
sonnenfroh@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a compact, multiwavelength LIDAR with polarization analysis capability that will be able to identify volcanic ash clouds at distance. The system will be developed specifically for airborne deployment, including on Unmanned Aerial Systems. A UAS-equipped with such a LIDAR could provide valuable supplementary information to that available from existing and planned satellite assets for defining and tracking volcanic ash plumes. The system footprint will be minimized by taking advantage of all solid-state laser transmitters such as emerging metal doped fiber amplifiers. The Phase I program will determine the most appropriate wavelengths for use via system modeling and then will select laser transmitter hardware. Additional modeling will determine the transmit pulse energy and receive aperture size. The system will be designed to be eyesafe. A complete conceptual design for an Airborne Multiwavelength Lidar will be developed. The technology readiness level at the entrance to the Phase I program is estimated to be 2 and at the exit of the program will be 3. The Phase II program will design, fabricate and ground test a prototype LIDAR system. Opportunities for a flight demonstration will be identified.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Multiwavelength Lidar will be a compact, low power tool that is suited for deployment on small aircraft such as UASs. The sensor will be well suited to measuring profiles of aerosols from a UAS for science missions and for satellite validation, such as for the CALIOP LIDAR, a two-wavelength polarization-sensitive elastic backscatter lidar, aboard the CALIPSO satellite.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The compact Multiwavelength Lidar could serve as a ground based platform that can address a variety of air quality aerosol monitoring applications including yellow dust, biomass burning, and coal-fired power generation facility compliance. PSI anticipates working with several strategic marketing partners to address the range of potential commercial applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.04-9528
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunction Lidar for Air Data and Kinetic Air Hazard Measurement

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ophir Corp
10184 West Belleview Avenue, Suite 200
Littleton, CO 80127-1762
(303) 933-2200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Loren Caldwell
Caldwell@ophir.com
10184 West Belleview Ave., Suite 200
Littleton,  CO 80127-1762
(303) 933-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ophir proposes to develop a multifunction, low-cost lidar capable of accurately measuring kinetic air hazards, and air data, simultaneously. The innovation is providing a single sensor that has dual-use functionality ? air data measurement and kinetic air hazard detection in a package that is easily integrated onto commercial aircraft. Conventional air data systems provide critical information to the aircraft for safe flight, but there are vulnerabilities, as evidenced by the recent Air France accident. A more robust air data system for flight controls on aircraft is needed ? particularly to measure airspeed in icing and severe weather conditions. This proposed sensor also measures air hazards which impacts the safety of air traffic and smoothness of ride; decreases fuel consumption and incidence of encounters with turbulent events on aircraft. The Phase I effort entails the system requirements determination, determination of optimal dual-use sensor, prototype design, range and accuracy expectations for each of the lidar modes, and preliminary design of the Phase II prototype. This technology is a TRL 2 with the intent of reaching TRL 3 by the end of this program. Phase II consists of a sensor demonstration in a representative flight environment (TRL 5).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Airspace transformation to NextGen may be significantly safer by providing additional information for kinetic air hazard detection. NASA has pioneered many innovations and improvements for wind hazard detection, warning and forecasting. This innovation enables this airspace transformation by providing wind hazard measurement and resulting real-time information for air traffic operations. This innovation will not only increase in-safety flight, but also may impact the volume of traffic able to traverse the continent due to the provision of resultant weather warnings. Also, safety of the air traffic system will be improved with the provision of a dually redundant air data system on commercial aircraft. NASA has shown the utility of lidar wind and air data measurements over the years, however, the systems have been quite cumbersome. Ophir solves this challenge by providing a redundant air data system and dual-use, kinetic air hazard monitoring system in a small size, weight and power consumption package, as well as at a low cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial markets have been reticent to adopt an optical air data sensor due the size, weight and power consumption factors, as well as, the single function nature of the sensor. But, the ability to condense the sensor and the offer multimode operation enables the market acceptance and ultimate sensor commercialization. The markets addressed by this multifunction sensor development are the unmanned and manned military and commercial aircraft markets. The proposed innovation may also be used in the regional jet market for new aircraft flight testing and calibration. The commercial aircraft markets include the scheduled air carrier operations and the business jet market, as well as the airport safety market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.05-8346
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Auditory Presentation of H/OZ Critical Flight Data

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emerald Sky Technologies, LLC
9250 Bendix Road North
Columbia, MD 21045-1832
(443) 542-9516

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Fritz
StevenFritz@fly-esky.com
9250 Bendix Road N
Columbia,  MD 21045-1832
(443) 542-9516

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Automation of a flight control system to perform functions normally attributed to humans is often not robust and limited to specific operating conditions and types of operation and a small set of fixed behaviors (i.e. modes). eSky has shown that metrics such as the time delay between a required control input from the crew and the actual input is sensitive to crew functional degradation through external distraction. We are currently developing strategies for using such crew state metrics to modulate the level of automation support provided to the flight crew. Dynamic reallocation of function between crew and automation can reduce the cognitive workload on the crew, enhance their ability to supervise the automation and help them intervene in the event of any failure or operation outside the desired operating conditions. eSky is exploring function reallocation in a collaborative flight control system (HFCS) design pioneered at NASA Langley. HFCS combines precise flight control automation with rudimentary intelligence that the flight crew can guide using relatively simple mechanisms. HFCS automation manages short-term control tasks (e.g. path following) while the crew is required to direct every significant trajectory change using flight controls rather than an FMS interface to keep them engaged in conduct of the flight. The automation communicates intentions to the pilot through visual and haptic (tactile) feedback; the crew communicates intentions to the automation through conventional controls. The HFCS user interface is primarily visual and tactile with limited auditory elements, mainly limited to a few alerts and warnings. eSky proposes to establish the auditory channel as a key element in providing flight dynamic information and cueing of required crew in puts in addition to envelope protection warnings. These new interface elements will be integrated into eSky's evolving strategies for functionality reallocation of between automation and crew.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The aim of this project is to develop auditory presentation methodology for flight dynamic information as a supplement to conventional, primarily visual, pilot display systems and provide a higher level of support for complex tasks in high workload situations. In an aircraft with a flight control system that supports dynamic reallocation of function between automation and crew, these methodologies can be part of a function reallocation and support modulation strategy to keep the crew engaged and aware of the flight situation at all times, reducing loss of performance capability due to distraction, fatigue, hypoxia and other sources of performance degradation. Any flight control system can add auditory flight dynamic information presentation to its flight crew interface in any aircraft or spacecraft flown by NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The aim of this project is to develop auditory presentation methodology for flight dynamic information as a supplement to conventional, primarily visual, pilot display systems and provide a higher level of support for complex tasks in high workload situations. In an aircraft with a flight control system that supports dynamic reallocation of function between automation and crew, these methodologies can be part of a function reallocation and support modulation strategy to keep the crew engaged and aware of the flight situation at all times, reducing loss of performance capability due to distraction, fatigue, hypoxia and other sources of performance degradation. Any flight control system can add auditory flight dynamic information presentation to its flight crew interface in any aircraft or spacecraft flown by non-NASA organizations and personnel

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Command & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.05-8423
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: TBO-AID: Trajectory-Based Operations Adaptive Information Display

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801-1753
(781) 935-3966

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amy Alexander
aalexander@aptima.com
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn,  MA 01801-1753
(781) 496-2471

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Trajectory-based operations (TBO) are at the forefront of the Next Generation Air Traffic Management System (NextGen). The vision of NextGen is one in which pilots will be responsible for following 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories while maintaining separation from other aircraft and weather. Ongoing research focuses heavily on the infrastructure and procedures required to conduct 4D TBO; however, new flight deck displays are going to be needed to support pilots who will be faced with the challenge of making more complex, strategic decisions than are required in current-day operations. In response to this challenge, Aptima proposes to develop a Trajectory-Based Operations Adaptive Information Display (TBO-AID). TBO-AID will incorporate innovative display techniques that address the (1) unique information needs associated with conducting 4D operations (e.g., crossing a specific navigation fix at a specific time); (2) uncertainty and risk associated with weather and mixed-equipage conditions, key challenges for conducting 4D TBO; (3) potential advantages gained through multimodal information presentation; and (4) need for model-based, situationally aware display adaptation to support information processing and decision making. Anticipated results of commercializing this effort include increasing the safety and efficiency of air traffic and expanding the maximum number of aircraft potentially in flight at a given time.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TBO-AID addresses a relevant, high-priority issue 4D trajectory-based operations (TBO) that is key to increased capacity and efficiency under NextGen. Pilots are going to be required to make more complex, strategic decisions than are required today, necessitating the development of new interface concepts to support 4D operations, particularly with respect to weather events and mixed equipage constraints. Research and development conducted on this SBIR will contribute to the NASA Aviation Safety Program and Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project by providing improved and novel visual, aural/speech, and multimodal interface capabilities (milestones IIFD.MM.1, I.IFD.MM.2, and IIFD.MM.3) to support 4D TBO. Furthermore, TBO-AID will support JPDO-identified operational improvements including trajectory-based management via precise 4D trajectories (OI-0358), delegated responsibility for separation (OI-0305), self-separation airspace operations (OI-0362), and improved safety of operational decision making (OI-3103).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TBO-AID will be targeted for use in NextGen-enabled commercial aircraft to support situation awareness of relevant hazards (e.g., traffic, weather) and airspace constraints (e.g., unequipped aircraft). The first groups external to NASA that would benefit from the underlying research on which TBO-AID will be developed are those that perform similar research and development tasks. This is a wide ranging set and includes manufacturers of any flight deck technologies relevant to airspace operations (e.g., Boeing, Honeywell, Avidyne) that could incorporate TBO-AID display concepts into their design efforts. The results from the TBO-AID display concepts could also be utilized in a number of domains dependent on advanced air traffic management, such as Air and Space Operations Centers (AOC) within the United States Air Force and Maritime Operations Centers (MOC) within the United States Navy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction
Display


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.05-9370
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flight Deck I-Glasses

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microvision, Inc.
6222 185th Avenue North East
Redmond, WA 98052-5034
(425) 415-6847

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mason Thomas
mason_thomas@microvision.com
6222 185th Ave NE
Redmond,  WA 98052-5034
(425) 882-6797

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flight Deck i-Glasses is a color, stereoscopic 3-D display mounted on consumer style eye glass frames that will enhance operator performance and multi-modal interface research for NextGen operators. This innovative project will prove that Microvision's new Pico Display Engine and new waveguide optic technologies mounted on commercial eyeglass frames will create a novel visual interface system where users can toggle information between left- or right-eye and view information in either a bi-ocular or 3-D stereo mode as required. Leveraging the state of the art monocular goggle display, Microvision will identify commercial eye frames engineering requirements to determine size, weight and center-of-gravity constraints and then research what optics, electronics, mechanical and system interface alternatives exist. Alternate designs of Pico Display Engine and electronic modules will be investigated. A simplified optical relay approach and waveguide optical concepts design will be researched. At the conclusion of Phase 1, Microvision will report the scientific and technical feasibility findings and will provide bench-top demonstration of candidate Phase 2 waveguide optics technologies. Finally, needed research/research and development tasks required to build a Phase 2 prototype will be identified.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flight Deck i-Glasses are a crew-centered and multi-modal interface technology that improves aerospace safety by enabling 3-D trajectory-based operations and head-up visual ops in non-visual meteorological conditions. Flight Deck i-Glasses are relevant within the Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Technologies program in both Operator Performance and Multi-modal Interfaces research activities areas. This visual interface technology enhances NASA's pursuit of Level 3 goals for NextGen operators?it will increase the pilot's state of awareness and support integrated alerting/pilot notification in a head-up mode?regardless of meteorological conditions. Additionally, i-Glasses is applicable to Extra-Vehicular Activity Technology and Space Suit Displays where compact systems are needed to increase situational awareness. Within the Automation for Vehicle & Crew Operations research area, i-Glasses can be used to display decision support system information. Within flight/space operations, i-Glasses will provide operator content at the point of task perfect for operations centers, ATC control and mobile maintenance environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flight Deck i-Glasses have significant potential for successful commercialization. Companies within defense, medical, industrial and consumer market segments are actively pursuing new head-up technologies to create product offerings around the i-Glasses concept. Within defense, pilots need see-through color displays to portray 3-D situational awareness independent of helmet used. Mounted and dis-mounted soldiers have begun to use see-through display applications to increase SA in operational and training (enhanced realism) environments. Medical applications within the future operating rooms are concentrating on displaying 3-D imagery scans on the patient to improve procedure effectiveness and accuracy. Similarly, mobile viewings of procedures, specifications and web-based logistics services, etc. are value-added applications facilitated by i-Glasses in the industrial segment. Consumers are searching for 3-D i-Glasses for real-time mobile gaming and for mobile applications (i.e. Augmented Reality, broadband content, etc.) where real-time streaming of content from mobile devices can be viewed in a head-up mode.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Command & Control
Prototyping
Display
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.07-8520
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Adaptive Aeroservoelastic Suppression
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Linear Parameter Varying Control for Aeroservoelastic Suppression

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MUSYN Inc
P.O. Box 13377
Minneapolis, MN 55414-5377
(651) 602-9732

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Seiler
peter.j.seiler@gmail.com
P.O. Box 13377
Minneapolis,  MN 55414-5377
(734) 262-0820

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Adaptive control offers an opportunity to fulfill present and future aircraft safety objectives though automated vehicle recovery while maintaining performance and stability requirements in the presence of unknown or varying operating environment. Future aircraft are a natural application of adaptive control. These aircraft will be more fuel efficient, have longer operating ranges though more flexible aircraft structures. This increased flexibility will result in structural modes being in the same frequency range as the rigid body modes. The traditional non-adaptive control design approach to address the aeroservoelastic (ASE) interaction of decoupling the rigid body and structural dynamics will not work. Furthermore, the application of adaptive control to these flexible aircraft may result in undesired ASE excitation leading to structural damage or failure. Hence an integrated flight control system is needed for gust load alleviation, flutter suppression and rigid body control of the aircraft which works in concert with the adaptive control system for improved resilience and safety. MUSYN proposes an integrated approach based on linear, parameter-varying (LPV) control to the design of the flight control, load alleviation and flutter suppression algorithms. The Phase I and Phase II research will focus on applying and extending LPV techniques to model, design, analyze and simulate control algorithms for flexible aircraft. The objective is to combine the integrated LPV flight control system with adaptive control to preserve rigid body performance during upsets while retaining the load alleviation and flutter suppression characteristics of the nominally augmented aircraft. Phase I will develop a prototype LPV framework for modeling, analysis, control and simulation and Phase II will develop a comprehensive LPV software tool suite.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate NASA application will be the X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) test bed at NASA Dryden. This aircraft will provide an experimental flight test capability for aeroservoeleastic control research. NASA and the USAF developed this test bed to investigate the use of wing aeroelastic flexibility for improved performance of high aspect ratio wings. The AAW test bed is an ideal facility to use the LPV framework for modeling, analysis, control and simulation. The proposed research will develop an integrated LPV flight control, gust alleviation and flutter suppression system for the AAW test bed. The performance and robustness of the LPV design will be accessed and compared with a baseline aeroservoelastic system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications fall under two categories: (1) Uninhabited aerial systems (UASs) like SensorCraft, for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) and (2) Space, automotive and ship transportation systems. MUSYN or the companies it has worked with have already demonstrated the application of LPV control techniques to aircraft, launch vehicles, automotive suspensions, trucks, missiles and underwater vehicles. All these systems are seeing increased aeroservoelastic coupling due to the push for more efficient, lightweight structures. The software tool develop in the SBIR addresses a unique need that is currently only being addressed by European aerospace companies using proprietary software tools. A Matlab based LPV Control Toolbox would address a need in the US aerospace and transportation communities and complement the robust control tools already developed MUSYN.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.07-9064
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Adaptive Aeroservoelastic Suppression
PROPOSAL TITLE: Experimental Model Based Feedback Control for Flutter Suppression and Gust Load Alleviation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jie Zeng
jzeng@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes an R\&D effort to develop an Experimental Model Based Feedback Control (EMBFC) Framework for the flutter suppression and gust load alleviation (GLA). The resilience of the flight control law in the presence of aeroelastic/aeroservoelastic (AE/ASE) interactions can therefore be increased by the suppression of the aircraft's structural vibrations induced by the flutter mechanism and/or gust perturbation. Currently aircrafts with non-adaptive control laws usually include roll-off or notch filters to avoid AE/ASE interactions. However, if changes in the aircraft configuration are significant, the frequencies of the flexible modes of the aircraft may be shifted and the notch filters could become totally ineffective. With the proposed EMBFC framework, the flexible dynamics can be consistently estimated via system identification algorithms and its undesirable effects is suppressed through a robust feedback control law, while the whole systems stability is being maintained. The proposed feedback control technique will be demonstrated with SuperSonic SemiSpan Transport S4T wind tunnel model for flutter suppression and gust load alleviation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
EMBFC Framework will assist NASA in its goal to achieve an integrated flight control system resilient to failures, damage, and upset conditions due to unforeseen AE/ASE interactions during the development of the aircraft's original control law.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
EMBFC Framework can be firstly used by military and commercial aircraft manufacturers for new aircraft designs, modifications and upgrades. Secondly, Secondly, it will bring a variety of applications in other industries, such as: (1) Suppression and/or attenuation of vibrations in large satellite structures; (2) Cabin noise reduction for the next generation executive transport aircraft, such as in the Marcel Dassualt's Falcon 7X; (3) Vibration suppression across the automotive industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Process Monitoring & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.07-9371
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Adaptive Aeroservoelastic Suppression
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Aeroservoelastic Suppression for Aircraft Upset and Damage Conditions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Roemer
mike.roemer@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Tennessee State University, propose to develop and demonstrate an adaptive system identification and multi-loop control methodology that provides real-time aircraft structural mode suppression associated with aeroservoelastic interaction under upset and damage conditions. The proposed program will develop an effective real-time aircraft structural model, including rigid body dynamics and structural flexible modes, which will be used by the on-line, adaptive control system proposed. In parallel, the research team will also develop an innovative time/frequency domain system identification algorithm that can provide continuous updates to the real-time aircraft model and automatically assess the level of existing structural mode excitation. Next, a singular value decomposition technique will be implemented to capture and quantify the associated dominant parameter uncertainties of the dynamic aircraft model and adjust accordingly. Finally, a multi-loop adaptive control structure will be developed that provides both structure and robustness of the aircraft by using the continuously identified model with the overall goal of responding to the structural safety and performance needs including the effects of aeroservoelastic interaction and structural flexible mode changes. The proposed approach uses a generalized predictive control (GPC) scheme, which can be used to both update the real-time model and design a controller, for active aeroservoelastic suppression under upset conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the proposed work will substantially improve the performance, reliability, and survivability of the general aviation (GA) aircraft. Potential applications of the software include design and testing of Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC), aircraft IVHM, Crew Exploration Vehicle, Reusable Launch Vehicles, Unmanned Air Vehicles and future generation general aviation platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential commercial use of the developed technologies is broad. Examples of key customers that could benefit through use of the developed technologies include: JSF, military and commercial fixed-wing aircraft, rotorcraft, and high-performance land vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.08-8467
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robust Propulsion Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Propulsion Control for Improved Aircraft Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Monitoring, Inc.
8777 East Via de Ventura Drive, Suite 120
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-3345
(480) 752-7909

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Link Jaw
lj@scientificmonitoring.com
8777 E. Via de Ventura Drive, Suite 120
Scottsdale AZ ,  AZ 85258-3345
(480) 752-7909

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Scientific Monitoring, Inc. proposes to develop a robust propulsion control approach to facilitate control law design and simulation-based validation. The proposed approach integrates system identification and robust control design, specifically tailors it to handle large perturbations and model uncertainties affecting engine operations, and provides a framework for successive design optimization through iterations. The integrated and iterative design methodology will reduce the cycle time in propulsion control design and validation to maintain engine operations in the presence of adverse conditions, such as engine icing, foreign object damage, and high angle of attack. In Phase I, A proof-of-concept (POC) simulation will be conducted to demonstrate the merit of the robust control approach in the presence of larger than normal variations in the design model. The control design and closed-loop POC will use the NASA-developed C-MAPSS generic engine model as the simulation framework. The anticipated benefits of the proposed innovation are to reduce design cycle time and increase robustness of the controller design, while optimizing the closed-loop system performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include all engines and aircraft supported by The NASA Aviation Safety Program. This includes existing and future commercial engines which will be specifically operated to address the Nation's aviation safety challenges of the future. This technology will also support engines and aircraft designed to address the projected increases in air traffic capacity and realize the new capabilities envisioned for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). Additionally, this technology has potential application to rocket propulsion control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The two primary areas of program interest, adaptive systems for in-flight operability and system-level integrated resilient control technologies are applicable to militrary aircraft and engine systems. Specifically our work will address aircraft engines operating in adverse conditions, such as engine icing, foreign object damage, and high angle of attack.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.08-9658
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robust Propulsion Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Incremental Sampling Algorithms for Robust Propulsion Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(617) 500-0536

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Fitzgerald
nfitzgerald@aurora.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-0279

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to develop a system for robust engine control based on incremental sampling, specifically Rapidly-Expanding Random Tree (RRT) algorithms. In this concept, the task of accelerating or decelerating the engine is treated as a path planning exercise. The control system actively searches for actuator inputs that allow the engine to traverse power settings without entering undesired regions of operation. The search is based on the sequential construction of control actions that satisfy feasibility constraints given the system dynamics. These algorithms have been proven to converge to the optimal solution through repeated iteration. RRTs allow for an efficient search of the solution space, reducing the computational expense of determining the best sequence of inputs with which to control the engine. This allows an efficient, online method for an engine to adapt and recalibrate to unexpected operational conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed incremental sampling control technology could have a direct impact on the ability of an aircraft engine to autonomously adjust for unforeseen, adverse conditions. NASA has previously been involved in developing these sorts of technologies for aircraft systems in the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project. The proposed technology would allow for similar resilient characteristics on engine systems. This technology could be applied to a variety of NASA research areas requiring complex propulsion control, such as hypersonic flight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability of systems to autonomously perform complicated planning processes is becoming increasingly important in modern aircraft. This is especially true with UAV's, which do not have the native ability of human operators to analyze and react to unexpected events. The proposed technology can be applied to increase the reliability of a variety of autonomous and remotely piloted vehicles as part of a global robust flight control for almost any UAV application. This can contribute to increased reliability and help reduce concerns about UAV operation over populated areas or in heavily trafficked airspace.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.09-9063
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Pilot Interactions with Adaptive Control Systems under Off-Nominal Conditions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pilot Induced Oscillation Suppression Under Off-Nominal Conditions Using L1 Adaptive Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jiang Wang
jwang@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZONA Technology, Inc. proposes an R&D effort to develop an adaptive flight control system which can provide near-nominal performance for the aircraft under off-nominal conditions, consequently reduce pilot-vehicle interactions. Furthermore, this adaptive control system is combined with a monitoring system to detect possible Pilot-Induced Oscillation (PIO) while both pilot and controller are adaptively working, in order to avoid PIO and enhance aviation safety. The proposed comprehensive combined control technique aims to reduce the interaction between the adaptive flight system and the pilot control action to a minimal level, when the aircraft experiences system failures, damage and/or upset conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Comprehensive adaptive controller for regaining nominal performance and suppressing PIOs can be used as part of a new generation Flight Control System, within the effort of Aviation Safety program. The enhanced aviation safety can further contribute to various research projects conducted in NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA customers for this tool include the R&D departments of USAF, Navy, Army, and major aircraft manufactures. It can be readily adapted by a wide class of aerospace vehicles ranging from current to next-generation designs such as: (a) USAF's F-22 and F-35 aircrafts at Edwards AFB, (b) UASF's Hilda and/or SensorCraft aircrafts, (c) USAF's next generation stealth and morphing UAV/UCAV, (d) DARPA's new Switchblade Flying Wing Program, and for (e) Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) with enhanced control/maneuver capability. ZONA Technology's reputation and track record in supporting the aerospace industry and government with ZONA codes can assure the success of the commercialization plan.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.10-9237
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detection of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Online Sensing Techniques for Detection of Aircraft Electrical System Anomalies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Antonio Ginart
antonio.ginart@impact-tek.com
75 Fifth Street NW, Ste. 312
Atlanta,  GA 30308-1037
(404) 526-6188

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As 'fly-by-wire' technologies become more prevalent in the aerospace systems, the need to develop innovative monitoring, diagnostic and fault tolerant techniques for the electrical systems is becoming obvious. Among all the possible electrical system failures, two types of failures are considered the most frequent, and hence most critical: intermittent disconnection in connectors, and capacitance failures. Despite the extreme care in the design and quality control in manufacturing and installation of these connectors in avionics and military equipment, there are increasing number of problems associated with the physical connectivity that ranges from intermittent discontinuities, sparks, and breakages. As for the capacitors, the power systems in modem aircrafts, specifically the ones with DC power supply configurations, rely very heavily on banks of capacitors that act as filters. These capacitors (especially of electrolytic type) present high failure rates - with no effective solution for online monitoring available. The proposed research will study detecting fault initiation, fault-to-failure progression, and online monitoring of the critical problems of intermittent disconnection, and capacitance aging and ultimate failures in aircraft power systems. We propose to develop a non-traditional use of wideband differential current sensor to detect capacitor degradation, as well as intermittent disconnection problems. This program is expected to generate useful, accurate and precise diagnostic information impacting the safety and maintenance of critical aircraft power systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of the proposed anomaly and fault detection techniques will directly contribute to NASA's efforts to advance technology in aerospace industry. The proposed technologies are generic in nature and are applicable to future generation aviation platforms, leading to benefits in the form of improved reliability, maintainability, and survivability of safety-critical electrical power and the many applications that rely on the electrical power system. The long-term implications of a successful completion of this program will provide reliability tools for the state-of-the-art technologies in power generation, management, and intelligent control. Several of NASA's NextGen and current activities can take immediate advantage of these technologies. In the short term, the anomaly and degradation detection to be developed in this program can be directly transitioned to ongoing research at the NASA research centers. The adaptable nature of modules presented in this program will allow them to act as design and development tools for a wide variety of NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential benefits from the successful completion of this program are enormous and will significantly impact the way critical aerospace, power devices, controllers, and other systems are designed, particularly in the power system domains. Examples of key customers that could benefit through use of the developed technologies include: power system manufacturers, commercial airlines, power semiconductor device and drive manufacturers, land and marine propulsion systems, unmanned air vehicles, JSF, future combat systems, industrial actuation systems, and robotic applications. Particularly, the push towards fly-by-wire technology in commercial airlines by manufacturers like Boeing has generated specific requirements on health management performance for which these technologies can provide value by increasing reliability and safety for critical components. Impact has existing contracts with all these potential customers and has an excellent commercialization record. The following NASA and DoD applications present immediate technology transition possibilities for the JSF program, Boeing's 787 Dreamliner, UAV platforms, and ground and sea vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Distribution/Management
Contact/Mechanical
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.11-9543
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Diagnosis of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Active Fault Diagnosis and Assessment for Aircraft Health Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wenjian Wang
ITProposals@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA LaRC need for innovative methods and tools for the diagnosis of aircraft faults and failures, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Active Integrated Diagnosis with Ensembles (AIDE) system, based on Bayesian network modeling, ensemble learning, and context-aware reasoning. This approach incorporates an active fault diagnosis system architecture, a block-level Bayesian-network-based context model, and a context-aware reasoning and severity assessment engine, which enable us to meet NASA aviation safety mission requirements for reliable and accurate diagnosis and assessment of adverse events with minimal uncertainty. The system offers constantly updated aircraft health context, which guides the active queries on aircraft health management systems to minimize the uncertainty along its progress path in the context model and make statistical inference and diagnosis, providing rank-ordered lists of diagnoses, severity assessments, and uncertainty measurements. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of active diagnosis of aircraft faults and failures by establishing context models and building and testing a preliminary prototype, which will demonstrate TRL-2 by the end of Phase I. Integration and validation issues will be explored through communication and collaboration with manufacturers. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a fully functional prototype, including software and supporting hardware, and demonstrate its fault diagnosis capability on a family of adverse events in the AirSTAR testbed. The results demonstrated will offer NASA the capabilities to diagnose and assess adverse events and improve aviation safety.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AIDE will find direct applications in the IVHM and other projects in the Aviation Safety Program, including the Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck (IIFD) Project, Aircraft Aging and Durability (AAD) Project, and Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. Other programs and projects within ARMD that will benefit from AIDE include the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force (JANNAF).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications of the AIDE system will include: vehicle engine diagnosis, mechanical system fatigue analysis for failure prevention in operations, and maintenance equipment reliability and failure predictions. AIDE can be integrated into truck platforms in commercial fleets for vehicle fault diagnosis. The AIDE can also be incorporated by General Electric into the next-generation and existing turbine engine blade and disk assessment processes, which will benefit from this proposed technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Methods
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.12-8884
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Prognosis of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Probabilistic Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Composite Aircraft Components

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Global Engineering and Materials, Inc
11 Alscot Drive
East Lyme, CT 06333-1303
(860) 398-5620

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Lua
jlua@gem-consultant.com
11 Alscot Drive
East Lyme,  CT 06333-1303
(860) 398-5620

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A composite fatigue damage assessment and risk informed prognosis toolkit will be developed by enhancing and integrating existing solution modules within a probabilistic analysis framework. This tool will for the first time be able to address concurrently both microcracking induced stiffness degradation and cyclic loading induced delamination crack growth without remeshing. A physics-based deterministic solver will be developed by integrating a discrete crack network model with a multiaxial fatigue damage accumulation law. An advanced probabilistic analysis framework with the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) updating procedure will be developed for risk informed total life management. The damage detection results will be integrated/fused with the physics based delamination growth prediction tool to form a risk informed damage prognosis and condition based maintenance metrics. Global Engineering and Materials, Inc. (GEM) has secured commitments for technical support from Clarkson University and Boeing, who will provide existing solution modules, supporting data, customization plug-ins, and expertise. The multi-faceted feasibility study consists of developing a method that will enable the prediction of multi-site, multi-mode damage interaction, extracting delamination driving force, characterizing delamination evolution under multiaxial non-proportional loading, and performing risk informed fatigue failure prediction and BME updating when new detection and maintenance data become available.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results from this research will have significant benefits to enhance the aviation safety program in the NASA. It will result in: 1) a commercially viable, accurate, computationally efficient, and user-friendly probabilistic residual life assessment tool for charactering delamination crack growth and perform damage analysis with the presence of uncertainties in design and loading parameters; 2) an integrated analysis framework for fatigue damage prognosis and health management of composite aircraft structures; 3) a virtual testing tool to reduce current certification and qualification costs, which are heavily driven by experimental testing under various stress conditions; and 4) innovative probabilistic methods and reliability assessment procedures to facilitate the condition-based maintenance and reducing unscheduled maintenance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural aging under fatigue loading is one of the most common failure mechanisms in civilian structures such as composite bridges, power lines, and composite ship structures. The developed probabilistic fatigue life prediction tool can be used effectively and efficiently to assist a designer and rule maker to answer the following questions: 1) How tolerant of cracks is the location? 2) How long to repair a crack in service? 3) What is the impact of an operational profile change? 4) How often should inspections be made? and 5) How can SHM input be used best? The tool can be used to assist commercial and military industries to reduce the cost of test-driven design and process iterations with the use of the virtual testing tool. Finally, teaming with Boeing, a highly visible airplane manufacturer, will considerably shorten our development cycle from producing a prototype research orientated tool to commercially accessible design software.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Fasteners/Decouplers
Structures
Verification/Validation Tools
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.13-8359
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Healing Material System Concepts for IVHM
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Catalytic Nanocomposite Based Self-Healing Material for Multifunctional Composite

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanotrons
12A Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801-1003
(781) 935-1200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Je Kyun Lee
jlee@agiltron.com
12A Cabot Rd
Woburn,  MA 01801-1003
(781) 935-1200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks new materials and systems for the mitigation of structural damage, and new concepts for the activation of healing mechanisms to improve structural durability and enhance safe operation of aerospace structural systems. Nanotrons Corporation proposes to develop advanced multifunctional carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites with built-in non-catalytic nanocomposite?based self-healing microcapsules. The proposed self-healing approach integrates high performance functionalized carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofillers, reactive monomer solution, non-catalytic curing mechanism, and mass-production self-healing microcapsules. By uniformly dispersing these nanocomposite-based self-healing microcapsules throughout the CFRP composite matrix, self-healing multifunctional composite materials will be fabricated. The resulting materials should selectively repair the damaged areas at ambient conditions without catalysts. Nanotrons' proposed novel multifunctional CFRP composites could heal the damaged area over 90% of the original strength. Added benefits are that the addition of self-healing microcapsules will increase fracture toughness of the matrix polymer and the incorporated CNT nanofillers will improve electrical conductivity and EMI/RF shielding performance of the healed CFRP composites. These features are unattainable from existing systems. Nanotrons' proposed non-catalytic nanocomposite-based self-healing microcapsules embedded in multifunctional CFRP composites can be economically scaled up for manufacture. This Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed self-healing approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed non-catalytic nanocomposite self-healing composite is expected to demonstrate enhanced autonomous durability and extended lifetime of structural composite materials of aeronautic and aerospace vehicles. This multifunctional smart composite will be applied to many aerospace structures, including aircraft, launch vehicles, space vehicles, permanent structures placed on the moon or Mars, and robotic devices that patrol these structures for SHM, and satellites. Also, their applications may extend to other structural composite materials of space, aerospace, and propellant tanks which require high durability, extending lifetime, and reducing maintenance cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-performance self-healing multifunctional composite material will help prevent catastrophic failure of structural components of military aircraft, rotorcraft, warships, vehicles, missile, rocket motor case, radomes, support structures, UAVs, buildings, and other construction. Our proposed self-healing multifunctional smart composites can be extended to structural composites of other commercial products including aircrafts, rotorcrafts, wind energy, constructions, building, and vehicles, VIP vehicles, ship, armor, and liquefied gas transport.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.14-8778
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Continuous Integrated Invariant Inference

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GrammaTech, Inc.
315-317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850-4201
(607) 273-7340

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Cok
dcok@grammatech.com
317 N. Aurora St.
Ithaca,  NY 14850-4201
(607) 273-7340

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project will develop a new technique for invariant inference and embed this and other current invariant inference and checking techniques in an easy-to-use tool. The result will enhance an engineer's ability to use formal methods ? generating, editing, reviewing, proving and testing invariants ? and improve productivity in verification and validation of safety and correctness properties software. Currently, invariants that represent such properties require extensive human effort to write; automated techniques, though improving, are still insufficiently capable of automatically inferring them. The proposed project will develop innovative techniques to infer logical invariants describing the behavior of individual software modules by combining static (analyzing a program without running it) and hybrid analysis (inferring invariants from observations of executing software). In particular, the project will (a) combine concolic execution and hybrid analysis to find candidate invariants from high-branch-coverage test suites, (b) apply that combination to obtain invariants for individual functions and data structures, (c) iterate the analysis to broaden data coverage of the test suite and improve the accuracy of invariants, and (d) create early prototypes and development plans to integrate the resulting tools in selected IDEs (Eclipse and GrammaTech's CodeSonar tool). In carrying out this project, GrammaTech will build on its static analysis tools, concolic engine, and software dynamic translation module. It will leverage its base of research and expertise in static and hybrid analysis, specification languages, automated SMT theorem provers, and GUI tools for program analysis and development. The commercialization prospects for the proposed project are enhanced by GrammaTech's demonstrated experience in producing prototypes and commercial products from research results.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The project will target NASA activities concerned with verification and validation, safety-critical avionics (including the NextGen air traffic control system), and with assessment of COTS or third party software to be included in critical systems. GrammaTech will seek reviews and early adopters of the developed technology among the company's current customers of its existing products in several of NASA's facilities. For example, GrammaTech has worked closely with the LaRS group at JPL in developing other product enhancements and would solicit their review of this new technology; in addition, GrammaTech's static analysis tools are in current use in NASA's V&V facilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The project expects to market a commercial version of the tools it generates first to existing GrammaTech customers, particularly with early adopter releases. The most relevant application areas are safety-critical and correctness-critical software: software for medical devices, commercial avionics, automotive systems, and other embedded software. The capability to operate on machine code without source code will be useful for customers needing reverse engineering or security analysis tools. The tool's test generation capabilities will also be attractive to desktop software manufacturers that may not be interested in verification of software properties. GrammaTech will enlist some current customers as early adopters. Among its active customers are facilities whose task is software inspection and certification; the company expects that these will be natural reviewers and customers for the project's technology. The project anticipates that placing the new technology in existing IDEs will smooth the path to initial experimentation and eventual adoption of the new technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Development Environments
Programming Languages
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.15-8747
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Mining
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mitek Analytics LLC
281 El Verano Avenue
Palo Alto, CA 94306-2937
(650) 400-3172

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dimitry Gorinevsky
dimitry@mitekan.com
281 El Verano Avenue
Palo Alto,  CA 94306-2937
(650) 400-3172

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA, DoD, and commercial aircraft operators need to transform vast amounts of aircraft data accumulated in distributed databases into actionable knowledge. We propose distributed algorithms for data-driven health monitoring on aircraft, aircraft fleet, and national airspace levels. The proposed algorithms are based on distributed optimization formulation, and, unlike existing distributed processing methods, have rigorous guarantees of producing the same results as centralized processing would do. Our algorithms will be implemented in an open scalable framework that allows integrating distributed data and federated third party algorithms for anomaly detection, diagnosis, prediction, and prognosis. We will apply the proposed approach to aircraft performance monitoring from FOQA data. We will train regression models of aircraft performance using distributed agents associated with different data sets, locations, and organizations. The trained models will be then used for anomaly detection, diagnosis (fault isolation), prognosis (forecasting), and mitigation (decision support). This project will develop web-based distributed open architecture software implementing the proposed optimization-based approaches and demonstrate scalability to at least 10 TB of data. Besides the developed algorithms, we will explore integration of third party algorithms into the distributed environment. The developed technologies will be applicable to a broad range of aircraft-related and other problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR topic supports objectives of NASA Aviation Safety Program by enabling improved health management. One of the goals of this project is to support transition of NASA's data mining research (both internal and external) into practical use in the aviation industry. NASA data mining algorithms that are formulated as optimization algorithms can be integrated into the proposed distributed optimization and software framework. In addition to being a platform for deploying algorithms at airlines, the proposed distributed framework can support NASA in building national aviation safety resources. Using the developed technology, the airlines, industry vendors, and government can share the mined global knowledge without actually sharing the distributed local data used in its computation. An additional potential use of the developed distributed data mining technology is for validation of aircraft software after its initial deployment. Validation requires extensive test coverage. Monitoring an aircraft fleet would cover a much broader range of conditions than monitoring any single aircraft in the fleet.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
*Airline FOQA.* The proposed demonstration of distributed FOQA data monitoring provides a direct path for transitioning the results of this SBIR projects into military and commercial aircraft fleets. The data-driven modeling would make advanced FOQA monitoring easy to implement. The proposed technology could allow the two airlines to share the data-driven performance models of their aircraft while processing their respective FOQA data privately. *Propulsion.* The fleet-wide data-driven monitoring technology developed in this SBIR can be applied to jet engine fleets. The technology developed in the proposed SBIR project would provide scalability above and beyond what is available in existing systems. *Smart grid.* This is an area of rapidly increasing and potentially immense societal and business impact. Monitoring of power distribution systems is a major application that is not addressed at present. The proposed distributed data-driven monitoring technology is of interest for this area. *Semiconductor manufacturing.* If undetected in time, a fault in a semiconductor manufacturing process tool could lead to losing hundreds of high-cost wafers passing through the tool. Being located in Silicon Valley we pursue specific opportunities in this area.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Computer System Architectures
Data Fusion
Data Processing
Knowledge Management
Development Environments
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.01-8170
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Engineered Materials for Advanced Gas Turbine Engine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Powder Solutions
14102 Halprin Creek Drive
Cypress, TX 77429-6042
(661) 373-1729

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Asit Biswas
rumanjali@sbcglobal.net
14102 Halprin Creek Drive
Cypress,  TX 77429-6042
(661) 373-1729

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will develop innovative composite powders and composites that will surpass the properties of currently identified materials for advanced gas turbine engine applications. Phase I will demonstrate a powder metallurgy technique for fabricating high-temperature, oxidation-resistant composite powders. Once consolidated, the resulting composite will possess high creep and thermal fatigue strength, and a low coefficient of thermal expansion properties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Casing materials gas turbine vanes, turbine blade, sheets for use in oxidizing/corrosive atmosphere, nozzle

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Power plant unit, boilers, diesel engines and stationary gas and steam turbines at a potentially much lower cost sheets for oxidizing atmosphere, Land base gas turbine engine.The composite powders also should find application in thermal-sprayed or cold-sprayed steam oxidation, corrosion-resistant high-temperature coatings for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment, and laser additives manufacturing for turbine engine/blade repairing or refurbishing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Processing Methods
Composites
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Launch Engine/Booster
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.01-8684
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-based Modeling of Foreign Object Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Firehole Technologies, Inc.
210 South 3rd Street, Suite 202
Laramie, WY 82070-3658
(307) 460-4763

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ray Fertig
fertigr@fireholetech.com
210 S 3RD ST SUITE 202
Laramie,  WY 82070-3658
(307) 460-4763

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase I SBIR, Firehole Technologies will develop proof-of-concept modeling framework for a multiscale physics-based modeling tool for predicting foreign object damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). We will accomplish this by adapting the core technology, multicontinuum theory (MCT), from our existing industry-leading software analysis tool, Helius:MCT, to the problem of impact damage in CMCs. Our approach will involve modeling the composite at three levels: constituent level (fiber, matrix, interphase), mesostructure-level (fiber tow architecture), and macrostructure level (impact test of a multi-ply laminate). The mesostructure and macrostructure will be modeled using an explicit finite element analysis code. The constituent level modeling will be carried out using MCT, which permits constituent stresses and strains to be exactly determined from composite-average strain. The objective of the Phase I effort is to develop the modeling framework and compare predicted results with published experimental results. In-depth study of ceramic physics, development of an experimental validation program, and commercialization of the software would be part of a Phase I effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA applications are the hypersonic, supersonic, and subsonic fixed wing programs. In the hypersonics program heat resistant structural components are needed, for which CMCs are used. Furthermore, combustor panels used in scramjet or ramjet technologies require robust performance and high temperatures, which CMCs could provide. The tools developed under this SBIR would enable designers of these components to select materials and material structures based on virtual testing rather than expensive experimental tests. The Supersonics and Subsonic Fixed Wing programs have similar needs. Namely, turbine housing and turbine blades must operate at high temperature with the potential for high velocity impact damage from foreign objects. The tools developed under this SBIR are specifically designed to address these issues and would provide rapid assessment of structural performance of CMCs under FOD without resorting to tests.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial primary target market for a suite of analysis tools for CMCs is with the U.S. Department of Defense and their Tier 1 OEMs. Firehole Technologies, with a successful history within the Air Force, is uniquely positioned to apply this SBIR technology in the design and analysis of next-generation warfighting capabilities. Pratt and Whitney-Rocketdyne is a primary candidate for a commercialization partner, as indicated in their letter of support for this proposal. In addition, through past and existing contracts, Firehole has experience utilizing existing methodology for composite structures built by many of the major DoD prime contractors including: Lockheed Martin, United Launch Alliance, ATK, and Boeing. All of these companies are potential commercialization partners for the proposed technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Ceramics
Composites
Textiles
Structures
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.01-8987
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Carbon Electromagnetic Materials, Motors, and Actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
General Nano, LLC
1776 Mentor Avenue, Suite 170
Cincinnati, OH 45212-3554
(513) 309-5947

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Sprengard
joe.sprengard@generalnanollc.com
1776 Mentor Ave, Ste. 170
Cincinnati,  OH 45212-3554
(513) 309-5947

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of the proposal is to apply multifunctional carbon electromagnetic materials, including carbon nanotube electrical thread (replaces copper wire) and carbon nanosphere chain magnetic material (replaces iron cores), to build lightweight, high-performance carbon electric motors and actuators for aircraft and spacecraft. Incorporating these nanomaterials will replace heavy and bulky motors that are constrained by high mass and inertia, and limited rotor speed and acceleration. The technical objective is to achieve 50-70% weight reduction, super-inductance, extremely high magnetic fields, and potentially operate at high speed driven by AC signals in the tens of KHz frequency range. Additionally, large size pancake carbon motors could produce extreme torques and withstand the inertia forces of a large diameter rotor. Some of the trade-offs of the carbon motor may be lower efficiency, higher temperature operation or need for additional cooling, and higher initial cost. We will investigate these factors in Phase I. General Nano (GN) is one of two companies in the United State capable of manufacturing the nanomaterials required to pursue the carbon electric motors and actuators. GN will partner with Parker Hannifin to integrate the nanomaterials into commercial application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the proposed project focuses on building lightweight, high-performance carbon electric motors and actuators from Carbon Nanotube (CNT) threads and nanosphere chain materials that have the potential to achieve 50-70% weight reduction, super-inductance, extremely high magnetic fields, and potential to operate at high speed driven by AC signals in the tens of KHz frequency range, GN is also uniquely capable of manufacturing four multifunctional nanomaterials that have the potential to solve technical problems faced by NASA and other DoD agencies: (1) super-long CNT arrays (22mm) for reinforcing materials (such as Aerogels), (2) patterned CNT arrays for thermal management and electronic devices, (3) CNT threads, yarns and ribbons for motors, actuators, cables, antennas, etc., and (4) hybrid materials such as CNTs thread blended with other fibers. Current DoD application projects that underway include the Air Force (using CNT threads for power distribution), and the Navy (using CNT threads for Coaxial Cable and EMI Shielding). These projects are unrelated to the proposed CNT threads for motors and actuators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nearly all of GN's near-term CNT application projects (1-3 yrs), including EMI shielding, coaxial cable, super-long CNTs for thermal transfer and reinforcement, and replacing copper for power distribution in aircraft, have potential commercial use at NASA. Short-term non-NASA commercial applications include specialty cables for down-hole drilling, antennas incorporated into body armor, and ultra-high strength CNT braided materials. Mid-term applications (3-6 yrs) include structural health monitoring, structural composites, high-temperature electronics packaging, and downhole power and sensors. Long-term applications include wearable electronics, biomedical devices, and energy storage.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Space Transportation & Safety
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Actuators & Motors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.01-9345
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Fabrication Approach for SiC/SiC Thermal Protection System Elements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper-Therm High-Temperature Composites
18411 Gothard Street, Units B and C
Huntington Beach, CA 92648-1208
(714) 375-4085

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Shinavski
robert.shinavski@htcomposites.com
18411 Gothard Street, Units B&C
Huntington Beach,  CA 92648-1208
(714) 375-4085

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Durable high temperature materials are required for structural thermal protection systems (TPS) that exhibit a structural load carrying capability at temperatures in excess of 2700F. Fabrication times and costs are challenging for high acreage applications such as a structural TPS system. This proposed effort offers a new approach in manufacturing of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite components cost effectively with short lead time and high flexibility. The composites will be fabricated via a powder metallurgy/sintering approach using an emerging field assisted sintering technology (FAST). The objective is to fabricate and demonstrate making a cost effective CMC composite by FAST. The SiC/SiC produced will be produced from SiC constituents suitable for TPS applications. Basic mechanical and thermal properties will be measured to assess the promise of the FAST process to rapidly producing a SiC/SiC composite. A technical assessment of the FAST process to produce a 2700F+ SiC/SiC will be made as well.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of advanced ceramic composite materials and components with enhanced thermal-structural performance over those currently available could directly support future enabling technologies for hypersonic propulsion and hot structures. Applications for ceramic composites in advanced airbreathing combined-cycle propulsion systems and control surfaces for reusable hypervelocity and exo/transatmospheric aerospace vehicles are directly addressed by this technology. These potential applications are critically dependent on the development of lower cost advanced materials capable of high-performance load-bearing operation up to and beyond 1500<SUP>o</SUP>C (2700<SUP>o</SUP>F). Successful demonstration of the life at temperature of the CMC concept could result in a valuable near term increase in airframe performance and reliability for a variety of hot structures and thermal protection systems critical to both DoD and NASA highspeed aircraft and re-entry vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Opportunities for retrofit and new application in turbine engine systems also exist. The potential low cost and high temperature capability could lend itself to these applications for internal hot gas path parts. Similar requirements for high-temperature materials exist for commercial/industrial applications as well. Although less aggressive than the aerospace/defense and nuclear energy-related initiatives, programs are in place for evaluating reinforced ceramics for land-based turbine components, catathermal combustion devices, heat exchangers and radiant burners, which represent opportunities in energy and pollution abatement technologies that may mature over the next 10 or so years.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Composites
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.01-9409
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Carbide/Boron Nitride Dual In-Line Coating of Silicon Carbide Fiber Tows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Free Form Fibers LLC
26 F Congress Street, No. 312
Saratoga Springs, NY 12866-4168
(518) 690-0396

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Pegna
joseph.pegna@freeformfibers.com
26 F Congress Street, No. 312
Saratoga Springs,  NY 12866-4168
(518) 690-0396

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I project will demonstrate monolayer and dual layer coating of SiC fiber by leveraging Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition techniques developed by Free Form Fibers for direct fiber production. Ceramic fibers, particularly SiC, must be coated in order to protect the fibers from oxidizing environments, and to allow their use in SiC CMC's. FFF's LCVD techniques can be modified for fast, high purity coating. The Phase I effort includes creating a custom reactor that leverages FFF's existing gas precursor delivery infrastructure, and passing existing monofilament SiC fiber through the reactor to coat with BN in real time. Reversing direction and coating the coated fiber with SiC will be done for dual layer coating. Phase II would scale the process to serially dualcoat a unidirectional moving parallel array of hundreds or thousands of moving fibers. If successful, industry would finally have a reliable in-line approach to fiber coating prior to tow production, because spreading and coating already-sized tows is nearly impossible. Based on prior coating experience and other related proposals, Phase I work would take us from TRL3 to TRL4. Phase II could take us to TRL4 or TRL5, either on a FFF or other commercial fiber production facility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Over the last quarter century NASA and DoD have demanded high temperature materials capable of operating in oxidizing environments. Government and industry alike have invested large amounts in SiC-based technology for this purpose. Yet, for all that has been invested, fiber purity and protection still remains insufficient to address the needs of 2700 F and above applications. Beyond this temperature, not only are there benefits reaped from higher efficiency engines, but the weight penalty of cooling equipment is lifted. NASA's most immediate benefit from this proposed and other related research relates to advanced propulsion and power generation, for example the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program. In addition, as composites become more ubiquitous in ever more demanding NASA applications such as high performance structures, the demand for coated fibers is likely to increase. A generic, material-agnostic platform for fast fiber coating is of considerable value to future NASA composite development efforts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In-situ coating of disparate fibers affects a wide variety of composites applications. In the case of SiC fiber with dual Boron Nitride/Silicon Carbide coatings, the most important applications include commercial jet engines and turbo-machinery-based power generation equipment. Both require higher operating temperatures in order to reach ever higher fuel efficiencies, and the consensus is that SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites are the path to that future; the BN/SiC coating system is a highly desired element of this particular CMC. Other non-NASA applications of the proposed generic fiber coating process may well include advanced structural composites, where new high performance fibers are used in next-gen materials systems. The process may also have value in CMC tooling applications, where fracture toughness and wear resistance are achieved through a tungsten carbide composite, for example. The ability to apply fiber coatings during, or just after fiber production, improves the cost/benefit ratio for composites production.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.01-9709
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: First Principles Identification of New Aircraft Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eltron Research & Development, Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241
(303) 530-0263

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James White
eltron@eltronresearch.com
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder,  CO 80301-3241
(303) 530-0263

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The identification of new, structurally sound, thermally stable materials for aviation applications will enable a wide range of technologies. The identification of new materials is hindered by the lack of information about compositions outside the existing composition space. New materials and new methodologies for selection of these materials are essential. Eltron will develop a correlational/theoretical approach to materials selection that follows its previous work in the selection of cathode electrocatalysts, oxygen evolving anodes for high temperature melts, solid electrolytes, and mixed ion/electron conducting materials. This approach will allow the exploration of composition properties space by the use of existing data. Phase I will develop and demonstrate a model for selection of new materials and confirm predictions by synthesizing new materials.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are opportunities for developing both new materials and a software package for prediction of new material structures and their properties. Eltron's previous activity has established a groundwork for development of such a package.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Stakeholders in this technology will be aviation companies, fuel cell companies, scientific software companies, and customers of these companies as well as DoD. Potential customers include the aforementioned companies. The resulting materials technology would compete with existing metal alloys and composite materials.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-8674
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Organizing Maps for Fast LES Combustion Modeling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reaction Systems, LLC
17301 West Colfax Avenue, #405
Golden, CO 80401-4892
(303) 881-7992

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bradley Hitch
hitch@reactionsystemsllc.com
17301 W. Colfax Ave. #405
Golden,  CO 80401-4892
(720) 232-3597

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Tremendous advances have been made in the development of large and accurate detailed reaction chemistry models for hydrocarbon fuels. Comparable progress has also been achieved in CFD as an engineering design tool. Highly accurate hydrocarbon chemistry is now desired for simulating gas turbine combustors and automobile engines to better predict both performance and pollutant emissions. Newer and more accurate CFD techniques like Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are being used more as computational power increases along with the demand for better flow predictions. Unfortunately, using large, detailed chemical mechanisms to simulate real turbulent combustion devices is problematic due to the sheer computational burden of the added chemistry. As a result, chemistry mechanisms employing a large number of chemical species are currently only feasible to run in the simplest of flow geometries, and only the simplest and least accurate chemistry models are currently tractable to run in LES CFD codes. We propose using a unique neural network approach to create a fast and accurate species source term function that could alleviate both of these problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Incorporating fast reacting flow chemistry into LES calculations would represent an enabling technology and would be of great interest to NASA and the rest of the CFD community. Several groups at NASA would benefit from our project; NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the National Combustion Code (NCC) to aid in the design of rocket and gas turbine aircraft engines, while Wind-US, and VULCAN (developed at NASA-Langley), are two other NASA reacting flow CFD codes that could benefit from this research. The ability to accurately predict performance of hypersonic airbreathing systems burning higher hydrocarbons would be immediately useful.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The US Air Force, GE Aircraft Engines, Aerojet, Pratt & Whitney-Rocketdyne, and Rolls-Royce are all major players in the field of airbreathing and rocket engine design and have expressed a high level of interest in development of high-fidelity engine design tools like reacting flow LES. Problems with combustion stability, for example, often appear late in an engine development program and can be quite difficult and costly to fix, but could be detected early enough to change inexpensively with high-fidelity computational tools. Other potential applications of our technology include better rocket plume simulations to more accurately predict radar and infrared signatures and base heating loads, industrial chemical processes, and automobile engine design to help reduce pollutant formation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-8821
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Timko
timko@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 932-0280

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft particle emissions contribute a modest, but growing, portion of the overall particle emissions budget. Characterizing aircraft particle emissions is required to improve aircraft combustor design and aircraft operating practices. Aircraft particle emissions are a complex mixture of soot and semi-volatile material, primarily inhabiting sizes smaller than 100 nm. New instruments are required to characterize aircraft particle emissions. We propose to build a new instrument for sensitive (>200 ng m-3 on a 1 Hz cycle) measurements of particle sulfate. The key instrument component will be a tunable infrared diode absorption spectrometer (TILDAS). Compared to existing sulfate measurement instruments, the TILDAS-sulfate instrument will be able to reject NO interferences, a key capability required for aircraft exhaust applications. Prior to reaching the TILDAS, gas phase SO2 will be removed using an acid gas denuder and particle sulfate will be converted to SO2 in a quartz oven. By running the TILDAS-sulfate in tandem with a commercial differential mobility analyzer, we anticipate obtaining size resolved sulfate mass loadings (10 size bins, from 10 nm to several hundred nm). Phase I tasks include evaluating acid gas denuder and SO2-to-sulfate technologies, determining the instrument detection limits, demonstrating instrument discrimination against NO and other interferences, and demonstrating the use of the instrument to characterize simulated aircraft exhaust gas.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of the proposed TILDAS-sulfate instrument will be characterization of aircraft particle emissions. NASA has sponsored a number of major aircraft particle characterization tests, including the three APEX experiments and the AAFEX experiment. These measurement activities have contributed to a growing understanding of aircraft exhaust particles. However, despite substantial effort, many questions remain. The most important outstanding question is the relative contribution of soot and semi-volatile particles to the overall particle mass emissions loading. Depending on the engine, fuel, and operating conditions, semi-volatile mass loadings vary from almost zero to more than 100 mg kg-1. A second outstanding question is the conversion efficiency of SO2 to SO3. By directly measuring particle bound sulfate and with limited restrictions on the particle size that can be detected the TILDAS-sulfate instrument will help answer these two important outstanding questions faced by NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is one of several U.S. stakeholders in the aircraft particle emissions community. FAA, EPA, SERDP, U.S. Air Force, airport operators, and engine manufacturers all have a stake in understanding aircraft particle emissions and all of these are potential consumers of the TILDAS-sulfate instrument and its data. In addition to aircraft exhaust characterization, sulfate aerosol makes an important contribution to global climate forcing. Moreover, sulfuric acid has been shown to be a key component in atmospheric nucleation events. Improved instruments are required for rapid, size- and composition resolved measurements of sulfate particles. Current instruments are inadequate for characterizing particles smaller than 50 nm, suffer severe interferences from other atmospheric gases, lack composition resolution, lack size resolution, or lack the required sensitivity.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-9091
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Approach for Modeling Chemical Kinetics and Turbulence Effects on Combustion-Instability

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ranjan Mehta
sxh@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4858

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Combustion instabilities pose a significant technical risk in the development of liquid and solid rocket motors. Much of the effort in modeling combustion instabilities has focused either on systems-level tools, or use of detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate all the involved processes. The important effects of finite-rate chemical kinetics and turbulence-chemistry interactions have been neglected in combustion instability modeling. In this SBIR project, CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) will team up with Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories (GTL) to develop a hybrid approach by combining CFD capabilities with a systems-level instability modeling approach, the latter based on the Universal Combustion Device Stability (UCDS) process. These capabilities will be used to quantify the effects of finite-rate chemistry and turbulence-chemistry interactions on combustion instabilities. In Phase I, feasibility of the proposed approach will be demonstrated by combining 2-D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes and Large Eddy Simulation computations with the UCDS framework. In Phase II, the instability analysis will be enhanced by coupling: (1) 3-D CFD analysis; and (2) Improved UCDS process with more accurate treatment of boundary conditions and the flame. The proposed approach will enable an accurate combustion instability analysis of rocket motors, gas turbine combustors, and ramjet and scramjet engines.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The model developed in this SBIR project will be extremely useful in identifying the potential sources of combustion instability, and ways to suppress them. The tools developed will allow mitigation of instability problems in the design-phase, eliminating expensive testing needed when combustion instabilities occur in engine testing. The methods developed under this project will have wide ranging applications at NASA, including design of propulsion devices such as solid rocket motors, liquid rocket engines and gas turbine combustors important in the design of the Heavy Lift Launch System, In-space propulsion systems, numerous planetary spacecraft missions, etc. The instability analysis methodology developed in this SBIR project can also be applied to high-speed combustion devices such as ramjet and scramjet engines, as the method combines the key advantages of both sufficiently detailed CFD analysis and accurate system-level modeling paradigm. In this respect, the tool will be useful to NASA's Hypersonics Program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The tool developed will also be useful to a number of industries, including gas turbine manufacturers for civilian energy and aviation applications. The tool will also be useful to the Air Force in the design of propulsion devices such as the engine for the Joint Strike Fighter. The software developed in this SBIR will allow cost-effective design and analysis of combustion systems. The ability to avoid combustion-driven instability and investigation of high-payoff ideas will be possible. The final product will be marketable to OEMs and designers/manufacturers of gas turbines, I.C. engines and other combustion/propulsion devices which can be affected by combustion instability. The tool will also be useful in missile propulsion system designs such as X-51, Waverider as well as Standard Missile 6 upgrades. It will also be useful in the next generation launch vehicles such as Falcon.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-9573
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Diagnostic for Reacting Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
8 Chrysler
Irvine, CA 92618-2008
(949) 553-0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Jenkins
tjenkins@metrolaserinc.com
8 Chrysler
Irvine,  CA 92618-2008
(949) 553-0688

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A diagnostic technique is proposed for measuring temperature and velocity simultaneously in a high temperature reacting flow for aiding research in propulsion. The technique involves seeding particles of a ceramic thermographic phosphor into the flow and illuminating them with two overlapping pulsed laser sheets. Laser-induced luminescence from the particles will be measured to obtain temperature from its effects on luminescence lifetime. Velocity will be obtained simultaneously from the same particles using conventional particle image velocimetry (PIV). Each of the two diagnostics will employ a separate CCD camera that captures a pair of images separated by a short delay. For the thermometry technique, pixel intensity ratios of the delayed to the undelayed images will be related to temperature via a calibration function. In the PIV technique, particle displacements between the images will be obtained using conventional interrogation window techniques with cross-correlation. The proposed diagnostic is expected to enable spatially and temporally correlated measurements of two key variables in combustion modeling that cannot be obtained in most high temperatures flows using currently available methods. The phase I effort will demonstrate feasibility measurements in a flame.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology would benefit NASA in the development of future air-breathing aerospace vehicles by providing an experimental way to verify models of turbulent reacting flow. Cross correlations of velocity and temperature are fundamental to physics based models of combustion processes, yet very little experimental data of this nature currently exists. This diagnostic should enable experimental investigations of combustors and combustion rigs that should help advance development in the areas of extremely-low-emission engines, propulsion control and engine health management, and modeling and simulation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A diagnostic for simultaneously measuring temperature and velocity in a high temperature reacting flow does not currently exist on the market and would find widespread use in combustion research. Government labs, research institutions and universities, aircraft engine manufacturers, and automobile engine manufacturers will be targeted as potential users of this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Ceramics
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-9607
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: New Combustion CFD Algorithms Designed for Rapid GPU Computations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Oluwayemisi Oluwole
oluwoleo@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 932-0270

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose development of new algorithms specifically designed to exploit the highly parallel structure of graphics processing units (GPUs) for performing the following most expensive, but parallelizable computations in combustion CFD: (1) Chemical kinetics source term (including Jacobian matrix) evaluation; (2) Transport property evaluations; and (3) Matrix factorizations and inversions. The algorithms developed in this work will be implemented as software modules that can be easily interfaced with arbitrary CFD solvers for rapid computations using GPUs. A user guide will be delivered with directions for coupling the provided algorithms with users' CFD programs. Phase I work will demonstrate the computational acceleration achieved using the preliminary algorithms; and Phase II work will optimize the algorithms for improved performance and implement the algorithms as well-documented, distributable software modules as described above. This work will significantly increase the predictive capability of combustion CFD simulations by enabling efficient application of much larger chemistry models (which is essential, but currently prohibitively expensive) for accurately modeling the combustion of practical fuels.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The GPU algorithms developed in this work will complement NASA's combustion research. These new algorithms can be interfaced with NASA's in-house combustion CFD tools such as the National Combustion Code (NCC), to greatly facilitate modeling of combustion phenomena relevant for analysis of, for instance, gas-turbine engines. Specifically, NASA's capabilities for modeling emissions performance of gas turbine combustors, which requires incorporation of detailed combustion chemistry, will be greatly enhanced. Other NASA applications related to reacting flow simulations, such as rocket or aircraft propulsion or plume modeling, will also benefit from this project.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful completion of this project will also benefit a wide array of industrial and government customers outside NASA whose efforts involve combustion CFD. Customers in automobile and aircraft engine companies, petrochemical companies and energy companies could take advantage of the GPU algorithms to enhance their combustion CFD capabilities for engine design or process optimization. DOE, DOD and NOAA researchers could also utilize these algorithms for a wide range of applications, including combustion modeling, propellant and alloy formation, or atmospheric and air pollution modeling.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Surface Propulsion
Development Environments
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-9629
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Thermal Soot Denuder

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhenhong Yu
zyu@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 932-0265

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a non-thermal soot denuder for measuring chemical components of the nucleation mode particulate matter emissions from gas turbine engines, in combination with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). This proposed approach will effectively eliminate the contribution of soot particles to the AMS-measured volatile PM mass spectrum. It is capable of identifying the semi-volatile composition of the nucleation mode particles based on their characteristic mass spectra and also determining the particle size distribution in aerodynamic diameter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA need for this technology is in its research programs to monitor nucleation mode particulate emissions from aircraft engines. In addition to AMS, other particle measurement instruments with an aerodynamic lens such as Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), which NASA has used in its previous field missions, can also be integrated with the proposed soot denuder to monitor soot particles without the influence of non-refractory coating.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposed apparatus can be easily transferred from a soot denuder into a non-thermal nanoparticle purifier and could become a continuous and environment-friendly method to purify and size-select the desired nanoparticles in the same time. Such technique would have a great impact on the mass production of high-quality nanoparticles. The material and operational cost of this instrument is so low that there is little financial burdening to add it to the current available nanoparticle synthesis scheme.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Characterization
Nanomaterials
Emitters
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-9653
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermally Stable Catalytic Combustors for Very High Altitude Airbreathing Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(617) 500-0536

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. James Sisco
jsisco@aurora.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-4835

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aerospace vehicles operating at high altitudes have the potential to be less expensive and more versatile alternatives to space based systems for earth/space science, communications, and surveillance. However, the operational flexibility of these vehicles is limited by the performance of the propulsion system. In gas turbine systems low temperatures and pressures at the combustor inlet are of concern for combustion stability and efficiency at high altitudes. The overall objective of the proposed work is to assess the feasibility of developing a high performance airbreathing combustor for hydrogen-fueled very high altitude aircraft by promoting stable combustion using thermally stable catalytic reactor technology. Our combustor concept baselines the use of strontium-substituted hexaaluminate catalyst supports, which are resilient to temperatures greater than 1500 K. In Phase I an active catalyst that provides high reactivity with hydrogen at representative conditions will be identified through laboratory testing. An empirical model of catalyst reactivity will be developed and integrated with a reactor model to produce a conceptual design of a full scale combustor for a defined very high altitude gas turbine system. The catalytic rector that will be developed through this effort represents a new, enabling technology that will dramatically increase the flexibility of aerospace vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has shown recent interest in the use of hydrogen fuel as a means of substantially reducing the carbon emissions from commercial aircraft. A potential problem with a hydrogen-based system is that nitrogen oxides emissions may be difficult to control. The thermally stable catalytic combustor technology that will be developed through this effort may provide an approach to control the NOx emissions from a hydrogen-based aircraft platform. In addition, this technology provides a capability to extend the operating range of hydrogen-based gas turbine based propulsion systems to very high altitudes that may enable new aircraft platforms for earth and atmospheric science initiatives at NASA. Additionally, this catalyst technology could find use in other systems of interest to NASA that operate at high altitudes, such as supersonic/hypersonic vehicles or balloon-based systems, and may require additional thrust, power, or a high heat source.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed thermally stable catalytic combustor technology is a key to providing combustion stability in hydrogen-based gas turbine based propulsion systems operating at very high altitudes. Such propulsion systems are critical to a multitude of missions employing unmanned aerial vehicles. These systems are of significant interest to the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). In addition, this technology may have potential to provide emissions reduction in stationary gas turbine systems used for power generation. This is of interest to the U. S. Department of Energy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-9922
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Generalized Software Toolkit for Portable GPU-Enabled Chemistry Acceleration in CFD Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrea Zambon
azambon@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Rd.
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current combustor design simulations aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving fuel-lean combustion have entailed using large amounts of dedicated CPU resources for extended time periods due to the expense of solving detailed, strongly-coupled, chemical kinetic models. Such models are inherently data parallel, and much faster solutions can be obtained using low-cost graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware without loss of accuracy. This proposal describes development of a user-friendly software toolkit that facilitates implementing detailed or reduced fuel chemistry solvers directly onto GPUs to substantially accelerate CFD simulation runtimes. The approach is significant because it provides a cost-effective path to substantially reduce the wall-clock times currently bottlenecking high-fidelity combustion simulations. It accommodates the incorporation of self-contained, real fuel kinetic mechanisms and validated chemistry solvers, written using standard GPU-recognized program language extensions such as CUDA and OpenCL, for use in CFD analyses with minimal end-user code modifications. Using inputs that are Chemkin-format compatible, the proposed software toolkit will generate portable, GPU-enabled kernels that can be directly compiled into existing CFD codes, such as the National Combustion Code (NCC), to accelerate detailed combustion simulations for improved design support.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This product directly supports NASA's goal of significantly improving air-breathing engine designs to increase combustion efficiency and yield cleaner exhaust emissions. Reaching this goal requires use of CFD-based parametric design studies with validated, extended chemical kinetic mechanisms capable of critically evaluating design concepts affecting ignition sensitivities and combustion stability. The end-product will provide the necessary automation and acceleration capabilities needed to readily model real fuels such as JP-8 and JP-10 and support design decisions with practical turnaround times. Our work will directly integrate with ongoing NASA activities improving runtime performance and accuracy of the National Combustion Code. Additionally, this product is readily extensible for use in hydrocarbon scramjet combustion applications, where modeling of critical kinetic pathways is needed to assess ignition and flameholding sensitivities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial market for this computational framework is large and encompasses the broad markets of gas turbine combustor and rocket fuel injector designers. Marketing to HCCI/diesel/internal combustion engine manufacturers and other industrial applications, e.g., incinerators and furnaces are also of interest since they depend on efficient and accurate flowfield predictions to evaluate concepts with promise of cleaner emissions and robust combustion dynamics. Difficulties can arise in both implementing a detailed kinetic model in a standard CFD code and in obtaining a solution involving potentially dozens of species and hundreds of reactions within a reasonable timeframe. The product of this SBIR effort directly targets this market with provision of user-friendly, GPU-accelerated routines that address this need. In addition, there is a strong need for faster solution times in varied DoD programs supporting scramjets, pulse-detonation engines, augmentors, and missile plume IR signatures that the end-product can readily support.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.03-8233
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Element Method for Compsoite Structures Subjected to Boundary Layer Loading

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Comet Technology Corporation
3830 Packard, Suite 110
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2051
(734) 973-1600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
S. Raveendra
rraveendra@cometacoustics.com
3830 Packard, Suite 110
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2051
(734) 239-5757

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In many situations, aerospace structures are subjected to a wide frequency spectrum of mechanical and/or acoustic excitations and therefore, there is a need for the development of numerical modeling techniques that are applicable for the resolution of dynamic response of complex systems spanning the entire frequency spectrum. Further, the modeling of composite structures becomes more and more important since many new vehicle designs incorporate increased amount of composite structural components due to weight specific advantages of composites. Thus, we propose to develop techniques that will allow the prediction of noise in the interior of an enclosure such as aircraft due to the transmission of turbulent boundary layer loading in the presence of composite structural components. This innovative Hybrid Element Method (HEM) solution tool for mid-frequency analysis, which utilizes elements of DEA, together with conventional low frequency FEM tools and high frequency EFEM tools, will provide a unified framework that is applicable for the solution of full frequency spectrum vibroacoustic prediction of nonuniform aerospace structures including metallic/composite configurations, accurately and efficiently.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of space vehicles and space stations requires the prediction of vibration levels to asses the fatigue life of critical components and noise levels to assess the comfort and functionality levels of crew members. The software product developed as part of the proposed project will enable NASA to effectively evaluate and apply noise and vibration control procedures spanning the entire frequency spectrum. It will also substantially reduce the effort involved in the design of products since the proposed development is based on finite element method that is already used extensively for low frequency noise and vibration analysis. Since low frequency (FEM), mid frequency (HEM) and high frequency (EFEM) analyses can be performed using mostly the same database, the modeling effort associated will be substantially reduced. The software will also enhance NASA's ability to evaluate the acoustic environment and resulting vibration in the payload bay of launch vehicle, diffuse sound field excitation on payloads during rocket launch and ground qualification, and structural integrity of airframe. Manufacturers of aircraft engines and components will also find the software useful for analysis and design.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed development will extend and enhance the computational modeling capabilities in many industries such as automotive, naval, heavy equipment and consumer products. Customers equate quality of a product with the sound the product makes. As a result of elevated demand for quieter products from customers together with the increased government regulations, manufactures of products with noise problem in all industries are searching for effective ways to make products with improved noise characteristics. For example, in automotive industry, the increased use of multi-media and telemetric devices demands quieter vehicle interiors and the manufactures and suppliers of interior products not only need to consider functionality, but also the noise control capability of the products. Consequently, there is increasing demand for tools based on computer simulation that can be used to guide design at the early design stage. In addition to interior noise prediction and optimization, the software can be adapted to evaluate and improve radiated noise from engines, exhaust, tires, etc. It can be used to evaluate and improve consumer products such as compressors, air conditioners, hairdryers, vacuum cleaners, and washing machines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Composites
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.03-8991
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Interior Acoustic Analysis for Early Use in Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Engineering Services, LLC
2890 Carpenter Road, Suite 1900
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1100
(734) 358-0792

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim He
jim_he@miengsrv.com
2890 Carpenter Road, Suite 1900
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1100
(734) 477-5710

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The design of an aircraft is a highly iterative process. During the conceptual design phase there is no time for developing detailed simulation models and decisions are typically made either by using low fidelity models or existing data and regression models. However, the decisions made during the conceptual design phase greatly affect the performance of the aircraft and the associated cost, and typically the majority of the cost is locked during very early stages of the design process. Usually the sound insulation requirements of a passenger cabin are met after the outer mold line of the aircraft and the design of the fuselage structure have been completed and this approach adds weight to the design. Ideally the structural-acoustic concerns should enter the design cycle early and be considered along with other main design disciplines. During the early design stages of an aircraft the interior noise performance of different fuselage configurations must be evaluated based on the following information: length, cross sectional stations as a function of longitudinal location, main interior arrangements, spacing and size of stiffeners and stringers, thickness and material properties of insulation blankets, thickness and material properties of the fuselage and of the trim panels, and the type of acoustic treatment placed in the interior. The acoustic performance expressed in terms of noise reduction comprises the metric for assessing the aircraft performance for interior noise considerations. The proposed project will develop an easy to use, physics based, computational capability that can provide fast an assessment for the interior noise of either conventional or novel aircraft during the early stages of the design process. It will also allow engaging information from multi-scale simulations for designing quiet composite materials with increased damping and reduced radiation efficiency characteristics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural-acoustic concerns are present in aircraft structures, launch vehicles, and spacecraft, since they are directly related with occupant comfort and noise induced vibration on payloads and electronic equipment. In all of these areas decisions made early in the design are critical for the performance and the cost of the system. Currently, structural-acoustic concerns are typically addressed late in the design cycle when the structural configuration has been finalized. Bringing structural acoustic simulations early in the design cycle will offer cost and weight savings. Therefore, the proposed developments will be useful to all NASA groups interested in reducing weight and cost when designing aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Interior noise concerns are present in civil aircraft design since the structural-acoustic performance is directly related with the perceived product quality and the occupant comfort. Currently, structural-acoustic concerns are typically addressed late in the design cycle when the structural configuration has been finalized. Therefore bringing structural acoustic simulations early in the design cycle will offer cost and weight savings. Thus, there is a great market potential for the outcome of this SBIR in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The proposed development fits well the business activities of the proposing firm in the area of computational structural-acoustics and in product design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Composites
Metallics
Polymers
Textiles
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.03-9030
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of Wavelet Stochastic Estimation for Identifying the Contribution of Turbulent Structures to the Sound Field of Shear Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
spgogineni@gmail.com
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fundamental understanding of noise generation and the development of noise reduction technology requires the development of tools that can analyze simultaneously the relationship between the turbulent flow field and the pressure field both near and far. In this proposal we will demonstrate how Wavelet Stochastic Estimation (WSE) is the most optimal method for correlating the source region to the sound field when using a microphone array and Particle Image Velocimetry. WSE first transforms the far-field pressure signal into the wavelet domain which then enables both temporal and frequency information to be correlated with the flow field. By adding the frequency information to the correlations, it becomes easier to extract the contribution from the large-scale structures and thus relate their dynamics to noise generation. We also demonstrate how WSE can be used with flow structure identification methods, such as the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), to further improve the link between the sound field and the turbulent flow field. The proposed technology supports the Fundamental Aeronautics Program by improving noise prediction and measurement methods. The technology will be available for both subsonic and supersonic vehicles, with particular emphasis on noise sources generated from shear flows.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Wavelet Stochastic Estimation method has the ability to support the Fundamental Aeronautics Program by improving noise prediction and measurement methods for subsonic and supersonic vehicles, including jet, and airframe noise sources. We particularly address the need for innovative source identification techniques for engine (e.g., fan, jet, combustor, or turbine noise) and for airframe (e.g., landing gear, high lift systems) noise sources, including turbulence details related to flow-induced noise typical of jets, separated flow regions, vortices, shear layers, etc. The Wavelet Stochastic Estimation method for source identification will be demonstrated in a shear flow surrounding an exhausting subsonic jet. However, the method is directly applicable to any flow-induced noise since the sources for jets, separated flows, vortices and shear layers can all be measured using PIV and their sound fields can be measured using microphone arrays. We also believe the development of the current tools could expand into the structures community since the transfer of vibrations would use the same concept as the transfer of sound.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wavelet Stochastic Estimation is an analytical tool for optimizing the transfer function from one set of data to a second set of data. For acoustics, the first set of data is often the source field and the second set of data is the sound field. However, any application looking to understand the transfer of data from one region to another would find application with Stochastic Estimation. Also, using our advanced technique would add the benefit of including frequency information in this understanding. Using Stochastic Estimation for relating the turbulent structures in a shear layer to the radiate sound would find non-NASA commercial applications with GE Aviation and GE Global Research, Boeing, Air Force, and NAVY to name a few. The ability to use this method with both experimental and computational databases further demonstrates the flexibility and feasibility of this product. Validation of computational databases with experimental databases is often done with time-averaged quantities. The WSE method could be used to compare the large-scale dynamics captured in a computational database to an experimental database.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.03-9097
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Implicit Higher Order Temporal Differencing for Aeroacoustic and CFD Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Dionne
sxh@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal presents a stand-alone implicit high order temporal differencing solver concept that will interface with research and commercial numerical analysis codes to provide unlimited temporal accuracy. While the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) market has mature products that solve a large portion of problems faced by practicing engineers, these tools are often inadequate for fast transient, multi-scale numerical problems such as highly resolved turbulence, vortex shedding and combustion instability where rapid, small scale local phenomena can be overwhelmed by numerical dissipation. Many research and commercial solvers perform sufficient spatial resolution, but use insufficient explicit or low order implicit temporal resolution. Higher order explicit temporal schemes are not always feasible when modeling turbulence, can be severely limited by the time step size, and are less efficient than even low-order implicit methods. In the proposed Phase I effort, a previously developed high order implicit time integration formulation, tested up to 11th order accuracy, will be extracted from an existing solver and interfaced with an independent finite-volume solver to prove the feasibility of providing decoupled time integration for existing numerical codes. In Phase II, the time integration formulation will be implemented in a software framework and tested with readily available, popular numerical codes

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many NASA scientists and engineers are involved in the development and use of advanced numerical analysis codes for applications in physics, engineering, biotechnology, etc. This project will develop and deliver a tool for incorporating implicit higher order differencing into these computational codes, allowing high order temporal solutions without developing a new solver. Potential CFD applications include acoustics, combustion (including combustion instability), and turbulence.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Scientists and engineers in a wide range of physical disciplines, such as mechanics, medicine, physical cosmology, nano-technology, etc., employ transient computational analysis to solve governing equations that are too difficult to solve analytically. Many of these computational disciplines require accurate transient analyses. The temporal differencing solver developed in this project will serve as an important aid for these researchers to obtain high temporal accuracy with a reasonable amount of computational effort.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.03-9826
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Fidelity Simulation of Jet Noise Emissions from Rectangular Nozzles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neeraj Sinha
sinha@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Rd.
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR Phase I & II programs will lead to the validation of a state-of-the-art Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model, coupled with a Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) farfield acoustic solver, for supporting the development of advanced engine concepts, including innovative flow control strategies for attenuation of their jet noise emissions. The LES/FW-H model will be simultaneously validated against matched sets of flowfield and companion acoustic data acquired recently at NASA/GRC for round nozzles. The flowfield validation will include detailed comparisons against imagery, mean flow measurements and turbulence statistics. The end-to-end capability of the LES/FW-H noise prediction model will also be demonstrated by applying it to high aspect-ratio rectangular nozzle designs, proposed for testing at NASA GRC under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. This critical validation will provide the foundation for proceeding to application of this innovative methodology in supporting the design and optimization of control concepts, e.g. chevrons, slot jets, fluidic chevrons, etc., as well as ultimately performing predictions of noise emissions from full-scale, realistic nozzles with complex exhaust flowpaths, airframe/propulsive jet interactions, etc.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The research proposed is of direct relevance to NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, with its focus on development of supersonic commercial flight, while meeting current and future noise certification levels. In parallel with airframe design for supersonic flight, advanced propulsion concepts are also under development, with non-axisymmetric, rectangular nozzle designs that incorporate noise control concepts. The engines that will be used with these aircrafts require significant advances in noise control technology an undertaking for which high-fidelity LES modeling will prove crucial in providing insight into physics and also complementing laboratory tests. The validated model will support NASA's upcoming tests of scale-model single or dual rectangular nozzles, as well as nozzles with chevrons and bevels. The same high-aspect ratio rectangular nozzles are also of interest to the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research is directly applicable to the US Navy's development of noise suppression technology for the F/A-18 E/F and JSF/F-35B programs. The F/A-18 E/F program office is currently engaged in development of retrofits for the General Electric F414-400 engine that entail the replacement of their nozzle seals with a new design of seals which feature chevron extensions at the trailing-edge. Comparable modifications are also being considered for the General Electric F404-400 engine for the F/A-18 C/D aircraft. Over the longer-term, the Navy's focus is shifting towards advanced suppressions concepts beyond chevrons, etc. for next-generation propulsion systems, where high-fidelity modeling will be crucial in supporting technology development. The proposed technology also has applicability in the automobile industry. Although significant resources are being spent in reducing noise from vortex shedding from side-view mirrors, the efforts are presently hindered by the absence of high fidelity predictive tools.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.04-8137
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Fidelity Computational and Wind Tunnel Models in Support of Certification Airworthiness of Control Surfaces with Freeplay and Other Nonlinear Features

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Dynamics, Inc.
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington, KY 40511-1627
(859) 699-0441

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Hu
patrick.g.hu@advanceddynamics-usa.com
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington,  KY 40511-1627
(859) 699-0441

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work will establish high fidelity computational methods and wind tunnel test model in support of new freeplay criteria for the design, construction and controlled actuation of control surfaces with varying amounts of freeplay and their aeroelastic response. These methods will be validated with wind tunnel and flight test data. In Phase I a nonlinear computational aeroservoelastic methodology will be developed for freeplay induced flutter/LCO and gust response. Validation will be achieved by comparisons with legacy and new wind tunnel test data. In Phase II the methodology will be generalized to create a mature software capability for closed-loop aeroelastic systems in the trimmed/untrimmed state including gust, stick or random aeroacoustic excitations. An all movable tail wing wind tunnel test article will be designed and built with variable freeplay with initial test evaluation completed in Phase I and a thorough parameter variation data set and will be developed in Phase II for computational code validation in Phase II. Subject to available funding constraints both high speed transonic as well as subsonic will tunnel tests will be undertaken. In Phase III the computational methodology in combination wind tunnel test results will be used to support the improvement of the current FAA and/or MIL-SPEC freeplay aeroelastic response criteria. Following the successful demonstration and validation of the new computational methods, the methodology will be proposed for adoption by FAA for commercial applications and the DOD for military applications with the expectation that all major civilian and military aerospace industries will adopt the design/analysis methodology for freeplay induced LCO/flutter prevention.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Free-play induced flutter/LCO is critical for design of both civil and fighter plans, the direct application of this SBIR effort to the current interest to NASA represents a prime opportunity for further product development and enhancement and represents a considerable potential revenue stream in engineering support, plus further technology acquisition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA potential applications represent a major sector from which sales opportunities can be pursued. Improvement of analysis and design methods for freeplay-induced flutter and LCO of an aeroelastic system is a common interest for wide range of aerospace and ocean as well as general engineering applications and, thus is highly demanded. Therefore, the US industrial companies, including various aerospace & ocean as well as general engineering companies such as Boeing, Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, General Dynamics, Lockheed Martin,Textron, and others, will be the major non-military potential customers that we will aggressively pursue.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.04-9207
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifidelity Robust Aeroelastic Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nielsen Engineering & Research, Inc.
2700 Augustine Drive, Suite 200
Santa Clara, CA 94054-2927
(408) 727-9457

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Reisenthel
phr@nearinc.com
2700 Augustine Drive, Suite 200
Santa Clara,  CA 94054-2927
(408) 727-9457

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) proposes a new method to generate mathematical models of wind-tunnel models and flight vehicles for robust aeroelastic analysis and design. These models provide a unified description applicable to CFD steady and unsteady aerodynamics, reduced-order CFD approaches, flexible structures and active control systems, and can accommodate probabilistic aerodynamics and aeroelastics. NEAR's offering is based on probabilistic metamodels which are supported by analyses and data at all available levels of fidelity and which are dynamically updated based on multifidelity expected improvement concepts. The proposed software will help reduce the design and life-cycle cost of next-generation high-efficiency flight vehicle systems and revolutionary aerospace vehicles, and will help attain better aeroelastic designs, by providing a better understanding of how the design variables interact and affect each other under the influence of uncertainty, and by incorporating these interactions early in the design to reduce risk.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research and development will result in new multifidelity design methods which leverage efficient low-fidelity models. These methods will enable the use of high-fidelity analyses in highly integrated aeroelastic designs of unconventional airframes and new structural and propulsion concepts requiring system-wide cross disciplinary integration. The proposed technology applies to aerospace vehicles in the subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic speed regimes, and will help NASA reach its goal of ensuring long-term investments and fundamental research in relevant emerging fields that can be integrated into system-level, multidisciplinary capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A diverse range of application examples exists where the proposed technology could be beneficial. These include defense applications related to flight vehicles design such as UAVs/UCAVs, but also next generation energy-efficient automobile design, wind turbines, hydroelasticity, civil and earthquake engineering, and, in general, any design application that involves multiple disciplines, may involve time-dependent responses, and is amenable to multifidelity modeling.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Characterization
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support
Data Fusion
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.04-9273
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Towards Better Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Aeroelasticity On and Beyond Transonic Regimes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Dynamics, Inc.
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington, KY 40511-1627
(859) 699-0441

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Hu
patrick.g.hu@advanceddynamics-usa.com
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington,  KY 40511-1627
(859) 699-0441

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The need to accurately predict aeroelastic phenomenon for a wide range of Mach numbers is a critical step in the design process of any aerospace vehicle. Complex aerodynamic phenomenon such as vortex shedding, shock-turbulence interaction, separation, etc. dominate at transonic and supersonic Mach numbers and hence the need to address these phenomena is of utmost importance in the modeling process. Research is proposed for the development and implementation of state of the art, large-eddy-simulation (LES) based computational models for problems in nonlinear aeroelasticity. Highly efficient and accurate subgrid-scale (SGS) models will be incorporated into the flow solver and coupled with high fidelity structure solvers to predict aeroelastic phenomena such as transonic flutter, limit cycle oscillations, etc. The SGS models proposed are based on eddy-viscosity and non-eddy-viscosity models and they will both be assessed for accuracy and robustness in the context of nonlinear aeroelasticity. The implications of the proposed work include using highly accurate turbulence models with efficient finite element models of structure to solve problems in nonlinear aeroelasticity. The application of the proposed innovations spans the range of flight, from subsonic to supersonic transport vehicles. Anticipated results include 1) the implementation of the proposed LES methodology into current aeroelastic toolset 2) application of the proposed work to large-scale simulation and comparison with experiment and lower fidelity RANS-based aeroelastic simulations and 3) advancement of the state of knowledge for nonlinear problems in aeroelasticity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Installation of a prototype device in air vehicles to suppress transonic flutter and LCO and extend the flight envelope is highly demanded for safely operating civil as well as military aircrafts. The direct application of the SBIR effort to the current needs of NASA represents a prime opportunity for further product development and enhancement and represents a considerable potential revenue stream in engineering support, plus further technology acquisition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improvement of physics-based identification, modeling and risk management of (transonic) flutter and limit-cycle oscillations of an aeroelastic system is a common interest for wide range of engineering applications and, thus is highly demanded. It will be demonstrated that the proposed methodologies have great potential for enhancing the physics-based identification, modeling and risk management of flutter and limit-cycle oscillations of an aeroelastic system. DoD components likely to have interests in the technology developed in this SBIR project are the US Air Force, Navy and Army. The US industrial companies, including various aerospace & ocean as well as general engineering companies such as Boeing, Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, General Dynamics, Lockheed Martin and Textron, will be the major non-military potential customers. In addition, the corresponding industrial companies in Europe and Asia represent a very large marketing share of the resulting methods and technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Structures
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.04-9797
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Prediction of Unsteady Transonic Aerodynamics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AYCN LLC
1644 Clay Drive
Los Altos, CA 94024-6251
(650) 964-9956

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Nixon
davidnixon@sbcglobal.net
1644 Clay Drive
Los Altos,  CA 94024-6251
(650) 964-9956

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An accurate prediction of aero-elastic effects depends on an accurate prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic forces. Perhaps the most difficult speed regime is transonic where the motion of the shock wave and its interaction with the boundary layer are dominant factors. In spite of over 40 years research into the computation of unsteady transonic aerodynamics there still appear to be areas where available technology is inadequate. A research axiom is that if a particular viewpoint fails to resolve an issue then the problem should be viewed differently. The research proposed here is to re-examine some issues in unsteady transonic aerodynamics using some recent theoretical developments. All aspects of unsteady transonic flow, including limit cycles and control strategies will be considered.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation will help NASA to achieve its goals for improving the competitiveness of national aerospace industry by introducing a more comprehensive understanding of unsteady transonic aerodynamics into NASA software. New concepts for control of the characteristic shock wave boundary layer interaction may significantly improve the efficiency air vehicles flying at transonic speeds.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation will help the national aerospace industry and the Defense Department by enabling the development of more comprehensive software. New concepts for control of the characteristic shock wave boundary layer interaction may significantly improve the efficiency of air vehicles flying at transonic speeds.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.05-8711
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Shock Generation and Control Using DBD Plasma Actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Technology Applications Co.
P.O. Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006-6971
(314) 373-3311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mehul Patel
mppatel@itacllc.com
3881 E. Leo Pl.
Chandler,  AZ 85249-5879
(480) 247-6611

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions (SWBLI) pose challenges to aeronautical engineers because they create regions of adverse pressure gradients as a result of the discontinuous change in conditions across the shock. This shock-induced pressure gradient is a common factor for both flow separation in supersonic inlets and high stagnation pressure losses on transonic wings, factors which are known to reduce performance and efficiency. These affects can be corrected with appropriate forms of flow control. Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC) and University of Notre Dame (UND) propose the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) plasma actuators to control the affects of SWBLIs for two types of problems, one involving boundary layer separation and the other transonic wave drag. We propose to use plasma actuators near the region of the SWBLI to eliminate or delay the onset of separation in supersonic inlets while using plasma-based shock control methods to reduce the stagnation pressure losses on transonic airfoils. The advantages of the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuators are that they are fully electronic, contain no moving parts, surface mountable, minimally intrusive, can be turned off when not needed, and electrically re-configurable for optimal control in dynamic flow conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications for the proposed EHD/DBD plasma actuators include lift enhancement and drag reduction on aircraft wings, high angle-of-attack operation using plasma actuators as lifting devices, enhanced performance and efficiency of propulsion (S-ducts, inlets) and aerodynamic (control surfaces) systems at both on- and off-design conditions, and improved cycle efficiency of NASA's air-breathing propulsion systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications for the EHD/DBD plasma actuators include design of revolutionary subsonic and hypersonic aerospace vehicles for commercial and military (DoD) purposes, use in turbomachinery systems, noise-control on landing gears of commercial aircraft, design of smart wind turbine rotor blades, drag reduction on ground vehicles, smart helicopter rotor blades, tip-casing clearance flow control for reduced turbine losses, control of flow surge and stall in compressors, and turbulent transition control experiments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.05-9062
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Unified Gaskinetic Methodology for Full-Knudsen-Range Flows with Chemically Reacting Effects

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shuchi Yang
shuchi@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZONA proposes a Unified Gas Kinetic Scheme (UGKS) to cover the full Knudsen number range from the continuum flow to free molecular flow that can simultaneously exist in the jet nozzle flow of the spacecraft. In the UGKS solver, the BGK model of Boltzmann equation is solved directly with finite volume method based on the Discrete Ordinate Method (DOM). In the UGKS computation the convective terms and collision term is computed in one step with a multi-scale scheme without splitting. The UGKS also closely couples the update of macroscopic conservative variables with the update of microscopic gas distribution functions in one step. At the continuum flow regime, the UGKS recovers the Navier-Stokes solutions with much larger time step than regular direct BGK solver where UGKS essentially becomes a shock-capture scheme. In the rarefied flow regime, UGKS recovers the direct BGK method up to the free molecular flow. With the UGKS, the jet-like flow can be simulated with a unique flow solver. Furthermore, a two-species chemical reaction will be incorporated in UGKS. The UGKS will be applied to various test cases whose results will be validated with others' computational results and available experimental data to verify its accuracy and computational efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed Unified GasKinetic (UGKS) solver can be used for hypersonic applications from continuum to rarefied flow regimes for thermochemical nonequilibrium effects up to ionization/plasma flows and including chemical reaction. The UGKS solver can generate accurate aerodynamic forces and heat rates. Typical applications are for launch vehicles in space access, entry command module and ballutes in atmospheric entry; plume flows in chemical engines or rockets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA commercial applications are supported by aerospace and non-aerospace domains and provide industry for rarefied gas flows application with a wide range of Kn number and Mach number. Such examples for defense industry include hypersonic flows around missiles and rocket nozzles. For civil industry, UGKS applications include aerosol effects on weather prediction, materials processing inside vacuum chamber especially for the semi-conductor industry, air purification with tools made of fine fibers such as masks, and rarefied gas flows associated with MicroElectroMechanical System (MEMS) such as various gas sensors. ZONA will extend the proposed UGKS and package them into a commercial software. Potential customers include DoD, Depart. of Homeland Security, chemical and civil engineering firms, vacuum industry, and semiconductor industry, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Tools/EVA Tools
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.05-9982
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aerodynamic Modeling with Heterogeneous Data Assimilation and Uncertainty Quantification

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Clear Science Corporation
663 Owego Hill Road
Harford, NY 13784-0233
(607) 844-9171

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Henry A. Carlson
hcarlson@clearsciencecorp.com
663 Owego Hill Road
Harford,  NY 13784-0233
(607) 844-9171

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop an aerodynamic modeling tool that assimilates data from different sources and facilitates uncertainty quantification. The technical merit and feasibility of the technology will be demonstrated in Phase I through a series of verification and validation tests that utilize both computational and wind tunnel data in constructing aerodynamic models for the Orion launch abort system (LAS). Aerodynamic models provide inputs to the guidance, navigation, and control system. The proposed software will enable performance predictions over a wide range of operational conditions through the fusion of data from multiple sources including high-dimensional computational simulations, wind tunnel tests, and flight tests. The software will also facilitate uncertainty analyses to determine the propagation of variability in inputs into output variability and sensitivity analyses to identify critical design and modeling parameters and operational variables. Complex systems like the LAS are designed with a mixture of heterogeneous data, and uncertainties in the data can be a critical factor in evaluating designs. The objective is to develop assimilation methods that reduce the number of expensive wind tunnel tests and CFD simulations required during system design while maintaining and improving the quality of aerodynamic models and systematically assessing uncertainties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed software is enabling technology for the design of vehicles that fly safely through any atmosphere at any speed, a stated goal of NASA's Aeronautic Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The tool fits into ARMD's four-level approach to technology development: solving aeronautic challenges for a wide range of aerospace vehicles with modeling methods that integrate all phases of the design process: simulation, ground testing, and flight testing. The design process for aircraft and launch vehicles involves almost every engineering discipline and relies on a mixture of laboratory testing, computational modeling, and final performance evaluations. Integrating these types of analysis and testing will draw from the strength and offset the weakness of each. The software framework will be designed to ultimately interface with models and test data from all of the Fundamental Aeronautics subtopics in the SBIR solicitation, providing the conduit for synergistic development of new and fundamental technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed project will focus on aerodynamic models and launch-abort system design, but the software is applicable in numerous products both inside and outside the aerospace market. An inclusive framework will be developed to accommodate multiple disciplines in the future including aeroservoelastic, aerothermodynamic, and structural analyses. Potential applications extend to almost every industry involved in designing products that require a combination of computational analysis and experimental testing. The list includes automobiles, air and space vehicles, electronic equipment and computer hardware, manufacturing equipment, new "green" energy production platforms and nuclear power plant equipment, nanotechnology, and medical devices with a commensurately large potential market for commercialization of the software. Commercial and military applications also include entry/re-entry platforms for launching satellites, and space planes currently under development for tourism in space.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.06-8327
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Frequency Measurements in Shock-Wave/Turbulent Boundary-Layer Interaction at Duplicated Flight Conditions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tao of Systems Integration, Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5050

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arun Mangalam
arun@taosystems.us
144 Research Drive
Hampton,  VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5040

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and challenging problem for designers of hypersonic vehicles. Characterizing SWTBLI flow features, such as the size of flow separation, is important for design evaluation and CFD validation. Tao Systems and CUBRC propose to develop a wide-bandwidth, thin-film heat transfer sensor system that quantifies the high frequency SWTBLI at duplicated flight conditions. This effort combines Tao Systems' high frequency-response/high-sensitivity electronics and signal processing techniques with the unique expertise of CUBRC in high-speed, high-enthalpy flows to obtain spatiotemporal information for the development of physics-based turbulence models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In aeronautics, heat flux sensors will help meet measurement challenges in providing validation and verification of CFD codes for heat transfer. Development of reliable turbulence modeling and CFD codes depend on making precise aerothermodynamic measurements of heat flux on various test models. NASA ARMD specifically cites prediction of transition and flow separation as high-priority objectives for the future of aeronautics, and heat transfer measurements is a key tool in providing insight into the dynamics of flow phenomena in SWTBLI regions. Specific applications of interest include SWTBLI at high enthalpies (flap forces and Scramjet), laminar/turbulent transition (crossflow instability), and unsteady separated/reattaching backshell flows on capsules.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Apart from the military hypersonic applications, high-sensitivity, high-bandwidth heat transfer instrumentation would be useful for general spatiotemporally accurate measurement of temperature and heat flux. The electronics could be used for measurements in turbomachinery (turbine blades) and for pulse detonation engines. One interesting commercial application where high-temperature heat flux measurement would be useful is fuel cell research, in which spatiotemporal heat flux is critical for performance evaluation. Another application is fire monitoring/control. As an example, it would be useful for naval ships to monitor the heat flux from weapons systems to adjoining areas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Fire Protection
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Conversion
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Ablative Propulsion
Atmospheric Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Thermal
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Active Systems
Passive Systems
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.06-8550
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computations of Separated High-Enthalpy Hypersonic Flows: Development of RANS and Variable-Resolution PANS Approaches

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frendi Research Corporation
7561 Wall Triana Highway
Madison, AL 35757-8327
(256) 679-2662

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kader Frendi
kfrendi@knology.net
7561 Wall Triana Hwy
Madison,  AL 35757-7418
(256) 679-2662

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the development of a high fidelity computational approach for unsteady calculations of strongly separated non-equilibrium high-enthalpy hypersonic flows. The goal is to integrate the now proven partially-averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) method for unsteady flow simulations with the most advanced closure models for compressibility, high-enthalpy (flow - thermodynamics coupling) and non-equilibrium (flow - chemistry coupling) effects. The PANS model has been established as a reliable model for computing separation in low and high speed regimes in two recently conclude NASA NRA projects -- 1. RANS and PANS modeling of hypersonic turbulent mixing environment; 2. Modeling of strongly separated flows with the PANS bridging method. The current proposal is to incorporate further hypersonic effect closures into PANS. Physics-based closure models for flow-thermochemistry interactions have been under development in Girimaji's group at Texas A&M under AFOSR MURI funding -- Transition and Turbulence modeling in non-thermochemical-equilibrium hypersonic flows. Important closure model building blocks for hypersonic processes are now available from the above fundamental research efforts. The combination of PANS and these advanced high-speed models will lead to a unique capability for computing hypersonic flow separation with ablation, chemistry and compressibility effects. For Phase I, we propose a logical sequence of verification-validation computations to demonstrate the potential of the various individual closures in separated high-speed high-enthalpy flows. While in-house codes are available for the proposed development, we will also consider using any of the NASA codes: USM3D, OVERFLOW, VULCAN or any of the other codes suggested by the grantor. Subsequent work (Phase II) will focus on the assembly of the individual components and development of an unique high-fidelity computational capability for hypersonic vehicle design, testing and development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed method will lead to a state-of-the-art computational design tool for hypersonic flows with high-enthalpy, ablation and chemistry effects for internal and external flows. Aspects of the method have already been implemented in some NASA codes USM3D and PAB3D. The new capabilities can also be easily incorporated into other codes such as VULCAN, WING, OVERFLOW etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The approach developed here is of great interest in investigations of explosions (DoD), high-speed projectiles and missiles (Air Force, Army), shock and blast waves. An important component of the approach PANS is already available in the commercial code AVL FIRE version 8.31. It is being used by designers for internal combustion engine flows.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.06-8769
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Order Accuracy Computational Tool for Unsteady Turbulent Flows and Acoustics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frendi Research Corporation
7561 Wall Triana Highway
Madison, AL 35757-8327
(256) 679-2662

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kader Frendi
kfrendi@knology.net
7561 Wall Triana Hwy
Madison,  AL 35757-8327
(256) 679-2662

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The main objective of this research effort is to develop a higher order unsteady turbulent flow solver based on the FDV method, and to exploit its attributes of spanning the whole Mach number range. The well known advantages of the implicit FEM will be inherited along with robust boundary conditions implementation and sound mathematical bases. Efficient parallelization, using MPI through domain decomposition and EBE solution, and supporting unstructured grids will make this effort a long-term investment tool, since all these gained advantages are desirable in virtually every NASA aerodynamics application. To this end, modularization of the in-house developed computer code will be extended to support higher order elements, namely; quadratic, cubic, and eventually spectral elements. The developed higher order code will be tested at various flow conditions starting from the incompressible limit to high supersonics, and including subsonics and transonics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed new tool will allow NASA engineers to perform computations on any complex geometry and for flow regimes spanning the entire Mach number spectrum, from incompressible to the hypersonic regimes. An attractive feature of the new tool is the high order of accuracy of the numerical methods used. These methods are becoming necessary to resolve unsteady turbulent flows and especially acoustic radiation. The later problem is becoming the engineering challenge of the 21st century; i.e. noise source identification and control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similar to NASA, the aerospace industry is in urgent need for such accurate tools that can handle unsteady turbulent flow problems. Existing commercial codes have very low accuracy that one needs to use very large grids to resolve complex problems. With high order methods one can use much smaller grids to accurately capture complex physics such as turbulence and acoustics. This will allow small and large companies to refine their designs and come up with better products that can compete effectively in the market place. The computational tool is not limited to aerospace applications alone but will serve a large spectrum of industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Fluids
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.06-8842
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plasma Sensor for High Bandwidth Mass-Flow Measurements at High Mach Numbers with RF Link

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
spgogineni@gmail.com
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposal is aimed at the development of a miniature high bandwidth (1 MHz class) plasma sensor for flow measurements at high enthalpies. This device uses a plasma discharge between two encapsulated electrodes as the primary sensing element to measure various flow parameters including mass flow. The advantages of the plasma sensor are that it requires no frequency compensation up to its A.C. carrier frequency, has an amplitude-modulated output that has excellent common-mode rejection with a signal-to-noise ratio that is much better than a hot-wire, is robust with no sensor element to break, can have a small spatial volume, and is insensitive to temperature variations making calibration easier than thermal-based sensors. This sensor has applications for measurements in gas-turbine machinery, shock tubes, shock-boundary layer experiments, high-enthalpy hypersonic flows, and in plasma-laden flows such as on reentry vehicles. The output from the sensor is wirelessly transmitted and can be remotely demodulated and converted into the constituent mean and fluctuating components. The proposed effort is designed to advance and expand the capabilities of the plasma sensor for high Mach number flows.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed program is designed to add a robust sensing capability to NASA's mission of research and development in hypersonic and high-enthalpy flow environments, with particular emphasis on mass-ow measurements in a small-measurement volume. This sensor addresses NASA's need to reduce uncertainty and to improve predictive capabilities in boundary layer transition, shock boundary-layer interactions, and other flow conditions involving high enthalpies, temperature gradients, radiative heating or other forms of aerothermal stresses. This technology will support on-going research in the design of scramjet vehicles, improve rotating turbomachinery performance, and the development and validation of transition and turbulence models in both CFD and experiment. It has particular benefit as a laboratory sensor and will provide a turn-key solution to research in high-enthalpy flows.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed program is designed to provide the aerospace industry with a new class of robust sensors that use plasma as the main sensing element. This technology addresses shortcomings in sensing that limits the ability to measure flow quantities in environments characterized by high enthalpy, Mach number, or aerothermal gradients, particularly in the case where high-bandwidth or small volume measurements are required. The plasma sensor provides the ability to obtain feedback in the hot sections of gas-turbines, which is critical to improving their performance and efficiency. Engine manufacturers are limited by current approaches using optical techniques such as laser Doppler velocimetry, which do not provide spatial or temporal resolution, or dynamic pressure sensors such as those manufactured by Kulite, which cannot provide high-temperature reliability. The plasma sensor can provide cheap and reliable sensing capability that can help to advance the state-of-the art in aeronautical engineering.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Manufacturing Methods
Ceramics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Surface Propulsion
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.06-8849
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Laser Diagnostics for Arc-Jet Facilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1529
(650) 965-7772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Doug Baer
d.baer@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop novel instrumentation based on laser absorption spectroscopy techniques for ultrasensitive measurements of atomic and molecular concentrations as well as gas temperature and velocity in high enthalpy flows. These autonomous instruments, based on high resolution laser absorption spectroscopy, will provide highly accurate, real-time quantification of several important species and thus enable the validation and refinement of numerical physical and chemical kinetic models, facilities diagnostics, and eventual development of next-generation components and propulsion systems. In Phase I, the instrument will be fabricated and tested at LGR prior to integration onto a ground-based high enthalpy test facility at NASA Ames. The system will then be refined and delivered to a NASA test site. Final Phase I work will involve developing a Phase II prototype capable of making in situ measurements of multiple parameters in aerothermodynamics test facilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The instrumentation will enable measurements of multiple gas concentrations, temperature and velocity in flowfields generated by arc jet facilities and other high enthalpy test facilities (engines, gas turbine engines, wind tunnels, engine augmentors and pulse detonation engines) operated by NASA (e.g., at SSC, Langley, ATK/GASL, AEDC, Ames) and thus enable design and testing of more efficient, reliable, less polluting engines and propulsion systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include: Industrial process diagnostics and control of electric arc furnaces, steel manufacturing, semiconductor process monitoring and control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.07-8712
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Data Concentrator for Modular and Distributed Control of Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Research, Inc.
4415 Euclid Avenue, Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103-3757
(216) 649-0399

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mike Willett
willett@orbitalresearch.com
4415 Euclid Avenue, STE 500
Cleveland,  OH 44103-3757
(216) 649-0399

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Orbital Research proposes to develop, build and test a high temperature Data Concentrator Module for use in distributed turbine engine control at high temperatures. The concentrator receives analog and digital signals related to turbine engine control and communicates with a FADEC or high level command processor. This data concentrator is follows the road map put forth by DECWG for use in creating a demonstration platform for turbine engine distributed controls communication development that operates at temperatures at least up to 225<SUP>o</SUP>C. The goal of Phase I is to develop detailed specifications for each component needed for the system, as well as to define the total system specification. This will entail a combination of system design, compiling existing component specifications, laboratory testing, and simulation. The results will show feasibility of the data concentrator. Phase II of this program is will focus on three key objectives: The first objective will be the detailed design, fabrication and testing of three new high temperature ASICs. Secondly software necessary to demonstrate operation the prototype will be developed. Finally integration of the components and software into a prototype high temperature Data Concentrator Module will be completed to demonstrate operation of the complete system in a realistic environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Multiple NASA, Defense, and Commercial applications exist for the proposed Data Concentrator module technology, the associated high temperature integrated circuits, and variant high temperature control modules. Within NASA the variants of the Data Concentrator can be incorporated into: ? Ground testing of rocket engines; ? Ground testing of turbine engines (including VAATE); ? Sensor webs and distributed sensors (non-engine); ? Highly reconfigurable sensors ? Space-related applications due to inherent radiation-hardened characteristics of SOI electronics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Defense and Commercial applications include: ? Next generation military and civilian aircraft turbine engines, including rotorcraft, UAS, and land vehicles (very large market potential); ? Down-hole drilling and geothermal drilling controls; ? Ground testing rocket and turbine engines; ? Prognostic Health Management (PHM)/Integrated System Health Management (ISHM); ? Chemical, nuclear, refinery, and process plant instrumentation ? Powertrain controls for internal combustion engines, gas or diesel (for instance an improved waste gate turbo-booster).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Actuators & Motors
Atmospheric Propulsion
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.07-9215
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aero-Effected Distributed Adaptive Control of Flexible Aircraft Using Active Bleed

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atair Aerospace, Inc
63 Flushing Avenue, Unit 262
Brooklyn , NY 11205-1077
(718) 923-1709

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anthony Calise
acalise@atairaerospace.com
8009 Woodgate Circle
Collegeville,  PA 19426-3367
(610) 539-2671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed research focuses on the development of a new adaptive control methodology for active control of wing aerodynamic shape to effect distributed aerodynamic forces and moments for maneuvering and stabilization of flexible airframes without moving control surfaces. The new aero-effected flight control will be achieved using output feedback adaptive control of distributed bleed across aerodynamic surfaces, and is particularly suited for high-altitude long endurance vehicles. The large-area air bleed is driven by the inherent pressure differences in flight across the pressure and suction wing surface, and is regulated by low-power, surface-integrated louver valves. Our previous basic research in adaptive control has stressed the ability to model and cancel the effect of uncertainty in output regulation. We also have developed methods for adaptation in the presence of nonlinear actuation, which includes such effects as actuator saturation. These tools are currently being employed in the study of active flow control using synthetic jet actuation, and will be adapted to the problems that are unique to improving aeroelastic performance and active damping of airframe-propulsion-structure interactions using distributed bleed. Phase I will focus on advancing the state of the art in output feedback adaptive control, and demonstration of the capability of aero-bleed to control the dynamic modes of a flexible lifting surface. These efforts will be integrated in Phase-II by using an adaptive controller to regulate a flexible wing flown in three degrees of freedom in a wind tunnel experiment, using an existing traverse mechanism. Another option is to use Atair Aerospace's LEAPP vehicle to flight test a highly flexible wing design. Additional Phase-II and Phase-III transition possibilities include coordinated research efforts with Boeing related to the DARPA Vulture vehicle, and/or with AeroVironment related to the Global Observer vehicle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate NASA application would be to Global Observer. This vehicle recently completed its first test flight that took it to an altitude of 4,000 feet. Ultimately Global Observer is intended to function as a high altitude long endurance vehicle. As this program progresses, active aeroelastic and vibration control could easily become an enabling technology. Adaptive output feedback control design could be added to the existing flight control system as an augmenting element to mitigate the effects of modeling error and possible failures that can occur when undergoing a long endurance flight. Active bleed control could also be explored for augmenting the existing aero and propulsive means of flight control. NASA has recently funded a variety of adaptive flight control studies under their Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control effort. To date, all of the adaptive methods that have been explored under this program assume the availability of full state feedback. Control of seroservoelastic modes implies that the full state is not available for feedback, and moreover that the full dimension of the plant is unknown. Advancements in adaptive output feedback design contemplated for this effort would ultimately address issues related to control of unmodeled dynamics as well. These advancements would also permit application of adaptive control theory to distributed and decentralized control of large and complex flexible space structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate non-NASA application would be to the DARPA Vulture vehicle. Boeing has recently been awarded a 1-year program for both sub- and full-scale conceptual vehicle design and a system requirements review. There are other department-of-defense programs that could benefit from this effort such as the Zephyr Joint Capabilities Technology demonstrator. Atair is also interested in the development of an active means of flow control for applications to their line of guided parafoils. Guided parafoil control currently makes use of electrically driven left and right servos to pull lines that are attached to strategic points on the canopy. While effective, this approach to control has a number of drawbacks that limit performance in terms of terminal accuracy. The most obvious limitation is that it does not provide a direct means of controlling glide slope. This means that guidance can only be achieved though banked turns since there is no independent means of controlling rate of descent. The proposed development of distributed bleed control could in concept replace the need for conventional servo actuation with embedded active control devices, and provide an independent means of glide slope control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.07-9372
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Engine Control Empirical/Analytical Verification Tools

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jonathan DeCastro
jonathan.decastro@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase I project, Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Prof. R.K. Yedavalli, propose a novel verification environment for eventual rapid certification of distributed engine control systems (DCS). Our approach is focused on providing a set of tools to the government and industry that will allow faster certification of the control system as new high-temperature components and control laws are developed. A distributed hardware-in-the-loop (D-HIL) simulation tool is proposed to assist NASA and the Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) to integrate DCS components onto existing and next-generation engines. The proposed D-HIL simulator consist of a thermal test chamber operated by an engine simulation which is capable of subjecting components to a range of possible transient thermal conditions seen during engine operation , while functioning as elements in the networked control loop. To aid in certification of more complex distributed engine control hardware and software, a set of analysis tools is proposed. The Global Verification Toolset makes use of global stability and bounded verification methodologies to allow stability and performance to be assessed in a systematic fashion. At the conclusion of Phase I, the new verification facility and software tools will be demonstrated in a system test using the C-MAPSS engine.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed distributed hardware-in-the-loop evaluation platform and verification software tools will enable the development of distributed aircraft propulsion control systems and flight control avionic systems. In addition to Fundamental Aeronautics, the developed tools extend to verification of flight-critical control and health management software and distributed avionics that are relevant to the Aviation Safety and Exploration Systems. Impact Technologies will position the hardware simulator for inclusion in future planned NASA/DoD-led Distributed Engine Control demonstrations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aside from commercial aviation platforms, the application arena for distributed control system V&V tools extends to Air Force engine platforms. The verification toolset will benefit fly-by-wire systems sponsored by DoD such as UAVs, UGVs, and AUVs. Interest in fault-tolerant distributed control systems spans across many industries, particularly the automotive, energy, and manufacturing systems areas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Verification/Validation Tools
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.07-9532
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: SR-CATS: A Short-Range Clear Air Turbulence Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dominique Fourguette
dfourguette@michaero.com
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the absence of any visual cues such as clouds, making it difficult to avoid. The vortices produced when atmospheric waves "break" can have diameters of 900-1200ft and tangential velocities of 70-85 ft/sec. CAT is dangerous to aircraft, recently demonstrated by United flight 967 from Washington-Dulles to Los Angeles on July 21, 2010, which encountered severe turbulence and landed in Denver with over 30 injured passengers, 21 requiring a hospital visit. Many other incidents attributed to turbulence have caused injuries or deaths to passengers and crew. Another recently-highlighted hazard is the inadequacy of current airspeed sensors on commercial aircraft. Federal investigators have reported that on at least a dozen recent flights by U.S. jetliners, malfunctioning equipment made it impossible for pilots to know how fast they were flying. Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) proposes the Short-Range Clear Air Turbulence Sensor (SR-CATS) system to detect and measure turbulence within an aircraft length ahead of the aircraft, both as a component of a predictive gust alleviation control system. The integration of the SR-CATS instrument with MAC's full air data solution (airspeed, angle of attack and angle of sideslip), a MAC technology already demonstrated in-flight, will be explored. This proposal will focus on combining these capabilities into a practical solution. MAC's direct-detection UV LIDAR technology uses molecular backscatter and so does not require aerosols, as required by many competing approaches.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SR-CATS will allow NASA aircraft the benefit of having a clear-air turbulence detection system for predictive gust alleviation control and an optical air data system in one package, suitable for general use by NASA aircraft as well as for flight research concerning clear-air turbulence and scientific studies of atmospheric processes. Ground-based uses include measuring wind speed and direction simultaneously with air temperature and density while also detecting and characterizing shear and turbulence. Potential uses include wind shear detection for space launches, wake vortices detection and characterization for airports, and climate change studies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Clear-air turbulence represents a significant safety hazard as well as passenger-comfort issue for the commercial airline industry. The proposed SR-CATS system has application not only as part of an automatic gust alleviation system, but also as an air data solution that alleviates many problems with current pitot air data. This capability also makes SR-CATS extremely attractive for military aircraft, including fixed and rotary wing, high altitude and high dynamic, manned and unmanned, and even high-altitude airships. Information on winds near aircraft, if downlinked and compiled, will also be of significant value to forecasters, especially from aircraft flying over areas (oceans, etc.) where balloon radiosonde releases and other wind measurements are sparse or non-existent. NOAA and NASA identify the lack of more comprehensive wind-profile data as a major unmet data need for improving the accuracy of weather forecasts. Inadequate atmospheric data (wind speed, direction, temperature and density) also has a significant negative impact along the entire wind energy value chain, including site assessment, operational farms, turbine control, and grid integration. Turbulence and shear are primary contributing factors to higher than expected turbine maintenance and repair costs. Finally, military applications for artillery and munitions delivery, precision airdrop, and aircraft take-off/landing on ships can benefit from SR-CATS technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.08-8332
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aircraft Structural Analysis, Design Optimization, and Manufacturing Tool Integration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Collier Research & Development Corporation
45 Diamond Hill Road
Hampton, VA 23666-6016
(757) 825-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Craig Collier
craig.collier@hypersizer.com
45 Diamond Hill Rd
Hampton,  VA 23666-6016
(757) 825-0000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 0
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Innovative research is proposed in integrating fundamental aircraft design processes with an emphasis on composite structures. Efficient, lightweight composite laminate structural design requires highly integrated structural analyses on the laminate and stiffened panel levels, while incorporating manufacturing processes and limitations. Laminate optimization is only one of the many design variables that need to be considered simultaneously in aircraft design. Yet true system level OML surface optimization is an extremely challenging problem that can only be made tractable by reducing the problem into three sequential gates: ply count compatibility, layup sequencing, and ply layout size and shape. The innovative approach proposed solves all three of these seemingly intractable gates and in so doing provides synergistic optimization of ply drops and adds and reduced manufacturing ply processing steps (drawing part numbers) along with laminate sizing to damage tolerance material allowables. To achieve the highest level of design fidelity requires iterative communication with the designer's CAD tool and ply zone mapping tools. Previous data exchange technology used by NASA to couple separate discipline design tools is the XML ASCII file format. Proposed is the evaluation and implementation of a binary format called 'HDF5'.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SBIR developed capability will be integrated into the existing commercial HyperSizer<SUP>REG</SUP> structural sizing software. HyperSizer SBIR innovations are being used on many NASA projects, most recently on the NASA Ares V Shroud and the NASA Composite Crew Module (CCM). On the NASA CCM, HyperSizer was used by the NASA team to perform structural analysis and margins-of-safety predictions for the testing. HyperSizer software was used throughout the almost three-year project to optimize the design, weight, and manufacturability of the CCM, which is constructed of honeycomb sandwich and solid laminate composites. Future potential NASA applications include the NASA Commercial Crew & Cargo Program Office (C3PO)'s Commercial Crew Transportation (CCT) capability that would be able to transport NASA astronauts and spaceflight participants safely to and from LEO and the ISS. Another is the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles, under which NASA is seeking industry input on heavy-lift system concepts and propulsion technology through a 2010 BAA. Through the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles initiative, NASA is seeking an innovative path for human space exploration that strengthens its capability to extend human and robotic presence throughout the solar system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
HyperSizer is being used by all major American aerospace companies such as Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Goodrich, Gulfstream, Bombardier, Spirit Aero, and Northrop Grumman, by NASA, Air Force, and universities. See http://hypersizer.com/corporate/customers.html. This existing customer base is ideal for SBIR innovation commercialization and has given us great success at commercializing all SBIRs performed to date. Examples of successful non-NASA commercialization already achieved serve as models for Potential Post Applications ?Boeing 787 and Airbus A350 Thrust Reversers and Engine Nacelles ?Bombardier All-Composite Learjet 85 ?Wind Blade Design for Sandia National Labs ?Composite Commercial aircraft for our existing customers Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Gulfstream, Bombardier, and Spirit Aero, and Goodrich ?Composite Commercial Launch Vehicles

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Tools/EVA Tools
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support
Ceramics
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.08-8708
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Analysis and Design Environment for Large Scale System Models and Collaborative Model Development

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Phoenix Integration
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2000
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6472
(540) 961-7215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Ragon
sragon@phoenix-int.com
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2000
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6472
(540) 961-7215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Successes to date with the use of integrated software framework tools have led NASA engineers and other researchers to expand the breadth, depth, and sophistication of the problems that they are attempting to solve. Both the utilization of "high-fidelity" physics based models ("depth") and the total number of different engineering disciplines included in system models ("breadth") have steadily increased. As model size and complexity grows, the number of engineers involved in the development and maintenance of these models is also increasing. Increases in system model size and complexity and the corresponding need for collaborative model development are beginning to stretch the limits of existing software frameworks. Large models are more difficult to build and maintain, while the inclusion of more people in the development process leads to model management and coordination issues. Enhanced and improved framework tools are required if NASA and industry are to continue to expand their modeling, simulation, and design capabilities. In this project, Phoenix Integration will develop an innovative software environment that will allow individual engineers and collaborative engineering teams to better build and manage large, complex, system models. Key elements in the solution include a new infrastructure for hierarchical model building (models within models), enhanced data linking and model verification tools, and an integrated version-controlled model and data library. These tools will combine to provide NASA engineers with a powerful and flexible environment for creating, maintaining, and collaborating on the creation, execution, and maintenance of large and complex system models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will combine with previously developed NASA SBIR technology and other NASA funded technologies to directly support the goals of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) programs by giving NASA engineers the tools that they need to efficiently develop more comprehensive and accurate MDO system models. The end result will be a shortened design cycle, a reduction in errors and rework, increased innovation, and ultimately better aircraft designs. The need for a comprehensive and flexible MDO design tools extends beyond aeronautics and also encompasses other important NASA activities. For example, the framework will also benefit engineers in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), as they develop the next generation of space vehicles and systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA, the proposed technology will benefit a wide range of high-tech organizations involved in the design of complex vehicles and systems. These organizations include other government agencies such as DoD, DOE, and DOT/FAA, as well as commercial aerospace and defense organizations such as BAE, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Pratt and Whitney, and Raytheon. Other markets include the automotive, green energy, electronics, process, energy, heavy machinery, and shipbuilding industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Knowledge Management
Development Environments
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.08-8819
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Coupled Viscous/Inviscid Analysis of Powered-Lift Airfoils and Wings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AVID LLC
322 Freedom Boulevard, Suite C
Yorktown, VA 23692-4997
(757) 886-2611

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ernie Keen
ekeen@avidaerospace.com
322 Freedom Blvd, Suite C
Yorktown,  VA 23692-4997
(757) 886-2611

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is in response to NASA SBIR Topic A2.08 in the area of "Variable Fidelity, Physics-Based Design/Analysis Tools". The development of a coupled viscous/inviscid analysis tool for powered-lift airfoils and wings is presented. In this context, powered-lift airfoils are taken to be airfoils under the influence of a high-energy jet, and include jet-flaps, augmenter-flaps, upper surface blowing, and circulation control airfoils. This methodology consists of coupling a viscous jet analysis, using a finite-difference approach, with a potential flow panel calculation. The method uses an iterative procedure to capture the effects of viscous mixing and determine the correct jet shape. The goal in developing 2-D powered-lift predictions is to couple this analysis with a pre-existing modified Weissinger method to accurately predict 3-D wing performance based on sectional data. In this manner, high-lift wing characteristics can be determined at a fraction of the computational cost of CFD. An MDAO framework for aircraft-level optimization will be developed with the goal of integrating the powered-lift analysis such that ESTOL concepts and technologies can be incorporated at the conceptual and preliminary design stages.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This tool would have immediate application in NASA MDO toolkits. It would also serve as a useful resource in analysis of unconventional systems and allow for parametric design studies of powered-lift systems. AVID's experience in software development with easy-to-use, intuitive graphical interfaces would also make this product a viable commercial quantity. Potential customers include small-business UAV companies, engineering analysis and design groups, and universities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA Commercial Applications would be similar in nature to the NASA Commercial Applications addressed above.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.08-9390
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Variable Fidelity Conceptual Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CADNexus Inc.
101 Cambridge Street, Suite 370
Burlington, MA 01803-3766
(781) 229-0200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Deschenes
deschenes@cadnexus.com
101 Cambridge St., Suite 370
Burlington,  MA 01803-3766
(781) 229-0200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CADNexus proposes to develop an Integrated Variable Fidelity Conceptual Design tool. The application will enable design and analysis of unconventional and advanced concepts in the conceptual design phase. The application will be integrated not only in the conceptual design phase but throughout the entire design process from conceptual design, to preliminary design, to detailed design. The integration across design stages is accomplished by development of a component library that will store detailed aircraft shapes and components as well as rich metadata about the components, their attributes, and any other pertinent data. The library will enable designers to generate candidate design concepts given a set of mission requirements or other characteristics. In addition to performance analysis of a conceptual design the tool will also provide and evaluation of risk by projecting the probability that the design may not satisfy its mission requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has an ongoing need for conceptual design tools that are capable of performing multi-disciplinary analysis on unconventional or advanced concepts. Existing tools developed both within NASA and by commercial entities are not flexible enough to make this a reality. CADNexus proposes to leverage its existing core product and geometry-centric philosophy coupled with optimal estimation techniques applied to risk management into a commercial product offering. We envision expanding the scope of the effort to provide a geometry-centric underpinning to subsequent design stages thereby unifying the underlying geometry representation across conceptual, preliminary, and detailed design. The potentially provides a major advantage in that there are no lossy translations due to file format conversions and the usual need for geometry repair when exporting and importing geometry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA Commercial Applications include geometry-centric conceptual design and risk analysis for products other than aircraft. We anticipate that automotive designers and other product designers find our tools highly beneficial.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.09-8157
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: RotCFD: A Viscous Design Tool for Advanced Configurations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sukra Helitek, Inc.
3146 Greenwood Road
Ames, IA 50014-4504
(515) 292-9646

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Hollingsworth
nappi@sukra-helitek.com
3146 Greenwood Rd.
Ames,  IA 50014-4504
(515) 292-9646

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The incorporation of viscous analysis in design is vital for a complete understanding of aerodynamic problems. This proposal offers to develop and integrate with RotCFD a method for semi-automatically generating grids suitable for viscous analysis on complex configurations as well as parallelize the solver in RotCFD to take advantage of today's multi-core machines. The principle idea behind the semi-automation of the grid generation is to divide the geometry surface into patches and generate body-conforming grids from these patches. This partitioning allows for automatic generation of grids with aspect ratios suitable for viscous flows. Convection dominates the outer region, so unstructured Cartesian meshes can be generated quickly and easily here. The outer grid will be conformed to the inner grid so the entire grid can be treated as one unstructured grid with an unstructured solver, or as a hybrid grid with multiple zones and solvers. In the hybrid approach, viscous solvers can be used for the inner zone while the faster inviscid solvers can be used in the far-field. In Phase I a proof-of-concept grid generator, and a conceptual methodology for solver parallelization will be developed and demonstrated to work with RotCFD the rotor aerodynamic design tool. In Phase II, the features of the grid generator and solver will be fully developed and expanded.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The viscous extention and parallelization of RotCFD will find wide usage in NASA in addtion to the other branches of the armed services. The proposal offers a semi-automated viscous analysis tool that will lay the foundation for advanced designs in an economical way. Sukra Helitek's software are currently used for many advanced configurations at an early stage in the design and the addtion of viscous capability and parallelization will increase its usefulness and marketability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Surka Helitek's software has been extensively used by US Helicopter manufacturers for analyzing new and existing designs. The proposed software enhancements will extend its usefulness and retain a global advantage.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.09-9076
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Tools for Structural Diagnostics of Rotorcraft Fatigue Critical Composite Parts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Numerical Technology Company, LLC
120 Annie Cook Way
Roswell, GA 30076-5844
(404) 840-2378

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yuriy Nikishkov
yuri.nikishkov@ae.gatech.edu
120 ANNIE COOK WAY
Roswell,  GA 30076-5844
(404) 563-3773

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the development of a validated analysis tool to characterize manufacturing defects and structural damage in composite parts. The objective of Phase I is to develop and verify a technology for accurate characterization of manufacturing defects and structural damage in fatigue-critical fiberglass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy composite structures based on three-dimensional micro-focus CT measurements. Key requirements for the diagnostic technology include: (a) ability to generate accurate subsurface geometry data for a composite structure with manufacturing defects (such as wrinkles and voids) and structural damage (matrix cracks and delaminations) based on the micro-focus CT measurements; and (b) automated ability to convert the geometry data into three-dimensional structural finite element models for assessment of the effects of defects and structural damage. Ability to measure the manufacturing defects and structural damage and understand their effects is a key to accurate assessment of part condition and condition based maintenance for composite fatigue-critical, flight-critical components and structure. Automated interpretation of nondestructive measurement of subsurface defects and structural damage is required for accurate structural diagnostics. Defect and damage measurement aided by rudimentary tools such as a ruler or a caliper could result in unacceptable measurement variation and affect the objectivity at making disposition decision of the affected part. Tools for rotorcraft diagnostics and condition based maintenance developed in the proposed effort will provide a mechanism to merge state-of-the-art in the nondestructive measurement and the durability and damage tolerance methods for composites and the implementation of the algorithms in commercial software.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aircraft flight-critical composite parts including rotor blade spars and yokes for all commercial and military rotary-wing aircraft platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
General tools for structural diagnostics and condition based maintenance of aerospace and non-aerospace structures. In particular, aircraft fatigue-critical, flight-critical composite parts including rotor blade spars and yokes for all commercial and military rotary-wing aircraft platforms are included. Bell Helicopters, Boeing, and Sikorsky Aircraft, contacted the Numerical Technology Company to express strong demand in the technology proposed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Composites
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.09-9309
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Computational Tool for Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
D&P, LLC
3409 North 42nd Place
Phoenix, AZ 85018-5961
(602) 957-2868

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lei Tang
tanglei@d-p-llc.com
3409 N. 42nd Place
Phoenix,  AZ 85018-5961
(602) 957-2868

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project proposes to develop a computational tool for helicopter rotor noise prediction based on hybrid Cartesian grid/gridless approach. The uniqueness of this approach is to achieve fully automated grid generation without grid overlapping. As a result, the resulting software will enjoy great ease of use with minimum human interference. There is no grid distortion in the majority of the computational domain. One can apply the best available flow solver which may not be possible to use in the unstructured grid approach. All are important for achieving accurate prediction of helicopter rotor aerodynamics and near-field acoustics. In Phase I, the high-speed impulsive noise will be first investigated and in Phase II, the blade-vortex interaction noise will be further explored.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Both military concern of detection and community concern of noise pollution have stimulated NASA to actively pursue various noise reduction techniques. This further pushes NASA to look for external noise prediction methods for manned and unmanned rotorcraft. The proposed computational tool can be used by NASA to explore on-blade active flow control techniques such as zero-mass jets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed software can be used by helicopter industry like Bell Helicopter, Sikorsky, and Boeing for prediction of helicopter rotor aerodynamics and near-field acoustics. NAVAIR can use it to investigate the interaction of helicopter and ship air wake.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.09-9439
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-Time, Maneuvering Flight Noise Prediction for Rotorcraft Flight Simulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Wachspress
dan@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal outlines a plan for developing new technology to provide accurate real-time noise prediction for rotorcraft in steady and maneuvering flight. Main rotor and tail rotor thickness and loading noise, including Blade-Vortex Interaction noise and Tail-Rotor Interaction noise, will be predicted with physics-based methods by enhancing a real-time lifting surface/free-vortex-wake blade aerodynamics module and coupling it to maneuvering flight acoustic prediction software modified for operation in a time-marching flight simulation environment. Also included will be methods to account for spherical spreading, atmospheric absorption, and ground effect for flat level terrain. All new software will be designed with the eventual goal of supporting both high fidelity and real-time solutions through a hierarchy of methods. Phase I will provide the development of proof of concept prototype software demonstrated for both steady and maneuvering flight. Phase I will also see an evaluation of real-time potential of the various models. Phase II will provide the development of a fully-functional, noise prediction software module with real-time and high fidelity capability designed for easy coupling with flight simulation software. Phase II will also see additional enhancements in the areas of acoustic propagation, High Speed Impulsive noise, and engine and transmission noise.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort directly responds to NASA's SBIR solicitation goal of developing validated physics-based multidisciplinary computational tools applicable for the design, analysis and optimization of rotorcraft in the area of acoustics. The solicitation also directly addresses NASA's goal of reducing noise levels at airports while increasing airport capacity. The computational tools proposed will enhance NASA's ability to conduct detailed assessments of candidate V/STOL concepts, design low noise flight trajectories, perform land use assessment and to evaluate the impact of noise control procedures on crew workload without a need for expensive flight tests. The tool will allow NASA to assess ground noise impact associated with new concepts, such as the current Heavy Lift and High Speed Rotorcraft concepts being studied.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has strong potential for facilitating public acceptance of civil V/STOL aircraft and improving the survivability of military rotorcraft. Potential non-NASA applications include; (1) fast evaluation of acoustic impact of new rotary-wing concepts, (2) reduced noise rotary-wing aircraft design using real-time methods within optimization algorithms, (3) improved survivability of military aircraft through improved prediction of long range detection and stealth mission planning, (4) a new capability for pre-mission, stealth training within flight simulators, (5) a key technological step toward real-time cockpit monitoring of ground noise levels during flight, (6) improved land use and flight path planning by the FAA and commercial airports, (7) reduction in acoustic detectability of remotely operated aircraft used in surveillance missions, and (8) improved flight simulator training through realistic audio cues as requested by pilots for certain flight conditions (e.g. the onset of vortex ring state).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.09-9697
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Inexpensive Reliable Oil-Debris Optical Sensor for Rotorcraft Health Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Translume, Inc.
655 Phoenix Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2201
(734) 528-6371

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Haddock
tomhaddock@translume.com
655 Phoenix Drive
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2201
(734) 528-6135

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rotorcrafts form a unique subset of air vehicles in that a rotorcraft's propulsion system is used not only for propulsion, but it also serves as the primary source of lift and maneuvering of the vehicle. No other air vehicle relies on the propulsion system to provide these functions through a transmission system employing a single critical load path without duplication or redundancy. Thus it is critically important to monitor the drivetrain components in rotorcraft propulsion systems in order to detect the onset of damage or abnormal conditions. We propose to develop an analyzer for rotorcraft health monitoring. Our proposed device, an oil debris monitor that relies on optical means to monitor the fluid content, will provide a means to monitor the gear and bearing wear that is common in rotating machinery. This device will be based on fluid analyzers previously developed for industry. Our sensor will provide a means to detect the onset of failure using optical techniques. It will be more sensitive than electromagnetic sensors. In addition it will be able to detect all debris, metallic and non-metallic, including those generated by hybrid ceramic bearings, and will be able to do this even in the presence of air bubbles. Unlike other optical sensors, our device will be fabricated from a glass monolith and will, by its very nature, stay aligned forever, even when submitted to severe vibrations and shocks. Within the glass monolith our sensor will integrate the equivalent of two optical instruments, one optimized for large millimeter-size debris and one for smaller micron-size debris. Algorithms will be developed to merge the data provided by the two optical channels and to present a simple cohesive health assessment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Studies indicate that failure of the propulsion system is the primary reason for vehicle-factor related accidents. In order to reduce these accidents a number of diagnostic techniques have been developed to detect damage and abnormal conditions of the dynamic mechanical components of rotorcrafts. A majority of this technology focuses on monitoring the gears, bearings and driveshafts of the main transmission system. Oil debris sensors can be used to detect and characterize bearing debris in oil and allow for tracking of bearing health. While commercially available electromagnetic sensors can detect metallic debris, they often cannot detect the non-metallic debris associated with components such as the hybrid ceramic bearings now found in rotorcrafts. Further they have severe limitations as to the size of the debris they can detect. Optical sensors have high sensitivity, and detect non-metallic debris, including ceramic, but they rapidly lose alignment when subjected to shocks and vibrations; they are delicate, require frequent recalibration and are expensive. Our proposed optical oil sensor will be fabricated from a single glass monolith and will never lose its optical alignment. It will have a capability to detect small and large debris, including metallic and non-metallic debris, using an optical sensing modality. Further its will be inexpensive. These claims are based on previous experience developing various fluid sensors, including hydraulic sensors for heavy machinery.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Oil debris sensors are used to detect bearing debris in oil and allow for tracking of bearing health. These devices allow for maintenance procedures based on condition, a preferable and less expensive approach to the traditional schedule based approach. We are proposing to fabricate and commercialize a small, extremely robust and inexpensive fluid debris optical monitor with both a particle sizing and counting capability. Our advanced debris monitor will support improved aircraft safety and allow scheduling of oil samples based on indicated need instead of at predetermined time and usage points. This will not only significantly reduce maintenance burden, but will flag failures as they begin to develop. This will permit remediation as needed to reduce unexpected and expensive downtime. There are numerous applications for this type of analyzer in industry and the transportation sector. These markets are much larger than the rotorcraft market. In order to penetrate these markets the fluid analyzer needs to be reliable, inexpensive, require no periodic calibration, and the data provided should be simple to understand. Present commercial offerings fail to meet all of these criteria. Translume analyzers will be inexpensive yet sensitive, and will never require realignment. This combination of factors is made possible by the development at Translume of novel glass microfabrication processes. Commercialization will be undertaken with commercial partners.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Machining/Materials Processing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.10-8263
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of Axial Compressor Heat-Extraction Capability for Thermal Management Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATA Engineering, Inc.
11995 El Camino Real
San Diego, CA 92130-2566
(858) 480-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Parthiv Shah
parthiv.shah@ata-e.com
11995 El Camino Real
San Diego,  CA 92130-2566
(858) 480-2101

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) proposes a small business innovation research (SBIR) program for a novel compressor heat-extraction development program in response to NASA's solicitation for advanced design concepts to enable increased high stage loading in single and multi-stage axial compressors while maintaining or improving aerodynamic efficiency and operability. The 'compressor cooling' development program proposed herein will be applicable to advanced turbomachinery based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems suitable for high Mach number flight vehicles that extend to the hypersonic range as well as to conventional high bypass ratio (HBPR) engines that operate with high compressor exit temperatures. Cooling in the rear stages of a compressor would improve mass flow capability, increase margins set by material temperature limits, and improve turbine blade cooling effectiveness by reducing bleed air temperatures. The Phase I proposal technical objectives are to 1) estimate the system level benefit of compressor heat extraction for a mutually agreed-on TBCC-powered aircraft mission, 2) understand the fluid dynamics of flows with surface heat extraction in a multistage compressor using computational fluid dynamics, and 3) define the necessary validation steps on cascade and compressor component rig hardware to advance the technology readiness level of compressor cooling to the point where it may be implemented in an aircraft engine application. The final deliverable will be a written report to NASA presenting a conceptual design of a cooled compression system and a proposed test plan for Phase II rig validation, based on the requirements set forth in a design specification that is defined at the beginning of the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate opportunities for a compressor heat-extraction system are: 1) as an enabler to advanced turbomachinery based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems used in NASA's next generation high flight Mach number vehicles, such as single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concepts and 2) to improve performance of multi-stage compressors in NASA's next generation high bypass ratio turbofan-powered aircraft applications (N+1 and beyond) that are currently limited by both compressor material temperature limits and compressor bleed air temperature limitations on turbine blade cooling effectiveness. NASA would also be able to potentially realize ancillary cycle benefits from compressor heat extraction in the form of pre-heating of fuel and "cooling of cooling air" in turbine blade applications where compressor bleed is the heat sink.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Gas-turbine applications extend well beyond NASA's developmental programs, and it is believed that all of the potential benefits suggested in the NASA commercial applications section would apply to the sphere of interest of the aircraft engine manufacturers, for both military and commercial engine applications. In addition, compressor heat extraction schemes in some cases may provide additional opportunities for performance and life improvement in industrial gas turbine applications where intercooling and water injection are routinely used.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.10-8672
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Turbine Blade Cooling Techniques

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc.
7522 Slater Avenue, #122
Huntington Beach, CA 92647-7738
(714) 847-9945

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Underwood
daveunderwood@microcoolingconcepts.com
7522 Slater Ave #122
Huntington Beach,  CA 92647-7738
(714) 847-9945

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Gas turbine engine technology is constantly challenged to operate at higher combustor outlet temperatures. In a modern gas turbine engine, these temperatures can exceed the blade and disk material limits by 600 <SUP>o</SUP>F or more, necessitating both internal and film cooling schemes in addition to the use of thermal barrier coatings. Internal convective cooling is inadequate in many blade locations, and both internal and film cooling approaches can lead to significant performance penalties in the engine. Micro Cooling Concepts has developed a turbine blade cooling concept that provides enhanced internal impingement cooling effectiveness via the use of micro-structured impingement surfaces. These surfaces significantly increase the cooling capability of the impinging flow, as compared to a conventional untextured surface. This approach can be combined with microchannel cooling and external film cooling to tailor the cooling capability per the external heating profile. The cooling system can then be optimized to minimize impact on engine performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Phase I effort directly supports core NASA research efforts in turbine engine development, as well as the multi-agency Verstaile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engine (VAATE) initiative. It is also applicable to two-state to orbit designs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military and commercial aircraft can both benefit from this technology, which permits higher combustion temperatures with lower engine penalties than state-of-the-art turbine blade cooling technologies. The blade cooling concept could be also applied to power generation plants, which are also seeking means of operating at higher temperatures. More generally, the enhanced impingement cooling techniques proposed here could be applied to a variety of cooling problems in the electronics, industrial processes, automotive, and laser industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Active Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.10-8854
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Coupled Transpired and Discretely Injected Films

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
spgogineni@gmail.com
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA, and all users of turbomachinery, continuously requires improvements in engine durability and efficiencies. As combustion engineers push turbine inlet temperatures to new extremes, cooling designers are faced with increasing heat loads and less available coolant usage. Surface cooling techniques such as film cooling have proven invaluable in this quest. Films generated by forcing the coolant to bleed through a porous substrate have been shown to perform substantially better than discrete film injection in a thermal sense. However, the associated aerodynamic penalties limit the application. On the other hand, discretely injected films have drawbacks as well, including non-uniform coolant profiles significant mixing with the hot working fluid, lowering their effectiveness. Spectral Energies, LLC and the University of Central Florida propose a novel, low risk approach to surface cooling wherein traditional discrete film holes are embedded within a transpiring porous strip. The motivation behind this approach is multi-faceted, with the ultimate goal of developing a cooling arrangement which possesses the thermo-mechanical benefits of a transpired film, the aerodynamic benefits of discrete film injection, and mixing characteristics that are some compromise of the two.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is a direct user and developer of turbomachines for various applications, primarily for propulsion. As improved efficiency and improved durability are the goals of NASA researchers, the successful implementation of this technology will provide a direct method of achieving both. The proposed innovation will provide increases in efficiency and reductions in fuel burn, through the ability to handle increased working gas temperatures with minimal coolant usage; and durability through the reduction of hot streaks associated with traditional film cooling methods. Additionally, applications such as the film cooling of rocket nozzles will also benefit from the successful implementation of this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications, all users and developers of gas turbines will benefit from the ability to achieve improved heat load handling and durability. This includes gas turbines for propulsion (the airline and marine industries) as well as for power generation. The public will then directly benefit through reduced electricity and travel costs. Additionally, as the private sector is now heavily involved in the development of space technologies, high efficiency and durable hot gas components will be applicable to a large number of up and coming private industries. &#8195;

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.10-9497
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Axial and Cross-Flow Fan Propulsion for Transonic Blended Wing Body Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Propulsive Wing, LLC
321 Route 5
Elbridge, NY 13060-0321
(315) 252-2559

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Kummer
joseph.kummer@propulsivewing.com
321 Rt. 5
Elbridge,  NY 13060-0321
(315) 252-2559

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 0
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The challenges of the next century of aviation will require innovative and revolutionary concepts to meet air transportation demands. One NASA vision for future transport-sized aircraft includes the blended-wing-body (BWB) platform with embedded, distributed propulsion as a means for increased efficiency and reduced noise. In cruise, embedded propulsion benefits from boundary layer ingestion and wake filling, resulting in high propulsive efficiency. However, several challenges exist, including inlet nozzle design, propulsor design for ingestion of highly non-uniform inflow, and propulsor/airframe support structure optimization. This work proposes a hybrid turboelectric propulsion system incorporating small embedded, distributed cross-flow fans (CFF) for boundary layer control and wake filling, and much larger axial fans for primary thrust. Bringing together the best qualities of both axial and CFF propulsion, a substantial improvement in overall vehicle efficiency is possible. CFD and analytical analyses will be used to investigate the flow field and range of application for such a system. Comparisons will be made with published baseline designs with respect to power requirements, component weights, support structure, and other key parameters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Upon completion of Phase II, our goal is to have a system capable of inclusion not only within the framework of future BWB transport aircraft, but in others as well. For example, high altitude atmospheric research at altitudes above 80,000 ft would be possible with a cross-flow fan propelled aircraft due to the high lift capability. The large internal volume would provide ample room for sensor packages when compared with standard airplane configurations. With further R&D effort beyond Phase II, this internal cargo volume may be useful for carrying small rocket-based vehicles to 100,000 ft altitude for launch into orbit. A smaller version of this aircraft could potentially be used as a Mars plane, where the primary design criteria are a compact, robust airframe with extremely high lift.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hand-launchable UAVs represent a key market for the Propulsive Wing, since the high lift and large internal volume of this platform is ideal for carrying sensor packages or munitions for military use. Due to the robust structure and embedded propulsion, the vehicle can also be configured for launch from larger aircraft at cruise altitude and speed. For larger UAVs, high lift and very large internal cargo volume will provide an ideal platform for high latitude and long endurance. Long wingspan versions will be able to fly at altitudes greater than 80,000 feet for a week or more. The substantial cargo volume also offers the possibility of using fuel cell technology. This will provide electric power for distributed CFF or Axial/CFF propulsion, while the embedded propulsion and cold exhaust will help reduce radar cross-section. Another potential application is UAV cargo transport. As an example, a 50 foot wingspan CFF-propelled aircraft with 900 HP of installed power would be capable of flight at 50,000 ft or higher at 250 knots for over 1,000 nm, yet have a takeoff ground roll of 200 feet and be capable of landing in under 100 feet. With the addition of Axial/CFF propulsion, such a vehicle (with appropriately higher power) would be able to travel over twice as fast. Lastly, the platform lends itself to underwater applications, whereby the vehicle produces a downward lift force to counteract buoyancy, and the vectored thrust controls offer a high degree of maneuverability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8004
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design and Analysis Tools for 4D Green Trajectories in Terminal and Transition Airspaces

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Veera Vaddi
vaddi@optisyn.com
Optimal Synthesis Inc., 95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has been involved in developing advanced automation systems for improving the efficiency of air-traffic operations, reducing controller workload and enhancing the safety in the national airspace system. In the past decade there has been emphasis on designing environmentally friendly operations that reduce fuel consumption, emission and noise as well. The objective of the proposed research is to develop a framework suitable for the design and analysis of 4D trajectories for terminal and transitional airspaces targeted for far-term implementation. The novel aspect of the proposed research addresses efficiency, throughput, and safety all in a combined and integrated manner. Advanced optimization algorithms will be used in the design of these trajectories. Research will also establish the feasibility of tracking these trajectories using 4D guidance algorithms. Analysis will be done to study the tradeoff between fuel consumption and the time of arrival. Phase I research will demonstrate the 4D trajectory synthesis and 4D guidance algorithm using realistic commercial aviation aircraft models. Phase II research will develop the tools to a level that can be used by NASA researchers in the development of NextGen concepts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
4D trajectories and 4D guidance algorithms have enormous potential to solve several problems in the NAS in an integrated manner resulting in optimal performance. These two can affect improvements in throughput, efficiency and safety. Along, with GPS based navigation and datalink capability, 4D trajectories and 4D guidance systems can define the core of the vastly transformed and improved NextGen air-traffic management system. 4D trajectories and 4D guidance is an inexpensive option to extract the best performance out of the resource constrained NAS in view of projected multi-fold future demand increase. Both these concepts are expected to directly contribute to NASA efforts in designing NextGen concepts both on the ground side and the flight deck side. Trajectory optimization is an area that is of interest to NASA even outside the scope of air traffic management. All flight vehicles sub-sonic commercial aircraft, supersonic and hypersonic space access vehicles, orbiting spacecraft, planetary reentry vehicles, and even planetary surface rovers can benefit from improvements and advancements in optimal trajectory computation technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Trajectory optimization and 4D guidance algorithms can find place in the cockpit of advanced general aviation aircraft. The output of these algorithms could be directed as advisories to the electronic flight display systems. A side effect of this project is the development of advanced large scale, mixed-integer, robust, nonlinear optimization algorithms that are amenable to fast-time computation. High-complexity large-scale optimization problems arise frequently in the industry in the following areas: (1) floor planning, (2) network optimization, (3) allocation problems, (4) supply chain management, (5) transportation, (6) and scheduling applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Transport/Traffic Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8032
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Accelerating ATM Optimization Algorithms Using High Performance Computing Hardware

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Monish Tandale
monish@optisyn.com
Optimal Synthesis Inc., 95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is developing algorithms and methodologies for efficient air-traffic management (ATM). Several researchers have adopted an optimization framework for solving problems such as flight scheduling, route assignment, flight rerouting, nationwide traffic flow management and dynamic airspace configuration. Computational complexity of these problems have led investigators to conclude that in many instances, real time solutions are computationally infeasible, forcing the use of relaxed versions of the problem to manage computational complexity. The primary objective of this research proposal is to accelerate optimization algorithms that play central roles in NASA's ATM research, by parallel implementation on emerging high performance computing (HPC) hardware. The proposed research effort will first identify optimization algorithms that are key to achieving NASA's ATM research objectives. The effort will then explore various avenues for parallelizing the optimization algorithms, and focus on algorithms most amenable for implementation on HPC hardware. The feasibility of implementing one or more optimization algorithms, and potential for further acceleration will be demonstrated on ATM problems of sufficient complexity, which will then form the basis for the Phase II prototype. Phase II work will develop an operational prototype of the algorithm implementation on HPC hardware, and deliver them to NASA for further evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Proposed R&D effort will enable rapid solution to large scale optimization problems formulated by NASA researchers in the air traffic domain such as flight scheduling, route assignment, flight rerouting, national traffic flow management and dynamic airspace reconfiguration. The optimization software suite will enable real time execution of many optimizations problems that were deemed infeasible due to computational complexity. The software suite developed under the proposed research will enable solutions to such problems without introducing approximations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-complexity large-scale optimization problems arise frequently in the industry in several areas, such as: 1) Floor planning: designing the layout of equipment in a factory or components on a computer chip to reduce manufacturing time to minimize cost, 2) Network optimization: setup of telecommunications networks to maintain quality of service during outages, 3) Resource allocation problems, optimal search and routing, 4) Supply chain management: managing the flow of raw materials and products based on uncertain demand for the finished products, 5) Transportation: managing freight transportation and delivery systems, 6) Scheduling applications: personnel staffing, manufacturing steps, project tasks, network data traffic, sports events and their coverage. The accelerated optimization software suite developed during the course of this R&D effort will enable faster runtimes making it practical to deploy them more widely in operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Transport/Traffic Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8092
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Artificial Intelligence for Refining Multi-Aircraft Testbed Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801-1753
(781) 935-3966

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Schurr
nschurr@aptima.com
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn,  MA 01801-1765
(781) 496-2453

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is researching various concepts, procedures, standards, and technologies intended for NextGen Airspace. Complex, distributed airspace simulations that utilize experimental testbeds (e.g., Multi Aircraft Control System, or MACS) are vital research tools for these projects. However, managing the various complexities and coordination of agent-supported separation assurance can be challenging. This often creates undesired staffing and training requirements, workload, and susceptibility to human error that can disrupt planned scenario events. To address this issue, we propose to develop Artificial Intelligence for Refining Multi-Aircraft Testbed Environments (AIR-MATE). This proposed innovation will provide a MACS-interoperable software module that coordinates the behaviors of human-automation pairs in simulated NextGen airspace. This effort will leverage recent advancements in distributed constraints optimization and adjustable autonomy to analyze airspace simulations in a decentralized, parallel manner and solve problems locally for enhanced efficiency. This technology will reduce the workload and staffing requirements in current NextGen simulations, while ensuring the desired scenario events and separation assurance is properly executed. The results of the AIR-MATE effort will be a more controlled and high-fidelity testbed environment that will aid researchers, increase the quality of NextGen research, and ultimately benefit the development of NextGen concepts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AIR-MATE will be useful to NASA researchers within the Concepts and Technology Development Project, Systems Analysis Integration and Evaluation Project, and Aviation Safety Program as a software module that will allow them to meet multiple milestones related to the assessment of emerging NextGen concepts. It will provide the capability to populate NextGen simulations with well-coordinated human-automation pairs that consistently execute desired actions, thereby improving airspace simulations for evaluation purposes, and lessening the workload and staffing requirements for researchers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AIR-MATE will appeal to avionics manufacturers external to NASA that are developing and/or researching concepts and technologies aimed at NextGen integration, for many of the same reasons as NASA would benefit. Research organizations (e.g., MITRE, Volpe) and universities may also benefit from this application, as they are often interested in conducting research within the scope of the NextGen environment. In the future, AIR-MATE could also be utilized in a number of domains dependent on distributed asset management systems. Examples of this application include Air and Space Operations Centers (AOC) within the Air Force, and Maritime Operations Centers (MOC) within the Navy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8117
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: User-Augmented Visualizations for Targeted Evaluation of Systems and Technologies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801-1753
(781) 935-3966

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Durkee
kdurkee@aptima.com
1726 M Street, N.W., Suite 900
Washington,  DC 20036-4502
(202) 552-6141

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is a growing area of research for NASA, but the need for substantial amounts of research on the UAV-in-NAS concept is overwhelming. Furthermore, the quantity and nature of research questions on UAV-in-NAS operations are somewhat unpredictable as this research progresses, thereby requiring NASA to have flexible research tools and adaptable methodologies. To address these issues, we propose to develop the UAV-TEST toolset (User-Augmented Visualizations for Targeted Evaluation of Systems and Technologies). UAV-TEST will be a user-centered methodology that helps streamline the research process for UAV-in-NAS research at NASA and enhances the process of generating and connecting new measures, research questions, and visualizations. This concept will be instantiated within a flexible, low-cost toolset that seamlessly integrates with current research tools at NASA. The ultimate goal of the UAV-TEST product is to enable researchers to obtain clear and rapid assessments of key human factors issues in simulated flight environments. In Phase I, we will design this concept and develop a proof of concept demonstration. In Phase II, we will develop a functional prototype that can be used alongside actual NASA studies, particularly within the UAV-in-NAS research areas.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Within the Concepts and Technology Development Project, UAV-TEST will provide the capability to efficiently progress through critical study activities, such as measure authoring, research question development, and configuration of data visualizations. The rapid assessment capability will help meet multiple milestones cited in previous reference materials within the Airspace Systems Program. Similarly, other research groups within the Systems Analysis, Integration, and Evaluation (SAIE) Project and the Aviation Safety Program (ASP) conduct research activities with comparable needs. The end benefit for these groups would be a more flexible and streamlined research preparation process culminating with rapid assessments in the form of targeted data visualizations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
UAV-TEST will appeal to avionics manufacturers external to NASA that are developing and/or researching concepts and technologies aimed at the integration of UAVs into the NAS, for many of the same reasons as NASA would benefit. Research organizations (e.g., MITRE, Volpe) and universities may also benefit from this application, as they are often interested in conducting research within the scope of this same environment. Beyond the commercial aviation sector, there are extensive military applications for UAV-TEST ranging from Defense, Homeland Security, and Intelligence. They, too, have a need to conduct costly simulations for training or evaluation, many involving unmanned vehicles, and could benefit greatly from a self-initiated process of rapid testbed configuration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8377
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Security and Hyper-accurate Positioning Monitoring with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lightning Ridge Technologies
4106 Aikins Avenue Southwest
Seattle, WA 98116-3518
(650) 430-0458

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chad Jennings
chad.jennings@gmail.com
4106 Aikins Ave SW
Seattle,  WA 98116-3518
(650) 430-0458

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lightning Ridge Technologies, working in collaboration with The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., extend Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) into a safe, secure, authenticated system. Historically, ADS-B has been criticized for its inability to guarantee safe and secure surveillance in all operational conditions. The technology presented in this proposal provides an integrity check on all ADS-B data that is independent of all primary surveillance modes and is 100% robust to all GPS spoofing attacks. An important by-product of that integrity check provides us with the further ability to do aircraft-to-aircraft relative positioning that is more accurate and more reliable than any civilian system in existence today. The ADS-B integrity check and the aircraft-to-aircraft positioning can provide a further basis on which to enhance the safety of the National Airspace System (NAS).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Traffic Flow Management (TFM), Separation Assurance (SA), Super Dense Operations (SDO) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in the National Airspace all make heavy use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). This proposal presents technology that brings extra capability to ADS-B in the form of unspoofable authentication and a method called differential co-processing that can calculate the relative position between aircraft more accurately than any civilian method today. The potential impact of these capabilities on NASA's NextGen requirements ranges from ADS-B authentication, detection and identification of attacks; to using better relative positions to determine more accurate wind-shear models and enabling precise trajectory modeling during Very Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches (VCSPA). In short, the GPS Based Location Authentication and Differential Co-Processing could change and accelerate the course of NextGen development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ADS-B is a public interface, an easy target for attack. The US Air Force is actively studying how to add security to ADS-B to ensure that attempts to disrupt military missions are identified and counter attacked. In particular the Air Force is concerned that enemies could add ghost aircraft to congested airspace for the purpose of disrupting C17, C130 and C5 flights that supply troops overseas. The GPS Location Based Authentication (GBLA) technology presented in this document can solve that concern. In addition the Differential Co-Processing techniques to calculate relative position between aircraft can act as a backup to the air-to-air radars currently deployed for operations such as formation flying. The largest military application of GBLA may not be in aviation. GBLA provides military quality GPS authentication without needing a reference copy of the secret military GPS codes. GBLA embedded into a handheld GPS receiver allows that receiver to be built entirely with civilian hardware, drastically reducing the cost of the receivers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8386
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Design and Optimization of an Integrated Arrival/Departure Scheduler

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frederick Wieland
fwieland@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5268

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) proposes the design and validation of a dynamic integrated arrival/departure scheduler. In contrast to current approaches, we propose changing arrival and departure runway assignments dynamically based upon the traffic situation, weather conditions, surface congestion, and planned departure pushbacks as well as planned arrivals flowing into the terminal area from the enroute centers. Testing of the concept will be done in a virtual software environment, first using an analytic environment and later with humans-in-the-loop (controllers and pilots). When complete, this project has the potential to provide (1) a strategy to handle the FAA's Best-Equipped Best-Served concept at airports, (2) a significant increase in Metroplex capacity without building additional runways and (3) support for a new aviation business model in which flights are scheduled to Metroplexes rather than specific airports. To accomplish these goals, this effort will develop a controller that dynamically assigns arrival and departure slots available at a given runway based on the valuation of an "integrated capacity utilization metric." The metric will be a function of arrival/departure demand, arrival queue lengths at fixes and surface departure queues. The result is a more efficient use of airport resources than provided by currently available controllers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is built upon proprietary control technology developed by IAI scientists over the past few years. The proposed technique can be used with a wide range of potential NASA systems, including Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor (McTMA).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most promising commercial applications outside of NASA are: ? All large airports, which will benefit from maximizing runway resources without adding costly additional infrastructure ? Fourteen large metroplexes, which will benefit from generating required times of arrival consistent with airport capacity constraints ? The Federal Aviation Administration, which can potentially use the technology to help incentivize equipage in conjunction with their nascent Best-Equipped, Best-Served policy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8432
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Trajectory Option Set Generation to Support NAS Users during CTOP Events

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lara Cook
cook@mosaicatm.com
33764 Old Trail Dr.
Yucaipa,  CA 92399-6974
(703) 955-9731

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Concept SEVEN (System Enhancement for Versatile Electronic Negotiation) is a new type of Traffic Management Initiative (TMI) that has been in research and development within the Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) program for years. It allows for the electronic negotiation of routes based on user-submitted preferences when capacity is restricted in an area of the airspace. The first phase of SEVEN, now called the Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP), will be deployed operationally on November 2011. In this project, Mosaic ATM proposes to develop a decision support tool for NAS users that will allow them to automatically generate the optimal route options and their relative costs during CTOP events. This will allow users to take full advantage of the new capabilities and the opportunities for reducing ground delays and/or fuel burn. Additionally, this capability will be available for integration into NAS simulation tools such as ACES and FACET, to allow NASA to model high-fidelity, realistic user trajectory preferences generally and in response to CTOP TMIs in particular. In Phase 3, Mosaic ATM will additionally provide libraries containing the key algorithms for incorporation into existing flight planning systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a TOS Generation Tool benefits not just the NAS users, but NASA researchers also. The underlying route generation and priority algorithm within the TOS Generation Tool can be delivered as a separate code module for integration with NASA simulation environments, FACET and/or ACES. For example, FACET currently has the capability to model various TFM TMIs. The addition of a TOS generation algorithm will allow researchers to model the user response to CTOP events, in the context a NAS-wide simulation that could include GDPs and other TMIs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TOS generation is a key part of a user's participation in CTOP. While it is possible to use existing tools to generate TOSs, it will be far more cost effective for a user to rely on purpose-built TOS generation tools designed to take into account the users' objectives and constraints. Mosaic ATM anticipates offering TOS generation products based on the algorithm developed under this SBIR project. Additionally, the results of this SBIR project could form the basis for a new capability either provided by the FAA, through third party flight handling / flight planning providers, or organizations such as AOPA and NBAA to generate TOSs on behalf of users who have not yet developed the capability to generate TOSs themselves. Such an arrangement would provide the user with a large part of the benefit of CTOP without the need to integrate TOS generation into their internal processes. Rather, the user would supply a few parameters to the FAA or third party so that they could generate TOSs on behalf of the user. Such an approach would require the third party or FAA to have aircraft performance models and weather information, but use of such information for flight planning is currently widespread among a vibrant flight planning community, all of which could become users of the CTOP generation algorithm.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8521
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airspace Simulation Through Indoor Operation of Subscale Flight Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neerim Corporation
2551 Casey Avenue, #B
Mountain View, CA 94043-1135
(650) 269-9328

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Gage
pgage@neerimcorp.com
2551 Casey Ave #B
Mountain View,  CA 94043-1135
(650) 269-9328

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An indoor environment for simulating airspace operations will be designed. Highly maneuverable subscale vehicles can be used to simulate the dynamics of full-scale vehicles by applying software limiters on their rates. Multiple vehicles can operate autonomously or can be coordinated through centralized control. The effects of weather on system throughput can be assessed by monitoring movements in the controlled environment, Faults related to communication, detection and vehicle performance can be inserted into the system, to assess the robustness of proposed airspace concepts. We are particularly interested in the impact of UAVs in the NAS. Automated separation assurance schemes are essential for UAV integration. The indoor environment is ideally suited to prove out both airborne and ground-based approaches to separation assurance. Beyond this particular motivation for developing this test facility, evaluation of novel algorithms for trajectory design and innovative communication concepts can be assessed safely and cost-effectively in this environment. The key innovation is the environment in which vehicles and airspace technologies can be assessed. We are not proposing innovation in the technologies themselves. Furthermore, we think that the key elements of the environment are already available, but they have not been assembled into a system that supports airspace simulation. The innovation is primarily system integration, with some customization of the various elements so that interaction between elements is representative of full-scale airspace operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A natural commercialization outcome would be to design and install an airspace simulation environment at a NASA center. All of the essential system features can be demonstrated in Phase II in a space about the size of a school gymnasium. Such an environment could then be scaled up for a larger space, to enable simulation of a larger segment of airspace with more vehicles in simultaneous operation. Hangars at Langley or Dryden might be re-purposed for the airspace environment, but Hangar One, at Ames Research Center, would be an ideal venue. It is a very large structure with huge interior volume that is planned for refurbishment but does not have an identified use. It is located at a center that already has responsibility for airspace modeling, so it would readily support cross-pollination between software simulations and subscale flight demonstrations of airspace effectiveness. The environment would be a national resource for developers of new vehicles that must be integrated into airspace, and for researchers pursuing algorithms and protocols for improved airspace effectiveness.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The anticipated commercial market is STEM education, centered on Aerial Robotics camps for high school students. A simulation environment at the scale of a school gymnasium is planned for Phase II development. Beyond Phase II, the system would be further developed to support transportation and rapid deployment in any gymnasium with a floor area and height for at least two basketball courts. Any such gymnasium (at most high schools and many middle schools and community centers around the country) then becomes a potential venue for a camp. A single environment can support 50 vehicles that would be designed and operated by 100-150 campers. Assuming 10 weeks of availability between May and September (allowing for transportation and set-up between different camp locations), more than a thousand students would gain direct exposure to the most pressing aeronautics problem of our time, and would experience the thrill of measuring baseline system performance and designing and implementing improvements to it.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Fusion
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8526
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Human-Relatable Course of Action Planner for Air Traffic Coordinators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Brinton
brinton@mosaicatm.com
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 306
Leesburg,  VA 20175-5084
(800) 405-8576

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Traffic Managers, Supervisors and Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) Specialists have a critical and significant responsibility in the ATM system to deal with widely varying contingencies and issues. Although many tools exist to support the Traffic Manager in fulfilling their duties, these tools generally focus on one specific type of traffic management initiative and the planning and decisions suggested by these tools are not integrated together. While much attention has been focused on decision support tools and information systems for the controllers, only minimal attention has been given to decision support tools for the Supervisors and Traffic Managers other than the specific traffic management initiatives. We propose to develop a Course of Action Planner for Air Traffic Coordinators. Given assumed inputs from all systems that may affect the Coordinator's tasks (via SWIM), the planner will develop a set of required and prioritized tasks, and feasible options for solutions to the identified issues. Each option will contain a list of actions (including TMIs) that, when combined, will address the identified situation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Air Traffic Course of Action Planner system developed in Phase 2 can augment NASA's suite of ATM modeling applications. It can be integrated with FACET, allowing task plans, including TMIs suggested by the system, to be played out in simulations in FACET. The system can also aid NASA researchers in understanding the interactions between actions of different ATC facilities, and the interactions between FAA actions and Flight Operator actions. This capability will allow NASA to remain at the forefront of ATM research and will provide relevant and valuable research results to guide the NextGen evolution.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Some Air Traffic Coordinators in the operational ATC facilities today have information overload from too many tools. On the other hand, some Coordinators (particularly Supervisors) have very few tools at their disposal to support planning and decision-making. There is currently no tool available for FAA traffic managers which allows them to model the affect of a comprehensive combination of TMIs, let alone provide suggestions for the best set of TMIs to fit the anticipated system constraints. TMIs tend to be issued independently of each other, with no ability to model the interaction between restrictions. The TFM community would greatly benefit by a planner designed to suggest a set of actions and initiatives from the TFM Toolbox that would best meet the anticipated capacity constraints, minimizing delay and maximizing the utilization of the available resources.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Processing
Knowledge Management
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8528
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Massively Parallel Processing for Dynamic Airspace Configuration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bart Gallet
bgallet@mosaicatm.com
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 306
Leesburg,  VA 20175-5084
(301) 706-6784

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Through extensive research conducted by Mosaic ATM in the area of Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC), we have identified the significant benefit of the use of Dynamic Density (DD) as the DAC objective function. The use of DD as the objective function allows the DAC algorithm to directly address critical aspects of sector design beyond simple balancing of the flight counts. These sector design considerations include the alignment of sector boundaries with flow direction, proximity of conflict points to sector boundaries, and boundary alignment with respect to vertical traffic movement. By using DD as the objective function, we generate a multi-objective optimization approach that considers both efficiency and complex controller workload issues. The SectorFlow DAC algorithm has performed well in NASA's DAC algorithm comparison experiments. However, due to the additional computational complexity caused by the use of DD as the objective function, only limited application of DD as the objective function was conducted. In this proposed SBIR effort, Mosaic ATM will apply a massively parallel computing architecture to the DAC algorithm using DD as an objective function to demonstrate and evaluate both the computational advantages of massively parallel processing, and the benefits of using DD as the objective function in DAC.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most likely Phase III activities involve further development of the SectorFlow software and algorithms to support NASA's continued aeronautics mission. The SectorFlow DAC algorithms have been analyzed by NASA in comparison to other DAC concepts, and SectorFlow's performance was found to be high. NASA would benefit from the ability to continue to conduct DAC research using a variety of DAC approaches, including the use of Dynamic Density as an objective function as has been implemented in SectorFlow. The application of massively parallel computing can also be applied by NASA to numerous aeronautics and Air Traffic Management algorithms and analysis efforts. This increase in computational power may allow the necessary increase in modeling samples required to generate robust decision support tool recommendations using a stochastic optimization approach.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FAA is considering Dynamic Airspace as a potential component of NextGen. However, it is clear that decision support tools will be required to facilitate evaluation of such dynamic airspace designs. As we have found in our DAC research, the required computational performance to algorithmically design and evaluate airspace sectors is significant. The results of this research could be applied by the FAA in a decision support tool for DAC. Modeling and simulation of Air Traffic Management operations is computationally intensive. However, the availability of real-time ATM modeling could be applied to numerous decision-making situations by both the FAA and by Flight Operators. Currently, the level of detailed modeling required to achieve beneficial and useful recommendations from such models in prohibitive. However, the results of this research may provide the necessary computational speed to overcome this obstacle and create the opportunity for commercial real-time ATM modeling and simulation tools.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-9072
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Operational Assessment of Controller Complexity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ken Leiden
kleiden@mosaicatm.com
596 Lykins Avenue
Boulder,  CO 80304-4373
(720) 938-7352

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In today's operations, acceptable levels of controller workload are maintained by assigning sector capacities based on simple aircraft count and a capacity threshold known as the monitor alert parameter (MAP). The MAP value of a sector is typically 5/3 of average sector flight time (or dwell time) measured in minutes, but may be adjusted up or down as necessary to account for other considerations such as sector geometry, traffic mix, and phase of flight. Future operations may utilize complexity as a proxy for workload instead. Our proposed research builds upon existing NASA complexity metrics by analyzing operational data to validate the factors that contribute to complexity in actual operations. We believe we have formulated a novel validation approach to apply to complexity. Our goal is to analyze a large sampling of operational data (substantially larger than could ever be provided by human-in-the-loop simulations) for a wide range of distinct sector types within Center airspace. This large and diverse sampling is anticipated to provide statistical significance to the validation of complexity factors. Most importantly, we believe that demonstrating sound operational validation of complexity is a key step in enabling the transition from aircraft count-based capacity to complexity-based capacity. The first objective is to develop a capability to analyze operational data that can identify sectors whose MAP value deviates from the 5/3 dwell time rule. These sectors will likely exhibit complexity that is higher or lower than the nominal complexity associated with a given MAP value. The next objective is to determine which complexity factors are positively or negatively influencing the sector capacity deviation from the 5/3 dwell time rule from the training set of operational sectors. The final objective is to validate that the complexity factors identified can accurately predict deviations from the 5/3 dwell time rule for the validation set of operational sectors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR has two primary focuses. First, we will deliver a complexity analysis tool to NASA so that NASA researchers can conduct their own complexity-related research. For example, NASA researchers can introduce new complexity factors and see if the factors are supported by the operational data. In addition, researchers involved with HITL experiments can leverage this capability to simplify the arduous post-processing of complexity-related data. Second, we will perform specific research studies to complement NASA's internal projects. Studies we perform using the complexity analysis tool will be directly useful to NASA. The study results will guide subsequent NASA research studies. The technical approach may re-used by NASA or may influence the approaches NASA takes on future projects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The complexity analysis tool will also be very useful in establishing capacities for dynamically-generated sectors for FAA FlexAirspace. In addition, results of research studies that we will publish in reports, conferences, and journals may also help shape the FAA plan for migrating from today's MAP-based capacities to complexity-based capacities. The most likely Phase 3 activities involve further development of the complexity analysis tool and underlying statistical capabilities to support NASA's continued aeronautics mission. The complexity analysis tool could be used within field trials throughout the NAS where the complexity procedures may be refined and actual benefits may be measured. Mosaic ATM has conducted field trials of this type previously with other automation tools and concepts and is well qualified to complete these Phase 3 objectives with minimal risk.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-9165
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Human-Centered Design of Adaptive Planning Tools for Airport Surface Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cognitive Systems Engineering, Inc.
7197 Calhoun Road
Ostrander, OH 43061-9335
(614) 292-4120

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Phil Smith
smith.131@osu.edu
7197 Calhoun Rd
Ostrander,  OH 43061-9335
(614) 292-4120

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Two critical requirements for an effective airport surface management system are: ? The need to adapt plans both strategically and tactically because of time-varying uncertainty. ? The need to support coordination and collaboration among a number of different individuals, including controllers in the ATC Tower (ATCT), traffic managers in the ATCT, ARTCCs, TRACONs and ATCSCC, dispatchers and air traffic control coordinators at Flight Operations Centers, and ramp controllers/supervisors at airports. NASA has developed algorithms to support such strategic and tactical adaptive planning for airport surface management. This proposal seeks to complement and support this line of research and development through the definition of roles, responsibilities and procedures for coordination and collaboration among these individuals as they adapt airport departure queues at spots and runways to deal with evolving conditions. It further seeks to design and complete formative evaluations for interface designs that make use of NASA's adaptive planning algorithms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is developing and testing new operational concepts for airport surface management in order to improve future performance in the NAS. The work completed under this project will help to refine these operational concepts in terms of the roles, responsibilities, procedures and interface designs necessary to integrate tactical and strategic planning algorithms for departure queue management into an effective human-centered design that supports coordination and collaboration among the relevant stakeholders. The work will also provide guidance regarding potential refinements of NASA's algorithms to more effectively support such collaborative work. The conceptual findings will support improvements of the operational concepts developed by NASA. In addition, the interface designs can be integrated into NASA's simulation capabilities to enable more effective Human-in-the-Loop studies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flight operators, airport operators and FAA staff all need tools to better support their roles in airport surface management tasks. Industry is developing a number of such tools to market to these organizations. The interface designs and underlying operational concepts developed through this SBIR should offer significant improvements in the design of such surface management tools. The results of this SBIR should therefore create opportunities for our company to partner with such vendors in the development of such tools, making use of the interface design concepts that we have developed, as well as the expertise that we have developed and demonstrated through the completion of this SBIR.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-9175
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Relative Position Indicator Concept for Managing Mixed RNAV and Vectored Arrival Traffic

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Atkins
atkins@mosaicatm.com
3 Primrose Lane
Westford,  MA 01886-3312
(978) 692-9484

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mosaic ATM proposes to study a Relative Position Indicator (RPI) concept for managing mixed RNAV and traditionally vectored arrival traffic, to enable increased adoption of RNAV procedures in airspace or traffic environments that include mixed RNAV and non-RNAV aircraft. The most common reason controllers give for why RNAV procedures are not used at their airports is the difficulty handling mixed RNAV and non-RNAV flights. Our proposed concept directly addresses this complaint, providing a controller decision aid to help controllers merge RNAV and non-RNAV aircraft. We will also study other applications of the RPI concept, such as planning departure slots into an arrival stream. The project directly compliments NASA's research and contributes to the NASA Airspace Systems Program's mission. The results of this project could be applied within NASA's TAPSS project to address mixed RNAV/vectored aircraft environments. Since RPI technology has been deployed by the FAA for other applications, and the project addresses a current need, the project also endeavors to transfer the resulting technology to the FAA for operational use.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for the research results beyond Phase 2 include use by NASA within TAPSS. This technology would complement NASA's TAPSS by supporting controller acceptance showing ghost targets will increase the controller's confidence that the TAPSS speed advisories achieve the required merging without vectoring. In addition, TAPSS assumes all arrivals will be flying RNAV RNP approach procedures, or that controllers can manually handle non-RNAV aircraft using current vectoring techniques. Controllers at numerous ATC facilities not using RNAV arrival procedures have expressed that the main reason for not using RNAV procedures is the difficulty controllers have merging RNAV and non-RNAV arrivals. Our concept will help TAPSS accommodate non-RNAV flights and, thereby, support controller acceptance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Trajectory based operations are a cornerstone of NextGen and RNAV procedures have a proven benefit in the NAS. However, adoption of RNAV arrival procedures has been slow due to the challenge controllers face merging RNAV and non-RNAV flights. This project will deliver a controller aide that addresses this issue and could enable broad adoption of RNAV arrival procedures and the accompanying benefits. We envision technology transfer to the FAA occurring at the end of Phase 2, for implementation within the TRACON automation systems. A similar concept to address a different issue currently operates at several airports, offering a clear path for implementation of this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.02-8135
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Systems Analysis Integration Evaluation (SAIE)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Hemispherical Scanner for a Coherent Fiber LIDAR System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SibellOptics
1855 South 57th Court
Boulder, CO 80301-2811
(303) 913-1772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russ Sibell
hanoverberry@msn.com
1855 South 57th Court
Boulder,  CO 80301-2811
(303) 913-1772

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SibellOptics proposes to develop an eye-safe, long-range, compact, versatile, all-fiber wind LIDAR system for atmospheric wind velocity measurement applications that is more efficient, and reliable, and at a much lower up-front and lifetime cost than any wind LIDAR system currently available. The hardware for this fiber wind LIDAR system has already been designed and the major components identified. Therefore, it is proposed that, for this Phase 1 SBIR program effort, that SibellOptics procure all materials for the scanner / telescope, assemble the sub-system, and run a preliminary test.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Of particular interest to this program is the detection, tracking, and measurement of wake vortices and turbulence. The major incentives for wake vortex and turbulence monitoring are twofold: safety and efficiency. A coherent LIDAR system has the ability to dynamically track wake vortices and turbulence along the glide slope path of an aircraft to a much greater resolution than other meteorological measurement systems. Furthermore, a fiber-based system will be greatly reduced in size, weight, and power (SWAP) over the only aviation LIDAR system currently available commercially.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wind Energy Wind energy generation is one of the fastest growing industries in the world and LIDAR technology is gaining a great deal of momentum in this market segment as a means to assess potential wind farm sites, optimize the performance of current facilities, and to protect expensive wind turbines from damage. A wind LIDAR for both wind assessment and operations where its longer range (14 km) combined with an attractive price can be utilized to replace multiple LIDARS or anemometer towers. Yachting and Harbor Subscriptions Maritime markets potentially include ocean-going vessels as well as subscription wind data and weather sales to harbors and ports. There are four opportunities to address in this market: (1) the owners of luxury yachts, (2) the yacht manufacturers, (3) the yacht charter operators and (4) the harbor market where ships of all types operate. Meteorological Environmental scientists have successfully used the WindTracer<SUP>REG</SUP> system to accurately track the direction and dispersion of factory atmospheric emissions and volcanic ash. The WindTracer<SUP>REG</SUP> LIDAR has also been used by atmospheric scientists to study the formation of typhoons over the Pacific Ocean.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.02-8168
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Systems Analysis Integration Evaluation (SAIE)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Next Generation Fiber Coherent Lidar System for Wake Vortex Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SibellOptics
1855 South 57th Court
Boulder, CO 80301-2811
(303) 913-1772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russ Sibell
hanoverberry@msn.com
1855 South 57th Court
Boulder,  CO 80301-2811
(303) 913-1772

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SibellOptics proposes to develop an eye-safe, long-range, compact, versatile, all-fiber wind LIDAR system for wake vortex measurement and other wind measurement applications that is more efficient, and reliable, and at a much lower up-front and lifetime cost than any wind LIDAR system currently available. It is proposed herein that the fiber transmitter sub-system be ordered and built on a breadboard and characterized.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The fiber-based wind LIDAR system will be applicable to all wind phenomena measrements including wake vortices, wind shear, and gust fronts. The LIDAR system can detect and measure winds out to 14 km and as close as 100 m with the capacity for adjusting range gates and measurement accuracy by adjusting the drive current via an operator interface. The unit will also have an internal switch that will "wake" the system up or change operation mode when aircraft comes within range.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the aviation market already discussed in detail in this proposal other industries that would benefit from the commercialization of a compact, inexpensive, reliable fiber LIDAR system are: 1. Wind Energy A wind LIDAR for both wind assessment and operations where its longer range (14 km) combined with an attractive price can be utilized to replace multiple LIDARS or anemometer towers. 2. Yachting Maritime markets potentially include ocean-going vessels as well as subscription wind data and weather sales to harbors and ports. There are four opportunities to address in this market: (1) the owners of luxury yachts, (2) the yacht manufacturers, (3) the yacht charter operators and (4) the harbor market where ships of all types operate. Potential users are comprised of both sailing and motor driven vessels. 3. Meteorological Environmental scientists have successfully used the WindTracer<SUP>REG</SUP> system to accurately track the direction and dispersion of factory atmospheric emissions and volcanic ash. The WindTracer<SUP>REG</SUP> LIDAR has also been used by atmospheric scientists to study the formation of typhoons over the Pacific Ocean.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.02-8594
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Systems Analysis Integration Evaluation (SAIE)
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Robust Separation Assurance (SA) Architecture Using Integrated Airborne and Ground SA Concepts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michel Santos
msantos@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5203

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes a robust SA architecture that uses integrated airborne and ground-based SA concepts such that SA functions are switched between airborne or ground-based activity as the system monitors traffic, network characteristics such as data drop rates and latency, and time to Loss of Separation (LOS). The uniqueness of an integrated air-ground SA concept is that the SA functional roles are changed between the SA stakeholders (i.e., ATC, Pilot and service providers) to maintain robustness of the SA performance under degraded network conditions. The proposed SA architecture consists of a Network and SA Performance Metric Monitor (PMM), which monitors short-horizon performance metrics of the network and the currently used SA concept. It also consists of an Air-Ground Concept Manager (AGCM), which decides if one or multiple SA concepts are to be applied in a given airspace (i.e., center, flow corridor or transition airspace) based on the observed and estimated network and SA performance metrics. The proposed mechanism consists of dividing airspace into SA sectors, where SA activity in each sector is managed based on a single SA concept. The approach delineates the SA functions or roles between the stakeholders for each SA sector and addresses the transfer of control between the SA stakeholders as the aircraft flies through the SA sectors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort enhances NASA's simulation testbeds ACES, ATOS and MACS for NASA researchers to perform SA studies of applying multiple SA concepts with delineation of roles and transfer of control. The outcomes of the research are results of SA performance trade-off studies between different airborne and ground-based SA concepts under varying level of traffic densities, complexities and communication and surveillance characteristics. The outcomes and proposed concepts also contribute to NASA's NextGen milestones on Separation Assurance and System Level Analysis based research, and hence they can be transitioned into NASA programs such as Center-terminal Automation System (CTAS) and En-route Descent Advisor (EDA).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful demonstration of the integrated SA architecture will enable us to transition the technology to FAA and DOD programs. This effort, in part, explores FAA's solution to "Trajectory Management - Conflict Resolution Advisories" activity under the FY2011 funded NextGen Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) program. The FAA's TBO program is expected continue beyond FY2011, when this research effort would have matured enough to be transitioned to FAA. The technology can also be transitioned to DOD's initiative on a number of programs to study safe operation of UAVs in the NAS for national security operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.01-8044
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Surface Thermometry Approach for use in Aerothermodynamic Wind Tunnel Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Applied Technologies, Inc.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801-1721
(781) 935-2800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaomei Guo
xmguo@bostonati.com
6F Gill Street
Woburn,  MA 01801-1721
(781) 935-2800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project is aimed at developing a novel thermometry technology with upconverting phosphors for temperature measurement in NASA's high-enthalpy wind tunnels. Conventional thermographic phosphors require illumination by ultraviolet (UV) light and emit light at visible wavelengths. However, UV excitation is problematic in many large-scale facilities because it demands very expensive UV-quality windows and the UV light can be absorbed and scattered by gas species and particles in the flow path. Upconversion phosphors have been previously developed in our company and the temperature-sensing effect up to around 1000C with excellent sensitivity was demonstrated. A major part of this Phase I efforts will be directed towards applying these thermographic phosphors to a surface coating on a model and tested in a wind tunnel environment. The objective is to develop new surface coatings that are aerodynamically smooth, very durable, require near IR excitation and enable surface temperatures in the range of 300 K to 1500 K to be measured.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development effort of this program will directly result in the novel technique for monitoring of surface temperatures in NASA's high-enthalpy wind tunnels. This technique has potential for aerothermodynamic heating applications, scramjet combustion research, ablator recession-rate monitoring, and gas-turbine engine health monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of this novel thermometry technology will allow non-contact monitoring of high temperature surfaces, which is useful in all high temperature related processes. Therefore, its non-NASA applications are also enormous. Potential applications include, but are not limited to high temperature fields in gas turbine engines, afterburner sections, internal combustion engines and boilers. They are also useful means for kilns, the steel and iron industries to monitor temperatures throughout the product making process.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.01-8104
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micromachined Sensors for Hypersonic Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation
5004 Northwest 60th Terrace
Gainesville, FL 32652-4061
(352) 359-7796

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Griffin
ufgriffo@gmail.com
5004 NW 60th Terrace
Gainesville,  FL 32652-4061
(352) 281-9280

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation proposes a sensor that offers the unique capability to make wall shear stress measurement and pressure measurements for time resolved, unsteady hypersonic measurements in NASA facilities. An all sapphire optical-based sensor scheme will facilitate high bandwidth, high resolution, and robust sensors for both skin friction and pressure measurements in harsh hypersonic flow environment. The proposed shear stress sensor possesses utilizes Moire based technique for non intrusive remote data acquisition using sapphire fibres. The pressure sensor utilizes an optic lever-based measurement scheme. Both the shear and pressure sensor are co-located on a single die for localized surface stress measurement. A robust and compact package with miniature interface electronics enables flush sensor mounting conformal with the surface. The sensor development effort focuses on novel pico-second laser micromachining techniques for fabrication on sapphire with minimal heat damage to maintain original sensor material properties. Furthermore, sapphire's high transparency (170 nm to 5.3 &#956;m wavelength range) along with the availability of sapphire optical fibers make possible the fabrication of optical sensors with the electronics located remotely from the sensor. Sapphire wafers are also readily available in numerous sizes and crystallographic orientations. The sensor will exceed its predecessors in performance and will offer hypersonic surface stress measurement capabilities that are currently insufficient.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Skin friction and pressure measurement for hypersonic flow conditions will enable NASA ATP facilities to precise stress measurement under harsh conditioned, which is currently not possible. This capability provides scientific value and poses significant commercial gain to NASA ATP by means of providing aerodynamic design and testing opportunity to the aerospace industry. Specific NASA ATP facilities that will benefit from precise skin friction instrumentation for aerodynamic performance estimation are, Aerothermodynamic Laboratories Facilities (31-inch Mach 10 Air, 20-inch Mach 6 Air , 20-inch Mach 6 CF4, and the 12-inch Mach 6 Air) to enable studies of aerodynamic performance of hypersonic vehicle components. In addition to the hypersonic testing at LaRC, the proposed innovation is also applicable to some of NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion System Laboratories. Overall, NASA and the aerospace industry stand to significantly benefit via better aerodynamic design and higher efficiency/ lower drag at lower cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several research institutes, aerospace companies perform routine wind tunnel testing hypersonic regimes. Gas turbine for better power generation and combustion study and control, evaluation of flame front propagation during combustion are some other areas where this technology will be very applicable. Industrial process control in harsh high temperature conditions such as petroleum refineries are other potential applications. This sensor may also serve as a platform technology with a potential impact on a broad application spectrum that ranges from fundamental scientific research, biomedical applications, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.01-8522
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: MEMS Skin Friction Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation
5004 Northwest 60th Terrace
Gainesville, FL 32652-4061
(352) 359-7796

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Griffin
ufgriffo@gmail.com
5004 NW 60th Terrace
Gainesville,  FL 32652-4061
(352) 281-9280

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation proposes a sensor that offers the unique capability to make non-intrusive, direct, simultaneous mean and fluctuating shear stress measurement for subsonic and transonic test applications. Currently a standard for shear stress measurement tool does not exist. A precise silicon micromachined, differential capacitive, instrumentation grade sensor will facilitate skin friction measurement with high bandwidth, high resolution, and minimal sensitivity to pressure. The proposed sensor possesses through wafer vias for backside electrical contacts to enable non-intrusive measurements in turbulent boundary layers. A robust and compact package with miniature interface electronics enables flush sensor mounting conformal with surfaces. The sensor development effort transitions a proof-of-concept device by adding design components to have reduced pressure sensitivity to result in a commercially viable product. Circuit topology development for biasing and signal conditioning provides the ability to make simultaneous mean and dynamic shear stress measurement. The sensor performance will exceed its predecessors and set the standard for quantitative skin friction measurements. The simplicity of sensor design and an equally simple and proven fabrication technique allows for low cost, high performance sensors. The sensor holds promise to transform current flow control techniques and enable efficient aerodynamic designs. Existing shear stress estimation techniques rely on known correlation to a measured quantity. Direct measurement eliminates the need for a known correlation in an unknown flow. Capacitive transduction has been successful for a highly sensitive device with a large dynamic range and low noise floor, which is the current state of the art. The proposed sensor may therefore be improved beyond the state of the art to serve as a measurement standard for all types of skin friction measurement techniques.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Simultaneous mean and dynamic shear stress measurement will enable NASA ATP facilities to precisely measure wall skin friction, which is currently not possible. Specifically, in the subsonic and the transonic regimes, this sensor will allow NASA ATP to explore skin friction drag reduction technology. This capability provides scientific value and poses significant commercial gain to NASA ATP by means of providing aerodynamic design and testing opportunity to the aviation industry. Furthermore, this technology enables NASA to establish a primary calibration standard for other shear stress measurement techniques, potentially extending this capability to supersonic and hypersonic regimes. Specific NASA ATP facilities that will benefit from precise skin friction instrumentation for aerodynamic performance estimation are: ?NASA Glenn Research Center: 9' by 15' low speed wind tunnel ?NASA Langley Research Center: 14' by 22' Subsonic Wind Tunnel, 20 Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel, and the 11 ft x 11 ft Transonic Unitary Plan Facility. The silicon micromachining technique inherently minimizes unit cost. Overall, NASA and the aviation industry stand to significantly benefit via better aerodynamic design and higher efficiency/ lower drag at lower cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several research institutes and aviation companies perform routine wind tunnel testing in the subsonic and transonic regimes. Formula 1 cars undergo aerodynamic design changes on a weekly basis and are tested at full scale in wind tunnels. With depleting petroleum reserves, wind turbines are being increasingly utilized, necessitating blade/vane design and material improvements for better efficiency. Wind turbine control is increasingly implemented in wind farms for power regulation using turbine pitch and yaw control techniques where skin friction measurement may serve as a feedback signal. In 2008 alone the wind energy industry attracted over $17 billion indicating substantial amount would be invested in control system, which is a portion of the 34% of the wind turbine cost. Skin friction measurement is extremely important for advancements in all of these applications. Shear stress may also be used to estimate flow rate, which opens the $1.35 billion flow rate sensor market for non-intrusive measurements. For example, remote flow rate monitoring in transcontinental pipelines for transporting natural gas and other hydrocarbon fuels. This sensor may also serve as a platform technology with a potential impact on a broad application spectrum that ranges from fundamental scientific research to industrial process control, biomedical applications, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.01-9561
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Force and Moment Measurement System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4962
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Davis
davism@lunainnovations.com
3157 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 558-1696

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The structural design of aircraft and their propulsion systems is a challenging task that requires accurate, flexible ground facilities capable of operating over the flight regimes of emerging subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic designs. Luna Innovations is proposing to develop distributed fiber optic sensing technology specifically designed to make high precision, thermally compensated, distributed force and moment measurements on wind tunnel test articles and supporting structures. Luna will leverage its patented Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry technology to provide unprecedented high speed data at extremely high spatial resolution. The sensing fiber will have the capability of being embedded into composite test structures, attached to the structure of a flight vehicle or model, and used to simplify force balance designs. This advancement is needed in NASA facilities to support the Aeronautics Test Program's effort to protect current, and provide additional test capabilities, and the Fundamental Aeronautics Program's goals to evaluate new airframe designs through aerodynamic research. An all-optical distributed force and moment measurement system will be applicable to test articles across all of NASA's ground-based aerodynamic test facilities. The system will enable support of projects such as future Lunar and Mars probes, fundamental aerodynamics research, and commercial systems testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The implementation of distributed fiber optic sensing technology into current and future NASA projects will enable improved accuracy in aerodynamic measurements made across NASA facilities under a variety of test conditions and at a reduced cost. Operating at a reduced cost will allow more extensive testing of design features and system level designs in support of the next generation CEV, Lunar and Mars landing modules, and advanced propulsion systems. Fiber optic sensors are the only platform capable of accurately and reliably spanning the temperature range that is tested in the various NASA facilities from the National Transonics Facility to the HTT. It will also provide NASA with the capability of embedding the sensing system into composite structures for the purpose of monitoring key parameters without affecting the performance of the composite material. This technology will demonstrate itself as being vital to increasing the future design and testing capabilities of NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While NASA is the leader in fundamental research for advancing aerospace technology within the United States, commercial entities are also working to advance the state-of-the-art in high and low-speed propulsion, flight vehicles, and fundamental aerospace sciences. The technology developed during this project will enable commercial air and spacecraft developers to obtain vital data which will improve vehicle design, safety, and efficiency. In addition, the distributed strain sensing system developed during this program will be applicable across industry to all structural monitoring applications in which electrical gauges are too cumbersome to use and do not provide sufficient speed, spatial resolution, and survivability. A configurable, versatile distributed fiber optic system provides a non-intrusive method of accurately measuring thermally compensated forces and moments, as opposed to electrical gauges, remaining EMI-resistant. Luna expects this system will act as a significant upgrade to existing facilities in which no current instrumentation exists with these capabilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Composites
Structures
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Gratings
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.02-8405
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust, Self-Contained and Bio-Inspired Shear Sensor Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
420 North Nash Street
El Segundo, CA 90245-2822
(310) 372-9609

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kerho
Mike.Kerho@RollingHillsResearch.com
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo,  CA 90245-2822
(310) 640-8781

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a robust, bio-inspired, and self-contained sensor array for the measurement of shear stress. The proposed system uses commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) components to create a distributed sensor array for the measurement of shear stress in either a flight or ground test environment. The reusable sensor array requires no external wiring or power source. The bio-inspired system is based on mimicking the sensitivity and response of a single hair fiber/receptor neuron to sense flow velocity very near a surface. An array of the hair cell inspired shear sensors are embedded in a flexible, self-adhesive backed sheet of polymide substrate, which also contains a self-contained, battery operated acquisition system. The self-contained blanket array can be quickly and easily applied to aircraft or vehicle surfaces in question. No wiring, external power, or control is required. After testing, the system can be quickly removed and reused. In addition to measurement of shear stress, the sensor array should be able to determine laminar/turbulent boundary-layer transition locations, laminar/turbulent separation and reattachment lines, and shock locations. The proposed bio-inspired shear sensor array promises to provide a robust, realizable, accurate, efficient, and cost effective measurement system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A robust shear stress measurement system for both flight and ground test facilities has significant potential application at several NASA centers, and across a wide range of NASA facilities. The ability to produce reliable, robust and cost effective shear stress measurements is an important goal for NASA. By being able to determine boundary-layer transition and separation locations, the proposed system can be used to validate transition prediction and multidisciplinary analysis and optimization tools. The system could be used in boundary-layer ingestion and optimization efforts. In a more permanent set-up, the robust measurement system could be used as input for vehicle adaptive control in uncertain environments or adverse conditions, or for closed loop flow control for aircraft, rotorcraft, or high lift technologies. Accurate, robust, and cost effective shear stress measurement is a necessary and compelling technology. NASA centers and facilities will be eager to exploit the proposed technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced sensing technology in the form of a robust shear stress measurement system for both flight and ground test facilities will provide RHRC with a unique and highly marketable product. The ability to measure laminar/turbulent transition and both laminar/turbulent separation locations will be of significant importance to both test engineers and researchers. With the current high costs of both flight and ground testing, coupled with reduced design and test schedules, the proposed technology will be highly desirable in military, government, and civilian testing markets. The technology developed by RHRC under this program will allow the efficient and cost effective measurement of a fundamental aerodynamic quantity on vehicles across a wide range of applications other than aircraft. These include automobiles, hydrodynamic, and civil engineering applications. RHRC will be able to provide complete sensor systems. The technology can also be easily licensed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.02-8909
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Biomimetic Approach for Accurate, Real-Time Aerodynamic Coefficients

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tao of Systems Integration, Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5050

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arun Mangalam
arun@taosystems.us
144 Research Drive
Hampton,  VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5040

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aerodynamic and structural reliability and efficiency depends critically on the ability to accurately assess the aerodynamic loads and moments for each lifting surface. A thin-film, flight-worthy sensor capable of providing spatio-temporally accurate estimation of aerodynamic coefficients enables revolutionary energy-efficient, physics-based, force-feedback flight control of a wide range of vehicles from subsonic to supersonic flows. Recent biophysics research has uncovered sensory techniques to recover information from the noisy environment. Tao Systems proposes to develop a unique sensor that robustly applies these biomimetic sensory techniques to the aerodynamic problem to obtain accurate estimates of aerodynamic coefficients with minimal calibration requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Accurate real-time aerodynamic load/moment sensors will enable a number of revolutionary capabilities across a wide speed range, including, but not limited to: (1) shorter take-off and landing, (2) safe, reliable supersonic operation, and (3) larger passenger and cargo capacity. The primary difficulty in all three revolutionary capabilities is the uncertainty in aerodynamic load \& moments generated by the airstream in design and off-design conditions, e.g., turbulent flows and high angles of attack. Measuring the aerodynamic loads/moments reduces the aerodynamic uncertainty enabling the aircraft to timely, robustly compensate for the adverse flow conditions. Therefore, the proposed innovation could be of significant interest to the aircraft civilian industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For national security, the ability to cruise efficiently at a range of altitude, enabled by a substantial increase in cruise lift-to-drag (L/D) ratios over today's high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, is vital, providing sustained presence and long range. Aerodynamic load/moment sensors would enable the efficient, robust active control of adaptive, lightweight wings to optimize lift distribution to maximize L/D. Cost-effectively improving the energy capture and reliability of wind turbines would help national renewable energy initiatives. A standalone aerodynamic load/moment sensor could provide output for control feedback to mitigate the turbine blade lifetime-limiting time varying loads generated by the ambient wind.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Support
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Inertial
Pressure/Vacuum
Thermal
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.02-9308
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Combustion/Emission Species Monitoring Ground and Flight Aeronautical Research Using a Gas Microsensor Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530) 895-2770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Ward
bward@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,  CA 95973-9064
(216) 587-4750

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and the Ohio State University (OSU) propose to develop high sensitivity, miniaturized and in-situ operated gas sensors for the real time monitoring of chemical composition of turbine engine combustors and/or exhaust streams for real-time, in-flight propulsion system measurements to improve NASA's aeronautical flight test capabilities. Gas microsensor arrays developed by MEI, OSU and our technical development partners including NASA have been demonstrated for ground test usage to quantify composition of critical constituents in turbine engine exhaust products, e.g., CO, CO2, NOx, O2, HC (unburned hydrocarbons) and H2. These sensor systems provide the basis for the proposed NASA SBIR effort, which will also leverage development of packaging for extractive emissions testing developed for the DoD with support from NASA researchers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposal targets the improvement of NASA's ground and flight test aeronautics testing capabilities. Potential end users within NASA include ground test facilities such as Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) and Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL), as well as flight facilities such as DFRC with both piloted and unmanned systems. Real-time, in-flight data regarding combustor condition and emissions species can provide a previously unavailable test capability for NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology has military and commercial applications as well, which fits well with NASA's mission for the promotion of advanced technology for civil aviation. Near term, based on input from members of the emissions testing community, there is a need for a lower cost, readily available emissions detection capability for use in engine development and performance measurements. As the sensors and packaging technologies mature, the gas sensor array system might also be used for emissions certification testing for commercial engines. This technology will also apply to in-situ measurement capabilities for coal power plants, industrial burners, boilers, gas turbines, and other engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Ceramics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.02-9579
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
8 Chrysler
Irvine, CA 92618-2008
(949) 553-0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Cecil Hess
chess@metrolaserinc.com
8 Chrysler
Irvine,  CA 92618-2008
(949) 553-0688

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of modern aircraft. This system would improve the test capabilities of NASA's ground facilities, specifically the Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL). MetroLaser proposes to use a multi-beam laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) capable of arbitrary beam patterns on the target. This system coupled with acoustic or vibration excitation would reveal changes in the stiffness of the material, which are related to internal flaws within the material. This approach, based on the well-known LDV technique, is unique and innovative in the way it addresses the measurement requirement with multiple beams in an arbitrary beam pattern for high-speed coverage of large target areas. The Phase I work would consist of modeling, analysis and experimental work to define the system architecture and the measurement strategy, and would include developing a breadboard sensor to perform proof-of-concept experiments. It would culminate with a conceptual design of a Phase II prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include structural dynamic studies of aircraft and components, structural evaluation of heat protective shields of re-entry vehicles, and health monitoring of wind tunnel compressors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The market for the long range, multi-beam LDV system proposed here is broad and it includes wind turbine testing, automobile manufacturers (for example the transient phenomena of disk brakes requires making measurements with multiple beams simultaneously), airplane testing, the testing of civil and mechanical engineering structures (e.g. bridges), and numerous defense applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Quality/Reliability
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.01-9367
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mitigation of Aircraft Aging and Durability-Related Hazards
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modelling the Effects of Surface Residual Stresses on Fatigue Behavior of PM Disk Alloys

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
N&R Engineering
6659 Pearl Road, #201
Parma Heights, OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Gayda, Jr.
johngaydajr@yahoo.com
6659 Pearl Road
Parma Heights,  OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A finite element based model will be developed and validated to capture the evolution of residual stresses and cold work at machined features of compressor and turbine powder metallurgy superalloy disks. The focus will be to quantify, model and validate residual stress and cold work evolution at stress concentration features during simulated service in aerospace gas turbine engine disk materials. This will be accomplished by first utilizing existing NASA Test data. If the existing test data are insufficient, a minimum number of specimens will be tested if the resources permit. These specimens will have varied surface finish conditions to be determined in consultation with NASA personnel and will be tested using a thermal mechanical load history that will simulate the operating conditions of new generation of gas turbine engines and include the effect of superimposed dwell cycles. The deliverables will include effects of service history on residual stress and cold work depth profile evolutions within notches, and analytical modeling descriptions of the evolution of these parameters as a function of simulated service history. Also included will be models and algorithms extrapolating the predicted residual stresses and cold work to service conditions outside of those tested during the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The long-term goal of this research effort is to improve the life and durability of turbomachinery disk components made from advanced powder metal alloys. These improvements are critical to the success NASA programs such as Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) program. This program has the goal demonstrating technologies that can reduce aircraft emissions and fuel consumption. This requires that components operate at increased temperatures and/or with reduced cooling air. Advanced metal alloy and composite materials can operate under these conditions, but durability and life must be assured. One of ERAs approaches to accomplishing these goals is to focus on "advanced multi-discipline based concepts and technologies," which is exactly the approach of this proposal. Structural, thermal, materials, reliability and systems engineering expertise must be brought together to achieve the objectives in Phase I

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results of this proposal and potential products will be of interest to the commercial gas turbine industry in general. This includes large aircraft engine companies such as General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. This is especially true for smaller companies in the private sector that cannot afford a research effort of this magnitude. Honeywell has expressed specific interest in this work and has provided a letter to this effect, which is provided with this proposal. The methodologies (and supporting analysis/design tools) as well as improved PM disk designs are both considered products of this effort. The primary market for the compressor and turbine disk designs includes gas turbine engines for use in military and civilian aircraft applications. Gas turbine engines are also used for ground power applications. These projects identify advanced materials as key technologies for future power generation systems based on gas turbine engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Generation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Processing Methods
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Structures
Atmospheric Propulsion
X-rays/Gamma Rays
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.01-9476
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mitigation of Aircraft Aging and Durability-Related Hazards
PROPOSAL TITLE: Characterization and Modeling of Residual Stress and Cold Work Evolution in PM Nickel Base Disk Superalloy

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lambda Research
5521 Fair Lane
Cincinnati, OH 45227-3401
(513) 561-0883

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douglas Hornbach
dhornbach@lambdatechs.com
5521 Fair Lane
Cincinnati,  OH 45227-3401
(513) 561-0883

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Powder metal (PM) superalloys used for critical compressor and turbine disk applications are prone to fatigue failures in stress concentration features such as holes and radii, as well as from corrosion pits and inclusions. Residual stress and cold work will have a dramatic impact on the fatigue performance. Shot peening is widely used on PM disks to provide a fatigue benefit however, the relaxation due to thermal and mechanical loads can reduce or even eliminate the compressive residual stresses and increase the risk of a catastrophic disk failure. Up to now the evolution of the residual stress and cold work under typical operating conditions in PM disk superalloys is not well understood. In Phase I proprietary x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques will be used to simultaneously measure the change in residual stress and cold work for fatigue specimens tested in a manner to approximate in-service conditions. XRD residual stress and cold work results will be used to establish the feasibility of applying analytical or empirically based modeling techniques to predict the residual stress and cold work evolution. The modeling technique will first be demonstrated on fatigue samples and further developed and proven on actual disk hardware in Phase II. The anticipated beginning and ending technology readiness levels (TRLs) for Phase I are 2 and 5, respectively.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed development program will provide the following for NASA applications: A multi-functional modeling tool to be used in NASA's Aviation Safety Program to provide longer lasting and safer compressor and turbine disk operation. A means of measuring residual stress and cold work depth distributions simultaneously in critical high stress regions of disks. A software tool that will allow for accurate assessment of the change in residual stress and cold working of disks providing a predictive capability of determining the remaining life of a part. A means of developing surface enhancement processes that can produce the optimal compressive residual stress and cold working for maximum residual stress stability through the life of the part. The model will allow for NASA engineers to understand the full stress state of the disk (applied + residual) as a function of life for a much more accurate interpretation of fatigue life. This development will ultimately assist NASA in achieving their goal of safer and more reliable operation of legacy and new production aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications for quantification and modeling of the residual stress and cold work outside of NASA are significant. Non-NASA applications are much the same as those listed above. Engine OEM's and their suppliers can use the predictive tools developed in this program to thoroughly understand how residual stresses and cold work change during the life cycle disks. Furthermore, the OEMs can use the measurement and modeling tools to develop more robust surface enhancement processes that remain stable at high temperatures and stresses, producing higher fatigue strengths, and safer longer lasting performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Metallics
Destructive Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.02-8073
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capability for Aircraft Aging and Damage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a Computed Tomography Simulator: SimCT, Application to Health Monitoring and Remaining Life Assessment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NDE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1785 Sourwood Place
Charlottesville, VA 22911-7425
(434) 973-0299

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Irving Gray
irving.gray@ndetechnologies.com
1785 Sourwood Place
Charlottesville,  VA 22911-7425
(434) 973-0299

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this activity is to develop a quantitative NDE simulation tool for computed tomography suitable for desktop work using realistic geometry descriptions of complex anisotropic geometry. The increasing demands on NDE to address inspection reliability in the area of health monitoring and remaining life assessment demand that quantitative engineering tools be available so that cost effect engineering analysis on inspectibility limits and optimal inspection protocols be done. Most NDE techniques, as they move to a more digital format, generate terabytes of data for a single scan. X-ray methods generally have high computational needs. Until recently extracting information from massive data sets was impossible due to limited computation capabilities. By applying the emerging massively parallel graphic processing cards (GPU) to a CT simulation, SimCT, we have a means to address the quantitative modeling in an important NDE method needed to characterize materials in support of health monitoring activities. The computational techniques using GPU platforms and the data analysis methods developed in the x-ray area apply to any NDE method. This R&D effort will develop a GPU implementation of the key subroutine in SimCT and demonstrate the capability to handle NDE simulation needs using complex geometry in near real time.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Developing NDE quantitative protocols, as demands on performance of materials increases, becomes increasingly critical and difficult. Quantitative simulation tools capable of assessing the impact of the multitude of inspection parameters provide a cost effective means to determine adequate procedures in safety critical inspections. Developing simulation tools addressing realistic complexity seen in new materials and real field inspections requires an ability to adequately model complex samples; which in turn requires the utilization of the latest computation platforms, namely GPU's. The massively parallel GPU platforms enable the solution a new class of computational problem at one tenth the cost of traditional parallel approaches. The computational methods involved in modeling complex geometry from a Cad format also apply to other NDE methods modeling. Finally developing more robust and polished interface for these engineering tools gives better productivity and access to more people with reduced training needs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are currently no competing CT simulation products to SimCT in the market place. The extensions and modifications added to the software under this Project will increase the speed of operation by about 100 times. This allows for new categories of problems to be addressed and investigated in reasonable times or at greater levels of detail. Besides NASA applications, there are analogous uses for SimCT in both DoD and commercial aging aircraft problems. Additionally there is the potential to enter the multi-million dollar medical market and with Homeland Security CT scaning with a swifter easier to operate program. Lastly, these improvements will allow bundling SimCT with hardware systems to improve the overall operation of CT systems. Expected sales increases of the program from these applications are estimated to be in the 150 to 200 unit category or $4 million on the high end.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
3D Imaging
Image Analysis
Image Processing
Radiography
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.02-9326
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capability for Aircraft Aging and Damage
PROPOSAL TITLE: New Wireless Sensors for Diagnostics Under Harsh Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Krystal Engineering LLC
1429 Chaffee Drive, Suite 1
Titusville, FL 32780-7929
(321) 264-9822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christine Rivenbark
ckr@krystalengineering.com
1429 Chaffee Drive, Suite 1
Titusville,  FL 32780-7929
(321) 264-9822

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is an acute need for robust sensors and sensor systems capable of operation in harsh environments. In particular, high temperature passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are highly desirable for improving safety and efficiency in aviation and space vehicles. Such sensors are used for the detection of fuel leaks in engines, fire in its initial stages, fuel flow modulation and control and monitoring, and in-flight NDE and diagnostics of vehicles. In this project, we will 1) develop a relatively new crystal material suitable for high-temperature SAWs; 2) design SAW sensors and investigate extremely high temperature operation (up to 1000<SUP>o</SUP>C) of the SAW sensor embodiments; 3) Integrate the SAW and antenna onto the wafer such that there are no external connections. This will form a fully integrated sensor antenna device without any external bonds or soldering. Phase I will include substantial materials development and characterization for uniformity and repeatability in SAWs. Prototype SAW designs will be developed and high-temperature characteristics evaluated. Phase II will develop a fully integrated sensor antenna and upscale the crystal growth for 3-4in SAW wafers. Probability for Phase III commercialization of both the wireless SAW sensors and SAW wafers is high.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wireless LGT SAW sensors and sensor systems capable of operation in harsh environments will be of immediate use to NASA. Among others, such high-temperature SAW sensors can be used for the detection of fuel leaks in engines, fire in its initial stages, fuel flow modulation and control for engine efficiency and enhanced maneuverability, monitoring and in-flight NDE, and diagnostics of vehicles. Overall they will greatly improve safety and efficiency in aviation and space vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Broader applications: SAW filters for cell phones; touchscreen displays; RFIDs; microfluidic actuation (pumping, mixing, jetting); fixed delay lines for radar systems, oscillators, path lengths equalizers; SAW delay line tunable VHF/UHF oscillators for mobile radio; bandpass filters in TV video game systems; linear and nonlinear frequency modulation chirp filters for radar; adaptive filters for spread-spectrum communications; acousto-optic spectrum analyzers; fixed frequency oscillators with high-short term stability; low-loss bandpass filters applications; plate convolers for fixed- and variable-code detection in radar, electronic counter-measures, air traffic control and handling systems; and many others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Navigation & Guidance
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Antennas
Coding & Compression
Transmitters/Receivers
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
GPS/Radiometric (see also Sensors)
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Acoustic/Vibration
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Electromagnetic
Pressure/Vacuum
Thermal
Destructive Testing
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
Passive Systems
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.03-9338
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Prediction of Aging Effects
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mesh Independent Probabilistic Residual Life Prediction of Metallic Airframe Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Global Engineering and Materials, Inc
11 Alscot Drive
East Lyme, CT 06333-1303
(860) 398-5620

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Lua
jlua@gem-consultant.com
11 Alscot Drive
East Lyme,  CT 06333-1303
(860) 398-5620

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Global Engineering and Materials, Inc. (GEM) along with its team members, Clarkson University and LM Aero, propose to develop a mesh independent probabilistic residual life prediction tool for metallic airframe structures. The deterministic solver of this probabilistic analysis tool will be developed by integrating our cutting edge extended finite element toolkit for Abaqus (XFA) with a novel small time-scale fatigue crack growth model for mesh independent fatigue crack growth prediction of a complex airframe structural component subjected to multiaxial and variable amplitude loading. The fast matching and narrow band technique will be implemented to track a curvilinear 3D crack growth without remeshing. Both the versatility and the high computational efficiency will make the XFA an ideal solution model for the probabilistic life prediction where the initial defect shape and location can be treated as random variables without user intervention. After the integration of XFA with a general purpose probabilistic analysis framework (PFA), the resulting probabilistic version of the XFA (PXFA) will enable the following: 1) fatigue reliability assessment of an aging component; 2) evaluation of design variables to meet a targeted reliability level; and 3) provision of operational decision support using SHM data on repair, maintenance, and life extension options.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results from this research will have significant benefits to enhance the aviation safety program in NASA. It will result in: 1) a commercially viable, accurate, computationally efficient, and user-friendly probabilistic residual life assessment tool for charactering fatigue crack growth and perform damage analysis with the presence of uncertainties in design and loading parameters; 2) an integrated analysis framework for fatigue damage prognosis and health management of air platform; 3) a virtual testing tool to reduce current certification and qualification costs which are heavily driven by experimental testing under various stress conditions; and 4) innovative probabilistic methods and reliability assessment procedures to facilitate the structural health management. The developed tool integrates advanced computational mechanics, innovative fatigue damage modeling, and efficient probabilistic methods into a seamless framework for probabilistic crack growth analysis and structural damage prognosis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural aging under fatigue loading is one of the most common failure mechanisms in civilian structures such as buildings, bridges, power lines, pressure vessels, and ship structures. The developed probabilistic fatigue life prediction tool can be used effectively and efficiently to assist a designer and rule-maker to answer the following questions: 1) How tolerant of cracks is the location? 2) How long to repair a crack in service? 3) What is the impact of an operational profile change? 4) How often should inspections be made? and 5) How can SHM input be used best? The tool can be used to assist commercial and military industries to reduce the cost of test-driven design and process iterations with the use of the virtual testing tool. Finally, teaming with LM, a highly visible airplane manufacturer, will considerably shorten our development cycle from producing a prototype research orientated tool to commercially accessible design software.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Metallics
Fasteners/Decouplers
Structures
Verification/Validation Tools
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.04-8409
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cloud Liquid Water Content Sensor for Radiosondes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anasphere, Inc.
106 Pronghorn Trail
Bozeman, MT 59718-6081
(406) 994-9354

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Bognar
jbognar@anasphere.com
106 Pronghorn Trail
Bozeman,  MT 59718-6081
(406) 994-9354

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Icing is one of the most significant hazards to aircraft. There is still much research to be completed with regard to developing remote-sensing technologies for accurately identifying where icing conditions exist in clouds. There is a need to provide in-situ measurements of cloud liquid water content to validate the remote measurements. Anasphere, Inc. proposes to develop a modernized version of the classic vibrating wire cloud liquid water content sensor. This modernized version will apply updated technology to the measurement, and more importantly will add a droplet sizing capability that the original versions of these sensors lacked. It will be designed to be compatible with a wide variety of radiosondes. Phase I will see the development and laboratory testing of the improved probe, its incorporation into a droplet sizing system, and finally actual test flights into clouds. Phase II work will involve developing more precise calibration methods, improving manufacturability, and extensive test flights.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA will be able to use the cloud liquid water content sensor to support the development of remote sensing methods for the measurement of cloud liquid water content. This data will support the development of operational meteorology products as well as fundamental research into icing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other government agencies and universities engaged in cloud, precipitation, and related research (such as cloud radiative transfer properties) will be able to use the sensor in their research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.04-8648
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solid State Multiwavelength LIDAR for Volcanic Ash Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Sonnenfroh
sonnenfroh@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a compact, multiwavelength LIDAR with polarization analysis capability that will be able to identify volcanic ash clouds at distance. The system will be developed specifically for airborne deployment, including on Unmanned Aerial Systems. A UAS-equipped with such a LIDAR could provide valuable supplementary information to that available from existing and planned satellite assets for defining and tracking volcanic ash plumes. The system footprint will be minimized by taking advantage of all solid-state laser transmitters such as emerging metal doped fiber amplifiers. The Phase I program will determine the most appropriate wavelengths for use via system modeling and then will select laser transmitter hardware. Additional modeling will determine the transmit pulse energy and receive aperture size. The system will be designed to be eyesafe. A complete conceptual design for an Airborne Multiwavelength Lidar will be developed. The technology readiness level at the entrance to the Phase I program is estimated to be 2 and at the exit of the program will be 3. The Phase II program will design, fabricate and ground test a prototype LIDAR system. Opportunities for a flight demonstration will be identified.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Multiwavelength Lidar will be a compact, low power tool that is suited for deployment on small aircraft such as UASs. The sensor will be well suited to measuring profiles of aerosols from a UAS for science missions and for satellite validation, such as for the CALIOP LIDAR, a two-wavelength polarization-sensitive elastic backscatter lidar, aboard the CALIPSO satellite.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The compact Multiwavelength Lidar could serve as a ground based platform that can address a variety of air quality aerosol monitoring applications including yellow dust, biomass burning, and coal-fired power generation facility compliance. PSI anticipates working with several strategic marketing partners to address the range of potential commercial applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.04-9528
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunction Lidar for Air Data and Kinetic Air Hazard Measurement

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ophir Corp
10184 West Belleview Avenue, Suite 200
Littleton, CO 80127-1762
(303) 933-2200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Loren Caldwell
Caldwell@ophir.com
10184 West Belleview Ave., Suite 200
Littleton,  CO 80127-1762
(303) 933-2200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ophir proposes to develop a multifunction, low-cost lidar capable of accurately measuring kinetic air hazards, and air data, simultaneously. The innovation is providing a single sensor that has dual-use functionality ? air data measurement and kinetic air hazard detection in a package that is easily integrated onto commercial aircraft. Conventional air data systems provide critical information to the aircraft for safe flight, but there are vulnerabilities, as evidenced by the recent Air France accident. A more robust air data system for flight controls on aircraft is needed ? particularly to measure airspeed in icing and severe weather conditions. This proposed sensor also measures air hazards which impacts the safety of air traffic and smoothness of ride; decreases fuel consumption and incidence of encounters with turbulent events on aircraft. The Phase I effort entails the system requirements determination, determination of optimal dual-use sensor, prototype design, range and accuracy expectations for each of the lidar modes, and preliminary design of the Phase II prototype. This technology is a TRL 2 with the intent of reaching TRL 3 by the end of this program. Phase II consists of a sensor demonstration in a representative flight environment (TRL 5).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Airspace transformation to NextGen may be significantly safer by providing additional information for kinetic air hazard detection. NASA has pioneered many innovations and improvements for wind hazard detection, warning and forecasting. This innovation enables this airspace transformation by providing wind hazard measurement and resulting real-time information for air traffic operations. This innovation will not only increase in-safety flight, but also may impact the volume of traffic able to traverse the continent due to the provision of resultant weather warnings. Also, safety of the air traffic system will be improved with the provision of a dually redundant air data system on commercial aircraft. NASA has shown the utility of lidar wind and air data measurements over the years, however, the systems have been quite cumbersome. Ophir solves this challenge by providing a redundant air data system and dual-use, kinetic air hazard monitoring system in a small size, weight and power consumption package, as well as at a low cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial markets have been reticent to adopt an optical air data sensor due the size, weight and power consumption factors, as well as, the single function nature of the sensor. But, the ability to condense the sensor and the offer multimode operation enables the market acceptance and ultimate sensor commercialization. The markets addressed by this multifunction sensor development are the unmanned and manned military and commercial aircraft markets. The proposed innovation may also be used in the regional jet market for new aircraft flight testing and calibration. The commercial aircraft markets include the scheduled air carrier operations and the business jet market, as well as the airport safety market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Lasers (Ladar/Lidar)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.05-8346
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Auditory Presentation of H/OZ Critical Flight Data

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emerald Sky Technologies, LLC
9250 Bendix Road North
Columbia, MD 21045-1832
(443) 542-9516

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Fritz
StevenFritz@fly-esky.com
9250 Bendix Road N
Columbia,  MD 21045-1832
(443) 542-9516

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 6
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Automation of a flight control system to perform functions normally attributed to humans is often not robust and limited to specific operating conditions and types of operation and a small set of fixed behaviors (i.e. modes). eSky has shown that metrics such as the time delay between a required control input from the crew and the actual input is sensitive to crew functional degradation through external distraction. We are currently developing strategies for using such crew state metrics to modulate the level of automation support provided to the flight crew. Dynamic reallocation of function between crew and automation can reduce the cognitive workload on the crew, enhance their ability to supervise the automation and help them intervene in the event of any failure or operation outside the desired operating conditions. eSky is exploring function reallocation in a collaborative flight control system (HFCS) design pioneered at NASA Langley. HFCS combines precise flight control automation with rudimentary intelligence that the flight crew can guide using relatively simple mechanisms. HFCS automation manages short-term control tasks (e.g. path following) while the crew is required to direct every significant trajectory change using flight controls rather than an FMS interface to keep them engaged in conduct of the flight. The automation communicates intentions to the pilot through visual and haptic (tactile) feedback; the crew communicates intentions to the automation through conventional controls. The HFCS user interface is primarily visual and tactile with limited auditory elements, mainly limited to a few alerts and warnings. eSky proposes to establish the auditory channel as a key element in providing flight dynamic information and cueing of required crew in puts in addition to envelope protection warnings. These new interface elements will be integrated into eSky's evolving strategies for functionality reallocation of between automation and crew.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The aim of this project is to develop auditory presentation methodology for flight dynamic information as a supplement to conventional, primarily visual, pilot display systems and provide a higher level of support for complex tasks in high workload situations. In an aircraft with a flight control system that supports dynamic reallocation of function between automation and crew, these methodologies can be part of a function reallocation and support modulation strategy to keep the crew engaged and aware of the flight situation at all times, reducing loss of performance capability due to distraction, fatigue, hypoxia and other sources of performance degradation. Any flight control system can add auditory flight dynamic information presentation to its flight crew interface in any aircraft or spacecraft flown by NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The aim of this project is to develop auditory presentation methodology for flight dynamic information as a supplement to conventional, primarily visual, pilot display systems and provide a higher level of support for complex tasks in high workload situations. In an aircraft with a flight control system that supports dynamic reallocation of function between automation and crew, these methodologies can be part of a function reallocation and support modulation strategy to keep the crew engaged and aware of the flight situation at all times, reducing loss of performance capability due to distraction, fatigue, hypoxia and other sources of performance degradation. Any flight control system can add auditory flight dynamic information presentation to its flight crew interface in any aircraft or spacecraft flown by non-NASA organizations and personnel

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Command & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.05-8423
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: TBO-AID: Trajectory-Based Operations Adaptive Information Display

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801-1753
(781) 935-3966

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amy Alexander
aalexander@aptima.com
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn,  MA 01801-1753
(781) 496-2471

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Trajectory-based operations (TBO) are at the forefront of the Next Generation Air Traffic Management System (NextGen). The vision of NextGen is one in which pilots will be responsible for following 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories while maintaining separation from other aircraft and weather. Ongoing research focuses heavily on the infrastructure and procedures required to conduct 4D TBO; however, new flight deck displays are going to be needed to support pilots who will be faced with the challenge of making more complex, strategic decisions than are required in current-day operations. In response to this challenge, Aptima proposes to develop a Trajectory-Based Operations Adaptive Information Display (TBO-AID). TBO-AID will incorporate innovative display techniques that address the (1) unique information needs associated with conducting 4D operations (e.g., crossing a specific navigation fix at a specific time); (2) uncertainty and risk associated with weather and mixed-equipage conditions, key challenges for conducting 4D TBO; (3) potential advantages gained through multimodal information presentation; and (4) need for model-based, situationally aware display adaptation to support information processing and decision making. Anticipated results of commercializing this effort include increasing the safety and efficiency of air traffic and expanding the maximum number of aircraft potentially in flight at a given time.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TBO-AID addresses a relevant, high-priority issue 4D trajectory-based operations (TBO) that is key to increased capacity and efficiency under NextGen. Pilots are going to be required to make more complex, strategic decisions than are required today, necessitating the development of new interface concepts to support 4D operations, particularly with respect to weather events and mixed equipage constraints. Research and development conducted on this SBIR will contribute to the NASA Aviation Safety Program and Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project by providing improved and novel visual, aural/speech, and multimodal interface capabilities (milestones IIFD.MM.1, I.IFD.MM.2, and IIFD.MM.3) to support 4D TBO. Furthermore, TBO-AID will support JPDO-identified operational improvements including trajectory-based management via precise 4D trajectories (OI-0358), delegated responsibility for separation (OI-0305), self-separation airspace operations (OI-0362), and improved safety of operational decision making (OI-3103).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TBO-AID will be targeted for use in NextGen-enabled commercial aircraft to support situation awareness of relevant hazards (e.g., traffic, weather) and airspace constraints (e.g., unequipped aircraft). The first groups external to NASA that would benefit from the underlying research on which TBO-AID will be developed are those that perform similar research and development tasks. This is a wide ranging set and includes manufacturers of any flight deck technologies relevant to airspace operations (e.g., Boeing, Honeywell, Avidyne) that could incorporate TBO-AID display concepts into their design efforts. The results from the TBO-AID display concepts could also be utilized in a number of domains dependent on advanced air traffic management, such as Air and Space Operations Centers (AOC) within the United States Air Force and Maritime Operations Centers (MOC) within the United States Navy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Man-Machine Interaction
Display


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.05-9370
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flight Deck I-Glasses

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microvision, Inc.
6222 185th Avenue North East
Redmond, WA 98052-5034
(425) 415-6847

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mason Thomas
mason_thomas@microvision.com
6222 185th Ave NE
Redmond,  WA 98052-5034
(425) 882-6797

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flight Deck i-Glasses is a color, stereoscopic 3-D display mounted on consumer style eye glass frames that will enhance operator performance and multi-modal interface research for NextGen operators. This innovative project will prove that Microvision's new Pico Display Engine and new waveguide optic technologies mounted on commercial eyeglass frames will create a novel visual interface system where users can toggle information between left- or right-eye and view information in either a bi-ocular or 3-D stereo mode as required. Leveraging the state of the art monocular goggle display, Microvision will identify commercial eye frames engineering requirements to determine size, weight and center-of-gravity constraints and then research what optics, electronics, mechanical and system interface alternatives exist. Alternate designs of Pico Display Engine and electronic modules will be investigated. A simplified optical relay approach and waveguide optical concepts design will be researched. At the conclusion of Phase 1, Microvision will report the scientific and technical feasibility findings and will provide bench-top demonstration of candidate Phase 2 waveguide optics technologies. Finally, needed research/research and development tasks required to build a Phase 2 prototype will be identified.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flight Deck i-Glasses are a crew-centered and multi-modal interface technology that improves aerospace safety by enabling 3-D trajectory-based operations and head-up visual ops in non-visual meteorological conditions. Flight Deck i-Glasses are relevant within the Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Technologies program in both Operator Performance and Multi-modal Interfaces research activities areas. This visual interface technology enhances NASA's pursuit of Level 3 goals for NextGen operators?it will increase the pilot's state of awareness and support integrated alerting/pilot notification in a head-up mode?regardless of meteorological conditions. Additionally, i-Glasses is applicable to Extra-Vehicular Activity Technology and Space Suit Displays where compact systems are needed to increase situational awareness. Within the Automation for Vehicle & Crew Operations research area, i-Glasses can be used to display decision support system information. Within flight/space operations, i-Glasses will provide operator content at the point of task perfect for operations centers, ATC control and mobile maintenance environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flight Deck i-Glasses have significant potential for successful commercialization. Companies within defense, medical, industrial and consumer market segments are actively pursuing new head-up technologies to create product offerings around the i-Glasses concept. Within defense, pilots need see-through color displays to portray 3-D situational awareness independent of helmet used. Mounted and dis-mounted soldiers have begun to use see-through display applications to increase SA in operational and training (enhanced realism) environments. Medical applications within the future operating rooms are concentrating on displaying 3-D imagery scans on the patient to improve procedure effectiveness and accuracy. Similarly, mobile viewings of procedures, specifications and web-based logistics services, etc. are value-added applications facilitated by i-Glasses in the industrial segment. Consumers are searching for 3-D i-Glasses for real-time mobile gaming and for mobile applications (i.e. Augmented Reality, broadband content, etc.) where real-time streaming of content from mobile devices can be viewed in a head-up mode.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools/EVA Tools
Command & Control
Prototyping
Display
Data Input/Output Devices (Displays, Storage)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.07-8520
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Adaptive Aeroservoelastic Suppression
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Linear Parameter Varying Control for Aeroservoelastic Suppression

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MUSYN Inc
P.O. Box 13377
Minneapolis, MN 55414-5377
(651) 602-9732

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Seiler
peter.j.seiler@gmail.com
P.O. Box 13377
Minneapolis,  MN 55414-5377
(734) 262-0820

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Adaptive control offers an opportunity to fulfill present and future aircraft safety objectives though automated vehicle recovery while maintaining performance and stability requirements in the presence of unknown or varying operating environment. Future aircraft are a natural application of adaptive control. These aircraft will be more fuel efficient, have longer operating ranges though more flexible aircraft structures. This increased flexibility will result in structural modes being in the same frequency range as the rigid body modes. The traditional non-adaptive control design approach to address the aeroservoelastic (ASE) interaction of decoupling the rigid body and structural dynamics will not work. Furthermore, the application of adaptive control to these flexible aircraft may result in undesired ASE excitation leading to structural damage or failure. Hence an integrated flight control system is needed for gust load alleviation, flutter suppression and rigid body control of the aircraft which works in concert with the adaptive control system for improved resilience and safety. MUSYN proposes an integrated approach based on linear, parameter-varying (LPV) control to the design of the flight control, load alleviation and flutter suppression algorithms. The Phase I and Phase II research will focus on applying and extending LPV techniques to model, design, analyze and simulate control algorithms for flexible aircraft. The objective is to combine the integrated LPV flight control system with adaptive control to preserve rigid body performance during upsets while retaining the load alleviation and flutter suppression characteristics of the nominally augmented aircraft. Phase I will develop a prototype LPV framework for modeling, analysis, control and simulation and Phase II will develop a comprehensive LPV software tool suite.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate NASA application will be the X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) test bed at NASA Dryden. This aircraft will provide an experimental flight test capability for aeroservoeleastic control research. NASA and the USAF developed this test bed to investigate the use of wing aeroelastic flexibility for improved performance of high aspect ratio wings. The AAW test bed is an ideal facility to use the LPV framework for modeling, analysis, control and simulation. The proposed research will develop an integrated LPV flight control, gust alleviation and flutter suppression system for the AAW test bed. The performance and robustness of the LPV design will be accessed and compared with a baseline aeroservoelastic system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications fall under two categories: (1) Uninhabited aerial systems (UASs) like SensorCraft, for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) and (2) Space, automotive and ship transportation systems. MUSYN or the companies it has worked with have already demonstrated the application of LPV control techniques to aircraft, launch vehicles, automotive suspensions, trucks, missiles and underwater vehicles. All these systems are seeing increased aeroservoelastic coupling due to the push for more efficient, lightweight structures. The software tool develop in the SBIR addresses a unique need that is currently only being addressed by European aerospace companies using proprietary software tools. A Matlab based LPV Control Toolbox would address a need in the US aerospace and transportation communities and complement the robust control tools already developed MUSYN.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.07-9064
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Adaptive Aeroservoelastic Suppression
PROPOSAL TITLE: Experimental Model Based Feedback Control for Flutter Suppression and Gust Load Alleviation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jie Zeng
jzeng@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes an R\&D effort to develop an Experimental Model Based Feedback Control (EMBFC) Framework for the flutter suppression and gust load alleviation (GLA). The resilience of the flight control law in the presence of aeroelastic/aeroservoelastic (AE/ASE) interactions can therefore be increased by the suppression of the aircraft's structural vibrations induced by the flutter mechanism and/or gust perturbation. Currently aircrafts with non-adaptive control laws usually include roll-off or notch filters to avoid AE/ASE interactions. However, if changes in the aircraft configuration are significant, the frequencies of the flexible modes of the aircraft may be shifted and the notch filters could become totally ineffective. With the proposed EMBFC framework, the flexible dynamics can be consistently estimated via system identification algorithms and its undesirable effects is suppressed through a robust feedback control law, while the whole systems stability is being maintained. The proposed feedback control technique will be demonstrated with SuperSonic SemiSpan Transport S4T wind tunnel model for flutter suppression and gust load alleviation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
EMBFC Framework will assist NASA in its goal to achieve an integrated flight control system resilient to failures, damage, and upset conditions due to unforeseen AE/ASE interactions during the development of the aircraft's original control law.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
EMBFC Framework can be firstly used by military and commercial aircraft manufacturers for new aircraft designs, modifications and upgrades. Secondly, Secondly, it will bring a variety of applications in other industries, such as: (1) Suppression and/or attenuation of vibrations in large satellite structures; (2) Cabin noise reduction for the next generation executive transport aircraft, such as in the Marcel Dassualt's Falcon 7X; (3) Vibration suppression across the automotive industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Process Monitoring & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.07-9371
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Adaptive Aeroservoelastic Suppression
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Aeroservoelastic Suppression for Aircraft Upset and Damage Conditions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Roemer
mike.roemer@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Tennessee State University, propose to develop and demonstrate an adaptive system identification and multi-loop control methodology that provides real-time aircraft structural mode suppression associated with aeroservoelastic interaction under upset and damage conditions. The proposed program will develop an effective real-time aircraft structural model, including rigid body dynamics and structural flexible modes, which will be used by the on-line, adaptive control system proposed. In parallel, the research team will also develop an innovative time/frequency domain system identification algorithm that can provide continuous updates to the real-time aircraft model and automatically assess the level of existing structural mode excitation. Next, a singular value decomposition technique will be implemented to capture and quantify the associated dominant parameter uncertainties of the dynamic aircraft model and adjust accordingly. Finally, a multi-loop adaptive control structure will be developed that provides both structure and robustness of the aircraft by using the continuously identified model with the overall goal of responding to the structural safety and performance needs including the effects of aeroservoelastic interaction and structural flexible mode changes. The proposed approach uses a generalized predictive control (GPC) scheme, which can be used to both update the real-time model and design a controller, for active aeroservoelastic suppression under upset conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the proposed work will substantially improve the performance, reliability, and survivability of the general aviation (GA) aircraft. Potential applications of the software include design and testing of Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC), aircraft IVHM, Crew Exploration Vehicle, Reusable Launch Vehicles, Unmanned Air Vehicles and future generation general aviation platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential commercial use of the developed technologies is broad. Examples of key customers that could benefit through use of the developed technologies include: JSF, military and commercial fixed-wing aircraft, rotorcraft, and high-performance land vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.08-8467
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robust Propulsion Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Propulsion Control for Improved Aircraft Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Monitoring, Inc.
8777 East Via de Ventura Drive, Suite 120
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-3345
(480) 752-7909

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Link Jaw
lj@scientificmonitoring.com
8777 E. Via de Ventura Drive, Suite 120
Scottsdale AZ ,  AZ 85258-3345
(480) 752-7909

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Scientific Monitoring, Inc. proposes to develop a robust propulsion control approach to facilitate control law design and simulation-based validation. The proposed approach integrates system identification and robust control design, specifically tailors it to handle large perturbations and model uncertainties affecting engine operations, and provides a framework for successive design optimization through iterations. The integrated and iterative design methodology will reduce the cycle time in propulsion control design and validation to maintain engine operations in the presence of adverse conditions, such as engine icing, foreign object damage, and high angle of attack. In Phase I, A proof-of-concept (POC) simulation will be conducted to demonstrate the merit of the robust control approach in the presence of larger than normal variations in the design model. The control design and closed-loop POC will use the NASA-developed C-MAPSS generic engine model as the simulation framework. The anticipated benefits of the proposed innovation are to reduce design cycle time and increase robustness of the controller design, while optimizing the closed-loop system performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include all engines and aircraft supported by The NASA Aviation Safety Program. This includes existing and future commercial engines which will be specifically operated to address the Nation's aviation safety challenges of the future. This technology will also support engines and aircraft designed to address the projected increases in air traffic capacity and realize the new capabilities envisioned for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). Additionally, this technology has potential application to rocket propulsion control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The two primary areas of program interest, adaptive systems for in-flight operability and system-level integrated resilient control technologies are applicable to militrary aircraft and engine systems. Specifically our work will address aircraft engines operating in adverse conditions, such as engine icing, foreign object damage, and high angle of attack.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.08-9658
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robust Propulsion Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Incremental Sampling Algorithms for Robust Propulsion Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(617) 500-0536

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Fitzgerald
nfitzgerald@aurora.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-0279

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to develop a system for robust engine control based on incremental sampling, specifically Rapidly-Expanding Random Tree (RRT) algorithms. In this concept, the task of accelerating or decelerating the engine is treated as a path planning exercise. The control system actively searches for actuator inputs that allow the engine to traverse power settings without entering undesired regions of operation. The search is based on the sequential construction of control actions that satisfy feasibility constraints given the system dynamics. These algorithms have been proven to converge to the optimal solution through repeated iteration. RRTs allow for an efficient search of the solution space, reducing the computational expense of determining the best sequence of inputs with which to control the engine. This allows an efficient, online method for an engine to adapt and recalibrate to unexpected operational conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed incremental sampling control technology could have a direct impact on the ability of an aircraft engine to autonomously adjust for unforeseen, adverse conditions. NASA has previously been involved in developing these sorts of technologies for aircraft systems in the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project. The proposed technology would allow for similar resilient characteristics on engine systems. This technology could be applied to a variety of NASA research areas requiring complex propulsion control, such as hypersonic flight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability of systems to autonomously perform complicated planning processes is becoming increasingly important in modern aircraft. This is especially true with UAV's, which do not have the native ability of human operators to analyze and react to unexpected events. The proposed technology can be applied to increase the reliability of a variety of autonomous and remotely piloted vehicles as part of a global robust flight control for almost any UAV application. This can contribute to increased reliability and help reduce concerns about UAV operation over populated areas or in heavily trafficked airspace.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.09-9063
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Pilot Interactions with Adaptive Control Systems under Off-Nominal Conditions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pilot Induced Oscillation Suppression Under Off-Nominal Conditions Using L1 Adaptive Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jiang Wang
jwang@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZONA Technology, Inc. proposes an R&D effort to develop an adaptive flight control system which can provide near-nominal performance for the aircraft under off-nominal conditions, consequently reduce pilot-vehicle interactions. Furthermore, this adaptive control system is combined with a monitoring system to detect possible Pilot-Induced Oscillation (PIO) while both pilot and controller are adaptively working, in order to avoid PIO and enhance aviation safety. The proposed comprehensive combined control technique aims to reduce the interaction between the adaptive flight system and the pilot control action to a minimal level, when the aircraft experiences system failures, damage and/or upset conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Comprehensive adaptive controller for regaining nominal performance and suppressing PIOs can be used as part of a new generation Flight Control System, within the effort of Aviation Safety program. The enhanced aviation safety can further contribute to various research projects conducted in NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA customers for this tool include the R&D departments of USAF, Navy, Army, and major aircraft manufactures. It can be readily adapted by a wide class of aerospace vehicles ranging from current to next-generation designs such as: (a) USAF's F-22 and F-35 aircrafts at Edwards AFB, (b) UASF's Hilda and/or SensorCraft aircrafts, (c) USAF's next generation stealth and morphing UAV/UCAV, (d) DARPA's new Switchblade Flying Wing Program, and for (e) Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) with enhanced control/maneuver capability. ZONA Technology's reputation and track record in supporting the aerospace industry and government with ZONA codes can assure the success of the commercialization plan.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.10-9237
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detection of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Online Sensing Techniques for Detection of Aircraft Electrical System Anomalies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Antonio Ginart
antonio.ginart@impact-tek.com
75 Fifth Street NW, Ste. 312
Atlanta,  GA 30308-1037
(404) 526-6188

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As 'fly-by-wire' technologies become more prevalent in the aerospace systems, the need to develop innovative monitoring, diagnostic and fault tolerant techniques for the electrical systems is becoming obvious. Among all the possible electrical system failures, two types of failures are considered the most frequent, and hence most critical: intermittent disconnection in connectors, and capacitance failures. Despite the extreme care in the design and quality control in manufacturing and installation of these connectors in avionics and military equipment, there are increasing number of problems associated with the physical connectivity that ranges from intermittent discontinuities, sparks, and breakages. As for the capacitors, the power systems in modem aircrafts, specifically the ones with DC power supply configurations, rely very heavily on banks of capacitors that act as filters. These capacitors (especially of electrolytic type) present high failure rates - with no effective solution for online monitoring available. The proposed research will study detecting fault initiation, fault-to-failure progression, and online monitoring of the critical problems of intermittent disconnection, and capacitance aging and ultimate failures in aircraft power systems. We propose to develop a non-traditional use of wideband differential current sensor to detect capacitor degradation, as well as intermittent disconnection problems. This program is expected to generate useful, accurate and precise diagnostic information impacting the safety and maintenance of critical aircraft power systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of the proposed anomaly and fault detection techniques will directly contribute to NASA's efforts to advance technology in aerospace industry. The proposed technologies are generic in nature and are applicable to future generation aviation platforms, leading to benefits in the form of improved reliability, maintainability, and survivability of safety-critical electrical power and the many applications that rely on the electrical power system. The long-term implications of a successful completion of this program will provide reliability tools for the state-of-the-art technologies in power generation, management, and intelligent control. Several of NASA's NextGen and current activities can take immediate advantage of these technologies. In the short term, the anomaly and degradation detection to be developed in this program can be directly transitioned to ongoing research at the NASA research centers. The adaptable nature of modules presented in this program will allow them to act as design and development tools for a wide variety of NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential benefits from the successful completion of this program are enormous and will significantly impact the way critical aerospace, power devices, controllers, and other systems are designed, particularly in the power system domains. Examples of key customers that could benefit through use of the developed technologies include: power system manufacturers, commercial airlines, power semiconductor device and drive manufacturers, land and marine propulsion systems, unmanned air vehicles, JSF, future combat systems, industrial actuation systems, and robotic applications. Particularly, the push towards fly-by-wire technology in commercial airlines by manufacturers like Boeing has generated specific requirements on health management performance for which these technologies can provide value by increasing reliability and safety for critical components. Impact has existing contracts with all these potential customers and has an excellent commercialization record. The following NASA and DoD applications present immediate technology transition possibilities for the JSF program, Boeing's 787 Dreamliner, UAV platforms, and ground and sea vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Distribution/Management
Contact/Mechanical
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.11-9543
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Diagnosis of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Active Fault Diagnosis and Assessment for Aircraft Health Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wenjian Wang
ITProposals@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821
(310) 320-3088

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA LaRC need for innovative methods and tools for the diagnosis of aircraft faults and failures, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Active Integrated Diagnosis with Ensembles (AIDE) system, based on Bayesian network modeling, ensemble learning, and context-aware reasoning. This approach incorporates an active fault diagnosis system architecture, a block-level Bayesian-network-based context model, and a context-aware reasoning and severity assessment engine, which enable us to meet NASA aviation safety mission requirements for reliable and accurate diagnosis and assessment of adverse events with minimal uncertainty. The system offers constantly updated aircraft health context, which guides the active queries on aircraft health management systems to minimize the uncertainty along its progress path in the context model and make statistical inference and diagnosis, providing rank-ordered lists of diagnoses, severity assessments, and uncertainty measurements. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of active diagnosis of aircraft faults and failures by establishing context models and building and testing a preliminary prototype, which will demonstrate TRL-2 by the end of Phase I. Integration and validation issues will be explored through communication and collaboration with manufacturers. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a fully functional prototype, including software and supporting hardware, and demonstrate its fault diagnosis capability on a family of adverse events in the AirSTAR testbed. The results demonstrated will offer NASA the capabilities to diagnose and assess adverse events and improve aviation safety.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AIDE will find direct applications in the IVHM and other projects in the Aviation Safety Program, including the Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck (IIFD) Project, Aircraft Aging and Durability (AAD) Project, and Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. Other programs and projects within ARMD that will benefit from AIDE include the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force (JANNAF).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications of the AIDE system will include: vehicle engine diagnosis, mechanical system fatigue analysis for failure prevention in operations, and maintenance equipment reliability and failure predictions. AIDE can be integrated into truck platforms in commercial fleets for vehicle fault diagnosis. The AIDE can also be incorporated by General Electric into the next-generation and existing turbine engine blade and disk assessment processes, which will benefit from this proposed technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Analytical Methods
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.12-8884
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Prognosis of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Probabilistic Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Composite Aircraft Components

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Global Engineering and Materials, Inc
11 Alscot Drive
East Lyme, CT 06333-1303
(860) 398-5620

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Lua
jlua@gem-consultant.com
11 Alscot Drive
East Lyme,  CT 06333-1303
(860) 398-5620

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A composite fatigue damage assessment and risk informed prognosis toolkit will be developed by enhancing and integrating existing solution modules within a probabilistic analysis framework. This tool will for the first time be able to address concurrently both microcracking induced stiffness degradation and cyclic loading induced delamination crack growth without remeshing. A physics-based deterministic solver will be developed by integrating a discrete crack network model with a multiaxial fatigue damage accumulation law. An advanced probabilistic analysis framework with the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) updating procedure will be developed for risk informed total life management. The damage detection results will be integrated/fused with the physics based delamination growth prediction tool to form a risk informed damage prognosis and condition based maintenance metrics. Global Engineering and Materials, Inc. (GEM) has secured commitments for technical support from Clarkson University and Boeing, who will provide existing solution modules, supporting data, customization plug-ins, and expertise. The multi-faceted feasibility study consists of developing a method that will enable the prediction of multi-site, multi-mode damage interaction, extracting delamination driving force, characterizing delamination evolution under multiaxial non-proportional loading, and performing risk informed fatigue failure prediction and BME updating when new detection and maintenance data become available.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results from this research will have significant benefits to enhance the aviation safety program in the NASA. It will result in: 1) a commercially viable, accurate, computationally efficient, and user-friendly probabilistic residual life assessment tool for charactering delamination crack growth and perform damage analysis with the presence of uncertainties in design and loading parameters; 2) an integrated analysis framework for fatigue damage prognosis and health management of composite aircraft structures; 3) a virtual testing tool to reduce current certification and qualification costs, which are heavily driven by experimental testing under various stress conditions; and 4) innovative probabilistic methods and reliability assessment procedures to facilitate the condition-based maintenance and reducing unscheduled maintenance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural aging under fatigue loading is one of the most common failure mechanisms in civilian structures such as composite bridges, power lines, and composite ship structures. The developed probabilistic fatigue life prediction tool can be used effectively and efficiently to assist a designer and rule maker to answer the following questions: 1) How tolerant of cracks is the location? 2) How long to repair a crack in service? 3) What is the impact of an operational profile change? 4) How often should inspections be made? and 5) How can SHM input be used best? The tool can be used to assist commercial and military industries to reduce the cost of test-driven design and process iterations with the use of the virtual testing tool. Finally, teaming with Boeing, a highly visible airplane manufacturer, will considerably shorten our development cycle from producing a prototype research orientated tool to commercially accessible design software.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Fasteners/Decouplers
Structures
Verification/Validation Tools
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.13-8359
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Healing Material System Concepts for IVHM
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Catalytic Nanocomposite Based Self-Healing Material for Multifunctional Composite

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanotrons
12A Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801-1003
(781) 935-1200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Je Kyun Lee
jlee@agiltron.com
12A Cabot Rd
Woburn,  MA 01801-1003
(781) 935-1200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks new materials and systems for the mitigation of structural damage, and new concepts for the activation of healing mechanisms to improve structural durability and enhance safe operation of aerospace structural systems. Nanotrons Corporation proposes to develop advanced multifunctional carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites with built-in non-catalytic nanocomposite?based self-healing microcapsules. The proposed self-healing approach integrates high performance functionalized carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofillers, reactive monomer solution, non-catalytic curing mechanism, and mass-production self-healing microcapsules. By uniformly dispersing these nanocomposite-based self-healing microcapsules throughout the CFRP composite matrix, self-healing multifunctional composite materials will be fabricated. The resulting materials should selectively repair the damaged areas at ambient conditions without catalysts. Nanotrons' proposed novel multifunctional CFRP composites could heal the damaged area over 90% of the original strength. Added benefits are that the addition of self-healing microcapsules will increase fracture toughness of the matrix polymer and the incorporated CNT nanofillers will improve electrical conductivity and EMI/RF shielding performance of the healed CFRP composites. These features are unattainable from existing systems. Nanotrons' proposed non-catalytic nanocomposite-based self-healing microcapsules embedded in multifunctional CFRP composites can be economically scaled up for manufacture. This Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed self-healing approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed non-catalytic nanocomposite self-healing composite is expected to demonstrate enhanced autonomous durability and extended lifetime of structural composite materials of aeronautic and aerospace vehicles. This multifunctional smart composite will be applied to many aerospace structures, including aircraft, launch vehicles, space vehicles, permanent structures placed on the moon or Mars, and robotic devices that patrol these structures for SHM, and satellites. Also, their applications may extend to other structural composite materials of space, aerospace, and propellant tanks which require high durability, extending lifetime, and reducing maintenance cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-performance self-healing multifunctional composite material will help prevent catastrophic failure of structural components of military aircraft, rotorcraft, warships, vehicles, missile, rocket motor case, radomes, support structures, UAVs, buildings, and other construction. Our proposed self-healing multifunctional smart composites can be extended to structural composites of other commercial products including aircrafts, rotorcrafts, wind energy, constructions, building, and vehicles, VIP vehicles, ship, armor, and liquefied gas transport.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Composites
Nanomaterials
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.14-8778
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Continuous Integrated Invariant Inference

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GrammaTech, Inc.
315-317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850-4201
(607) 273-7340

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Cok
dcok@grammatech.com
317 N. Aurora St.
Ithaca,  NY 14850-4201
(607) 273-7340

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project will develop a new technique for invariant inference and embed this and other current invariant inference and checking techniques in an easy-to-use tool. The result will enhance an engineer's ability to use formal methods ? generating, editing, reviewing, proving and testing invariants ? and improve productivity in verification and validation of safety and correctness properties software. Currently, invariants that represent such properties require extensive human effort to write; automated techniques, though improving, are still insufficiently capable of automatically inferring them. The proposed project will develop innovative techniques to infer logical invariants describing the behavior of individual software modules by combining static (analyzing a program without running it) and hybrid analysis (inferring invariants from observations of executing software). In particular, the project will (a) combine concolic execution and hybrid analysis to find candidate invariants from high-branch-coverage test suites, (b) apply that combination to obtain invariants for individual functions and data structures, (c) iterate the analysis to broaden data coverage of the test suite and improve the accuracy of invariants, and (d) create early prototypes and development plans to integrate the resulting tools in selected IDEs (Eclipse and GrammaTech's CodeSonar tool). In carrying out this project, GrammaTech will build on its static analysis tools, concolic engine, and software dynamic translation module. It will leverage its base of research and expertise in static and hybrid analysis, specification languages, automated SMT theorem provers, and GUI tools for program analysis and development. The commercialization prospects for the proposed project are enhanced by GrammaTech's demonstrated experience in producing prototypes and commercial products from research results.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The project will target NASA activities concerned with verification and validation, safety-critical avionics (including the NextGen air traffic control system), and with assessment of COTS or third party software to be included in critical systems. GrammaTech will seek reviews and early adopters of the developed technology among the company's current customers of its existing products in several of NASA's facilities. For example, GrammaTech has worked closely with the LaRS group at JPL in developing other product enhancements and would solicit their review of this new technology; in addition, GrammaTech's static analysis tools are in current use in NASA's V&V facilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The project expects to market a commercial version of the tools it generates first to existing GrammaTech customers, particularly with early adopter releases. The most relevant application areas are safety-critical and correctness-critical software: software for medical devices, commercial avionics, automotive systems, and other embedded software. The capability to operate on machine code without source code will be useful for customers needing reverse engineering or security analysis tools. The tool's test generation capabilities will also be attractive to desktop software manufacturers that may not be interested in verification of software properties. GrammaTech will enlist some current customers as early adopters. Among its active customers are facilities whose task is software inspection and certification; the company expects that these will be natural reviewers and customers for the project's technology. The project anticipates that placing the new technology in existing IDEs will smooth the path to initial experimentation and eventual adoption of the new technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Development Environments
Programming Languages
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A1.15-8747
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Mining
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mitek Analytics LLC
281 El Verano Avenue
Palo Alto, CA 94306-2937
(650) 400-3172

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dimitry Gorinevsky
dimitry@mitekan.com
281 El Verano Avenue
Palo Alto,  CA 94306-2937
(650) 400-3172

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA, DoD, and commercial aircraft operators need to transform vast amounts of aircraft data accumulated in distributed databases into actionable knowledge. We propose distributed algorithms for data-driven health monitoring on aircraft, aircraft fleet, and national airspace levels. The proposed algorithms are based on distributed optimization formulation, and, unlike existing distributed processing methods, have rigorous guarantees of producing the same results as centralized processing would do. Our algorithms will be implemented in an open scalable framework that allows integrating distributed data and federated third party algorithms for anomaly detection, diagnosis, prediction, and prognosis. We will apply the proposed approach to aircraft performance monitoring from FOQA data. We will train regression models of aircraft performance using distributed agents associated with different data sets, locations, and organizations. The trained models will be then used for anomaly detection, diagnosis (fault isolation), prognosis (forecasting), and mitigation (decision support). This project will develop web-based distributed open architecture software implementing the proposed optimization-based approaches and demonstrate scalability to at least 10 TB of data. Besides the developed algorithms, we will explore integration of third party algorithms into the distributed environment. The developed technologies will be applicable to a broad range of aircraft-related and other problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR topic supports objectives of NASA Aviation Safety Program by enabling improved health management. One of the goals of this project is to support transition of NASA's data mining research (both internal and external) into practical use in the aviation industry. NASA data mining algorithms that are formulated as optimization algorithms can be integrated into the proposed distributed optimization and software framework. In addition to being a platform for deploying algorithms at airlines, the proposed distributed framework can support NASA in building national aviation safety resources. Using the developed technology, the airlines, industry vendors, and government can share the mined global knowledge without actually sharing the distributed local data used in its computation. An additional potential use of the developed distributed data mining technology is for validation of aircraft software after its initial deployment. Validation requires extensive test coverage. Monitoring an aircraft fleet would cover a much broader range of conditions than monitoring any single aircraft in the fleet.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
*Airline FOQA.* The proposed demonstration of distributed FOQA data monitoring provides a direct path for transitioning the results of this SBIR projects into military and commercial aircraft fleets. The data-driven modeling would make advanced FOQA monitoring easy to implement. The proposed technology could allow the two airlines to share the data-driven performance models of their aircraft while processing their respective FOQA data privately. *Propulsion.* The fleet-wide data-driven monitoring technology developed in this SBIR can be applied to jet engine fleets. The technology developed in the proposed SBIR project would provide scalability above and beyond what is available in existing systems. *Smart grid.* This is an area of rapidly increasing and potentially immense societal and business impact. Monitoring of power distribution systems is a major application that is not addressed at present. The proposed distributed data-driven monitoring technology is of interest for this area. *Semiconductor manufacturing.* If undetected in time, a fault in a semiconductor manufacturing process tool could lead to losing hundreds of high-cost wafers passing through the tool. Being located in Silicon Valley we pursue specific opportunities in this area.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Computer System Architectures
Data Fusion
Data Processing
Knowledge Management
Development Environments
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.01-8170
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Engineered Materials for Advanced Gas Turbine Engine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Powder Solutions
14102 Halprin Creek Drive
Cypress, TX 77429-6042
(661) 373-1729

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Asit Biswas
rumanjali@sbcglobal.net
14102 Halprin Creek Drive
Cypress,  TX 77429-6042
(661) 373-1729

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will develop innovative composite powders and composites that will surpass the properties of currently identified materials for advanced gas turbine engine applications. Phase I will demonstrate a powder metallurgy technique for fabricating high-temperature, oxidation-resistant composite powders. Once consolidated, the resulting composite will possess high creep and thermal fatigue strength, and a low coefficient of thermal expansion properties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Casing materials gas turbine vanes, turbine blade, sheets for use in oxidizing/corrosive atmosphere, nozzle

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Power plant unit, boilers, diesel engines and stationary gas and steam turbines at a potentially much lower cost sheets for oxidizing atmosphere, Land base gas turbine engine.The composite powders also should find application in thermal-sprayed or cold-sprayed steam oxidation, corrosion-resistant high-temperature coatings for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment, and laser additives manufacturing for turbine engine/blade repairing or refurbishing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Processing Methods
Composites
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Launch Engine/Booster
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.01-8684
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-based Modeling of Foreign Object Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Firehole Technologies, Inc.
210 South 3rd Street, Suite 202
Laramie, WY 82070-3658
(307) 460-4763

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ray Fertig
fertigr@fireholetech.com
210 S 3RD ST SUITE 202
Laramie,  WY 82070-3658
(307) 460-4763

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase I SBIR, Firehole Technologies will develop proof-of-concept modeling framework for a multiscale physics-based modeling tool for predicting foreign object damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). We will accomplish this by adapting the core technology, multicontinuum theory (MCT), from our existing industry-leading software analysis tool, Helius:MCT, to the problem of impact damage in CMCs. Our approach will involve modeling the composite at three levels: constituent level (fiber, matrix, interphase), mesostructure-level (fiber tow architecture), and macrostructure level (impact test of a multi-ply laminate). The mesostructure and macrostructure will be modeled using an explicit finite element analysis code. The constituent level modeling will be carried out using MCT, which permits constituent stresses and strains to be exactly determined from composite-average strain. The objective of the Phase I effort is to develop the modeling framework and compare predicted results with published experimental results. In-depth study of ceramic physics, development of an experimental validation program, and commercialization of the software would be part of a Phase I effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA applications are the hypersonic, supersonic, and subsonic fixed wing programs. In the hypersonics program heat resistant structural components are needed, for which CMCs are used. Furthermore, combustor panels used in scramjet or ramjet technologies require robust performance and high temperatures, which CMCs could provide. The tools developed under this SBIR would enable designers of these components to select materials and material structures based on virtual testing rather than expensive experimental tests. The Supersonics and Subsonic Fixed Wing programs have similar needs. Namely, turbine housing and turbine blades must operate at high temperature with the potential for high velocity impact damage from foreign objects. The tools developed under this SBIR are specifically designed to address these issues and would provide rapid assessment of structural performance of CMCs under FOD without resorting to tests.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial primary target market for a suite of analysis tools for CMCs is with the U.S. Department of Defense and their Tier 1 OEMs. Firehole Technologies, with a successful history within the Air Force, is uniquely positioned to apply this SBIR technology in the design and analysis of next-generation warfighting capabilities. Pratt and Whitney-Rocketdyne is a primary candidate for a commercialization partner, as indicated in their letter of support for this proposal. In addition, through past and existing contracts, Firehole has experience utilizing existing methodology for composite structures built by many of the major DoD prime contractors including: Lockheed Martin, United Launch Alliance, ATK, and Boeing. All of these companies are potential commercialization partners for the proposed technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Ceramics
Composites
Textiles
Structures
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.01-8987
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Carbon Electromagnetic Materials, Motors, and Actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
General Nano, LLC
1776 Mentor Avenue, Suite 170
Cincinnati, OH 45212-3554
(513) 309-5947

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Sprengard
joe.sprengard@generalnanollc.com
1776 Mentor Ave, Ste. 170
Cincinnati,  OH 45212-3554
(513) 309-5947

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of the proposal is to apply multifunctional carbon electromagnetic materials, including carbon nanotube electrical thread (replaces copper wire) and carbon nanosphere chain magnetic material (replaces iron cores), to build lightweight, high-performance carbon electric motors and actuators for aircraft and spacecraft. Incorporating these nanomaterials will replace heavy and bulky motors that are constrained by high mass and inertia, and limited rotor speed and acceleration. The technical objective is to achieve 50-70% weight reduction, super-inductance, extremely high magnetic fields, and potentially operate at high speed driven by AC signals in the tens of KHz frequency range. Additionally, large size pancake carbon motors could produce extreme torques and withstand the inertia forces of a large diameter rotor. Some of the trade-offs of the carbon motor may be lower efficiency, higher temperature operation or need for additional cooling, and higher initial cost. We will investigate these factors in Phase I. General Nano (GN) is one of two companies in the United State capable of manufacturing the nanomaterials required to pursue the carbon electric motors and actuators. GN will partner with Parker Hannifin to integrate the nanomaterials into commercial application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the proposed project focuses on building lightweight, high-performance carbon electric motors and actuators from Carbon Nanotube (CNT) threads and nanosphere chain materials that have the potential to achieve 50-70% weight reduction, super-inductance, extremely high magnetic fields, and potential to operate at high speed driven by AC signals in the tens of KHz frequency range, GN is also uniquely capable of manufacturing four multifunctional nanomaterials that have the potential to solve technical problems faced by NASA and other DoD agencies: (1) super-long CNT arrays (22mm) for reinforcing materials (such as Aerogels), (2) patterned CNT arrays for thermal management and electronic devices, (3) CNT threads, yarns and ribbons for motors, actuators, cables, antennas, etc., and (4) hybrid materials such as CNTs thread blended with other fibers. Current DoD application projects that underway include the Air Force (using CNT threads for power distribution), and the Navy (using CNT threads for Coaxial Cable and EMI Shielding). These projects are unrelated to the proposed CNT threads for motors and actuators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nearly all of GN's near-term CNT application projects (1-3 yrs), including EMI shielding, coaxial cable, super-long CNTs for thermal transfer and reinforcement, and replacing copper for power distribution in aircraft, have potential commercial use at NASA. Short-term non-NASA commercial applications include specialty cables for down-hole drilling, antennas incorporated into body armor, and ultra-high strength CNT braided materials. Mid-term applications (3-6 yrs) include structural health monitoring, structural composites, high-temperature electronics packaging, and downhole power and sensors. Long-term applications include wearable electronics, biomedical devices, and energy storage.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Space Transportation & Safety
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Actuators & Motors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.01-9345
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Fabrication Approach for SiC/SiC Thermal Protection System Elements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper-Therm High-Temperature Composites
18411 Gothard Street, Units B and C
Huntington Beach, CA 92648-1208
(714) 375-4085

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Shinavski
robert.shinavski@htcomposites.com
18411 Gothard Street, Units B&C
Huntington Beach,  CA 92648-1208
(714) 375-4085

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Durable high temperature materials are required for structural thermal protection systems (TPS) that exhibit a structural load carrying capability at temperatures in excess of 2700F. Fabrication times and costs are challenging for high acreage applications such as a structural TPS system. This proposed effort offers a new approach in manufacturing of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite components cost effectively with short lead time and high flexibility. The composites will be fabricated via a powder metallurgy/sintering approach using an emerging field assisted sintering technology (FAST). The objective is to fabricate and demonstrate making a cost effective CMC composite by FAST. The SiC/SiC produced will be produced from SiC constituents suitable for TPS applications. Basic mechanical and thermal properties will be measured to assess the promise of the FAST process to rapidly producing a SiC/SiC composite. A technical assessment of the FAST process to produce a 2700F+ SiC/SiC will be made as well.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of advanced ceramic composite materials and components with enhanced thermal-structural performance over those currently available could directly support future enabling technologies for hypersonic propulsion and hot structures. Applications for ceramic composites in advanced airbreathing combined-cycle propulsion systems and control surfaces for reusable hypervelocity and exo/transatmospheric aerospace vehicles are directly addressed by this technology. These potential applications are critically dependent on the development of lower cost advanced materials capable of high-performance load-bearing operation up to and beyond 1500<SUP>o</SUP>C (2700<SUP>o</SUP>F). Successful demonstration of the life at temperature of the CMC concept could result in a valuable near term increase in airframe performance and reliability for a variety of hot structures and thermal protection systems critical to both DoD and NASA highspeed aircraft and re-entry vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Opportunities for retrofit and new application in turbine engine systems also exist. The potential low cost and high temperature capability could lend itself to these applications for internal hot gas path parts. Similar requirements for high-temperature materials exist for commercial/industrial applications as well. Although less aggressive than the aerospace/defense and nuclear energy-related initiatives, programs are in place for evaluating reinforced ceramics for land-based turbine components, catathermal combustion devices, heat exchangers and radiant burners, which represent opportunities in energy and pollution abatement technologies that may mature over the next 10 or so years.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Composites
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.01-9409
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Carbide/Boron Nitride Dual In-Line Coating of Silicon Carbide Fiber Tows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Free Form Fibers LLC
26 F Congress Street, No. 312
Saratoga Springs, NY 12866-4168
(518) 690-0396

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Pegna
joseph.pegna@freeformfibers.com
26 F Congress Street, No. 312
Saratoga Springs,  NY 12866-4168
(518) 690-0396

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I project will demonstrate monolayer and dual layer coating of SiC fiber by leveraging Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition techniques developed by Free Form Fibers for direct fiber production. Ceramic fibers, particularly SiC, must be coated in order to protect the fibers from oxidizing environments, and to allow their use in SiC CMC's. FFF's LCVD techniques can be modified for fast, high purity coating. The Phase I effort includes creating a custom reactor that leverages FFF's existing gas precursor delivery infrastructure, and passing existing monofilament SiC fiber through the reactor to coat with BN in real time. Reversing direction and coating the coated fiber with SiC will be done for dual layer coating. Phase II would scale the process to serially dualcoat a unidirectional moving parallel array of hundreds or thousands of moving fibers. If successful, industry would finally have a reliable in-line approach to fiber coating prior to tow production, because spreading and coating already-sized tows is nearly impossible. Based on prior coating experience and other related proposals, Phase I work would take us from TRL3 to TRL4. Phase II could take us to TRL4 or TRL5, either on a FFF or other commercial fiber production facility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Over the last quarter century NASA and DoD have demanded high temperature materials capable of operating in oxidizing environments. Government and industry alike have invested large amounts in SiC-based technology for this purpose. Yet, for all that has been invested, fiber purity and protection still remains insufficient to address the needs of 2700 F and above applications. Beyond this temperature, not only are there benefits reaped from higher efficiency engines, but the weight penalty of cooling equipment is lifted. NASA's most immediate benefit from this proposed and other related research relates to advanced propulsion and power generation, for example the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program. In addition, as composites become more ubiquitous in ever more demanding NASA applications such as high performance structures, the demand for coated fibers is likely to increase. A generic, material-agnostic platform for fast fiber coating is of considerable value to future NASA composite development efforts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In-situ coating of disparate fibers affects a wide variety of composites applications. In the case of SiC fiber with dual Boron Nitride/Silicon Carbide coatings, the most important applications include commercial jet engines and turbo-machinery-based power generation equipment. Both require higher operating temperatures in order to reach ever higher fuel efficiencies, and the consensus is that SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites are the path to that future; the BN/SiC coating system is a highly desired element of this particular CMC. Other non-NASA applications of the proposed generic fiber coating process may well include advanced structural composites, where new high performance fibers are used in next-gen materials systems. The process may also have value in CMC tooling applications, where fracture toughness and wear resistance are achieved through a tungsten carbide composite, for example. The ability to apply fiber coatings during, or just after fiber production, improves the cost/benefit ratio for composites production.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.01-9709
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: First Principles Identification of New Aircraft Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eltron Research & Development, Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241
(303) 530-0263

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James White
eltron@eltronresearch.com
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder,  CO 80301-3241
(303) 530-0263

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The identification of new, structurally sound, thermally stable materials for aviation applications will enable a wide range of technologies. The identification of new materials is hindered by the lack of information about compositions outside the existing composition space. New materials and new methodologies for selection of these materials are essential. Eltron will develop a correlational/theoretical approach to materials selection that follows its previous work in the selection of cathode electrocatalysts, oxygen evolving anodes for high temperature melts, solid electrolytes, and mixed ion/electron conducting materials. This approach will allow the exploration of composition properties space by the use of existing data. Phase I will develop and demonstrate a model for selection of new materials and confirm predictions by synthesizing new materials.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are opportunities for developing both new materials and a software package for prediction of new material structures and their properties. Eltron's previous activity has established a groundwork for development of such a package.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Stakeholders in this technology will be aviation companies, fuel cell companies, scientific software companies, and customers of these companies as well as DoD. Potential customers include the aforementioned companies. The resulting materials technology would compete with existing metal alloys and composite materials.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-8674
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Organizing Maps for Fast LES Combustion Modeling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Reaction Systems, LLC
17301 West Colfax Avenue, #405
Golden, CO 80401-4892
(303) 881-7992

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bradley Hitch
hitch@reactionsystemsllc.com
17301 W. Colfax Ave. #405
Golden,  CO 80401-4892
(720) 232-3597

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Tremendous advances have been made in the development of large and accurate detailed reaction chemistry models for hydrocarbon fuels. Comparable progress has also been achieved in CFD as an engineering design tool. Highly accurate hydrocarbon chemistry is now desired for simulating gas turbine combustors and automobile engines to better predict both performance and pollutant emissions. Newer and more accurate CFD techniques like Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are being used more as computational power increases along with the demand for better flow predictions. Unfortunately, using large, detailed chemical mechanisms to simulate real turbulent combustion devices is problematic due to the sheer computational burden of the added chemistry. As a result, chemistry mechanisms employing a large number of chemical species are currently only feasible to run in the simplest of flow geometries, and only the simplest and least accurate chemistry models are currently tractable to run in LES CFD codes. We propose using a unique neural network approach to create a fast and accurate species source term function that could alleviate both of these problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Incorporating fast reacting flow chemistry into LES calculations would represent an enabling technology and would be of great interest to NASA and the rest of the CFD community. Several groups at NASA would benefit from our project; NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the National Combustion Code (NCC) to aid in the design of rocket and gas turbine aircraft engines, while Wind-US, and VULCAN (developed at NASA-Langley), are two other NASA reacting flow CFD codes that could benefit from this research. The ability to accurately predict performance of hypersonic airbreathing systems burning higher hydrocarbons would be immediately useful.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The US Air Force, GE Aircraft Engines, Aerojet, Pratt & Whitney-Rocketdyne, and Rolls-Royce are all major players in the field of airbreathing and rocket engine design and have expressed a high level of interest in development of high-fidelity engine design tools like reacting flow LES. Problems with combustion stability, for example, often appear late in an engine development program and can be quite difficult and costly to fix, but could be detected early enough to change inexpensively with high-fidelity computational tools. Other potential applications of our technology include better rocket plume simulations to more accurately predict radar and infrared signatures and base heating loads, industrial chemical processes, and automobile engine design to help reduce pollutant formation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-8821
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Timko
timko@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 932-0280

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft particle emissions contribute a modest, but growing, portion of the overall particle emissions budget. Characterizing aircraft particle emissions is required to improve aircraft combustor design and aircraft operating practices. Aircraft particle emissions are a complex mixture of soot and semi-volatile material, primarily inhabiting sizes smaller than 100 nm. New instruments are required to characterize aircraft particle emissions. We propose to build a new instrument for sensitive (>200 ng m-3 on a 1 Hz cycle) measurements of particle sulfate. The key instrument component will be a tunable infrared diode absorption spectrometer (TILDAS). Compared to existing sulfate measurement instruments, the TILDAS-sulfate instrument will be able to reject NO interferences, a key capability required for aircraft exhaust applications. Prior to reaching the TILDAS, gas phase SO2 will be removed using an acid gas denuder and particle sulfate will be converted to SO2 in a quartz oven. By running the TILDAS-sulfate in tandem with a commercial differential mobility analyzer, we anticipate obtaining size resolved sulfate mass loadings (10 size bins, from 10 nm to several hundred nm). Phase I tasks include evaluating acid gas denuder and SO2-to-sulfate technologies, determining the instrument detection limits, demonstrating instrument discrimination against NO and other interferences, and demonstrating the use of the instrument to characterize simulated aircraft exhaust gas.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of the proposed TILDAS-sulfate instrument will be characterization of aircraft particle emissions. NASA has sponsored a number of major aircraft particle characterization tests, including the three APEX experiments and the AAFEX experiment. These measurement activities have contributed to a growing understanding of aircraft exhaust particles. However, despite substantial effort, many questions remain. The most important outstanding question is the relative contribution of soot and semi-volatile particles to the overall particle mass emissions loading. Depending on the engine, fuel, and operating conditions, semi-volatile mass loadings vary from almost zero to more than 100 mg kg-1. A second outstanding question is the conversion efficiency of SO2 to SO3. By directly measuring particle bound sulfate and with limited restrictions on the particle size that can be detected the TILDAS-sulfate instrument will help answer these two important outstanding questions faced by NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is one of several U.S. stakeholders in the aircraft particle emissions community. FAA, EPA, SERDP, U.S. Air Force, airport operators, and engine manufacturers all have a stake in understanding aircraft particle emissions and all of these are potential consumers of the TILDAS-sulfate instrument and its data. In addition to aircraft exhaust characterization, sulfate aerosol makes an important contribution to global climate forcing. Moreover, sulfuric acid has been shown to be a key component in atmospheric nucleation events. Improved instruments are required for rapid, size- and composition resolved measurements of sulfate particles. Current instruments are inadequate for characterizing particles smaller than 50 nm, suffer severe interferences from other atmospheric gases, lack composition resolution, lack size resolution, or lack the required sensitivity.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-9091
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Approach for Modeling Chemical Kinetics and Turbulence Effects on Combustion-Instability

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ranjan Mehta
sxh@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4858

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Combustion instabilities pose a significant technical risk in the development of liquid and solid rocket motors. Much of the effort in modeling combustion instabilities has focused either on systems-level tools, or use of detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate all the involved processes. The important effects of finite-rate chemical kinetics and turbulence-chemistry interactions have been neglected in combustion instability modeling. In this SBIR project, CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) will team up with Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories (GTL) to develop a hybrid approach by combining CFD capabilities with a systems-level instability modeling approach, the latter based on the Universal Combustion Device Stability (UCDS) process. These capabilities will be used to quantify the effects of finite-rate chemistry and turbulence-chemistry interactions on combustion instabilities. In Phase I, feasibility of the proposed approach will be demonstrated by combining 2-D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes and Large Eddy Simulation computations with the UCDS framework. In Phase II, the instability analysis will be enhanced by coupling: (1) 3-D CFD analysis; and (2) Improved UCDS process with more accurate treatment of boundary conditions and the flame. The proposed approach will enable an accurate combustion instability analysis of rocket motors, gas turbine combustors, and ramjet and scramjet engines.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The model developed in this SBIR project will be extremely useful in identifying the potential sources of combustion instability, and ways to suppress them. The tools developed will allow mitigation of instability problems in the design-phase, eliminating expensive testing needed when combustion instabilities occur in engine testing. The methods developed under this project will have wide ranging applications at NASA, including design of propulsion devices such as solid rocket motors, liquid rocket engines and gas turbine combustors important in the design of the Heavy Lift Launch System, In-space propulsion systems, numerous planetary spacecraft missions, etc. The instability analysis methodology developed in this SBIR project can also be applied to high-speed combustion devices such as ramjet and scramjet engines, as the method combines the key advantages of both sufficiently detailed CFD analysis and accurate system-level modeling paradigm. In this respect, the tool will be useful to NASA's Hypersonics Program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The tool developed will also be useful to a number of industries, including gas turbine manufacturers for civilian energy and aviation applications. The tool will also be useful to the Air Force in the design of propulsion devices such as the engine for the Joint Strike Fighter. The software developed in this SBIR will allow cost-effective design and analysis of combustion systems. The ability to avoid combustion-driven instability and investigation of high-payoff ideas will be possible. The final product will be marketable to OEMs and designers/manufacturers of gas turbines, I.C. engines and other combustion/propulsion devices which can be affected by combustion instability. The tool will also be useful in missile propulsion system designs such as X-51, Waverider as well as Standard Missile 6 upgrades. It will also be useful in the next generation launch vehicles such as Falcon.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-9573
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Diagnostic for Reacting Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
8 Chrysler
Irvine, CA 92618-2008
(949) 553-0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Jenkins
tjenkins@metrolaserinc.com
8 Chrysler
Irvine,  CA 92618-2008
(949) 553-0688

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A diagnostic technique is proposed for measuring temperature and velocity simultaneously in a high temperature reacting flow for aiding research in propulsion. The technique involves seeding particles of a ceramic thermographic phosphor into the flow and illuminating them with two overlapping pulsed laser sheets. Laser-induced luminescence from the particles will be measured to obtain temperature from its effects on luminescence lifetime. Velocity will be obtained simultaneously from the same particles using conventional particle image velocimetry (PIV). Each of the two diagnostics will employ a separate CCD camera that captures a pair of images separated by a short delay. For the thermometry technique, pixel intensity ratios of the delayed to the undelayed images will be related to temperature via a calibration function. In the PIV technique, particle displacements between the images will be obtained using conventional interrogation window techniques with cross-correlation. The proposed diagnostic is expected to enable spatially and temporally correlated measurements of two key variables in combustion modeling that cannot be obtained in most high temperatures flows using currently available methods. The phase I effort will demonstrate feasibility measurements in a flame.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology would benefit NASA in the development of future air-breathing aerospace vehicles by providing an experimental way to verify models of turbulent reacting flow. Cross correlations of velocity and temperature are fundamental to physics based models of combustion processes, yet very little experimental data of this nature currently exists. This diagnostic should enable experimental investigations of combustors and combustion rigs that should help advance development in the areas of extremely-low-emission engines, propulsion control and engine health management, and modeling and simulation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A diagnostic for simultaneously measuring temperature and velocity in a high temperature reacting flow does not currently exist on the market and would find widespread use in combustion research. Government labs, research institutions and universities, aircraft engine manufacturers, and automobile engine manufacturers will be targeted as potential users of this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Ceramics
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Atmospheric Propulsion
Ultraviolet
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-9607
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: New Combustion CFD Algorithms Designed for Rapid GPU Computations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Oluwayemisi Oluwole
oluwoleo@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 932-0270

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose development of new algorithms specifically designed to exploit the highly parallel structure of graphics processing units (GPUs) for performing the following most expensive, but parallelizable computations in combustion CFD: (1) Chemical kinetics source term (including Jacobian matrix) evaluation; (2) Transport property evaluations; and (3) Matrix factorizations and inversions. The algorithms developed in this work will be implemented as software modules that can be easily interfaced with arbitrary CFD solvers for rapid computations using GPUs. A user guide will be delivered with directions for coupling the provided algorithms with users' CFD programs. Phase I work will demonstrate the computational acceleration achieved using the preliminary algorithms; and Phase II work will optimize the algorithms for improved performance and implement the algorithms as well-documented, distributable software modules as described above. This work will significantly increase the predictive capability of combustion CFD simulations by enabling efficient application of much larger chemistry models (which is essential, but currently prohibitively expensive) for accurately modeling the combustion of practical fuels.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The GPU algorithms developed in this work will complement NASA's combustion research. These new algorithms can be interfaced with NASA's in-house combustion CFD tools such as the National Combustion Code (NCC), to greatly facilitate modeling of combustion phenomena relevant for analysis of, for instance, gas-turbine engines. Specifically, NASA's capabilities for modeling emissions performance of gas turbine combustors, which requires incorporation of detailed combustion chemistry, will be greatly enhanced. Other NASA applications related to reacting flow simulations, such as rocket or aircraft propulsion or plume modeling, will also benefit from this project.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful completion of this project will also benefit a wide array of industrial and government customers outside NASA whose efforts involve combustion CFD. Customers in automobile and aircraft engine companies, petrochemical companies and energy companies could take advantage of the GPU algorithms to enhance their combustion CFD capabilities for engine design or process optimization. DOE, DOD and NOAA researchers could also utilize these algorithms for a wide range of applications, including combustion modeling, propellant and alloy formation, or atmospheric and air pollution modeling.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Surface Propulsion
Development Environments
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-9629
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Thermal Soot Denuder

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zhenhong Yu
zyu@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 932-0265

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a non-thermal soot denuder for measuring chemical components of the nucleation mode particulate matter emissions from gas turbine engines, in combination with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). This proposed approach will effectively eliminate the contribution of soot particles to the AMS-measured volatile PM mass spectrum. It is capable of identifying the semi-volatile composition of the nucleation mode particles based on their characteristic mass spectra and also determining the particle size distribution in aerodynamic diameter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA need for this technology is in its research programs to monitor nucleation mode particulate emissions from aircraft engines. In addition to AMS, other particle measurement instruments with an aerodynamic lens such as Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), which NASA has used in its previous field missions, can also be integrated with the proposed soot denuder to monitor soot particles without the influence of non-refractory coating.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposed apparatus can be easily transferred from a soot denuder into a non-thermal nanoparticle purifier and could become a continuous and environment-friendly method to purify and size-select the desired nanoparticles in the same time. Such technique would have a great impact on the mass production of high-quality nanoparticles. The material and operational cost of this instrument is so low that there is little financial burdening to add it to the current available nanoparticle synthesis scheme.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Characterization
Nanomaterials
Emitters
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Visible


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-9653
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermally Stable Catalytic Combustors for Very High Altitude Airbreathing Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(617) 500-0536

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. James Sisco
jsisco@aurora.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-4835

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aerospace vehicles operating at high altitudes have the potential to be less expensive and more versatile alternatives to space based systems for earth/space science, communications, and surveillance. However, the operational flexibility of these vehicles is limited by the performance of the propulsion system. In gas turbine systems low temperatures and pressures at the combustor inlet are of concern for combustion stability and efficiency at high altitudes. The overall objective of the proposed work is to assess the feasibility of developing a high performance airbreathing combustor for hydrogen-fueled very high altitude aircraft by promoting stable combustion using thermally stable catalytic reactor technology. Our combustor concept baselines the use of strontium-substituted hexaaluminate catalyst supports, which are resilient to temperatures greater than 1500 K. In Phase I an active catalyst that provides high reactivity with hydrogen at representative conditions will be identified through laboratory testing. An empirical model of catalyst reactivity will be developed and integrated with a reactor model to produce a conceptual design of a full scale combustor for a defined very high altitude gas turbine system. The catalytic rector that will be developed through this effort represents a new, enabling technology that will dramatically increase the flexibility of aerospace vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has shown recent interest in the use of hydrogen fuel as a means of substantially reducing the carbon emissions from commercial aircraft. A potential problem with a hydrogen-based system is that nitrogen oxides emissions may be difficult to control. The thermally stable catalytic combustor technology that will be developed through this effort may provide an approach to control the NOx emissions from a hydrogen-based aircraft platform. In addition, this technology provides a capability to extend the operating range of hydrogen-based gas turbine based propulsion systems to very high altitudes that may enable new aircraft platforms for earth and atmospheric science initiatives at NASA. Additionally, this catalyst technology could find use in other systems of interest to NASA that operate at high altitudes, such as supersonic/hypersonic vehicles or balloon-based systems, and may require additional thrust, power, or a high heat source.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed thermally stable catalytic combustor technology is a key to providing combustion stability in hydrogen-based gas turbine based propulsion systems operating at very high altitudes. Such propulsion systems are critical to a multitude of missions employing unmanned aerial vehicles. These systems are of significant interest to the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). In addition, this technology may have potential to provide emissions reduction in stationary gas turbine systems used for power generation. This is of interest to the U. S. Department of Energy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Atmospheric Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.02-9922
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Generalized Software Toolkit for Portable GPU-Enabled Chemistry Acceleration in CFD Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrea Zambon
azambon@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Rd.
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current combustor design simulations aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving fuel-lean combustion have entailed using large amounts of dedicated CPU resources for extended time periods due to the expense of solving detailed, strongly-coupled, chemical kinetic models. Such models are inherently data parallel, and much faster solutions can be obtained using low-cost graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware without loss of accuracy. This proposal describes development of a user-friendly software toolkit that facilitates implementing detailed or reduced fuel chemistry solvers directly onto GPUs to substantially accelerate CFD simulation runtimes. The approach is significant because it provides a cost-effective path to substantially reduce the wall-clock times currently bottlenecking high-fidelity combustion simulations. It accommodates the incorporation of self-contained, real fuel kinetic mechanisms and validated chemistry solvers, written using standard GPU-recognized program language extensions such as CUDA and OpenCL, for use in CFD analyses with minimal end-user code modifications. Using inputs that are Chemkin-format compatible, the proposed software toolkit will generate portable, GPU-enabled kernels that can be directly compiled into existing CFD codes, such as the National Combustion Code (NCC), to accelerate detailed combustion simulations for improved design support.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This product directly supports NASA's goal of significantly improving air-breathing engine designs to increase combustion efficiency and yield cleaner exhaust emissions. Reaching this goal requires use of CFD-based parametric design studies with validated, extended chemical kinetic mechanisms capable of critically evaluating design concepts affecting ignition sensitivities and combustion stability. The end-product will provide the necessary automation and acceleration capabilities needed to readily model real fuels such as JP-8 and JP-10 and support design decisions with practical turnaround times. Our work will directly integrate with ongoing NASA activities improving runtime performance and accuracy of the National Combustion Code. Additionally, this product is readily extensible for use in hydrocarbon scramjet combustion applications, where modeling of critical kinetic pathways is needed to assess ignition and flameholding sensitivities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial market for this computational framework is large and encompasses the broad markets of gas turbine combustor and rocket fuel injector designers. Marketing to HCCI/diesel/internal combustion engine manufacturers and other industrial applications, e.g., incinerators and furnaces are also of interest since they depend on efficient and accurate flowfield predictions to evaluate concepts with promise of cleaner emissions and robust combustion dynamics. Difficulties can arise in both implementing a detailed kinetic model in a standard CFD code and in obtaining a solution involving potentially dozens of species and hundreds of reactions within a reasonable timeframe. The product of this SBIR effort directly targets this market with provision of user-friendly, GPU-accelerated routines that address this need. In addition, there is a strong need for faster solution times in varied DoD programs supporting scramjets, pulse-detonation engines, augmentors, and missile plume IR signatures that the end-product can readily support.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.03-8233
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Element Method for Compsoite Structures Subjected to Boundary Layer Loading

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Comet Technology Corporation
3830 Packard, Suite 110
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2051
(734) 973-1600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
S. Raveendra
rraveendra@cometacoustics.com
3830 Packard, Suite 110
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2051
(734) 239-5757

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In many situations, aerospace structures are subjected to a wide frequency spectrum of mechanical and/or acoustic excitations and therefore, there is a need for the development of numerical modeling techniques that are applicable for the resolution of dynamic response of complex systems spanning the entire frequency spectrum. Further, the modeling of composite structures becomes more and more important since many new vehicle designs incorporate increased amount of composite structural components due to weight specific advantages of composites. Thus, we propose to develop techniques that will allow the prediction of noise in the interior of an enclosure such as aircraft due to the transmission of turbulent boundary layer loading in the presence of composite structural components. This innovative Hybrid Element Method (HEM) solution tool for mid-frequency analysis, which utilizes elements of DEA, together with conventional low frequency FEM tools and high frequency EFEM tools, will provide a unified framework that is applicable for the solution of full frequency spectrum vibroacoustic prediction of nonuniform aerospace structures including metallic/composite configurations, accurately and efficiently.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of space vehicles and space stations requires the prediction of vibration levels to asses the fatigue life of critical components and noise levels to assess the comfort and functionality levels of crew members. The software product developed as part of the proposed project will enable NASA to effectively evaluate and apply noise and vibration control procedures spanning the entire frequency spectrum. It will also substantially reduce the effort involved in the design of products since the proposed development is based on finite element method that is already used extensively for low frequency noise and vibration analysis. Since low frequency (FEM), mid frequency (HEM) and high frequency (EFEM) analyses can be performed using mostly the same database, the modeling effort associated will be substantially reduced. The software will also enhance NASA's ability to evaluate the acoustic environment and resulting vibration in the payload bay of launch vehicle, diffuse sound field excitation on payloads during rocket launch and ground qualification, and structural integrity of airframe. Manufacturers of aircraft engines and components will also find the software useful for analysis and design.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed development will extend and enhance the computational modeling capabilities in many industries such as automotive, naval, heavy equipment and consumer products. Customers equate quality of a product with the sound the product makes. As a result of elevated demand for quieter products from customers together with the increased government regulations, manufactures of products with noise problem in all industries are searching for effective ways to make products with improved noise characteristics. For example, in automotive industry, the increased use of multi-media and telemetric devices demands quieter vehicle interiors and the manufactures and suppliers of interior products not only need to consider functionality, but also the noise control capability of the products. Consequently, there is increasing demand for tools based on computer simulation that can be used to guide design at the early design stage. In addition to interior noise prediction and optimization, the software can be adapted to evaluate and improve radiated noise from engines, exhaust, tires, etc. It can be used to evaluate and improve consumer products such as compressors, air conditioners, hairdryers, vacuum cleaners, and washing machines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Composites
Structures


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.03-8991
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Interior Acoustic Analysis for Early Use in Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Engineering Services, LLC
2890 Carpenter Road, Suite 1900
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1100
(734) 358-0792

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim He
jim_he@miengsrv.com
2890 Carpenter Road, Suite 1900
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1100
(734) 477-5710

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The design of an aircraft is a highly iterative process. During the conceptual design phase there is no time for developing detailed simulation models and decisions are typically made either by using low fidelity models or existing data and regression models. However, the decisions made during the conceptual design phase greatly affect the performance of the aircraft and the associated cost, and typically the majority of the cost is locked during very early stages of the design process. Usually the sound insulation requirements of a passenger cabin are met after the outer mold line of the aircraft and the design of the fuselage structure have been completed and this approach adds weight to the design. Ideally the structural-acoustic concerns should enter the design cycle early and be considered along with other main design disciplines. During the early design stages of an aircraft the interior noise performance of different fuselage configurations must be evaluated based on the following information: length, cross sectional stations as a function of longitudinal location, main interior arrangements, spacing and size of stiffeners and stringers, thickness and material properties of insulation blankets, thickness and material properties of the fuselage and of the trim panels, and the type of acoustic treatment placed in the interior. The acoustic performance expressed in terms of noise reduction comprises the metric for assessing the aircraft performance for interior noise considerations. The proposed project will develop an easy to use, physics based, computational capability that can provide fast an assessment for the interior noise of either conventional or novel aircraft during the early stages of the design process. It will also allow engaging information from multi-scale simulations for designing quiet composite materials with increased damping and reduced radiation efficiency characteristics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural-acoustic concerns are present in aircraft structures, launch vehicles, and spacecraft, since they are directly related with occupant comfort and noise induced vibration on payloads and electronic equipment. In all of these areas decisions made early in the design are critical for the performance and the cost of the system. Currently, structural-acoustic concerns are typically addressed late in the design cycle when the structural configuration has been finalized. Bringing structural acoustic simulations early in the design cycle will offer cost and weight savings. Therefore, the proposed developments will be useful to all NASA groups interested in reducing weight and cost when designing aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Interior noise concerns are present in civil aircraft design since the structural-acoustic performance is directly related with the perceived product quality and the occupant comfort. Currently, structural-acoustic concerns are typically addressed late in the design cycle when the structural configuration has been finalized. Therefore bringing structural acoustic simulations early in the design cycle will offer cost and weight savings. Thus, there is a great market potential for the outcome of this SBIR in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The proposed development fits well the business activities of the proposing firm in the area of computational structural-acoustics and in product design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Composites
Metallics
Polymers
Textiles
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.03-9030
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of Wavelet Stochastic Estimation for Identifying the Contribution of Turbulent Structures to the Sound Field of Shear Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
spgogineni@gmail.com
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fundamental understanding of noise generation and the development of noise reduction technology requires the development of tools that can analyze simultaneously the relationship between the turbulent flow field and the pressure field both near and far. In this proposal we will demonstrate how Wavelet Stochastic Estimation (WSE) is the most optimal method for correlating the source region to the sound field when using a microphone array and Particle Image Velocimetry. WSE first transforms the far-field pressure signal into the wavelet domain which then enables both temporal and frequency information to be correlated with the flow field. By adding the frequency information to the correlations, it becomes easier to extract the contribution from the large-scale structures and thus relate their dynamics to noise generation. We also demonstrate how WSE can be used with flow structure identification methods, such as the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), to further improve the link between the sound field and the turbulent flow field. The proposed technology supports the Fundamental Aeronautics Program by improving noise prediction and measurement methods. The technology will be available for both subsonic and supersonic vehicles, with particular emphasis on noise sources generated from shear flows.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Wavelet Stochastic Estimation method has the ability to support the Fundamental Aeronautics Program by improving noise prediction and measurement methods for subsonic and supersonic vehicles, including jet, and airframe noise sources. We particularly address the need for innovative source identification techniques for engine (e.g., fan, jet, combustor, or turbine noise) and for airframe (e.g., landing gear, high lift systems) noise sources, including turbulence details related to flow-induced noise typical of jets, separated flow regions, vortices, shear layers, etc. The Wavelet Stochastic Estimation method for source identification will be demonstrated in a shear flow surrounding an exhausting subsonic jet. However, the method is directly applicable to any flow-induced noise since the sources for jets, separated flows, vortices and shear layers can all be measured using PIV and their sound fields can be measured using microphone arrays. We also believe the development of the current tools could expand into the structures community since the transfer of vibrations would use the same concept as the transfer of sound.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wavelet Stochastic Estimation is an analytical tool for optimizing the transfer function from one set of data to a second set of data. For acoustics, the first set of data is often the source field and the second set of data is the sound field. However, any application looking to understand the transfer of data from one region to another would find application with Stochastic Estimation. Also, using our advanced technique would add the benefit of including frequency information in this understanding. Using Stochastic Estimation for relating the turbulent structures in a shear layer to the radiate sound would find non-NASA commercial applications with GE Aviation and GE Global Research, Boeing, Air Force, and NAVY to name a few. The ability to use this method with both experimental and computational databases further demonstrates the flexibility and feasibility of this product. Validation of computational databases with experimental databases is often done with time-averaged quantities. The WSE method could be used to compare the large-scale dynamics captured in a computational database to an experimental database.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.03-9097
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Implicit Higher Order Temporal Differencing for Aeroacoustic and CFD Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Dionne
sxh@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal presents a stand-alone implicit high order temporal differencing solver concept that will interface with research and commercial numerical analysis codes to provide unlimited temporal accuracy. While the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) market has mature products that solve a large portion of problems faced by practicing engineers, these tools are often inadequate for fast transient, multi-scale numerical problems such as highly resolved turbulence, vortex shedding and combustion instability where rapid, small scale local phenomena can be overwhelmed by numerical dissipation. Many research and commercial solvers perform sufficient spatial resolution, but use insufficient explicit or low order implicit temporal resolution. Higher order explicit temporal schemes are not always feasible when modeling turbulence, can be severely limited by the time step size, and are less efficient than even low-order implicit methods. In the proposed Phase I effort, a previously developed high order implicit time integration formulation, tested up to 11th order accuracy, will be extracted from an existing solver and interfaced with an independent finite-volume solver to prove the feasibility of providing decoupled time integration for existing numerical codes. In Phase II, the time integration formulation will be implemented in a software framework and tested with readily available, popular numerical codes

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many NASA scientists and engineers are involved in the development and use of advanced numerical analysis codes for applications in physics, engineering, biotechnology, etc. This project will develop and deliver a tool for incorporating implicit higher order differencing into these computational codes, allowing high order temporal solutions without developing a new solver. Potential CFD applications include acoustics, combustion (including combustion instability), and turbulence.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Scientists and engineers in a wide range of physical disciplines, such as mechanics, medicine, physical cosmology, nano-technology, etc., employ transient computational analysis to solve governing equations that are too difficult to solve analytically. Many of these computational disciplines require accurate transient analyses. The temporal differencing solver developed in this project will serve as an important aid for these researchers to obtain high temporal accuracy with a reasonable amount of computational effort.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.03-9826
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Fidelity Simulation of Jet Noise Emissions from Rectangular Nozzles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neeraj Sinha
sinha@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Rd.
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR Phase I & II programs will lead to the validation of a state-of-the-art Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model, coupled with a Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) farfield acoustic solver, for supporting the development of advanced engine concepts, including innovative flow control strategies for attenuation of their jet noise emissions. The LES/FW-H model will be simultaneously validated against matched sets of flowfield and companion acoustic data acquired recently at NASA/GRC for round nozzles. The flowfield validation will include detailed comparisons against imagery, mean flow measurements and turbulence statistics. The end-to-end capability of the LES/FW-H noise prediction model will also be demonstrated by applying it to high aspect-ratio rectangular nozzle designs, proposed for testing at NASA GRC under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. This critical validation will provide the foundation for proceeding to application of this innovative methodology in supporting the design and optimization of control concepts, e.g. chevrons, slot jets, fluidic chevrons, etc., as well as ultimately performing predictions of noise emissions from full-scale, realistic nozzles with complex exhaust flowpaths, airframe/propulsive jet interactions, etc.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The research proposed is of direct relevance to NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, with its focus on development of supersonic commercial flight, while meeting current and future noise certification levels. In parallel with airframe design for supersonic flight, advanced propulsion concepts are also under development, with non-axisymmetric, rectangular nozzle designs that incorporate noise control concepts. The engines that will be used with these aircrafts require significant advances in noise control technology an undertaking for which high-fidelity LES modeling will prove crucial in providing insight into physics and also complementing laboratory tests. The validated model will support NASA's upcoming tests of scale-model single or dual rectangular nozzles, as well as nozzles with chevrons and bevels. The same high-aspect ratio rectangular nozzles are also of interest to the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research is directly applicable to the US Navy's development of noise suppression technology for the F/A-18 E/F and JSF/F-35B programs. The F/A-18 E/F program office is currently engaged in development of retrofits for the General Electric F414-400 engine that entail the replacement of their nozzle seals with a new design of seals which feature chevron extensions at the trailing-edge. Comparable modifications are also being considered for the General Electric F404-400 engine for the F/A-18 C/D aircraft. Over the longer-term, the Navy's focus is shifting towards advanced suppressions concepts beyond chevrons, etc. for next-generation propulsion systems, where high-fidelity modeling will be crucial in supporting technology development. The proposed technology also has applicability in the automobile industry. Although significant resources are being spent in reducing noise from vortex shedding from side-view mirrors, the efforts are presently hindered by the absence of high fidelity predictive tools.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.04-8137
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Fidelity Computational and Wind Tunnel Models in Support of Certification Airworthiness of Control Surfaces with Freeplay and Other Nonlinear Features

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Dynamics, Inc.
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington, KY 40511-1627
(859) 699-0441

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Hu
patrick.g.hu@advanceddynamics-usa.com
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington,  KY 40511-1627
(859) 699-0441

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work will establish high fidelity computational methods and wind tunnel test model in support of new freeplay criteria for the design, construction and controlled actuation of control surfaces with varying amounts of freeplay and their aeroelastic response. These methods will be validated with wind tunnel and flight test data. In Phase I a nonlinear computational aeroservoelastic methodology will be developed for freeplay induced flutter/LCO and gust response. Validation will be achieved by comparisons with legacy and new wind tunnel test data. In Phase II the methodology will be generalized to create a mature software capability for closed-loop aeroelastic systems in the trimmed/untrimmed state including gust, stick or random aeroacoustic excitations. An all movable tail wing wind tunnel test article will be designed and built with variable freeplay with initial test evaluation completed in Phase I and a thorough parameter variation data set and will be developed in Phase II for computational code validation in Phase II. Subject to available funding constraints both high speed transonic as well as subsonic will tunnel tests will be undertaken. In Phase III the computational methodology in combination wind tunnel test results will be used to support the improvement of the current FAA and/or MIL-SPEC freeplay aeroelastic response criteria. Following the successful demonstration and validation of the new computational methods, the methodology will be proposed for adoption by FAA for commercial applications and the DOD for military applications with the expectation that all major civilian and military aerospace industries will adopt the design/analysis methodology for freeplay induced LCO/flutter prevention.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Free-play induced flutter/LCO is critical for design of both civil and fighter plans, the direct application of this SBIR effort to the current interest to NASA represents a prime opportunity for further product development and enhancement and represents a considerable potential revenue stream in engineering support, plus further technology acquisition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA potential applications represent a major sector from which sales opportunities can be pursued. Improvement of analysis and design methods for freeplay-induced flutter and LCO of an aeroelastic system is a common interest for wide range of aerospace and ocean as well as general engineering applications and, thus is highly demanded. Therefore, the US industrial companies, including various aerospace & ocean as well as general engineering companies such as Boeing, Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, General Dynamics, Lockheed Martin,Textron, and others, will be the major non-military potential customers that we will aggressively pursue.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.04-9207
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifidelity Robust Aeroelastic Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nielsen Engineering & Research, Inc.
2700 Augustine Drive, Suite 200
Santa Clara, CA 94054-2927
(408) 727-9457

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Reisenthel
phr@nearinc.com
2700 Augustine Drive, Suite 200
Santa Clara,  CA 94054-2927
(408) 727-9457

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) proposes a new method to generate mathematical models of wind-tunnel models and flight vehicles for robust aeroelastic analysis and design. These models provide a unified description applicable to CFD steady and unsteady aerodynamics, reduced-order CFD approaches, flexible structures and active control systems, and can accommodate probabilistic aerodynamics and aeroelastics. NEAR's offering is based on probabilistic metamodels which are supported by analyses and data at all available levels of fidelity and which are dynamically updated based on multifidelity expected improvement concepts. The proposed software will help reduce the design and life-cycle cost of next-generation high-efficiency flight vehicle systems and revolutionary aerospace vehicles, and will help attain better aeroelastic designs, by providing a better understanding of how the design variables interact and affect each other under the influence of uncertainty, and by incorporating these interactions early in the design to reduce risk.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research and development will result in new multifidelity design methods which leverage efficient low-fidelity models. These methods will enable the use of high-fidelity analyses in highly integrated aeroelastic designs of unconventional airframes and new structural and propulsion concepts requiring system-wide cross disciplinary integration. The proposed technology applies to aerospace vehicles in the subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic speed regimes, and will help NASA reach its goal of ensuring long-term investments and fundamental research in relevant emerging fields that can be integrated into system-level, multidisciplinary capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A diverse range of application examples exists where the proposed technology could be beneficial. These include defense applications related to flight vehicles design such as UAVs/UCAVs, but also next generation energy-efficient automobile design, wind turbines, hydroelasticity, civil and earthquake engineering, and, in general, any design application that involves multiple disciplines, may involve time-dependent responses, and is amenable to multifidelity modeling.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Characterization
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support
Data Fusion
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.04-9273
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Towards Better Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Aeroelasticity On and Beyond Transonic Regimes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Dynamics, Inc.
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington, KY 40511-1627
(859) 699-0441

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Hu
patrick.g.hu@advanceddynamics-usa.com
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington,  KY 40511-1627
(859) 699-0441

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The need to accurately predict aeroelastic phenomenon for a wide range of Mach numbers is a critical step in the design process of any aerospace vehicle. Complex aerodynamic phenomenon such as vortex shedding, shock-turbulence interaction, separation, etc. dominate at transonic and supersonic Mach numbers and hence the need to address these phenomena is of utmost importance in the modeling process. Research is proposed for the development and implementation of state of the art, large-eddy-simulation (LES) based computational models for problems in nonlinear aeroelasticity. Highly efficient and accurate subgrid-scale (SGS) models will be incorporated into the flow solver and coupled with high fidelity structure solvers to predict aeroelastic phenomena such as transonic flutter, limit cycle oscillations, etc. The SGS models proposed are based on eddy-viscosity and non-eddy-viscosity models and they will both be assessed for accuracy and robustness in the context of nonlinear aeroelasticity. The implications of the proposed work include using highly accurate turbulence models with efficient finite element models of structure to solve problems in nonlinear aeroelasticity. The application of the proposed innovations spans the range of flight, from subsonic to supersonic transport vehicles. Anticipated results include 1) the implementation of the proposed LES methodology into current aeroelastic toolset 2) application of the proposed work to large-scale simulation and comparison with experiment and lower fidelity RANS-based aeroelastic simulations and 3) advancement of the state of knowledge for nonlinear problems in aeroelasticity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Installation of a prototype device in air vehicles to suppress transonic flutter and LCO and extend the flight envelope is highly demanded for safely operating civil as well as military aircrafts. The direct application of the SBIR effort to the current needs of NASA represents a prime opportunity for further product development and enhancement and represents a considerable potential revenue stream in engineering support, plus further technology acquisition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improvement of physics-based identification, modeling and risk management of (transonic) flutter and limit-cycle oscillations of an aeroelastic system is a common interest for wide range of engineering applications and, thus is highly demanded. It will be demonstrated that the proposed methodologies have great potential for enhancing the physics-based identification, modeling and risk management of flutter and limit-cycle oscillations of an aeroelastic system. DoD components likely to have interests in the technology developed in this SBIR project are the US Air Force, Navy and Army. The US industrial companies, including various aerospace & ocean as well as general engineering companies such as Boeing, Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, General Dynamics, Lockheed Martin and Textron, will be the major non-military potential customers. In addition, the corresponding industrial companies in Europe and Asia represent a very large marketing share of the resulting methods and technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Structures
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.04-9797
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Prediction of Unsteady Transonic Aerodynamics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AYCN LLC
1644 Clay Drive
Los Altos, CA 94024-6251
(650) 964-9956

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Nixon
davidnixon@sbcglobal.net
1644 Clay Drive
Los Altos,  CA 94024-6251
(650) 964-9956

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An accurate prediction of aero-elastic effects depends on an accurate prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic forces. Perhaps the most difficult speed regime is transonic where the motion of the shock wave and its interaction with the boundary layer are dominant factors. In spite of over 40 years research into the computation of unsteady transonic aerodynamics there still appear to be areas where available technology is inadequate. A research axiom is that if a particular viewpoint fails to resolve an issue then the problem should be viewed differently. The research proposed here is to re-examine some issues in unsteady transonic aerodynamics using some recent theoretical developments. All aspects of unsteady transonic flow, including limit cycles and control strategies will be considered.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation will help NASA to achieve its goals for improving the competitiveness of national aerospace industry by introducing a more comprehensive understanding of unsteady transonic aerodynamics into NASA software. New concepts for control of the characteristic shock wave boundary layer interaction may significantly improve the efficiency air vehicles flying at transonic speeds.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation will help the national aerospace industry and the Defense Department by enabling the development of more comprehensive software. New concepts for control of the characteristic shock wave boundary layer interaction may significantly improve the efficiency of air vehicles flying at transonic speeds.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.05-8711
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Shock Generation and Control Using DBD Plasma Actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Technology Applications Co.
P.O. Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006-6971
(314) 373-3311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mehul Patel
mppatel@itacllc.com
3881 E. Leo Pl.
Chandler,  AZ 85249-5879
(480) 247-6611

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions (SWBLI) pose challenges to aeronautical engineers because they create regions of adverse pressure gradients as a result of the discontinuous change in conditions across the shock. This shock-induced pressure gradient is a common factor for both flow separation in supersonic inlets and high stagnation pressure losses on transonic wings, factors which are known to reduce performance and efficiency. These affects can be corrected with appropriate forms of flow control. Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC) and University of Notre Dame (UND) propose the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) plasma actuators to control the affects of SWBLIs for two types of problems, one involving boundary layer separation and the other transonic wave drag. We propose to use plasma actuators near the region of the SWBLI to eliminate or delay the onset of separation in supersonic inlets while using plasma-based shock control methods to reduce the stagnation pressure losses on transonic airfoils. The advantages of the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuators are that they are fully electronic, contain no moving parts, surface mountable, minimally intrusive, can be turned off when not needed, and electrically re-configurable for optimal control in dynamic flow conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications for the proposed EHD/DBD plasma actuators include lift enhancement and drag reduction on aircraft wings, high angle-of-attack operation using plasma actuators as lifting devices, enhanced performance and efficiency of propulsion (S-ducts, inlets) and aerodynamic (control surfaces) systems at both on- and off-design conditions, and improved cycle efficiency of NASA's air-breathing propulsion systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications for the EHD/DBD plasma actuators include design of revolutionary subsonic and hypersonic aerospace vehicles for commercial and military (DoD) purposes, use in turbomachinery systems, noise-control on landing gears of commercial aircraft, design of smart wind turbine rotor blades, drag reduction on ground vehicles, smart helicopter rotor blades, tip-casing clearance flow control for reduced turbine losses, control of flow surge and stall in compressors, and turbulent transition control experiments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.05-9062
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Unified Gaskinetic Methodology for Full-Knudsen-Range Flows with Chemically Reacting Effects

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 East Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shuchi Yang
shuchi@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZONA proposes a Unified Gas Kinetic Scheme (UGKS) to cover the full Knudsen number range from the continuum flow to free molecular flow that can simultaneously exist in the jet nozzle flow of the spacecraft. In the UGKS solver, the BGK model of Boltzmann equation is solved directly with finite volume method based on the Discrete Ordinate Method (DOM). In the UGKS computation the convective terms and collision term is computed in one step with a multi-scale scheme without splitting. The UGKS also closely couples the update of macroscopic conservative variables with the update of microscopic gas distribution functions in one step. At the continuum flow regime, the UGKS recovers the Navier-Stokes solutions with much larger time step than regular direct BGK solver where UGKS essentially becomes a shock-capture scheme. In the rarefied flow regime, UGKS recovers the direct BGK method up to the free molecular flow. With the UGKS, the jet-like flow can be simulated with a unique flow solver. Furthermore, a two-species chemical reaction will be incorporated in UGKS. The UGKS will be applied to various test cases whose results will be validated with others' computational results and available experimental data to verify its accuracy and computational efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed Unified GasKinetic (UGKS) solver can be used for hypersonic applications from continuum to rarefied flow regimes for thermochemical nonequilibrium effects up to ionization/plasma flows and including chemical reaction. The UGKS solver can generate accurate aerodynamic forces and heat rates. Typical applications are for launch vehicles in space access, entry command module and ballutes in atmospheric entry; plume flows in chemical engines or rockets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA commercial applications are supported by aerospace and non-aerospace domains and provide industry for rarefied gas flows application with a wide range of Kn number and Mach number. Such examples for defense industry include hypersonic flows around missiles and rocket nozzles. For civil industry, UGKS applications include aerosol effects on weather prediction, materials processing inside vacuum chamber especially for the semi-conductor industry, air purification with tools made of fine fibers such as masks, and rarefied gas flows associated with MicroElectroMechanical System (MEMS) such as various gas sensors. ZONA will extend the proposed UGKS and package them into a commercial software. Potential customers include DoD, Depart. of Homeland Security, chemical and civil engineering firms, vacuum industry, and semiconductor industry, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Tools/EVA Tools
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.05-9982
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aerodynamic Modeling with Heterogeneous Data Assimilation and Uncertainty Quantification

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Clear Science Corporation
663 Owego Hill Road
Harford, NY 13784-0233
(607) 844-9171

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Henry A. Carlson
hcarlson@clearsciencecorp.com
663 Owego Hill Road
Harford,  NY 13784-0233
(607) 844-9171

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop an aerodynamic modeling tool that assimilates data from different sources and facilitates uncertainty quantification. The technical merit and feasibility of the technology will be demonstrated in Phase I through a series of verification and validation tests that utilize both computational and wind tunnel data in constructing aerodynamic models for the Orion launch abort system (LAS). Aerodynamic models provide inputs to the guidance, navigation, and control system. The proposed software will enable performance predictions over a wide range of operational conditions through the fusion of data from multiple sources including high-dimensional computational simulations, wind tunnel tests, and flight tests. The software will also facilitate uncertainty analyses to determine the propagation of variability in inputs into output variability and sensitivity analyses to identify critical design and modeling parameters and operational variables. Complex systems like the LAS are designed with a mixture of heterogeneous data, and uncertainties in the data can be a critical factor in evaluating designs. The objective is to develop assimilation methods that reduce the number of expensive wind tunnel tests and CFD simulations required during system design while maintaining and improving the quality of aerodynamic models and systematically assessing uncertainties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed software is enabling technology for the design of vehicles that fly safely through any atmosphere at any speed, a stated goal of NASA's Aeronautic Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The tool fits into ARMD's four-level approach to technology development: solving aeronautic challenges for a wide range of aerospace vehicles with modeling methods that integrate all phases of the design process: simulation, ground testing, and flight testing. The design process for aircraft and launch vehicles involves almost every engineering discipline and relies on a mixture of laboratory testing, computational modeling, and final performance evaluations. Integrating these types of analysis and testing will draw from the strength and offset the weakness of each. The software framework will be designed to ultimately interface with models and test data from all of the Fundamental Aeronautics subtopics in the SBIR solicitation, providing the conduit for synergistic development of new and fundamental technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed project will focus on aerodynamic models and launch-abort system design, but the software is applicable in numerous products both inside and outside the aerospace market. An inclusive framework will be developed to accommodate multiple disciplines in the future including aeroservoelastic, aerothermodynamic, and structural analyses. Potential applications extend to almost every industry involved in designing products that require a combination of computational analysis and experimental testing. The list includes automobiles, air and space vehicles, electronic equipment and computer hardware, manufacturing equipment, new "green" energy production platforms and nuclear power plant equipment, nanotechnology, and medical devices with a commensurately large potential market for commercialization of the software. Commercial and military applications also include entry/re-entry platforms for launching satellites, and space planes currently under development for tourism in space.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Attitude Determination & Control
Command & Control
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.06-8327
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Frequency Measurements in Shock-Wave/Turbulent Boundary-Layer Interaction at Duplicated Flight Conditions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tao of Systems Integration, Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5050

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arun Mangalam
arun@taosystems.us
144 Research Drive
Hampton,  VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5040

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and challenging problem for designers of hypersonic vehicles. Characterizing SWTBLI flow features, such as the size of flow separation, is important for design evaluation and CFD validation. Tao Systems and CUBRC propose to develop a wide-bandwidth, thin-film heat transfer sensor system that quantifies the high frequency SWTBLI at duplicated flight conditions. This effort combines Tao Systems' high frequency-response/high-sensitivity electronics and signal processing techniques with the unique expertise of CUBRC in high-speed, high-enthalpy flows to obtain spatiotemporal information for the development of physics-based turbulence models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In aeronautics, heat flux sensors will help meet measurement challenges in providing validation and verification of CFD codes for heat transfer. Development of reliable turbulence modeling and CFD codes depend on making precise aerothermodynamic measurements of heat flux on various test models. NASA ARMD specifically cites prediction of transition and flow separation as high-priority objectives for the future of aeronautics, and heat transfer measurements is a key tool in providing insight into the dynamics of flow phenomena in SWTBLI regions. Specific applications of interest include SWTBLI at high enthalpies (flap forces and Scramjet), laminar/turbulent transition (crossflow instability), and unsteady separated/reattaching backshell flows on capsules.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Apart from the military hypersonic applications, high-sensitivity, high-bandwidth heat transfer instrumentation would be useful for general spatiotemporally accurate measurement of temperature and heat flux. The electronics could be used for measurements in turbomachinery (turbine blades) and for pulse detonation engines. One interesting commercial application where high-temperature heat flux measurement would be useful is fuel cell research, in which spatiotemporal heat flux is critical for performance evaluation. Another application is fire monitoring/control. As an example, it would be useful for naval ships to monitor the heat flux from weapons systems to adjoining areas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Fire Protection
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Conversion
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Thermal Imaging (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Ablative Propulsion
Atmospheric Propulsion
Launch Engine/Booster
Thermal
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Active Systems
Passive Systems
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.06-8550
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computations of Separated High-Enthalpy Hypersonic Flows: Development of RANS and Variable-Resolution PANS Approaches

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frendi Research Corporation
7561 Wall Triana Highway
Madison, AL 35757-8327
(256) 679-2662

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kader Frendi
kfrendi@knology.net
7561 Wall Triana Hwy
Madison,  AL 35757-7418
(256) 679-2662

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the development of a high fidelity computational approach for unsteady calculations of strongly separated non-equilibrium high-enthalpy hypersonic flows. The goal is to integrate the now proven partially-averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) method for unsteady flow simulations with the most advanced closure models for compressibility, high-enthalpy (flow - thermodynamics coupling) and non-equilibrium (flow - chemistry coupling) effects. The PANS model has been established as a reliable model for computing separation in low and high speed regimes in two recently conclude NASA NRA projects -- 1. RANS and PANS modeling of hypersonic turbulent mixing environment; 2. Modeling of strongly separated flows with the PANS bridging method. The current proposal is to incorporate further hypersonic effect closures into PANS. Physics-based closure models for flow-thermochemistry interactions have been under development in Girimaji's group at Texas A&M under AFOSR MURI funding -- Transition and Turbulence modeling in non-thermochemical-equilibrium hypersonic flows. Important closure model building blocks for hypersonic processes are now available from the above fundamental research efforts. The combination of PANS and these advanced high-speed models will lead to a unique capability for computing hypersonic flow separation with ablation, chemistry and compressibility effects. For Phase I, we propose a logical sequence of verification-validation computations to demonstrate the potential of the various individual closures in separated high-speed high-enthalpy flows. While in-house codes are available for the proposed development, we will also consider using any of the NASA codes: USM3D, OVERFLOW, VULCAN or any of the other codes suggested by the grantor. Subsequent work (Phase II) will focus on the assembly of the individual components and development of an unique high-fidelity computational capability for hypersonic vehicle design, testing and development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed method will lead to a state-of-the-art computational design tool for hypersonic flows with high-enthalpy, ablation and chemistry effects for internal and external flows. Aspects of the method have already been implemented in some NASA codes USM3D and PAB3D. The new capabilities can also be easily incorporated into other codes such as VULCAN, WING, OVERFLOW etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The approach developed here is of great interest in investigations of explosions (DoD), high-speed projectiles and missiles (Air Force, Army), shock and blast waves. An important component of the approach PANS is already available in the commercial code AVL FIRE version 8.31. It is being used by designers for internal combustion engine flows.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Entry, Descent, & Landing (see also Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.06-8769
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Order Accuracy Computational Tool for Unsteady Turbulent Flows and Acoustics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frendi Research Corporation
7561 Wall Triana Highway
Madison, AL 35757-8327
(256) 679-2662

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kader Frendi
kfrendi@knology.net
7561 Wall Triana Hwy
Madison,  AL 35757-8327
(256) 679-2662

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The main objective of this research effort is to develop a higher order unsteady turbulent flow solver based on the FDV method, and to exploit its attributes of spanning the whole Mach number range. The well known advantages of the implicit FEM will be inherited along with robust boundary conditions implementation and sound mathematical bases. Efficient parallelization, using MPI through domain decomposition and EBE solution, and supporting unstructured grids will make this effort a long-term investment tool, since all these gained advantages are desirable in virtually every NASA aerodynamics application. To this end, modularization of the in-house developed computer code will be extended to support higher order elements, namely; quadratic, cubic, and eventually spectral elements. The developed higher order code will be tested at various flow conditions starting from the incompressible limit to high supersonics, and including subsonics and transonics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed new tool will allow NASA engineers to perform computations on any complex geometry and for flow regimes spanning the entire Mach number spectrum, from incompressible to the hypersonic regimes. An attractive feature of the new tool is the high order of accuracy of the numerical methods used. These methods are becoming necessary to resolve unsteady turbulent flows and especially acoustic radiation. The later problem is becoming the engineering challenge of the 21st century; i.e. noise source identification and control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similar to NASA, the aerospace industry is in urgent need for such accurate tools that can handle unsteady turbulent flow problems. Existing commercial codes have very low accuracy that one needs to use very large grids to resolve complex problems. With high order methods one can use much smaller grids to accurately capture complex physics such as turbulence and acoustics. This will allow small and large companies to refine their designs and come up with better products that can compete effectively in the market place. The computational tool is not limited to aerospace applications alone but will serve a large spectrum of industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Fluids
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.06-8842
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plasma Sensor for High Bandwidth Mass-Flow Measurements at High Mach Numbers with RF Link

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
spgogineni@gmail.com
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposal is aimed at the development of a miniature high bandwidth (1 MHz class) plasma sensor for flow measurements at high enthalpies. This device uses a plasma discharge between two encapsulated electrodes as the primary sensing element to measure various flow parameters including mass flow. The advantages of the plasma sensor are that it requires no frequency compensation up to its A.C. carrier frequency, has an amplitude-modulated output that has excellent common-mode rejection with a signal-to-noise ratio that is much better than a hot-wire, is robust with no sensor element to break, can have a small spatial volume, and is insensitive to temperature variations making calibration easier than thermal-based sensors. This sensor has applications for measurements in gas-turbine machinery, shock tubes, shock-boundary layer experiments, high-enthalpy hypersonic flows, and in plasma-laden flows such as on reentry vehicles. The output from the sensor is wirelessly transmitted and can be remotely demodulated and converted into the constituent mean and fluctuating components. The proposed effort is designed to advance and expand the capabilities of the plasma sensor for high Mach number flows.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed program is designed to add a robust sensing capability to NASA's mission of research and development in hypersonic and high-enthalpy flow environments, with particular emphasis on mass-ow measurements in a small-measurement volume. This sensor addresses NASA's need to reduce uncertainty and to improve predictive capabilities in boundary layer transition, shock boundary-layer interactions, and other flow conditions involving high enthalpies, temperature gradients, radiative heating or other forms of aerothermal stresses. This technology will support on-going research in the design of scramjet vehicles, improve rotating turbomachinery performance, and the development and validation of transition and turbulence models in both CFD and experiment. It has particular benefit as a laboratory sensor and will provide a turn-key solution to research in high-enthalpy flows.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed program is designed to provide the aerospace industry with a new class of robust sensors that use plasma as the main sensing element. This technology addresses shortcomings in sensing that limits the ability to measure flow quantities in environments characterized by high enthalpy, Mach number, or aerothermal gradients, particularly in the case where high-bandwidth or small volume measurements are required. The plasma sensor provides the ability to obtain feedback in the hot sections of gas-turbines, which is critical to improving their performance and efficiency. Engine manufacturers are limited by current approaches using optical techniques such as laser Doppler velocimetry, which do not provide spatial or temporal resolution, or dynamic pressure sensors such as those manufactured by Kulite, which cannot provide high-temperature reliability. The plasma sensor can provide cheap and reliable sensing capability that can help to advance the state-of-the art in aeronautical engineering.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Manufacturing Methods
Ceramics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Surface Propulsion
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.06-8849
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Laser Diagnostics for Arc-Jet Facilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1529
(650) 965-7772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Doug Baer
d.baer@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop novel instrumentation based on laser absorption spectroscopy techniques for ultrasensitive measurements of atomic and molecular concentrations as well as gas temperature and velocity in high enthalpy flows. These autonomous instruments, based on high resolution laser absorption spectroscopy, will provide highly accurate, real-time quantification of several important species and thus enable the validation and refinement of numerical physical and chemical kinetic models, facilities diagnostics, and eventual development of next-generation components and propulsion systems. In Phase I, the instrument will be fabricated and tested at LGR prior to integration onto a ground-based high enthalpy test facility at NASA Ames. The system will then be refined and delivered to a NASA test site. Final Phase I work will involve developing a Phase II prototype capable of making in situ measurements of multiple parameters in aerothermodynamics test facilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The instrumentation will enable measurements of multiple gas concentrations, temperature and velocity in flowfields generated by arc jet facilities and other high enthalpy test facilities (engines, gas turbine engines, wind tunnels, engine augmentors and pulse detonation engines) operated by NASA (e.g., at SSC, Langley, ATK/GASL, AEDC, Ames) and thus enable design and testing of more efficient, reliable, less polluting engines and propulsion systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include: Industrial process diagnostics and control of electric arc furnaces, steel manufacturing, semiconductor process monitoring and control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.07-8712
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Data Concentrator for Modular and Distributed Control of Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Research, Inc.
4415 Euclid Avenue, Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103-3757
(216) 649-0399

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mike Willett
willett@orbitalresearch.com
4415 Euclid Avenue, STE 500
Cleveland,  OH 44103-3757
(216) 649-0399

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Orbital Research proposes to develop, build and test a high temperature Data Concentrator Module for use in distributed turbine engine control at high temperatures. The concentrator receives analog and digital signals related to turbine engine control and communicates with a FADEC or high level command processor. This data concentrator is follows the road map put forth by DECWG for use in creating a demonstration platform for turbine engine distributed controls communication development that operates at temperatures at least up to 225<SUP>o</SUP>C. The goal of Phase I is to develop detailed specifications for each component needed for the system, as well as to define the total system specification. This will entail a combination of system design, compiling existing component specifications, laboratory testing, and simulation. The results will show feasibility of the data concentrator. Phase II of this program is will focus on three key objectives: The first objective will be the detailed design, fabrication and testing of three new high temperature ASICs. Secondly software necessary to demonstrate operation the prototype will be developed. Finally integration of the components and software into a prototype high temperature Data Concentrator Module will be completed to demonstrate operation of the complete system in a realistic environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Multiple NASA, Defense, and Commercial applications exist for the proposed Data Concentrator module technology, the associated high temperature integrated circuits, and variant high temperature control modules. Within NASA the variants of the Data Concentrator can be incorporated into: ? Ground testing of rocket engines; ? Ground testing of turbine engines (including VAATE); ? Sensor webs and distributed sensors (non-engine); ? Highly reconfigurable sensors ? Space-related applications due to inherent radiation-hardened characteristics of SOI electronics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Defense and Commercial applications include: ? Next generation military and civilian aircraft turbine engines, including rotorcraft, UAS, and land vehicles (very large market potential); ? Down-hole drilling and geothermal drilling controls; ? Ground testing rocket and turbine engines; ? Prognostic Health Management (PHM)/Integrated System Health Management (ISHM); ? Chemical, nuclear, refinery, and process plant instrumentation ? Powertrain controls for internal combustion engines, gas or diesel (for instance an improved waste gate turbo-booster).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Actuators & Motors
Atmospheric Propulsion
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.07-9215
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aero-Effected Distributed Adaptive Control of Flexible Aircraft Using Active Bleed

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atair Aerospace, Inc
63 Flushing Avenue, Unit 262
Brooklyn , NY 11205-1077
(718) 923-1709

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anthony Calise
acalise@atairaerospace.com
8009 Woodgate Circle
Collegeville,  PA 19426-3367
(610) 539-2671

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed research focuses on the development of a new adaptive control methodology for active control of wing aerodynamic shape to effect distributed aerodynamic forces and moments for maneuvering and stabilization of flexible airframes without moving control surfaces. The new aero-effected flight control will be achieved using output feedback adaptive control of distributed bleed across aerodynamic surfaces, and is particularly suited for high-altitude long endurance vehicles. The large-area air bleed is driven by the inherent pressure differences in flight across the pressure and suction wing surface, and is regulated by low-power, surface-integrated louver valves. Our previous basic research in adaptive control has stressed the ability to model and cancel the effect of uncertainty in output regulation. We also have developed methods for adaptation in the presence of nonlinear actuation, which includes such effects as actuator saturation. These tools are currently being employed in the study of active flow control using synthetic jet actuation, and will be adapted to the problems that are unique to improving aeroelastic performance and active damping of airframe-propulsion-structure interactions using distributed bleed. Phase I will focus on advancing the state of the art in output feedback adaptive control, and demonstration of the capability of aero-bleed to control the dynamic modes of a flexible lifting surface. These efforts will be integrated in Phase-II by using an adaptive controller to regulate a flexible wing flown in three degrees of freedom in a wind tunnel experiment, using an existing traverse mechanism. Another option is to use Atair Aerospace's LEAPP vehicle to flight test a highly flexible wing design. Additional Phase-II and Phase-III transition possibilities include coordinated research efforts with Boeing related to the DARPA Vulture vehicle, and/or with AeroVironment related to the Global Observer vehicle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate NASA application would be to Global Observer. This vehicle recently completed its first test flight that took it to an altitude of 4,000 feet. Ultimately Global Observer is intended to function as a high altitude long endurance vehicle. As this program progresses, active aeroelastic and vibration control could easily become an enabling technology. Adaptive output feedback control design could be added to the existing flight control system as an augmenting element to mitigate the effects of modeling error and possible failures that can occur when undergoing a long endurance flight. Active bleed control could also be explored for augmenting the existing aero and propulsive means of flight control. NASA has recently funded a variety of adaptive flight control studies under their Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control effort. To date, all of the adaptive methods that have been explored under this program assume the availability of full state feedback. Control of seroservoelastic modes implies that the full state is not available for feedback, and moreover that the full dimension of the plant is unknown. Advancements in adaptive output feedback design contemplated for this effort would ultimately address issues related to control of unmodeled dynamics as well. These advancements would also permit application of adaptive control theory to distributed and decentralized control of large and complex flexible space structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate non-NASA application would be to the DARPA Vulture vehicle. Boeing has recently been awarded a 1-year program for both sub- and full-scale conceptual vehicle design and a system requirements review. There are other department-of-defense programs that could benefit from this effort such as the Zephyr Joint Capabilities Technology demonstrator. Atair is also interested in the development of an active means of flow control for applications to their line of guided parafoils. Guided parafoil control currently makes use of electrically driven left and right servos to pull lines that are attached to strategic points on the canopy. While effective, this approach to control has a number of drawbacks that limit performance in terms of terminal accuracy. The most obvious limitation is that it does not provide a direct means of controlling glide slope. This means that guidance can only be achieved though banked turns since there is no independent means of controlling rate of descent. The proposed development of distributed bleed control could in concept replace the need for conventional servo actuation with embedded active control devices, and provide an independent means of glide slope control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.07-9372
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Engine Control Empirical/Analytical Verification Tools

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jonathan DeCastro
jonathan.decastro@impact-tek.com
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester,  NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase I project, Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Prof. R.K. Yedavalli, propose a novel verification environment for eventual rapid certification of distributed engine control systems (DCS). Our approach is focused on providing a set of tools to the government and industry that will allow faster certification of the control system as new high-temperature components and control laws are developed. A distributed hardware-in-the-loop (D-HIL) simulation tool is proposed to assist NASA and the Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) to integrate DCS components onto existing and next-generation engines. The proposed D-HIL simulator consist of a thermal test chamber operated by an engine simulation which is capable of subjecting components to a range of possible transient thermal conditions seen during engine operation , while functioning as elements in the networked control loop. To aid in certification of more complex distributed engine control hardware and software, a set of analysis tools is proposed. The Global Verification Toolset makes use of global stability and bounded verification methodologies to allow stability and performance to be assessed in a systematic fashion. At the conclusion of Phase I, the new verification facility and software tools will be demonstrated in a system test using the C-MAPSS engine.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed distributed hardware-in-the-loop evaluation platform and verification software tools will enable the development of distributed aircraft propulsion control systems and flight control avionic systems. In addition to Fundamental Aeronautics, the developed tools extend to verification of flight-critical control and health management software and distributed avionics that are relevant to the Aviation Safety and Exploration Systems. Impact Technologies will position the hardware simulator for inclusion in future planned NASA/DoD-led Distributed Engine Control demonstrations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aside from commercial aviation platforms, the application arena for distributed control system V&V tools extends to Air Force engine platforms. The verification toolset will benefit fly-by-wire systems sponsored by DoD such as UAVs, UGVs, and AUVs. Interest in fault-tolerant distributed control systems spans across many industries, particularly the automotive, energy, and manufacturing systems areas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Verification/Validation Tools
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.07-9532
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: SR-CATS: A Short-Range Clear Air Turbulence Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dominique Fourguette
dfourguette@michaero.com
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the absence of any visual cues such as clouds, making it difficult to avoid. The vortices produced when atmospheric waves "break" can have diameters of 900-1200ft and tangential velocities of 70-85 ft/sec. CAT is dangerous to aircraft, recently demonstrated by United flight 967 from Washington-Dulles to Los Angeles on July 21, 2010, which encountered severe turbulence and landed in Denver with over 30 injured passengers, 21 requiring a hospital visit. Many other incidents attributed to turbulence have caused injuries or deaths to passengers and crew. Another recently-highlighted hazard is the inadequacy of current airspeed sensors on commercial aircraft. Federal investigators have reported that on at least a dozen recent flights by U.S. jetliners, malfunctioning equipment made it impossible for pilots to know how fast they were flying. Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) proposes the Short-Range Clear Air Turbulence Sensor (SR-CATS) system to detect and measure turbulence within an aircraft length ahead of the aircraft, both as a component of a predictive gust alleviation control system. The integration of the SR-CATS instrument with MAC's full air data solution (airspeed, angle of attack and angle of sideslip), a MAC technology already demonstrated in-flight, will be explored. This proposal will focus on combining these capabilities into a practical solution. MAC's direct-detection UV LIDAR technology uses molecular backscatter and so does not require aerosols, as required by many competing approaches.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SR-CATS will allow NASA aircraft the benefit of having a clear-air turbulence detection system for predictive gust alleviation control and an optical air data system in one package, suitable for general use by NASA aircraft as well as for flight research concerning clear-air turbulence and scientific studies of atmospheric processes. Ground-based uses include measuring wind speed and direction simultaneously with air temperature and density while also detecting and characterizing shear and turbulence. Potential uses include wind shear detection for space launches, wake vortices detection and characterization for airports, and climate change studies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Clear-air turbulence represents a significant safety hazard as well as passenger-comfort issue for the commercial airline industry. The proposed SR-CATS system has application not only as part of an automatic gust alleviation system, but also as an air data solution that alleviates many problems with current pitot air data. This capability also makes SR-CATS extremely attractive for military aircraft, including fixed and rotary wing, high altitude and high dynamic, manned and unmanned, and even high-altitude airships. Information on winds near aircraft, if downlinked and compiled, will also be of significant value to forecasters, especially from aircraft flying over areas (oceans, etc.) where balloon radiosonde releases and other wind measurements are sparse or non-existent. NOAA and NASA identify the lack of more comprehensive wind-profile data as a major unmet data need for improving the accuracy of weather forecasts. Inadequate atmospheric data (wind speed, direction, temperature and density) also has a significant negative impact along the entire wind energy value chain, including site assessment, operational farms, turbine control, and grid integration. Turbulence and shear are primary contributing factors to higher than expected turbine maintenance and repair costs. Finally, military applications for artillery and munitions delivery, precision airdrop, and aircraft take-off/landing on ships can benefit from SR-CATS technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Interferometric (see also Analysis)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.08-8332
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aircraft Structural Analysis, Design Optimization, and Manufacturing Tool Integration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Collier Research & Development Corporation
45 Diamond Hill Road
Hampton, VA 23666-6016
(757) 825-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Craig Collier
craig.collier@hypersizer.com
45 Diamond Hill Rd
Hampton,  VA 23666-6016
(757) 825-0000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 0
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Innovative research is proposed in integrating fundamental aircraft design processes with an emphasis on composite structures. Efficient, lightweight composite laminate structural design requires highly integrated structural analyses on the laminate and stiffened panel levels, while incorporating manufacturing processes and limitations. Laminate optimization is only one of the many design variables that need to be considered simultaneously in aircraft design. Yet true system level OML surface optimization is an extremely challenging problem that can only be made tractable by reducing the problem into three sequential gates: ply count compatibility, layup sequencing, and ply layout size and shape. The innovative approach proposed solves all three of these seemingly intractable gates and in so doing provides synergistic optimization of ply drops and adds and reduced manufacturing ply processing steps (drawing part numbers) along with laminate sizing to damage tolerance material allowables. To achieve the highest level of design fidelity requires iterative communication with the designer's CAD tool and ply zone mapping tools. Previous data exchange technology used by NASA to couple separate discipline design tools is the XML ASCII file format. Proposed is the evaluation and implementation of a binary format called 'HDF5'.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SBIR developed capability will be integrated into the existing commercial HyperSizer<SUP>REG</SUP> structural sizing software. HyperSizer SBIR innovations are being used on many NASA projects, most recently on the NASA Ares V Shroud and the NASA Composite Crew Module (CCM). On the NASA CCM, HyperSizer was used by the NASA team to perform structural analysis and margins-of-safety predictions for the testing. HyperSizer software was used throughout the almost three-year project to optimize the design, weight, and manufacturability of the CCM, which is constructed of honeycomb sandwich and solid laminate composites. Future potential NASA applications include the NASA Commercial Crew & Cargo Program Office (C3PO)'s Commercial Crew Transportation (CCT) capability that would be able to transport NASA astronauts and spaceflight participants safely to and from LEO and the ISS. Another is the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles, under which NASA is seeking industry input on heavy-lift system concepts and propulsion technology through a 2010 BAA. Through the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles initiative, NASA is seeking an innovative path for human space exploration that strengthens its capability to extend human and robotic presence throughout the solar system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
HyperSizer is being used by all major American aerospace companies such as Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Goodrich, Gulfstream, Bombardier, Spirit Aero, and Northrop Grumman, by NASA, Air Force, and universities. See http://hypersizer.com/corporate/customers.html. This existing customer base is ideal for SBIR innovation commercialization and has given us great success at commercializing all SBIRs performed to date. Examples of successful non-NASA commercialization already achieved serve as models for Potential Post Applications ?Boeing 787 and Airbus A350 Thrust Reversers and Engine Nacelles ?Bombardier All-Composite Learjet 85 ?Wind Blade Design for Sandia National Labs ?Composite Commercial aircraft for our existing customers Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Gulfstream, Bombardier, and Spirit Aero, and Goodrich ?Composite Commercial Launch Vehicles

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Tools/EVA Tools
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Prototyping
Quality/Reliability
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Support
Ceramics
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.08-8708
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Analysis and Design Environment for Large Scale System Models and Collaborative Model Development

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Phoenix Integration
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2000
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6472
(540) 961-7215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Ragon
sragon@phoenix-int.com
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2000
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6472
(540) 961-7215

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Successes to date with the use of integrated software framework tools have led NASA engineers and other researchers to expand the breadth, depth, and sophistication of the problems that they are attempting to solve. Both the utilization of "high-fidelity" physics based models ("depth") and the total number of different engineering disciplines included in system models ("breadth") have steadily increased. As model size and complexity grows, the number of engineers involved in the development and maintenance of these models is also increasing. Increases in system model size and complexity and the corresponding need for collaborative model development are beginning to stretch the limits of existing software frameworks. Large models are more difficult to build and maintain, while the inclusion of more people in the development process leads to model management and coordination issues. Enhanced and improved framework tools are required if NASA and industry are to continue to expand their modeling, simulation, and design capabilities. In this project, Phoenix Integration will develop an innovative software environment that will allow individual engineers and collaborative engineering teams to better build and manage large, complex, system models. Key elements in the solution include a new infrastructure for hierarchical model building (models within models), enhanced data linking and model verification tools, and an integrated version-controlled model and data library. These tools will combine to provide NASA engineers with a powerful and flexible environment for creating, maintaining, and collaborating on the creation, execution, and maintenance of large and complex system models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will combine with previously developed NASA SBIR technology and other NASA funded technologies to directly support the goals of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) programs by giving NASA engineers the tools that they need to efficiently develop more comprehensive and accurate MDO system models. The end result will be a shortened design cycle, a reduction in errors and rework, increased innovation, and ultimately better aircraft designs. The need for a comprehensive and flexible MDO design tools extends beyond aeronautics and also encompasses other important NASA activities. For example, the framework will also benefit engineers in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), as they develop the next generation of space vehicles and systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA, the proposed technology will benefit a wide range of high-tech organizations involved in the design of complex vehicles and systems. These organizations include other government agencies such as DoD, DOE, and DOT/FAA, as well as commercial aerospace and defense organizations such as BAE, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Pratt and Whitney, and Raytheon. Other markets include the automotive, green energy, electronics, process, energy, heavy machinery, and shipbuilding industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Processing
Knowledge Management
Development Environments
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.08-8819
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Coupled Viscous/Inviscid Analysis of Powered-Lift Airfoils and Wings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AVID LLC
322 Freedom Boulevard, Suite C
Yorktown, VA 23692-4997
(757) 886-2611

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ernie Keen
ekeen@avidaerospace.com
322 Freedom Blvd, Suite C
Yorktown,  VA 23692-4997
(757) 886-2611

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is in response to NASA SBIR Topic A2.08 in the area of "Variable Fidelity, Physics-Based Design/Analysis Tools". The development of a coupled viscous/inviscid analysis tool for powered-lift airfoils and wings is presented. In this context, powered-lift airfoils are taken to be airfoils under the influence of a high-energy jet, and include jet-flaps, augmenter-flaps, upper surface blowing, and circulation control airfoils. This methodology consists of coupling a viscous jet analysis, using a finite-difference approach, with a potential flow panel calculation. The method uses an iterative procedure to capture the effects of viscous mixing and determine the correct jet shape. The goal in developing 2-D powered-lift predictions is to couple this analysis with a pre-existing modified Weissinger method to accurately predict 3-D wing performance based on sectional data. In this manner, high-lift wing characteristics can be determined at a fraction of the computational cost of CFD. An MDAO framework for aircraft-level optimization will be developed with the goal of integrating the powered-lift analysis such that ESTOL concepts and technologies can be incorporated at the conceptual and preliminary design stages.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This tool would have immediate application in NASA MDO toolkits. It would also serve as a useful resource in analysis of unconventional systems and allow for parametric design studies of powered-lift systems. AVID's experience in software development with easy-to-use, intuitive graphical interfaces would also make this product a viable commercial quantity. Potential customers include small-business UAV companies, engineering analysis and design groups, and universities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA Commercial Applications would be similar in nature to the NASA Commercial Applications addressed above.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.08-9390
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Variable Fidelity Conceptual Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CADNexus Inc.
101 Cambridge Street, Suite 370
Burlington, MA 01803-3766
(781) 229-0200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Deschenes
deschenes@cadnexus.com
101 Cambridge St., Suite 370
Burlington,  MA 01803-3766
(781) 229-0200

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CADNexus proposes to develop an Integrated Variable Fidelity Conceptual Design tool. The application will enable design and analysis of unconventional and advanced concepts in the conceptual design phase. The application will be integrated not only in the conceptual design phase but throughout the entire design process from conceptual design, to preliminary design, to detailed design. The integration across design stages is accomplished by development of a component library that will store detailed aircraft shapes and components as well as rich metadata about the components, their attributes, and any other pertinent data. The library will enable designers to generate candidate design concepts given a set of mission requirements or other characteristics. In addition to performance analysis of a conceptual design the tool will also provide and evaluation of risk by projecting the probability that the design may not satisfy its mission requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has an ongoing need for conceptual design tools that are capable of performing multi-disciplinary analysis on unconventional or advanced concepts. Existing tools developed both within NASA and by commercial entities are not flexible enough to make this a reality. CADNexus proposes to leverage its existing core product and geometry-centric philosophy coupled with optimal estimation techniques applied to risk management into a commercial product offering. We envision expanding the scope of the effort to provide a geometry-centric underpinning to subsequent design stages thereby unifying the underlying geometry representation across conceptual, preliminary, and detailed design. The potentially provides a major advantage in that there are no lossy translations due to file format conversions and the usual need for geometry repair when exporting and importing geometry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA Commercial Applications include geometry-centric conceptual design and risk analysis for products other than aircraft. We anticipate that automotive designers and other product designers find our tools highly beneficial.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Project Management
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.09-8157
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: RotCFD: A Viscous Design Tool for Advanced Configurations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sukra Helitek, Inc.
3146 Greenwood Road
Ames, IA 50014-4504
(515) 292-9646

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Hollingsworth
nappi@sukra-helitek.com
3146 Greenwood Rd.
Ames,  IA 50014-4504
(515) 292-9646

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The incorporation of viscous analysis in design is vital for a complete understanding of aerodynamic problems. This proposal offers to develop and integrate with RotCFD a method for semi-automatically generating grids suitable for viscous analysis on complex configurations as well as parallelize the solver in RotCFD to take advantage of today's multi-core machines. The principle idea behind the semi-automation of the grid generation is to divide the geometry surface into patches and generate body-conforming grids from these patches. This partitioning allows for automatic generation of grids with aspect ratios suitable for viscous flows. Convection dominates the outer region, so unstructured Cartesian meshes can be generated quickly and easily here. The outer grid will be conformed to the inner grid so the entire grid can be treated as one unstructured grid with an unstructured solver, or as a hybrid grid with multiple zones and solvers. In the hybrid approach, viscous solvers can be used for the inner zone while the faster inviscid solvers can be used in the far-field. In Phase I a proof-of-concept grid generator, and a conceptual methodology for solver parallelization will be developed and demonstrated to work with RotCFD the rotor aerodynamic design tool. In Phase II, the features of the grid generator and solver will be fully developed and expanded.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The viscous extention and parallelization of RotCFD will find wide usage in NASA in addtion to the other branches of the armed services. The proposal offers a semi-automated viscous analysis tool that will lay the foundation for advanced designs in an economical way. Sukra Helitek's software are currently used for many advanced configurations at an early stage in the design and the addtion of viscous capability and parallelization will increase its usefulness and marketability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Surka Helitek's software has been extensively used by US Helicopter manufacturers for analyzing new and existing designs. The proposed software enhancements will extend its usefulness and retain a global advantage.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.09-9076
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Tools for Structural Diagnostics of Rotorcraft Fatigue Critical Composite Parts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Numerical Technology Company, LLC
120 Annie Cook Way
Roswell, GA 30076-5844
(404) 840-2378

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yuriy Nikishkov
yuri.nikishkov@ae.gatech.edu
120 ANNIE COOK WAY
Roswell,  GA 30076-5844
(404) 563-3773

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the development of a validated analysis tool to characterize manufacturing defects and structural damage in composite parts. The objective of Phase I is to develop and verify a technology for accurate characterization of manufacturing defects and structural damage in fatigue-critical fiberglass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy composite structures based on three-dimensional micro-focus CT measurements. Key requirements for the diagnostic technology include: (a) ability to generate accurate subsurface geometry data for a composite structure with manufacturing defects (such as wrinkles and voids) and structural damage (matrix cracks and delaminations) based on the micro-focus CT measurements; and (b) automated ability to convert the geometry data into three-dimensional structural finite element models for assessment of the effects of defects and structural damage. Ability to measure the manufacturing defects and structural damage and understand their effects is a key to accurate assessment of part condition and condition based maintenance for composite fatigue-critical, flight-critical components and structure. Automated interpretation of nondestructive measurement of subsurface defects and structural damage is required for accurate structural diagnostics. Defect and damage measurement aided by rudimentary tools such as a ruler or a caliper could result in unacceptable measurement variation and affect the objectivity at making disposition decision of the affected part. Tools for rotorcraft diagnostics and condition based maintenance developed in the proposed effort will provide a mechanism to merge state-of-the-art in the nondestructive measurement and the durability and damage tolerance methods for composites and the implementation of the algorithms in commercial software.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aircraft flight-critical composite parts including rotor blade spars and yokes for all commercial and military rotary-wing aircraft platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
General tools for structural diagnostics and condition based maintenance of aerospace and non-aerospace structures. In particular, aircraft fatigue-critical, flight-critical composite parts including rotor blade spars and yokes for all commercial and military rotary-wing aircraft platforms are included. Bell Helicopters, Boeing, and Sikorsky Aircraft, contacted the Numerical Technology Company to express strong demand in the technology proposed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Composites
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.09-9309
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Computational Tool for Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
D&P, LLC
3409 North 42nd Place
Phoenix, AZ 85018-5961
(602) 957-2868

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lei Tang
tanglei@d-p-llc.com
3409 N. 42nd Place
Phoenix,  AZ 85018-5961
(602) 957-2868

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project proposes to develop a computational tool for helicopter rotor noise prediction based on hybrid Cartesian grid/gridless approach. The uniqueness of this approach is to achieve fully automated grid generation without grid overlapping. As a result, the resulting software will enjoy great ease of use with minimum human interference. There is no grid distortion in the majority of the computational domain. One can apply the best available flow solver which may not be possible to use in the unstructured grid approach. All are important for achieving accurate prediction of helicopter rotor aerodynamics and near-field acoustics. In Phase I, the high-speed impulsive noise will be first investigated and in Phase II, the blade-vortex interaction noise will be further explored.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Both military concern of detection and community concern of noise pollution have stimulated NASA to actively pursue various noise reduction techniques. This further pushes NASA to look for external noise prediction methods for manned and unmanned rotorcraft. The proposed computational tool can be used by NASA to explore on-blade active flow control techniques such as zero-mass jets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed software can be used by helicopter industry like Bell Helicopter, Sikorsky, and Boeing for prediction of helicopter rotor aerodynamics and near-field acoustics. NAVAIR can use it to investigate the interaction of helicopter and ship air wake.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.09-9439
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-Time, Maneuvering Flight Noise Prediction for Rotorcraft Flight Simulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Wachspress
dan@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal outlines a plan for developing new technology to provide accurate real-time noise prediction for rotorcraft in steady and maneuvering flight. Main rotor and tail rotor thickness and loading noise, including Blade-Vortex Interaction noise and Tail-Rotor Interaction noise, will be predicted with physics-based methods by enhancing a real-time lifting surface/free-vortex-wake blade aerodynamics module and coupling it to maneuvering flight acoustic prediction software modified for operation in a time-marching flight simulation environment. Also included will be methods to account for spherical spreading, atmospheric absorption, and ground effect for flat level terrain. All new software will be designed with the eventual goal of supporting both high fidelity and real-time solutions through a hierarchy of methods. Phase I will provide the development of proof of concept prototype software demonstrated for both steady and maneuvering flight. Phase I will also see an evaluation of real-time potential of the various models. Phase II will provide the development of a fully-functional, noise prediction software module with real-time and high fidelity capability designed for easy coupling with flight simulation software. Phase II will also see additional enhancements in the areas of acoustic propagation, High Speed Impulsive noise, and engine and transmission noise.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort directly responds to NASA's SBIR solicitation goal of developing validated physics-based multidisciplinary computational tools applicable for the design, analysis and optimization of rotorcraft in the area of acoustics. The solicitation also directly addresses NASA's goal of reducing noise levels at airports while increasing airport capacity. The computational tools proposed will enhance NASA's ability to conduct detailed assessments of candidate V/STOL concepts, design low noise flight trajectories, perform land use assessment and to evaluate the impact of noise control procedures on crew workload without a need for expensive flight tests. The tool will allow NASA to assess ground noise impact associated with new concepts, such as the current Heavy Lift and High Speed Rotorcraft concepts being studied.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has strong potential for facilitating public acceptance of civil V/STOL aircraft and improving the survivability of military rotorcraft. Potential non-NASA applications include; (1) fast evaluation of acoustic impact of new rotary-wing concepts, (2) reduced noise rotary-wing aircraft design using real-time methods within optimization algorithms, (3) improved survivability of military aircraft through improved prediction of long range detection and stealth mission planning, (4) a new capability for pre-mission, stealth training within flight simulators, (5) a key technological step toward real-time cockpit monitoring of ground noise levels during flight, (6) improved land use and flight path planning by the FAA and commercial airports, (7) reduction in acoustic detectability of remotely operated aircraft used in surveillance missions, and (8) improved flight simulator training through realistic audio cues as requested by pilots for certain flight conditions (e.g. the onset of vortex ring state).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.09-9697
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Inexpensive Reliable Oil-Debris Optical Sensor for Rotorcraft Health Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Translume, Inc.
655 Phoenix Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2201
(734) 528-6371

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Haddock
tomhaddock@translume.com
655 Phoenix Drive
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2201
(734) 528-6135

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rotorcrafts form a unique subset of air vehicles in that a rotorcraft's propulsion system is used not only for propulsion, but it also serves as the primary source of lift and maneuvering of the vehicle. No other air vehicle relies on the propulsion system to provide these functions through a transmission system employing a single critical load path without duplication or redundancy. Thus it is critically important to monitor the drivetrain components in rotorcraft propulsion systems in order to detect the onset of damage or abnormal conditions. We propose to develop an analyzer for rotorcraft health monitoring. Our proposed device, an oil debris monitor that relies on optical means to monitor the fluid content, will provide a means to monitor the gear and bearing wear that is common in rotating machinery. This device will be based on fluid analyzers previously developed for industry. Our sensor will provide a means to detect the onset of failure using optical techniques. It will be more sensitive than electromagnetic sensors. In addition it will be able to detect all debris, metallic and non-metallic, including those generated by hybrid ceramic bearings, and will be able to do this even in the presence of air bubbles. Unlike other optical sensors, our device will be fabricated from a glass monolith and will, by its very nature, stay aligned forever, even when submitted to severe vibrations and shocks. Within the glass monolith our sensor will integrate the equivalent of two optical instruments, one optimized for large millimeter-size debris and one for smaller micron-size debris. Algorithms will be developed to merge the data provided by the two optical channels and to present a simple cohesive health assessment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Studies indicate that failure of the propulsion system is the primary reason for vehicle-factor related accidents. In order to reduce these accidents a number of diagnostic techniques have been developed to detect damage and abnormal conditions of the dynamic mechanical components of rotorcrafts. A majority of this technology focuses on monitoring the gears, bearings and driveshafts of the main transmission system. Oil debris sensors can be used to detect and characterize bearing debris in oil and allow for tracking of bearing health. While commercially available electromagnetic sensors can detect metallic debris, they often cannot detect the non-metallic debris associated with components such as the hybrid ceramic bearings now found in rotorcrafts. Further they have severe limitations as to the size of the debris they can detect. Optical sensors have high sensitivity, and detect non-metallic debris, including ceramic, but they rapidly lose alignment when subjected to shocks and vibrations; they are delicate, require frequent recalibration and are expensive. Our proposed optical oil sensor will be fabricated from a single glass monolith and will never lose its optical alignment. It will have a capability to detect small and large debris, including metallic and non-metallic debris, using an optical sensing modality. Further its will be inexpensive. These claims are based on previous experience developing various fluid sensors, including hydraulic sensors for heavy machinery.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Oil debris sensors are used to detect bearing debris in oil and allow for tracking of bearing health. These devices allow for maintenance procedures based on condition, a preferable and less expensive approach to the traditional schedule based approach. We are proposing to fabricate and commercialize a small, extremely robust and inexpensive fluid debris optical monitor with both a particle sizing and counting capability. Our advanced debris monitor will support improved aircraft safety and allow scheduling of oil samples based on indicated need instead of at predetermined time and usage points. This will not only significantly reduce maintenance burden, but will flag failures as they begin to develop. This will permit remediation as needed to reduce unexpected and expensive downtime. There are numerous applications for this type of analyzer in industry and the transportation sector. These markets are much larger than the rotorcraft market. In order to penetrate these markets the fluid analyzer needs to be reliable, inexpensive, require no periodic calibration, and the data provided should be simple to understand. Present commercial offerings fail to meet all of these criteria. Translume analyzers will be inexpensive yet sensitive, and will never require realignment. This combination of factors is made possible by the development at Translume of novel glass microfabrication processes. Commercialization will be undertaken with commercial partners.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Lasers (Machining/Materials Processing)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.10-8263
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of Axial Compressor Heat-Extraction Capability for Thermal Management Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATA Engineering, Inc.
11995 El Camino Real
San Diego, CA 92130-2566
(858) 480-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Parthiv Shah
parthiv.shah@ata-e.com
11995 El Camino Real
San Diego,  CA 92130-2566
(858) 480-2101

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) proposes a small business innovation research (SBIR) program for a novel compressor heat-extraction development program in response to NASA's solicitation for advanced design concepts to enable increased high stage loading in single and multi-stage axial compressors while maintaining or improving aerodynamic efficiency and operability. The 'compressor cooling' development program proposed herein will be applicable to advanced turbomachinery based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems suitable for high Mach number flight vehicles that extend to the hypersonic range as well as to conventional high bypass ratio (HBPR) engines that operate with high compressor exit temperatures. Cooling in the rear stages of a compressor would improve mass flow capability, increase margins set by material temperature limits, and improve turbine blade cooling effectiveness by reducing bleed air temperatures. The Phase I proposal technical objectives are to 1) estimate the system level benefit of compressor heat extraction for a mutually agreed-on TBCC-powered aircraft mission, 2) understand the fluid dynamics of flows with surface heat extraction in a multistage compressor using computational fluid dynamics, and 3) define the necessary validation steps on cascade and compressor component rig hardware to advance the technology readiness level of compressor cooling to the point where it may be implemented in an aircraft engine application. The final deliverable will be a written report to NASA presenting a conceptual design of a cooled compression system and a proposed test plan for Phase II rig validation, based on the requirements set forth in a design specification that is defined at the beginning of the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate opportunities for a compressor heat-extraction system are: 1) as an enabler to advanced turbomachinery based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems used in NASA's next generation high flight Mach number vehicles, such as single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concepts and 2) to improve performance of multi-stage compressors in NASA's next generation high bypass ratio turbofan-powered aircraft applications (N+1 and beyond) that are currently limited by both compressor material temperature limits and compressor bleed air temperature limitations on turbine blade cooling effectiveness. NASA would also be able to potentially realize ancillary cycle benefits from compressor heat extraction in the form of pre-heating of fuel and "cooling of cooling air" in turbine blade applications where compressor bleed is the heat sink.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Gas-turbine applications extend well beyond NASA's developmental programs, and it is believed that all of the potential benefits suggested in the NASA commercial applications section would apply to the sphere of interest of the aircraft engine manufacturers, for both military and commercial engine applications. In addition, compressor heat extraction schemes in some cases may provide additional opportunities for performance and life improvement in industrial gas turbine applications where intercooling and water injection are routinely used.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.10-8672
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Turbine Blade Cooling Techniques

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc.
7522 Slater Avenue, #122
Huntington Beach, CA 92647-7738
(714) 847-9945

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Underwood
daveunderwood@microcoolingconcepts.com
7522 Slater Ave #122
Huntington Beach,  CA 92647-7738
(714) 847-9945

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Gas turbine engine technology is constantly challenged to operate at higher combustor outlet temperatures. In a modern gas turbine engine, these temperatures can exceed the blade and disk material limits by 600 <SUP>o</SUP>F or more, necessitating both internal and film cooling schemes in addition to the use of thermal barrier coatings. Internal convective cooling is inadequate in many blade locations, and both internal and film cooling approaches can lead to significant performance penalties in the engine. Micro Cooling Concepts has developed a turbine blade cooling concept that provides enhanced internal impingement cooling effectiveness via the use of micro-structured impingement surfaces. These surfaces significantly increase the cooling capability of the impinging flow, as compared to a conventional untextured surface. This approach can be combined with microchannel cooling and external film cooling to tailor the cooling capability per the external heating profile. The cooling system can then be optimized to minimize impact on engine performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Phase I effort directly supports core NASA research efforts in turbine engine development, as well as the multi-agency Verstaile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engine (VAATE) initiative. It is also applicable to two-state to orbit designs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military and commercial aircraft can both benefit from this technology, which permits higher combustion temperatures with lower engine penalties than state-of-the-art turbine blade cooling technologies. The blade cooling concept could be also applied to power generation plants, which are also seeking means of operating at higher temperatures. More generally, the enhanced impingement cooling techniques proposed here could be applied to a variety of cooling problems in the electronics, industrial processes, automotive, and laser industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
Active Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.10-8854
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Coupled Transpired and Discretely Injected Films

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
spgogineni@gmail.com
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA, and all users of turbomachinery, continuously requires improvements in engine durability and efficiencies. As combustion engineers push turbine inlet temperatures to new extremes, cooling designers are faced with increasing heat loads and less available coolant usage. Surface cooling techniques such as film cooling have proven invaluable in this quest. Films generated by forcing the coolant to bleed through a porous substrate have been shown to perform substantially better than discrete film injection in a thermal sense. However, the associated aerodynamic penalties limit the application. On the other hand, discretely injected films have drawbacks as well, including non-uniform coolant profiles significant mixing with the hot working fluid, lowering their effectiveness. Spectral Energies, LLC and the University of Central Florida propose a novel, low risk approach to surface cooling wherein traditional discrete film holes are embedded within a transpiring porous strip. The motivation behind this approach is multi-faceted, with the ultimate goal of developing a cooling arrangement which possesses the thermo-mechanical benefits of a transpired film, the aerodynamic benefits of discrete film injection, and mixing characteristics that are some compromise of the two.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is a direct user and developer of turbomachines for various applications, primarily for propulsion. As improved efficiency and improved durability are the goals of NASA researchers, the successful implementation of this technology will provide a direct method of achieving both. The proposed innovation will provide increases in efficiency and reductions in fuel burn, through the ability to handle increased working gas temperatures with minimal coolant usage; and durability through the reduction of hot streaks associated with traditional film cooling methods. Additionally, applications such as the film cooling of rocket nozzles will also benefit from the successful implementation of this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications, all users and developers of gas turbines will benefit from the ability to achieve improved heat load handling and durability. This includes gas turbines for propulsion (the airline and marine industries) as well as for power generation. The public will then directly benefit through reduced electricity and travel costs. Additionally, as the private sector is now heavily involved in the development of space technologies, high efficiency and durable hot gas components will be applicable to a large number of up and coming private industries. &#8195;

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A2.10-9497
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Axial and Cross-Flow Fan Propulsion for Transonic Blended Wing Body Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Propulsive Wing, LLC
321 Route 5
Elbridge, NY 13060-0321
(315) 252-2559

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Kummer
joseph.kummer@propulsivewing.com
321 Rt. 5
Elbridge,  NY 13060-0321
(315) 252-2559

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 0
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The challenges of the next century of aviation will require innovative and revolutionary concepts to meet air transportation demands. One NASA vision for future transport-sized aircraft includes the blended-wing-body (BWB) platform with embedded, distributed propulsion as a means for increased efficiency and reduced noise. In cruise, embedded propulsion benefits from boundary layer ingestion and wake filling, resulting in high propulsive efficiency. However, several challenges exist, including inlet nozzle design, propulsor design for ingestion of highly non-uniform inflow, and propulsor/airframe support structure optimization. This work proposes a hybrid turboelectric propulsion system incorporating small embedded, distributed cross-flow fans (CFF) for boundary layer control and wake filling, and much larger axial fans for primary thrust. Bringing together the best qualities of both axial and CFF propulsion, a substantial improvement in overall vehicle efficiency is possible. CFD and analytical analyses will be used to investigate the flow field and range of application for such a system. Comparisons will be made with published baseline designs with respect to power requirements, component weights, support structure, and other key parameters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Upon completion of Phase II, our goal is to have a system capable of inclusion not only within the framework of future BWB transport aircraft, but in others as well. For example, high altitude atmospheric research at altitudes above 80,000 ft would be possible with a cross-flow fan propelled aircraft due to the high lift capability. The large internal volume would provide ample room for sensor packages when compared with standard airplane configurations. With further R&D effort beyond Phase II, this internal cargo volume may be useful for carrying small rocket-based vehicles to 100,000 ft altitude for launch into orbit. A smaller version of this aircraft could potentially be used as a Mars plane, where the primary design criteria are a compact, robust airframe with extremely high lift.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hand-launchable UAVs represent a key market for the Propulsive Wing, since the high lift and large internal volume of this platform is ideal for carrying sensor packages or munitions for military use. Due to the robust structure and embedded propulsion, the vehicle can also be configured for launch from larger aircraft at cruise altitude and speed. For larger UAVs, high lift and very large internal cargo volume will provide an ideal platform for high latitude and long endurance. Long wingspan versions will be able to fly at altitudes greater than 80,000 feet for a week or more. The substantial cargo volume also offers the possibility of using fuel cell technology. This will provide electric power for distributed CFF or Axial/CFF propulsion, while the embedded propulsion and cold exhaust will help reduce radar cross-section. Another potential application is UAV cargo transport. As an example, a 50 foot wingspan CFF-propelled aircraft with 900 HP of installed power would be capable of flight at 50,000 ft or higher at 250 knots for over 1,000 nm, yet have a takeoff ground roll of 200 feet and be capable of landing in under 100 feet. With the addition of Axial/CFF propulsion, such a vehicle (with appropriately higher power) would be able to travel over twice as fast. Lastly, the platform lends itself to underwater applications, whereby the vehicle produces a downward lift force to counteract buoyancy, and the vectored thrust controls offer a high degree of maneuverability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Atmospheric Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8004
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design and Analysis Tools for 4D Green Trajectories in Terminal and Transition Airspaces

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Veera Vaddi
vaddi@optisyn.com
Optimal Synthesis Inc., 95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has been involved in developing advanced automation systems for improving the efficiency of air-traffic operations, reducing controller workload and enhancing the safety in the national airspace system. In the past decade there has been emphasis on designing environmentally friendly operations that reduce fuel consumption, emission and noise as well. The objective of the proposed research is to develop a framework suitable for the design and analysis of 4D trajectories for terminal and transitional airspaces targeted for far-term implementation. The novel aspect of the proposed research addresses efficiency, throughput, and safety all in a combined and integrated manner. Advanced optimization algorithms will be used in the design of these trajectories. Research will also establish the feasibility of tracking these trajectories using 4D guidance algorithms. Analysis will be done to study the tradeoff between fuel consumption and the time of arrival. Phase I research will demonstrate the 4D trajectory synthesis and 4D guidance algorithm using realistic commercial aviation aircraft models. Phase II research will develop the tools to a level that can be used by NASA researchers in the development of NextGen concepts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
4D trajectories and 4D guidance algorithms have enormous potential to solve several problems in the NAS in an integrated manner resulting in optimal performance. These two can affect improvements in throughput, efficiency and safety. Along, with GPS based navigation and datalink capability, 4D trajectories and 4D guidance systems can define the core of the vastly transformed and improved NextGen air-traffic management system. 4D trajectories and 4D guidance is an inexpensive option to extract the best performance out of the resource constrained NAS in view of projected multi-fold future demand increase. Both these concepts are expected to directly contribute to NASA efforts in designing NextGen concepts both on the ground side and the flight deck side. Trajectory optimization is an area that is of interest to NASA even outside the scope of air traffic management. All flight vehicles sub-sonic commercial aircraft, supersonic and hypersonic space access vehicles, orbiting spacecraft, planetary reentry vehicles, and even planetary surface rovers can benefit from improvements and advancements in optimal trajectory computation technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Trajectory optimization and 4D guidance algorithms can find place in the cockpit of advanced general aviation aircraft. The output of these algorithms could be directed as advisories to the electronic flight display systems. A side effect of this project is the development of advanced large scale, mixed-integer, robust, nonlinear optimization algorithms that are amenable to fast-time computation. High-complexity large-scale optimization problems arise frequently in the industry in the following areas: (1) floor planning, (2) network optimization, (3) allocation problems, (4) supply chain management, (5) transportation, (6) and scheduling applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Transport/Traffic Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8032
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Accelerating ATM Optimization Algorithms Using High Performance Computing Hardware

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Monish Tandale
monish@optisyn.com
Optimal Synthesis Inc., 95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is developing algorithms and methodologies for efficient air-traffic management (ATM). Several researchers have adopted an optimization framework for solving problems such as flight scheduling, route assignment, flight rerouting, nationwide traffic flow management and dynamic airspace configuration. Computational complexity of these problems have led investigators to conclude that in many instances, real time solutions are computationally infeasible, forcing the use of relaxed versions of the problem to manage computational complexity. The primary objective of this research proposal is to accelerate optimization algorithms that play central roles in NASA's ATM research, by parallel implementation on emerging high performance computing (HPC) hardware. The proposed research effort will first identify optimization algorithms that are key to achieving NASA's ATM research objectives. The effort will then explore various avenues for parallelizing the optimization algorithms, and focus on algorithms most amenable for implementation on HPC hardware. The feasibility of implementing one or more optimization algorithms, and potential for further acceleration will be demonstrated on ATM problems of sufficient complexity, which will then form the basis for the Phase II prototype. Phase II work will develop an operational prototype of the algorithm implementation on HPC hardware, and deliver them to NASA for further evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Proposed R&D effort will enable rapid solution to large scale optimization problems formulated by NASA researchers in the air traffic domain such as flight scheduling, route assignment, flight rerouting, national traffic flow management and dynamic airspace reconfiguration. The optimization software suite will enable real time execution of many optimizations problems that were deemed infeasible due to computational complexity. The software suite developed under the proposed research will enable solutions to such problems without introducing approximations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-complexity large-scale optimization problems arise frequently in the industry in several areas, such as: 1) Floor planning: designing the layout of equipment in a factory or components on a computer chip to reduce manufacturing time to minimize cost, 2) Network optimization: setup of telecommunications networks to maintain quality of service during outages, 3) Resource allocation problems, optimal search and routing, 4) Supply chain management: managing the flow of raw materials and products based on uncertain demand for the finished products, 5) Transportation: managing freight transportation and delivery systems, 6) Scheduling applications: personnel staffing, manufacturing steps, project tasks, network data traffic, sports events and their coverage. The accelerated optimization software suite developed during the course of this R&D effort will enable faster runtimes making it practical to deploy them more widely in operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Sequencing & Scheduling
Transport/Traffic Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8092
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Artificial Intelligence for Refining Multi-Aircraft Testbed Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801-1753
(781) 935-3966

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Schurr
nschurr@aptima.com
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn,  MA 01801-1765
(781) 496-2453

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is researching various concepts, procedures, standards, and technologies intended for NextGen Airspace. Complex, distributed airspace simulations that utilize experimental testbeds (e.g., Multi Aircraft Control System, or MACS) are vital research tools for these projects. However, managing the various complexities and coordination of agent-supported separation assurance can be challenging. This often creates undesired staffing and training requirements, workload, and susceptibility to human error that can disrupt planned scenario events. To address this issue, we propose to develop Artificial Intelligence for Refining Multi-Aircraft Testbed Environments (AIR-MATE). This proposed innovation will provide a MACS-interoperable software module that coordinates the behaviors of human-automation pairs in simulated NextGen airspace. This effort will leverage recent advancements in distributed constraints optimization and adjustable autonomy to analyze airspace simulations in a decentralized, parallel manner and solve problems locally for enhanced efficiency. This technology will reduce the workload and staffing requirements in current NextGen simulations, while ensuring the desired scenario events and separation assurance is properly executed. The results of the AIR-MATE effort will be a more controlled and high-fidelity testbed environment that will aid researchers, increase the quality of NextGen research, and ultimately benefit the development of NextGen concepts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AIR-MATE will be useful to NASA researchers within the Concepts and Technology Development Project, Systems Analysis Integration and Evaluation Project, and Aviation Safety Program as a software module that will allow them to meet multiple milestones related to the assessment of emerging NextGen concepts. It will provide the capability to populate NextGen simulations with well-coordinated human-automation pairs that consistently execute desired actions, thereby improving airspace simulations for evaluation purposes, and lessening the workload and staffing requirements for researchers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AIR-MATE will appeal to avionics manufacturers external to NASA that are developing and/or researching concepts and technologies aimed at NextGen integration, for many of the same reasons as NASA would benefit. Research organizations (e.g., MITRE, Volpe) and universities may also benefit from this application, as they are often interested in conducting research within the scope of the NextGen environment. In the future, AIR-MATE could also be utilized in a number of domains dependent on distributed asset management systems. Examples of this application include Air and Space Operations Centers (AOC) within the Air Force, and Maritime Operations Centers (MOC) within the Navy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Intelligence
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8117
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: User-Augmented Visualizations for Targeted Evaluation of Systems and Technologies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801-1753
(781) 935-3966

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Durkee
kdurkee@aptima.com
1726 M Street, N.W., Suite 900
Washington,  DC 20036-4502
(202) 552-6141

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is a growing area of research for NASA, but the need for substantial amounts of research on the UAV-in-NAS concept is overwhelming. Furthermore, the quantity and nature of research questions on UAV-in-NAS operations are somewhat unpredictable as this research progresses, thereby requiring NASA to have flexible research tools and adaptable methodologies. To address these issues, we propose to develop the UAV-TEST toolset (User-Augmented Visualizations for Targeted Evaluation of Systems and Technologies). UAV-TEST will be a user-centered methodology that helps streamline the research process for UAV-in-NAS research at NASA and enhances the process of generating and connecting new measures, research questions, and visualizations. This concept will be instantiated within a flexible, low-cost toolset that seamlessly integrates with current research tools at NASA. The ultimate goal of the UAV-TEST product is to enable researchers to obtain clear and rapid assessments of key human factors issues in simulated flight environments. In Phase I, we will design this concept and develop a proof of concept demonstration. In Phase II, we will develop a functional prototype that can be used alongside actual NASA studies, particularly within the UAV-in-NAS research areas.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Within the Concepts and Technology Development Project, UAV-TEST will provide the capability to efficiently progress through critical study activities, such as measure authoring, research question development, and configuration of data visualizations. The rapid assessment capability will help meet multiple milestones cited in previous reference materials within the Airspace Systems Program. Similarly, other research groups within the Systems Analysis, Integration, and Evaluation (SAIE) Project and the Aviation Safety Program (ASP) conduct research activities with comparable needs. The end benefit for these groups would be a more flexible and streamlined research preparation process culminating with rapid assessments in the form of targeted data visualizations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
UAV-TEST will appeal to avionics manufacturers external to NASA that are developing and/or researching concepts and technologies aimed at the integration of UAVs into the NAS, for many of the same reasons as NASA would benefit. Research organizations (e.g., MITRE, Volpe) and universities may also benefit from this application, as they are often interested in conducting research within the scope of this same environment. Beyond the commercial aviation sector, there are extensive military applications for UAV-TEST ranging from Defense, Homeland Security, and Intelligence. They, too, have a need to conduct costly simulations for training or evaluation, many involving unmanned vehicles, and could benefit greatly from a self-initiated process of rapid testbed configuration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8377
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Security and Hyper-accurate Positioning Monitoring with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lightning Ridge Technologies
4106 Aikins Avenue Southwest
Seattle, WA 98116-3518
(650) 430-0458

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chad Jennings
chad.jennings@gmail.com
4106 Aikins Ave SW
Seattle,  WA 98116-3518
(650) 430-0458

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lightning Ridge Technologies, working in collaboration with The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., extend Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) into a safe, secure, authenticated system. Historically, ADS-B has been criticized for its inability to guarantee safe and secure surveillance in all operational conditions. The technology presented in this proposal provides an integrity check on all ADS-B data that is independent of all primary surveillance modes and is 100% robust to all GPS spoofing attacks. An important by-product of that integrity check provides us with the further ability to do aircraft-to-aircraft relative positioning that is more accurate and more reliable than any civilian system in existence today. The ADS-B integrity check and the aircraft-to-aircraft positioning can provide a further basis on which to enhance the safety of the National Airspace System (NAS).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Traffic Flow Management (TFM), Separation Assurance (SA), Super Dense Operations (SDO) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in the National Airspace all make heavy use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). This proposal presents technology that brings extra capability to ADS-B in the form of unspoofable authentication and a method called differential co-processing that can calculate the relative position between aircraft more accurately than any civilian method today. The potential impact of these capabilities on NASA's NextGen requirements ranges from ADS-B authentication, detection and identification of attacks; to using better relative positions to determine more accurate wind-shear models and enabling precise trajectory modeling during Very Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches (VCSPA). In short, the GPS Based Location Authentication and Differential Co-Processing could change and accelerate the course of NextGen development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ADS-B is a public interface, an easy target for attack. The US Air Force is actively studying how to add security to ADS-B to ensure that attempts to disrupt military missions are identified and counter attacked. In particular the Air Force is concerned that enemies could add ghost aircraft to congested airspace for the purpose of disrupting C17, C130 and C5 flights that supply troops overseas. The GPS Location Based Authentication (GBLA) technology presented in this document can solve that concern. In addition the Differential Co-Processing techniques to calculate relative position between aircraft can act as a backup to the air-to-air radars currently deployed for operations such as formation flying. The largest military application of GBLA may not be in aviation. GBLA provides military quality GPS authentication without needing a reference copy of the secret military GPS codes. GBLA embedded into a handheld GPS receiver allows that receiver to be built entirely with civilian hardware, drastically reducing the cost of the receivers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8386
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Design and Optimization of an Integrated Arrival/Departure Scheduler

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frederick Wieland
fwieland@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5268

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) proposes the design and validation of a dynamic integrated arrival/departure scheduler. In contrast to current approaches, we propose changing arrival and departure runway assignments dynamically based upon the traffic situation, weather conditions, surface congestion, and planned departure pushbacks as well as planned arrivals flowing into the terminal area from the enroute centers. Testing of the concept will be done in a virtual software environment, first using an analytic environment and later with humans-in-the-loop (controllers and pilots). When complete, this project has the potential to provide (1) a strategy to handle the FAA's Best-Equipped Best-Served concept at airports, (2) a significant increase in Metroplex capacity without building additional runways and (3) support for a new aviation business model in which flights are scheduled to Metroplexes rather than specific airports. To accomplish these goals, this effort will develop a controller that dynamically assigns arrival and departure slots available at a given runway based on the valuation of an "integrated capacity utilization metric." The metric will be a function of arrival/departure demand, arrival queue lengths at fixes and surface departure queues. The result is a more efficient use of airport resources than provided by currently available controllers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is built upon proprietary control technology developed by IAI scientists over the past few years. The proposed technique can be used with a wide range of potential NASA systems, including Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor (McTMA).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most promising commercial applications outside of NASA are: ? All large airports, which will benefit from maximizing runway resources without adding costly additional infrastructure ? Fourteen large metroplexes, which will benefit from generating required times of arrival consistent with airport capacity constraints ? The Federal Aviation Administration, which can potentially use the technology to help incentivize equipage in conjunction with their nascent Best-Equipped, Best-Served policy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Command & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8432
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Trajectory Option Set Generation to Support NAS Users during CTOP Events

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lara Cook
cook@mosaicatm.com
33764 Old Trail Dr.
Yucaipa,  CA 92399-6974
(703) 955-9731

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Concept SEVEN (System Enhancement for Versatile Electronic Negotiation) is a new type of Traffic Management Initiative (TMI) that has been in research and development within the Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) program for years. It allows for the electronic negotiation of routes based on user-submitted preferences when capacity is restricted in an area of the airspace. The first phase of SEVEN, now called the Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP), will be deployed operationally on November 2011. In this project, Mosaic ATM proposes to develop a decision support tool for NAS users that will allow them to automatically generate the optimal route options and their relative costs during CTOP events. This will allow users to take full advantage of the new capabilities and the opportunities for reducing ground delays and/or fuel burn. Additionally, this capability will be available for integration into NAS simulation tools such as ACES and FACET, to allow NASA to model high-fidelity, realistic user trajectory preferences generally and in response to CTOP TMIs in particular. In Phase 3, Mosaic ATM will additionally provide libraries containing the key algorithms for incorporation into existing flight planning systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a TOS Generation Tool benefits not just the NAS users, but NASA researchers also. The underlying route generation and priority algorithm within the TOS Generation Tool can be delivered as a separate code module for integration with NASA simulation environments, FACET and/or ACES. For example, FACET currently has the capability to model various TFM TMIs. The addition of a TOS generation algorithm will allow researchers to model the user response to CTOP events, in the context a NAS-wide simulation that could include GDPs and other TMIs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TOS generation is a key part of a user's participation in CTOP. While it is possible to use existing tools to generate TOSs, it will be far more cost effective for a user to rely on purpose-built TOS generation tools designed to take into account the users' objectives and constraints. Mosaic ATM anticipates offering TOS generation products based on the algorithm developed under this SBIR project. Additionally, the results of this SBIR project could form the basis for a new capability either provided by the FAA, through third party flight handling / flight planning providers, or organizations such as AOPA and NBAA to generate TOSs on behalf of users who have not yet developed the capability to generate TOSs themselves. Such an arrangement would provide the user with a large part of the benefit of CTOP without the need to integrate TOS generation into their internal processes. Rather, the user would supply a few parameters to the FAA or third party so that they could generate TOSs on behalf of the user. Such an approach would require the third party or FAA to have aircraft performance models and weather information, but use of such information for flight planning is currently widespread among a vibrant flight planning community, all of which could become users of the CTOP generation algorithm.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Computer System Architectures
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8521
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airspace Simulation Through Indoor Operation of Subscale Flight Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neerim Corporation
2551 Casey Avenue, #B
Mountain View, CA 94043-1135
(650) 269-9328

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Gage
pgage@neerimcorp.com
2551 Casey Ave #B
Mountain View,  CA 94043-1135
(650) 269-9328

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An indoor environment for simulating airspace operations will be designed. Highly maneuverable subscale vehicles can be used to simulate the dynamics of full-scale vehicles by applying software limiters on their rates. Multiple vehicles can operate autonomously or can be coordinated through centralized control. The effects of weather on system throughput can be assessed by monitoring movements in the controlled environment, Faults related to communication, detection and vehicle performance can be inserted into the system, to assess the robustness of proposed airspace concepts. We are particularly interested in the impact of UAVs in the NAS. Automated separation assurance schemes are essential for UAV integration. The indoor environment is ideally suited to prove out both airborne and ground-based approaches to separation assurance. Beyond this particular motivation for developing this test facility, evaluation of novel algorithms for trajectory design and innovative communication concepts can be assessed safely and cost-effectively in this environment. The key innovation is the environment in which vehicles and airspace technologies can be assessed. We are not proposing innovation in the technologies themselves. Furthermore, we think that the key elements of the environment are already available, but they have not been assembled into a system that supports airspace simulation. The innovation is primarily system integration, with some customization of the various elements so that interaction between elements is representative of full-scale airspace operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A natural commercialization outcome would be to design and install an airspace simulation environment at a NASA center. All of the essential system features can be demonstrated in Phase II in a space about the size of a school gymnasium. Such an environment could then be scaled up for a larger space, to enable simulation of a larger segment of airspace with more vehicles in simultaneous operation. Hangars at Langley or Dryden might be re-purposed for the airspace environment, but Hangar One, at Ames Research Center, would be an ideal venue. It is a very large structure with huge interior volume that is planned for refurbishment but does not have an identified use. It is located at a center that already has responsibility for airspace modeling, so it would readily support cross-pollination between software simulations and subscale flight demonstrations of airspace effectiveness. The environment would be a national resource for developers of new vehicles that must be integrated into airspace, and for researchers pursuing algorithms and protocols for improved airspace effectiveness.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The anticipated commercial market is STEM education, centered on Aerial Robotics camps for high school students. A simulation environment at the scale of a school gymnasium is planned for Phase II development. Beyond Phase II, the system would be further developed to support transportation and rapid deployment in any gymnasium with a floor area and height for at least two basketball courts. Any such gymnasium (at most high schools and many middle schools and community centers around the country) then becomes a potential venue for a camp. A single environment can support 50 vehicles that would be designed and operated by 100-150 campers. Assuming 10 weeks of availability between May and September (allowing for transportation and set-up between different camp locations), more than a thousand students would gain direct exposure to the most pressing aeronautics problem of our time, and would experience the thrill of measuring baseline system performance and designing and implementing improvements to it.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Data Fusion
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8526
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Human-Relatable Course of Action Planner for Air Traffic Coordinators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Brinton
brinton@mosaicatm.com
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 306
Leesburg,  VA 20175-5084
(800) 405-8576

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Traffic Managers, Supervisors and Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) Specialists have a critical and significant responsibility in the ATM system to deal with widely varying contingencies and issues. Although many tools exist to support the Traffic Manager in fulfilling their duties, these tools generally focus on one specific type of traffic management initiative and the planning and decisions suggested by these tools are not integrated together. While much attention has been focused on decision support tools and information systems for the controllers, only minimal attention has been given to decision support tools for the Supervisors and Traffic Managers other than the specific traffic management initiatives. We propose to develop a Course of Action Planner for Air Traffic Coordinators. Given assumed inputs from all systems that may affect the Coordinator's tasks (via SWIM), the planner will develop a set of required and prioritized tasks, and feasible options for solutions to the identified issues. Each option will contain a list of actions (including TMIs) that, when combined, will address the identified situation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Air Traffic Course of Action Planner system developed in Phase 2 can augment NASA's suite of ATM modeling applications. It can be integrated with FACET, allowing task plans, including TMIs suggested by the system, to be played out in simulations in FACET. The system can also aid NASA researchers in understanding the interactions between actions of different ATC facilities, and the interactions between FAA actions and Flight Operator actions. This capability will allow NASA to remain at the forefront of ATM research and will provide relevant and valuable research results to guide the NextGen evolution.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Some Air Traffic Coordinators in the operational ATC facilities today have information overload from too many tools. On the other hand, some Coordinators (particularly Supervisors) have very few tools at their disposal to support planning and decision-making. There is currently no tool available for FAA traffic managers which allows them to model the affect of a comprehensive combination of TMIs, let alone provide suggestions for the best set of TMIs to fit the anticipated system constraints. TMIs tend to be issued independently of each other, with no ability to model the interaction between restrictions. The TFM community would greatly benefit by a planner designed to suggest a set of actions and initiatives from the TFM Toolbox that would best meet the anticipated capacity constraints, minimizing delay and maximizing the utilization of the available resources.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Processing
Knowledge Management
Verification/Validation Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-8528
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Massively Parallel Processing for Dynamic Airspace Configuration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bart Gallet
bgallet@mosaicatm.com
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 306
Leesburg,  VA 20175-5084
(301) 706-6784

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Through extensive research conducted by Mosaic ATM in the area of Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC), we have identified the significant benefit of the use of Dynamic Density (DD) as the DAC objective function. The use of DD as the objective function allows the DAC algorithm to directly address critical aspects of sector design beyond simple balancing of the flight counts. These sector design considerations include the alignment of sector boundaries with flow direction, proximity of conflict points to sector boundaries, and boundary alignment with respect to vertical traffic movement. By using DD as the objective function, we generate a multi-objective optimization approach that considers both efficiency and complex controller workload issues. The SectorFlow DAC algorithm has performed well in NASA's DAC algorithm comparison experiments. However, due to the additional computational complexity caused by the use of DD as the objective function, only limited application of DD as the objective function was conducted. In this proposed SBIR effort, Mosaic ATM will apply a massively parallel computing architecture to the DAC algorithm using DD as an objective function to demonstrate and evaluate both the computational advantages of massively parallel processing, and the benefits of using DD as the objective function in DAC.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most likely Phase III activities involve further development of the SectorFlow software and algorithms to support NASA's continued aeronautics mission. The SectorFlow DAC algorithms have been analyzed by NASA in comparison to other DAC concepts, and SectorFlow's performance was found to be high. NASA would benefit from the ability to continue to conduct DAC research using a variety of DAC approaches, including the use of Dynamic Density as an objective function as has been implemented in SectorFlow. The application of massively parallel computing can also be applied by NASA to numerous aeronautics and Air Traffic Management algorithms and analysis efforts. This increase in computational power may allow the necessary increase in modeling samples required to generate robust decision support tool recommendations using a stochastic optimization approach.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FAA is considering Dynamic Airspace as a potential component of NextGen. However, it is clear that decision support tools will be required to facilitate evaluation of such dynamic airspace designs. As we have found in our DAC research, the required computational performance to algorithmically design and evaluate airspace sectors is significant. The results of this research could be applied by the FAA in a decision support tool for DAC. Modeling and simulation of Air Traffic Management operations is computationally intensive. However, the availability of real-time ATM modeling could be applied to numerous decision-making situations by both the FAA and by Flight Operators. Currently, the level of detailed modeling required to achieve beneficial and useful recommendations from such models in prohibitive. However, the results of this research may provide the necessary computational speed to overcome this obstacle and create the opportunity for commercial real-time ATM modeling and simulation tools.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-9072
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Operational Assessment of Controller Complexity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ken Leiden
kleiden@mosaicatm.com
596 Lykins Avenue
Boulder,  CO 80304-4373
(720) 938-7352

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In today's operations, acceptable levels of controller workload are maintained by assigning sector capacities based on simple aircraft count and a capacity threshold known as the monitor alert parameter (MAP). The MAP value of a sector is typically 5/3 of average sector flight time (or dwell time) measured in minutes, but may be adjusted up or down as necessary to account for other considerations such as sector geometry, traffic mix, and phase of flight. Future operations may utilize complexity as a proxy for workload instead. Our proposed research builds upon existing NASA complexity metrics by analyzing operational data to validate the factors that contribute to complexity in actual operations. We believe we have formulated a novel validation approach to apply to complexity. Our goal is to analyze a large sampling of operational data (substantially larger than could ever be provided by human-in-the-loop simulations) for a wide range of distinct sector types within Center airspace. This large and diverse sampling is anticipated to provide statistical significance to the validation of complexity factors. Most importantly, we believe that demonstrating sound operational validation of complexity is a key step in enabling the transition from aircraft count-based capacity to complexity-based capacity. The first objective is to develop a capability to analyze operational data that can identify sectors whose MAP value deviates from the 5/3 dwell time rule. These sectors will likely exhibit complexity that is higher or lower than the nominal complexity associated with a given MAP value. The next objective is to determine which complexity factors are positively or negatively influencing the sector capacity deviation from the 5/3 dwell time rule from the training set of operational sectors. The final objective is to validate that the complexity factors identified can accurately predict deviations from the 5/3 dwell time rule for the validation set of operational sectors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR has two primary focuses. First, we will deliver a complexity analysis tool to NASA so that NASA researchers can conduct their own complexity-related research. For example, NASA researchers can introduce new complexity factors and see if the factors are supported by the operational data. In addition, researchers involved with HITL experiments can leverage this capability to simplify the arduous post-processing of complexity-related data. Second, we will perform specific research studies to complement NASA's internal projects. Studies we perform using the complexity analysis tool will be directly useful to NASA. The study results will guide subsequent NASA research studies. The technical approach may re-used by NASA or may influence the approaches NASA takes on future projects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The complexity analysis tool will also be very useful in establishing capacities for dynamically-generated sectors for FAA FlexAirspace. In addition, results of research studies that we will publish in reports, conferences, and journals may also help shape the FAA plan for migrating from today's MAP-based capacities to complexity-based capacities. The most likely Phase 3 activities involve further development of the complexity analysis tool and underlying statistical capabilities to support NASA's continued aeronautics mission. The complexity analysis tool could be used within field trials throughout the NAS where the complexity procedures may be refined and actual benefits may be measured. Mosaic ATM has conducted field trials of this type previously with other automation tools and concepts and is well qualified to complete these Phase 3 objectives with minimal risk.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-9165
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Human-Centered Design of Adaptive Planning Tools for Airport Surface Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cognitive Systems Engineering, Inc.
7197 Calhoun Road
Ostrander, OH 43061-9335
(614) 292-4120

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Phil Smith
smith.131@osu.edu
7197 Calhoun Rd
Ostrander,  OH 43061-9335
(614) 292-4120

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Two critical requirements for an effective airport surface management system are: ? The need to adapt plans both strategically and tactically because of time-varying uncertainty. ? The need to support coordination and collaboration among a number of different individuals, including controllers in the ATC Tower (ATCT), traffic managers in the ATCT, ARTCCs, TRACONs and ATCSCC, dispatchers and air traffic control coordinators at Flight Operations Centers, and ramp controllers/supervisors at airports. NASA has developed algorithms to support such strategic and tactical adaptive planning for airport surface management. This proposal seeks to complement and support this line of research and development through the definition of roles, responsibilities and procedures for coordination and collaboration among these individuals as they adapt airport departure queues at spots and runways to deal with evolving conditions. It further seeks to design and complete formative evaluations for interface designs that make use of NASA's adaptive planning algorithms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is developing and testing new operational concepts for airport surface management in order to improve future performance in the NAS. The work completed under this project will help to refine these operational concepts in terms of the roles, responsibilities, procedures and interface designs necessary to integrate tactical and strategic planning algorithms for departure queue management into an effective human-centered design that supports coordination and collaboration among the relevant stakeholders. The work will also provide guidance regarding potential refinements of NASA's algorithms to more effectively support such collaborative work. The conceptual findings will support improvements of the operational concepts developed by NASA. In addition, the interface designs can be integrated into NASA's simulation capabilities to enable more effective Human-in-the-Loop studies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flight operators, airport operators and FAA staff all need tools to better support their roles in airport surface management tasks. Industry is developing a number of such tools to market to these organizations. The interface designs and underlying operational concepts developed through this SBIR should offer significant improvements in the design of such surface management tools. The results of this SBIR should therefore create opportunities for our company to partner with such vendors in the development of such tools, making use of the interface design concepts that we have developed, as well as the expertise that we have developed and demonstrated through the completion of this SBIR.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.01-9175
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Concepts and Technology Development (CTD)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Relative Position Indicator Concept for Managing Mixed RNAV and Vectored Arrival Traffic

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Atkins
atkins@mosaicatm.com
3 Primrose Lane
Westford,  MA 01886-3312
(978) 692-9484

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mosaic ATM proposes to study a Relative Position Indicator (RPI) concept for managing mixed RNAV and traditionally vectored arrival traffic, to enable increased adoption of RNAV procedures in airspace or traffic environments that include mixed RNAV and non-RNAV aircraft. The most common reason controllers give for why RNAV procedures are not used at their airports is the difficulty handling mixed RNAV and non-RNAV flights. Our proposed concept directly addresses this complaint, providing a controller decision aid to help controllers merge RNAV and non-RNAV aircraft. We will also study other applications of the RPI concept, such as planning departure slots into an arrival stream. The project directly compliments NASA's research and contributes to the NASA Airspace Systems Program's mission. The results of this project could be applied within NASA's TAPSS project to address mixed RNAV/vectored aircraft environments. Since RPI technology has been deployed by the FAA for other applications, and the project addresses a current need, the project also endeavors to transfer the resulting technology to the FAA for operational use.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for the research results beyond Phase 2 include use by NASA within TAPSS. This technology would complement NASA's TAPSS by supporting controller acceptance showing ghost targets will increase the controller's confidence that the TAPSS speed advisories achieve the required merging without vectoring. In addition, TAPSS assumes all arrivals will be flying RNAV RNP approach procedures, or that controllers can manually handle non-RNAV aircraft using current vectoring techniques. Controllers at numerous ATC facilities not using RNAV arrival procedures have expressed that the main reason for not using RNAV procedures is the difficulty controllers have merging RNAV and non-RNAV arrivals. Our concept will help TAPSS accommodate non-RNAV flights and, thereby, support controller acceptance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Trajectory based operations are a cornerstone of NextGen and RNAV procedures have a proven benefit in the NAS. However, adoption of RNAV arrival procedures has been slow due to the challenge controllers face merging RNAV and non-RNAV flights. This project will deliver a controller aide that addresses this issue and could enable broad adoption of RNAV arrival procedures and the accompanying benefits. We envision technology transfer to the FAA occurring at the end of Phase 2, for implementation within the TRACON automation systems. A similar concept to address a different issue currently operates at several airports, offering a clear path for implementation of this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Data Modeling (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.02-8135
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Systems Analysis Integration Evaluation (SAIE)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Hemispherical Scanner for a Coherent Fiber LIDAR System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SibellOptics
1855 South 57th Court
Boulder, CO 80301-2811
(303) 913-1772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russ Sibell
hanoverberry@msn.com
1855 South 57th Court
Boulder,  CO 80301-2811
(303) 913-1772

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SibellOptics proposes to develop an eye-safe, long-range, compact, versatile, all-fiber wind LIDAR system for atmospheric wind velocity measurement applications that is more efficient, and reliable, and at a much lower up-front and lifetime cost than any wind LIDAR system currently available. The hardware for this fiber wind LIDAR system has already been designed and the major components identified. Therefore, it is proposed that, for this Phase 1 SBIR program effort, that SibellOptics procure all materials for the scanner / telescope, assemble the sub-system, and run a preliminary test.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Of particular interest to this program is the detection, tracking, and measurement of wake vortices and turbulence. The major incentives for wake vortex and turbulence monitoring are twofold: safety and efficiency. A coherent LIDAR system has the ability to dynamically track wake vortices and turbulence along the glide slope path of an aircraft to a much greater resolution than other meteorological measurement systems. Furthermore, a fiber-based system will be greatly reduced in size, weight, and power (SWAP) over the only aviation LIDAR system currently available commercially.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wind Energy Wind energy generation is one of the fastest growing industries in the world and LIDAR technology is gaining a great deal of momentum in this market segment as a means to assess potential wind farm sites, optimize the performance of current facilities, and to protect expensive wind turbines from damage. A wind LIDAR for both wind assessment and operations where its longer range (14 km) combined with an attractive price can be utilized to replace multiple LIDARS or anemometer towers. Yachting and Harbor Subscriptions Maritime markets potentially include ocean-going vessels as well as subscription wind data and weather sales to harbors and ports. There are four opportunities to address in this market: (1) the owners of luxury yachts, (2) the yacht manufacturers, (3) the yacht charter operators and (4) the harbor market where ships of all types operate. Meteorological Environmental scientists have successfully used the WindTracer<SUP>REG</SUP> system to accurately track the direction and dispersion of factory atmospheric emissions and volcanic ash. The WindTracer<SUP>REG</SUP> LIDAR has also been used by atmospheric scientists to study the formation of typhoons over the Pacific Ocean.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.02-8168
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Systems Analysis Integration Evaluation (SAIE)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Next Generation Fiber Coherent Lidar System for Wake Vortex Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SibellOptics
1855 South 57th Court
Boulder, CO 80301-2811
(303) 913-1772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russ Sibell
hanoverberry@msn.com
1855 South 57th Court
Boulder,  CO 80301-2811
(303) 913-1772

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SibellOptics proposes to develop an eye-safe, long-range, compact, versatile, all-fiber wind LIDAR system for wake vortex measurement and other wind measurement applications that is more efficient, and reliable, and at a much lower up-front and lifetime cost than any wind LIDAR system currently available. It is proposed herein that the fiber transmitter sub-system be ordered and built on a breadboard and characterized.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The fiber-based wind LIDAR system will be applicable to all wind phenomena measrements including wake vortices, wind shear, and gust fronts. The LIDAR system can detect and measure winds out to 14 km and as close as 100 m with the capacity for adjusting range gates and measurement accuracy by adjusting the drive current via an operator interface. The unit will also have an internal switch that will "wake" the system up or change operation mode when aircraft comes within range.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the aviation market already discussed in detail in this proposal other industries that would benefit from the commercialization of a compact, inexpensive, reliable fiber LIDAR system are: 1. Wind Energy A wind LIDAR for both wind assessment and operations where its longer range (14 km) combined with an attractive price can be utilized to replace multiple LIDARS or anemometer towers. 2. Yachting Maritime markets potentially include ocean-going vessels as well as subscription wind data and weather sales to harbors and ports. There are four opportunities to address in this market: (1) the owners of luxury yachts, (2) the yacht manufacturers, (3) the yacht charter operators and (4) the harbor market where ships of all types operate. Potential users are comprised of both sailing and motor driven vessels. 3. Meteorological Environmental scientists have successfully used the WindTracer<SUP>REG</SUP> system to accurately track the direction and dispersion of factory atmospheric emissions and volcanic ash. The WindTracer<SUP>REG</SUP> LIDAR has also been used by atmospheric scientists to study the formation of typhoons over the Pacific Ocean.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A3.02-8594
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Systems Analysis Integration Evaluation (SAIE)
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Robust Separation Assurance (SA) Architecture Using Integrated Airborne and Ground SA Concepts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michel Santos
msantos@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5203

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes a robust SA architecture that uses integrated airborne and ground-based SA concepts such that SA functions are switched between airborne or ground-based activity as the system monitors traffic, network characteristics such as data drop rates and latency, and time to Loss of Separation (LOS). The uniqueness of an integrated air-ground SA concept is that the SA functional roles are changed between the SA stakeholders (i.e., ATC, Pilot and service providers) to maintain robustness of the SA performance under degraded network conditions. The proposed SA architecture consists of a Network and SA Performance Metric Monitor (PMM), which monitors short-horizon performance metrics of the network and the currently used SA concept. It also consists of an Air-Ground Concept Manager (AGCM), which decides if one or multiple SA concepts are to be applied in a given airspace (i.e., center, flow corridor or transition airspace) based on the observed and estimated network and SA performance metrics. The proposed mechanism consists of dividing airspace into SA sectors, where SA activity in each sector is managed based on a single SA concept. The approach delineates the SA functions or roles between the stakeholders for each SA sector and addresses the transfer of control between the SA stakeholders as the aircraft flies through the SA sectors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort enhances NASA's simulation testbeds ACES, ATOS and MACS for NASA researchers to perform SA studies of applying multiple SA concepts with delineation of roles and transfer of control. The outcomes of the research are results of SA performance trade-off studies between different airborne and ground-based SA concepts under varying level of traffic densities, complexities and communication and surveillance characteristics. The outcomes and proposed concepts also contribute to NASA's NextGen milestones on Separation Assurance and System Level Analysis based research, and hence they can be transitioned into NASA programs such as Center-terminal Automation System (CTAS) and En-route Descent Advisor (EDA).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful demonstration of the integrated SA architecture will enable us to transition the technology to FAA and DOD programs. This effort, in part, explores FAA's solution to "Trajectory Management - Conflict Resolution Advisories" activity under the FY2011 funded NextGen Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) program. The FAA's TBO program is expected continue beyond FY2011, when this research effort would have matured enough to be transitioned to FAA. The technology can also be transitioned to DOD's initiative on a number of programs to study safe operation of UAVs in the NAS for national security operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Architecture/Framework/Protocols
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.01-8044
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Surface Thermometry Approach for use in Aerothermodynamic Wind Tunnel Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Applied Technologies, Inc.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801-1721
(781) 935-2800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaomei Guo
xmguo@bostonati.com
6F Gill Street
Woburn,  MA 01801-1721
(781) 935-2800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project is aimed at developing a novel thermometry technology with upconverting phosphors for temperature measurement in NASA's high-enthalpy wind tunnels. Conventional thermographic phosphors require illumination by ultraviolet (UV) light and emit light at visible wavelengths. However, UV excitation is problematic in many large-scale facilities because it demands very expensive UV-quality windows and the UV light can be absorbed and scattered by gas species and particles in the flow path. Upconversion phosphors have been previously developed in our company and the temperature-sensing effect up to around 1000C with excellent sensitivity was demonstrated. A major part of this Phase I efforts will be directed towards applying these thermographic phosphors to a surface coating on a model and tested in a wind tunnel environment. The objective is to develop new surface coatings that are aerodynamically smooth, very durable, require near IR excitation and enable surface temperatures in the range of 300 K to 1500 K to be measured.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development effort of this program will directly result in the novel technique for monitoring of surface temperatures in NASA's high-enthalpy wind tunnels. This technique has potential for aerothermodynamic heating applications, scramjet combustion research, ablator recession-rate monitoring, and gas-turbine engine health monitoring.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of this novel thermometry technology will allow non-contact monitoring of high temperature surfaces, which is useful in all high temperature related processes. Therefore, its non-NASA applications are also enormous. Potential applications include, but are not limited to high temperature fields in gas turbine engines, afterburner sections, internal combustion engines and boilers. They are also useful means for kilns, the steel and iron industries to monitor temperatures throughout the product making process.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Thermal


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.01-8104
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micromachined Sensors for Hypersonic Flows

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation
5004 Northwest 60th Terrace
Gainesville, FL 32652-4061
(352) 359-7796

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Griffin
ufgriffo@gmail.com
5004 NW 60th Terrace
Gainesville,  FL 32652-4061
(352) 281-9280

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation proposes a sensor that offers the unique capability to make wall shear stress measurement and pressure measurements for time resolved, unsteady hypersonic measurements in NASA facilities. An all sapphire optical-based sensor scheme will facilitate high bandwidth, high resolution, and robust sensors for both skin friction and pressure measurements in harsh hypersonic flow environment. The proposed shear stress sensor possesses utilizes Moire based technique for non intrusive remote data acquisition using sapphire fibres. The pressure sensor utilizes an optic lever-based measurement scheme. Both the shear and pressure sensor are co-located on a single die for localized surface stress measurement. A robust and compact package with miniature interface electronics enables flush sensor mounting conformal with the surface. The sensor development effort focuses on novel pico-second laser micromachining techniques for fabrication on sapphire with minimal heat damage to maintain original sensor material properties. Furthermore, sapphire's high transparency (170 nm to 5.3 &#956;m wavelength range) along with the availability of sapphire optical fibers make possible the fabrication of optical sensors with the electronics located remotely from the sensor. Sapphire wafers are also readily available in numerous sizes and crystallographic orientations. The sensor will exceed its predecessors in performance and will offer hypersonic surface stress measurement capabilities that are currently insufficient.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Skin friction and pressure measurement for hypersonic flow conditions will enable NASA ATP facilities to precise stress measurement under harsh conditioned, which is currently not possible. This capability provides scientific value and poses significant commercial gain to NASA ATP by means of providing aerodynamic design and testing opportunity to the aerospace industry. Specific NASA ATP facilities that will benefit from precise skin friction instrumentation for aerodynamic performance estimation are, Aerothermodynamic Laboratories Facilities (31-inch Mach 10 Air, 20-inch Mach 6 Air , 20-inch Mach 6 CF4, and the 12-inch Mach 6 Air) to enable studies of aerodynamic performance of hypersonic vehicle components. In addition to the hypersonic testing at LaRC, the proposed innovation is also applicable to some of NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion System Laboratories. Overall, NASA and the aerospace industry stand to significantly benefit via better aerodynamic design and higher efficiency/ lower drag at lower cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several research institutes, aerospace companies perform routine wind tunnel testing hypersonic regimes. Gas turbine for better power generation and combustion study and control, evaluation of flame front propagation during combustion are some other areas where this technology will be very applicable. Industrial process control in harsh high temperature conditions such as petroleum refineries are other potential applications. This sensor may also serve as a platform technology with a potential impact on a broad application spectrum that ranges from fundamental scientific research, biomedical applications, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.01-8522
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: MEMS Skin Friction Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation
5004 Northwest 60th Terrace
Gainesville, FL 32652-4061
(352) 359-7796

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Griffin
ufgriffo@gmail.com
5004 NW 60th Terrace
Gainesville,  FL 32652-4061
(352) 281-9280

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation proposes a sensor that offers the unique capability to make non-intrusive, direct, simultaneous mean and fluctuating shear stress measurement for subsonic and transonic test applications. Currently a standard for shear stress measurement tool does not exist. A precise silicon micromachined, differential capacitive, instrumentation grade sensor will facilitate skin friction measurement with high bandwidth, high resolution, and minimal sensitivity to pressure. The proposed sensor possesses through wafer vias for backside electrical contacts to enable non-intrusive measurements in turbulent boundary layers. A robust and compact package with miniature interface electronics enables flush sensor mounting conformal with surfaces. The sensor development effort transitions a proof-of-concept device by adding design components to have reduced pressure sensitivity to result in a commercially viable product. Circuit topology development for biasing and signal conditioning provides the ability to make simultaneous mean and dynamic shear stress measurement. The sensor performance will exceed its predecessors and set the standard for quantitative skin friction measurements. The simplicity of sensor design and an equally simple and proven fabrication technique allows for low cost, high performance sensors. The sensor holds promise to transform current flow control techniques and enable efficient aerodynamic designs. Existing shear stress estimation techniques rely on known correlation to a measured quantity. Direct measurement eliminates the need for a known correlation in an unknown flow. Capacitive transduction has been successful for a highly sensitive device with a large dynamic range and low noise floor, which is the current state of the art. The proposed sensor may therefore be improved beyond the state of the art to serve as a measurement standard for all types of skin friction measurement techniques.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Simultaneous mean and dynamic shear stress measurement will enable NASA ATP facilities to precisely measure wall skin friction, which is currently not possible. Specifically, in the subsonic and the transonic regimes, this sensor will allow NASA ATP to explore skin friction drag reduction technology. This capability provides scientific value and poses significant commercial gain to NASA ATP by means of providing aerodynamic design and testing opportunity to the aviation industry. Furthermore, this technology enables NASA to establish a primary calibration standard for other shear stress measurement techniques, potentially extending this capability to supersonic and hypersonic regimes. Specific NASA ATP facilities that will benefit from precise skin friction instrumentation for aerodynamic performance estimation are: ?NASA Glenn Research Center: 9' by 15' low speed wind tunnel ?NASA Langley Research Center: 14' by 22' Subsonic Wind Tunnel, 20 Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel, and the 11 ft x 11 ft Transonic Unitary Plan Facility. The silicon micromachining technique inherently minimizes unit cost. Overall, NASA and the aviation industry stand to significantly benefit via better aerodynamic design and higher efficiency/ lower drag at lower cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several research institutes and aviation companies perform routine wind tunnel testing in the subsonic and transonic regimes. Formula 1 cars undergo aerodynamic design changes on a weekly basis and are tested at full scale in wind tunnels. With depleting petroleum reserves, wind turbines are being increasingly utilized, necessitating blade/vane design and material improvements for better efficiency. Wind turbine control is increasingly implemented in wind farms for power regulation using turbine pitch and yaw control techniques where skin friction measurement may serve as a feedback signal. In 2008 alone the wind energy industry attracted over $17 billion indicating substantial amount would be invested in control system, which is a portion of the 34% of the wind turbine cost. Skin friction measurement is extremely important for advancements in all of these applications. Shear stress may also be used to estimate flow rate, which opens the $1.35 billion flow rate sensor market for non-intrusive measurements. For example, remote flow rate monitoring in transcontinental pipelines for transporting natural gas and other hydrocarbon fuels. This sensor may also serve as a platform technology with a potential impact on a broad application spectrum that ranges from fundamental scientific research to industrial process control, biomedical applications, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.01-9561
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Force and Moment Measurement System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4962
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Davis
davism@lunainnovations.com
3157 State Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6604
(540) 558-1696

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The structural design of aircraft and their propulsion systems is a challenging task that requires accurate, flexible ground facilities capable of operating over the flight regimes of emerging subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic designs. Luna Innovations is proposing to develop distributed fiber optic sensing technology specifically designed to make high precision, thermally compensated, distributed force and moment measurements on wind tunnel test articles and supporting structures. Luna will leverage its patented Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry technology to provide unprecedented high speed data at extremely high spatial resolution. The sensing fiber will have the capability of being embedded into composite test structures, attached to the structure of a flight vehicle or model, and used to simplify force balance designs. This advancement is needed in NASA facilities to support the Aeronautics Test Program's effort to protect current, and provide additional test capabilities, and the Fundamental Aeronautics Program's goals to evaluate new airframe designs through aerodynamic research. An all-optical distributed force and moment measurement system will be applicable to test articles across all of NASA's ground-based aerodynamic test facilities. The system will enable support of projects such as future Lunar and Mars probes, fundamental aerodynamics research, and commercial systems testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The implementation of distributed fiber optic sensing technology into current and future NASA projects will enable improved accuracy in aerodynamic measurements made across NASA facilities under a variety of test conditions and at a reduced cost. Operating at a reduced cost will allow more extensive testing of design features and system level designs in support of the next generation CEV, Lunar and Mars landing modules, and advanced propulsion systems. Fiber optic sensors are the only platform capable of accurately and reliably spanning the temperature range that is tested in the various NASA facilities from the National Transonics Facility to the HTT. It will also provide NASA with the capability of embedding the sensing system into composite structures for the purpose of monitoring key parameters without affecting the performance of the composite material. This technology will demonstrate itself as being vital to increasing the future design and testing capabilities of NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While NASA is the leader in fundamental research for advancing aerospace technology within the United States, commercial entities are also working to advance the state-of-the-art in high and low-speed propulsion, flight vehicles, and fundamental aerospace sciences. The technology developed during this project will enable commercial air and spacecraft developers to obtain vital data which will improve vehicle design, safety, and efficiency. In addition, the distributed strain sensing system developed during this program will be applicable across industry to all structural monitoring applications in which electrical gauges are too cumbersome to use and do not provide sufficient speed, spatial resolution, and survivability. A configurable, versatile distributed fiber optic system provides a non-intrusive method of accurately measuring thermally compensated forces and moments, as opposed to electrical gauges, remaining EMI-resistant. Luna expects this system will act as a significant upgrade to existing facilities in which no current instrumentation exists with these capabilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Prototyping
Composites
Structures
Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
Gratings
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.02-8405
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust, Self-Contained and Bio-Inspired Shear Sensor Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
420 North Nash Street
El Segundo, CA 90245-2822
(310) 372-9609

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kerho
Mike.Kerho@RollingHillsResearch.com
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo,  CA 90245-2822
(310) 640-8781

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a robust, bio-inspired, and self-contained sensor array for the measurement of shear stress. The proposed system uses commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) components to create a distributed sensor array for the measurement of shear stress in either a flight or ground test environment. The reusable sensor array requires no external wiring or power source. The bio-inspired system is based on mimicking the sensitivity and response of a single hair fiber/receptor neuron to sense flow velocity very near a surface. An array of the hair cell inspired shear sensors are embedded in a flexible, self-adhesive backed sheet of polymide substrate, which also contains a self-contained, battery operated acquisition system. The self-contained blanket array can be quickly and easily applied to aircraft or vehicle surfaces in question. No wiring, external power, or control is required. After testing, the system can be quickly removed and reused. In addition to measurement of shear stress, the sensor array should be able to determine laminar/turbulent boundary-layer transition locations, laminar/turbulent separation and reattachment lines, and shock locations. The proposed bio-inspired shear sensor array promises to provide a robust, realizable, accurate, efficient, and cost effective measurement system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A robust shear stress measurement system for both flight and ground test facilities has significant potential application at several NASA centers, and across a wide range of NASA facilities. The ability to produce reliable, robust and cost effective shear stress measurements is an important goal for NASA. By being able to determine boundary-layer transition and separation locations, the proposed system can be used to validate transition prediction and multidisciplinary analysis and optimization tools. The system could be used in boundary-layer ingestion and optimization efforts. In a more permanent set-up, the robust measurement system could be used as input for vehicle adaptive control in uncertain environments or adverse conditions, or for closed loop flow control for aircraft, rotorcraft, or high lift technologies. Accurate, robust, and cost effective shear stress measurement is a necessary and compelling technology. NASA centers and facilities will be eager to exploit the proposed technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced sensing technology in the form of a robust shear stress measurement system for both flight and ground test facilities will provide RHRC with a unique and highly marketable product. The ability to measure laminar/turbulent transition and both laminar/turbulent separation locations will be of significant importance to both test engineers and researchers. With the current high costs of both flight and ground testing, coupled with reduced design and test schedules, the proposed technology will be highly desirable in military, government, and civilian testing markets. The technology developed by RHRC under this program will allow the efficient and cost effective measurement of a fundamental aerodynamic quantity on vehicles across a wide range of applications other than aircraft. These include automobiles, hydrodynamic, and civil engineering applications. RHRC will be able to provide complete sensor systems. The technology can also be easily licensed.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Acoustic/Vibration
Contact/Mechanical
Sensor Nodes & Webs (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.02-8909
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Biomimetic Approach for Accurate, Real-Time Aerodynamic Coefficients

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tao of Systems Integration, Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5050

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arun Mangalam
arun@taosystems.us
144 Research Drive
Hampton,  VA 23666-1339
(757) 220-5040

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aerodynamic and structural reliability and efficiency depends critically on the ability to accurately assess the aerodynamic loads and moments for each lifting surface. A thin-film, flight-worthy sensor capable of providing spatio-temporally accurate estimation of aerodynamic coefficients enables revolutionary energy-efficient, physics-based, force-feedback flight control of a wide range of vehicles from subsonic to supersonic flows. Recent biophysics research has uncovered sensory techniques to recover information from the noisy environment. Tao Systems proposes to develop a unique sensor that robustly applies these biomimetic sensory techniques to the aerodynamic problem to obtain accurate estimates of aerodynamic coefficients with minimal calibration requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Accurate real-time aerodynamic load/moment sensors will enable a number of revolutionary capabilities across a wide speed range, including, but not limited to: (1) shorter take-off and landing, (2) safe, reliable supersonic operation, and (3) larger passenger and cargo capacity. The primary difficulty in all three revolutionary capabilities is the uncertainty in aerodynamic load \& moments generated by the airstream in design and off-design conditions, e.g., turbulent flows and high angles of attack. Measuring the aerodynamic loads/moments reduces the aerodynamic uncertainty enabling the aircraft to timely, robustly compensate for the adverse flow conditions. Therefore, the proposed innovation could be of significant interest to the aircraft civilian industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For national security, the ability to cruise efficiently at a range of altitude, enabled by a substantial increase in cruise lift-to-drag (L/D) ratios over today's high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, is vital, providing sustained presence and long range. Aerodynamic load/moment sensors would enable the efficient, robust active control of adaptive, lightweight wings to optimize lift distribution to maximize L/D. Cost-effectively improving the energy capture and reliability of wind turbines would help national renewable energy initiatives. A standalone aerodynamic load/moment sensor could provide output for control feedback to mitigate the turbine blade lifetime-limiting time varying loads generated by the ambient wind.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerodynamics
Airship/Lighter-than-Air Craft
Air Transportation & Safety
Avionics (see also Control and Monitoring)
Navigation & Guidance
Relative Navigation (Interception, Docking, Formation Flying; see also Control & Monitoring; Planetary Navigation, Tracking, & Telemetry)
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Recovery (see also Vehicle Health Management)
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Attitude Determination & Control
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Characterization
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Support
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Data Processing
Structures
Vehicles (see also Autonomous Systems)
Inertial
Pressure/Vacuum
Thermal
Diagnostics/Prognostics
Recovery (see also Autonomous Systems)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.02-9308
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Combustion/Emission Species Monitoring Ground and Flight Aeronautical Research Using a Gas Microsensor Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530) 895-2770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Ward
bward@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,  CA 95973-9064
(216) 587-4750

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and the Ohio State University (OSU) propose to develop high sensitivity, miniaturized and in-situ operated gas sensors for the real time monitoring of chemical composition of turbine engine combustors and/or exhaust streams for real-time, in-flight propulsion system measurements to improve NASA's aeronautical flight test capabilities. Gas microsensor arrays developed by MEI, OSU and our technical development partners including NASA have been demonstrated for ground test usage to quantify composition of critical constituents in turbine engine exhaust products, e.g., CO, CO2, NOx, O2, HC (unburned hydrocarbons) and H2. These sensor systems provide the basis for the proposed NASA SBIR effort, which will also leverage development of packaging for extractive emissions testing developed for the DoD with support from NASA researchers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposal targets the improvement of NASA's ground and flight test aeronautics testing capabilities. Potential end users within NASA include ground test facilities such as Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) and Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL), as well as flight facilities such as DFRC with both piloted and unmanned systems. Real-time, in-flight data regarding combustor condition and emissions species can provide a previously unavailable test capability for NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology has military and commercial applications as well, which fits well with NASA's mission for the promotion of advanced technology for civil aviation. Near term, based on input from members of the emissions testing community, there is a need for a lower cost, readily available emissions detection capability for use in engine development and performance measurements. As the sensors and packaging technologies mature, the gas sensor array system might also be used for emissions certification testing for commercial engines. This technology will also apply to in-situ measurement capabilities for coal power plants, industrial burners, boilers, gas turbines, and other engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Ceramics
Atmospheric Propulsion
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 A4.02-9579
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
8 Chrysler
Irvine, CA 92618-2008
(949) 553-0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Cecil Hess
chess@metrolaserinc.com
8 Chrysler
Irvine,  CA 92618-2008
(949) 553-0688

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of modern aircraft. This system would improve the test capabilities of NASA's ground facilities, specifically the Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL). MetroLaser proposes to use a multi-beam laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) capable of arbitrary beam patterns on the target. This system coupled with acoustic or vibration excitation would reveal changes in the stiffness of the material, which are related to internal flaws within the material. This approach, based on the well-known LDV technique, is unique and innovative in the way it addresses the measurement requirement with multiple beams in an arbitrary beam pattern for high-speed coverage of large target areas. The Phase I work would consist of modeling, analysis and experimental work to define the system architecture and the measurement strategy, and would include developing a breadboard sensor to perform proof-of-concept experiments. It would culminate with a conceptual design of a Phase II prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include structural dynamic studies of aircraft and components, structural evaluation of heat protective shields of re-entry vehicles, and health monitoring of wind tunnel compressors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The market for the long range, multi-beam LDV system proposed here is broad and it includes wind turbine testing, automobile manufacturers (for example the transient phenomena of disk brakes requires making measurements with multiple beams simultaneously), airplane testing, the testing of civil and mechanical engineering structures (e.g. bridges), and numerous defense applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Quality/Reliability
Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
Acoustic/Vibration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X1.01-8174
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith/Soil Transfer, Handling, & Processing of Extraterrestrial Material
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mars Regolith Water Extractor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Zubrin
zubrin@aol.com
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Mars Regolith Water Extractor (MRWE) is a system for acquiring water from the Martian soil. In the MRWE, a stream of CO2 is heated by solar energy or waste heat from a nuclear reactor and then passed through a vessel containing Martian soil freshly removed from the ground. The hot CO2 will cause water absorbed in the Martian soil to outgas, whereupon it will be swept along by the CO2 to a condenser chamber where ambient Martian cold temperatures will be used to condense the water from the CO2. The CO2 is then pumped back to the heater where it is reheated and recirculated back to the soil vessel to remove more water. Measurements taken by the Viking mission showed that randomly gathered Martian soil contains at least 1% water by weight, and probably more than 3%. This being the case, the MWRE should prove to be a highly effective way of acquiring water on Mars. By doing so, it will eliminate the requirement to transport hydrogen to Mars in order to make methane fuel, and allow all the propellant needed for a Mars to Earth return flight to be manufactured on Mars using a Sabatier/electrolysis (S/E) cycle, without any need for auxiliary oxygen production through zirconia cells, reverse water gas shift cycles, or other systems. This is highly advantageous since the S/E cycle is the simplest and easiest to implement of all Mars in-situ propellant production methods. The ability to extract water from Mars will also serve to supply the crew of a Mars missions with copious supplies of water itself, which after propellant, is the most massive logistic component of a Mars mission. By eliminating the need to transport fuel, oxygen, and water to Mars, the MWRE will have a major effect in reducing the mass, cost, and risk or human Mars exploration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary initial application of the MRWE is to provide a reliable, low cost, low mass technology to produce water, hydrogen, and liquid oxygen on the surface of Mars out of indigenous materials at low power. By doing so, it will eliminate the requirement to transport hydrogen to Mars in order to make methane fuel, and allow all the propellant needed for a Mars to Earth return flight to be manufactured on Mars using a Sabatier/electrolysis (S/E) cycle, without any need for auxiliary oxygen production through zirconia cells, reverse water gas shift cycles, or other systems. This is highly advantageous since the S/E cycle is the simplest and easiest to implement of all Mars in-situ propellant production methods. The ability to extract water from Mars will also serve to supply the crew of a Mars missions with copious supplies of water itself, which after propellant, is the most massive logistic component of a Mars mission. By eliminating the need to transport fuel, oxygen, and water to Mars, the MWRE will have a major effect in reducing the mass, cost, and risk or human Mars exploration. In addition, small versions of the MWRE could be used to help make the return propellant for a Mars sample return (MSR) mission on the Martian surface, thereby making such a mission both cheaper to launch and much easier to land, as the landing mass limits of current aeroshells will not be exceeded. This could be an enabling development for the MSR mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MRWE could be useful in arid terrestrial climates. Nations in arid areas, particularly the Middle East and North Africa, have spent billions of dollars on construction of evaporative and reverse osmosis desalination plants for irrigation and use for the populace. Yet water is still routinely rationed in many of these countries. Even in the driest regions of the Earth, the soil is several times wetter than on Mars, and the MRWE will operate an order of magnitude more efficiently. Even if desalination technology remains more economical in coastal areas, MWRE units using solar concentrators to provide heat offer many advantages for millions of potentials users in landlocked nations such as Mali, Niger, or Chad. Regions that are too far from the coastline to economically pipe water in, such as the Empty Quarter of Saudi Arabia, or the Western Desert in the United States, may also be potential markets. It should be noted that in contrast to water obtained from natural liquid sources, the condensate obtained from water vaporized out of the ground will be pure, and much safer to drink than other supplies that may be available in underdeveloped areas. MRWE units sized for vehicles traveling in desert regions are also an attractive option. Such units could reduce logistical requirements for the military and could also supply civilians operating in remote areas. The MRWE concept would be ideal for these applications since it is very lightweight, cheap, and portable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Conversion
Generation
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Fuels/Propellants
Surface Propulsion
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X1.01-8556
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith/Soil Transfer, Handling, & Processing of Extraterrestrial Material
PROPOSAL TITLE: Centrifugal Sieve for Size-Segregation/ Beneficiation of Regolith

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grainflow Dynamics, Inc.
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore, CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Otis Walton
walton@grainflow.com
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore,  CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Utilizing centrifugal force as the primary body-force, combined with both shearing flow and vibratory motion the proposed centrifugal-sieve separators can provide efficient gravity-level-independent size classification of granular feedstock like lunar regolith. Standard size separation methods for dry materials often depend on gravity as the primary body force. For separation of small sizes, gravity-force is usually supplemented with vibration and shearing flow. Granular materials naturally stratify during shear-flow with larger particles rising to the top. Depending on frequency and intensity, vibrations alone can induce large particles to rise to the top in a granular bed, independent of shear flow. The proposed centrifugal size-separators utilize the natural size stratification of flowing granular solids. They will function equally well under reduced gravity conditions and in vacuum. The nominal design is a configuration with only one moving part and no blades, or other high-wear components. Shearing flow and vibrations combined with a size-separating screen at the outside (or 'bottom') of the flow will separate particles, with the fines passing through the outer wall screen, and the coarse material passing axially through the continuous feed system. Multiple size separation streams are possible. Alternate designs with shear-enhancing blades, 'above' or inside the screen, will also be evaluated. Various approaches for screen deblinding, and other robustness enhancements, are part of the proposed designs. With appropriate selection of passing-screen size, and deblinding enhancements, the centrifugal-sieves could be used for regolith processor feedstock conditioning to remove material > 0.5cm diameter, and with alternate settings and screen size, also used for a degree of beneficiation, to select particular size ranges that have the highest percentage of desired mineral content. The centrifugal-sieve concept can be scaled to any desired mass flow rate.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Reliable, robust separation methods that operate independent of gravity level would be useful for granular materials size separation for regolith processor feedstock conditioning. For example, the proposed centrifugal-sieve could remove regolith particles > 0.5 cm diameter before dumping the material into a storage bin during excavation operations for oxygen extraction. The proposed centrifuging sieve could also be used for a degree of mineral beneficiation to separate particles by size and thus, increase the concentration of particular minerals which are more prevalent in certain size fractions of bulk regolith. The proposed centrifugal-sieves can operate in low-gravity (1/6-g and 3/8-g) and micro-gravity as well as utilize multiple feedstock sources. The proposed separation concept can be tested in 1/6 g flight experiments and ground vacuum environments. The Discrete Element method (DEM) regolith flow simulation software that will be enhanced and utilized in the selection and evaluation of sieve designs will also be of value as a verified simulation tool for ISRU equipment design.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Size classification is utilized throughout the mineral, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Improved methods to achieve size separation, especially gentle methods suitable for friable materials, could have wide applications. Granular solids are an integral part of the multi-billion dollar fundamental chemicals and agriculture industries. Size segregation is a small but important aspect of the fundamental materials industries. A portion of the size-separation currently done with vibrating screens and gravity, could be replaced by the proposed method, and even a small slice of the solids separations business could be significant economically for a startup company.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Minerals


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X1.01-8956
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith/Soil Transfer, Handling, & Processing of Extraterrestrial Material
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhanced Mesh-Free Simulation of Regolith Flow

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grainflow Dynamics, Inc.
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore, CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Johnson
scott.johnson@grainflow.com
7310 Northmoor Dr
St. Louis,  MO 63105-2112
(617) 851-7107

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA needs simulation tools capable of predicting the behavior of regolith in proposed excavation, transport, and handling or sample acquisition systems. For engineering-scale problems FE analyses utilizing soil-mechanics-based constitutive models have long been utilized in civil engineering to evaluate stresses and deformations up to failure, even including some plastic flow. The extremely large strains, bulking and recompaction behavior in excavation, hopper flow and regolith processing, however, are generally beyond the capability of most FE codes. Mesh-free methods offer an attractive option ? especially when coupled with critical-state soil-mechanics based constitutive models allowing unlimited shear deformation and flow. This Phase-1 project will enhance a new mesh-free SPH-based simulation model, initiated as part of an earlier SBIR project, to demonstrate its potential to meet NASA's need for a robust simulation tool for regolith manipulation and flow. Enhancements include providing smooth transitions as new free surfaces are created, parallelized algorithms so that high resolution can be maintained as the physical scale of the problems is increased to realistic engineering sizes, and inclusion of realistic cohesion in the critical-state soil-mechanics constitutive model. The large fraction of very fine particulates in lunar and Martian regoliths (e.g., particles < 20-microns) precludes particle-scale DEM models from ever being able to both maintain particle-scale fidelity and simulate engineering-scale problems. Utilization of larger-than-nature 'calculational particles' in DEM code leads to new challenges ? calibration of those 'particles' so that the calculational material will reproduce the constitutive behavior of the original granular assembly. The mesh-free SPH model developed here has the potential to become a new robust simulation tool to address NASA's challenging regolith manipulation and flow problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
New high-fidelity simulation tools for cohesive powders will be applicable to a wide range of ISRU situations including excavation, transport, handling, platform mobility, slope stability and wheeled vehicle traction analysis. New designs in all of these areas will benefit from improved robustness and fidelity of simulation models. The ability to test sensitivity of equipment designs to regolith model parameter values, can greatly assist in prioritizing regolith characterization measurements and subsequent optimization of equipment designs once the properties of the regolith have been more accurately characterized. Constitutive models specially designed for very low consolidation states of regolith (which can occur in reduced gravity environments such as on lunar or asteroid surfaces) will provide new capability for simulation and engineering analysis of tools and mission hardware including sample acquisition and handling.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The pharmaceutical industry has a large number of applications, which would benefit from significantly improved simulation capabilities for cohesive powders in a variety of pharmaceutical material manufacturing, transport and handling operations. The FDA's Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative emphasizes the need for pharmaceutical makers to understand the processes they use and to design the processes for quality, reliability, robustness and consistency. These goals overlap significantly with NASA's needs to better understand the processing of bulk cohesive granular material. Reliable tools to predict powder deformation and flow behavior would greatly facilitate the attainment of such goals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Resource Extraction


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X1.01-9363
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith/Soil Transfer, Handling, & Processing of Extraterrestrial Material
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel High-Temperature Pressure Sensors for Extreme Service Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eltron Research & Development, Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241
(303) 530-0263

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Gribble, Jr.
eltron@eltronresearch.com
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder,  CO 80301-3241
(303) 530-0263

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I research will result in a prototype high temperature pressure sensing cell based on the piezoresistive properties of platinum:tungsten alloys. The Eltron Research & Development sensor will be based on a flexible, circular nickel-alloy diaphragm onto which the sensor electrodes will be deposited via sputter coating. A series of insulating and conducting thin-films will comprise the pressure sensing element and an inert protective top-coat will protect the underlying materials from oxidizing/reducing environments and potential degradation from space weather. The prototype sensor will make exclusive use of high-temperature materials in order to facilitate continuous operation in the 550?1200 deg. C range (significantly higher than currently available commercial pressure sensors). A technology readiness level (TRL) of 4 will be achieved by the conclusion of Phase I. Phase II research will package the prototype cell into appropriate hardware with all of the necessary on-board electronics for full transducer operation and proceed towards TRL 8.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In-situ resource utilization and extraterrestrial resource extraction are essential aspects of many near- and long-term NASA mission. Many technologies like oxygen extraction from Lunar Regolith and Martian soils can develop very high temperatures. Existing pressure sensors are not capable of operating continually at temperatures in excess of about 550 deg. C. During this research, Eltron will develop a new ultra-high temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor capable of continuous operation between 5501200 deg. C. In addition, the proposed sensor design incorporates only vacuum compatible materials and will not be impacted by operation in microgravity or reduced pressure atmospheres.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-temperature pressure sensors have myriad potential applications. These include down-bore sensor packages for exploratory, oil and gas, and geothermal drilling, coal and biomass gasification, power generation, and a wide variety of biofuel and petrochemical refining processes. In addition to allowing for direct pressure measurement in ultra-high temperature processes without requiring undesirable compromises, the Eltron pressure sensor will also function as a drop-in replacement for existing pressure transducers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Command & Control
Process Monitoring & Control
Sequencing & Scheduling
Conversion
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
In Situ Manufacturing
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Resource Extraction
Contact/Mechanical
Electromagnetic
Pressure/Vacuum


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X1.01-9449
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Regolith/Soil Transfer, Handling, & Processing of Extraterrestrial Material
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Efficient Heat Exchanger for In Situ Resource Utilization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Sorensen
phs@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-3116
(603) 643-3800

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is essential for several of NASA's future flagship missions. Currently envisioned ISRU plants include production of oxygen from hydrogen reduction of lunar regolith and extraction of water from Martian regolith or asteroid material. These ISRU processes require heating of the regolith to high reaction temperatures. Once the reaction is complete, most thermal energy exits the system in the spent regolith batch and is therefore wasted. Creare proposes to recover this heat and use it to preheat fresh regolith prior to entering the reactor. Our novel heat recovery design is purely passive, robust, and compact to accommodate tight mass and volume constraints. Our heat exchanger promises to recover 80% of the otherwise wasted thermal energy. This energy savings can either be used to reduce the power plant size or speed up the production rates of the ISRU system. The Creare team has firsthand knowledge of the current ISRU research status and has the necessary background in mechanical design, heat exchanger design, as well as the facilities and commercialization expertise, to make this project a success.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main application area for NASA for the proposed heat exchanger for ISRU plants will be for future missions now being planned to Mars and the Moon, as well as other bodies such as Near Earth objects (NEOs). Long duration missions to the Moon will need substantial amounts of resources for life support and energy. Martian sample return missions and manned missions to Mars may be prohibitively expensive, technically exigent, and unacceptably risky unless resources can be produced on Mars. For example, NASA will need an ISRU propellant production plant on Mars for the sample return mission that it is envisioning in the 2020s.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many commercial processes involve the heating of particulate matter to high temperatures to affect a certain reaction, e.g., Portland cement kilns, drying processes in the agricultural and paper sectors, etc. As energy costs increase and with the focus on limiting green house gas emissions, more emphasis will be placed on improving the overall energy efficiency of such processes. Heat recovery methods using advanced heat exchangers such as the one proposed here could have a tremendous impact to improve this efficiency.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X1.02-8425
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Gas, Liquid, and Solid Processing to Produce Oxygen and Fuels from In-Situ Resources
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Martian Air Battery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yardney Technical Products, Inc.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379-2154
(860) 599-1100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Arthur Dobley
adobley@lithion.com
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck,  CT 06379-2154
(860) 599-1100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian battery that utilizes in-situ resources to produce energy for NASA applications. Our experience producing high-energy air cathodes for our work with existing metal-air systems will be utilized during this program. Our established air cathodes will be modified, to accommodate a Martian environment, and incorporated into cells. Several different chemically composed cathodes will be investigated. The anticipated result of the phase 1 project is a new battery. Advantages of the proposed Martian battery include a light weight source for in-situ energy production. In addition the conceptual battery will be capable of atmospheric gas collection and separation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed high specific energy Martian battery has the potential to produce energy utilizing in-situ resources on Mars. The Martian battery could provide energy storage for astronaut equipment and habitats, vehicles, robots and other electronics. This technology may also be used to collect and separate atmospheric gasses.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed metal-air cell has a broad range of commercial applications from storing energy for satellites in space to powering robots deep beneath the ocean floor. Metal-air cells have the potential to replace other cells and batteries currently used to power electronic equipment. The strength of the system is its very high energy density and specific energy. Its lightweight nature and flexible design provide it adaptability to many commercial products such as cell phones and computers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
In Situ Manufacturing
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X1.02-8598
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Gas, Liquid, and Solid Processing to Produce Oxygen and Fuels from In-Situ Resources
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flash Cracking Reactor for Waste Plastic Processing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lino Gonzalez
linoag@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Road
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 0
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to design, model, build, and test a novel flash cracking reactor to convert plastic waste, and potentially other unconventional hydrocarbon feedstocks, into tunable molecular weight fuels. The innovative reactor technology "flashes off" desired hydrocarbon products as they form, thus preventing the over-cracking of the polymers into more volatile hydrocarbons. This leads to improved selectivity for low vapor-pressure hydrocarbons, which are easier to store as fuel in large quantities at low pressures, as well as tunable molecular-weight products for multiple applications. Our design approach in Phase I will use a combination of heat/mass transfer modeling with pyrolytic kinetics modeling for PE and PP, which will be used as a model system for waste plastic pyrolysis. We will first demonstrate, using our pyrolytic model, that the hydrocarbon product distribution can be modified and tailored by varying the reactor and condenser temperatures, nitrogen gas flow rate, and system pressure. We will also build and test the reactor system based on our model results. Controlling the product distribution of a flash cracking reactor while minimizing parasitic losses will be the primary challenge during the Phase I effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The target NASA application for the proposed technology is in-situ liquid fuel production in the moon using waste plastics and other organic materials. The purpose of NASA's effort for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is to harness and utilize resources at the site of exploration to create products and services, which can enable and significantly reduce the mass, cost, and risk of near-term and long-term space exploration. Such capabilities are considered extremely important to human expeditions to Mars which, because of the distances involved, would be much longer missions entailing a minimum of 500 days spent on the planet's surface. We anticipate that the proposed system can be used during lunar days, in conjunction with solar heating and excess solar-electrical power, to generate fuel that can be stored and used during lunar nights. Lunar nights can last up to 334 hours, and storage of electrical energy in batteries and flywheels for use during lunar nights is not practical even with the most advanced electrical storage technologies available today. Liquid fuel obtained from plastic waste will inherently be low in sulfur and can be readily used in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for electrical power generation at night. This fuel can also be used to power generators, heaters, and similar appliances needed in space missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other government agencies can also benefit from the proposed technology. The US Air Force is breaking ground on pilot-scale FT jet fuel production facilities, and our technology is equally applicable to the cracking of FT waxes. Other military applications include in-situ generation of diesel-like fuel to operate the DoD's portable diesel-engine electric generators. Electric generators are usually the largest consumer of fuel on the battlefield, and this fuel often must be trucked in at a high "fully burdened" prices that can be in excess of $100/gallon. The proposed technology can of course also be used for commercial conversion of plastic waste into liquid fuels, as companies like Envion and Global Finest have shown with similar technologies. This is likely to be our break-in market, as there is a great need to make use of the used plastic that is currently being incinerated or kept in landfills for decades. The proposed technology can later be adapted for upgrading unconventional petroleum reserves, including tar sands, oil shale, and heavy crude. Unconventional petroleum reserves are an important component of world petroleum reserves, and innovative upgrading technologies will be required for economically converting them into useful transportation fuels.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Conversion
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Processing Methods
Polymers
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X1.02-8694
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Gas, Liquid, and Solid Processing to Produce Oxygen and Fuels from In-Situ Resources
PROPOSAL TITLE: 6 CFM Electrochemical Hydrogen Pump and Compressor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sustainable Innovations, LLC
160 Oak Street
Glastonbury, CT 06033-2336
(860) 652-9690

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William McPhee
william.mcphee@sustainableinnov.com
160 Oak Street, Unit 410
Glastonbury,  CT 06033-2336
(860) 652-9690

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hydrogen is an essential resource for space missions. NASA has a need for equipment to generate, handle and store hydrogen. In terms of handling hydrogen, conventional rotating mechanical pumps and compressors require extensive modification and have limited reliability. Electrochemical pumping and compression of hydrogen occurs without any moving parts and is highly reliable and efficient. Sustainable Innovations has demonstrated up to 6,000 psi of compression using electrochemical cell hardware. However, for high flow applications, such as a 6 CFM hydrogen pump for NASA, a departure from traditional electrochemical cell hardware designs is needed. The proposed Expandable Modular Architecture cell design, allows a large variable footprint for the electrochemical stack. This is achieved using modular cell parts to create large active area cells. The modular parts are inexpensive to manufacture and can achieve the high tolerances need for large active area cells. The proposed Phase I activity will demonstrate a single cell Electrochemical Hydrogen Pump & Compressor (EHPC) using the EMA design to validate the modularity of the cell components. The ability to stack large active area cells will also be demonstrated with a four cell EHPC. For both pieces of cell hardware, cycling a pneumatic device will be demonstrated. A manufacturing study will also be undertaken to validate the compatibility of the EMA design with cost reduction pathways. This will facilitate establishing the design criteria for a 3-4 CFM ? 1,000 psi EHPC to be constructed on Phase II

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An Electrochemical Hydrogen Pump & Compressor (EHPC) using an EMA cell design is applicable to several NASA applications. For extraterrestrial in situ resource utilization the EHPC will be able to handle the flow rates, 6 CFM, needed to recirculate hydrogen and facilitate pneumatic transport. Terrestrial NASA applications include capturing, purifying and compressing purge gas for various experimental rocket test stands. In extraterrestrial applications it is envisaged that the EHPC variable footprint will allow construction to conform to geometric constraints of a spacecraft. In addition, the simplicity of the systems balance-of-plant, a regulated power source, and the proven high reliability of electrochemical based devices means that redundant units may not be needed. The EHPC technology would add a key tool to NASA ability to move and store hydrogen efficiently and safely in extraterrestrial environments. A large amount of hydrogen used during testing of rocket engines and other space systems is wasted due to cryogenic boil-off loses and pre-test purging. The ability to efficiently capture, purify and compress this hydrogen for reuse, relies on handling large flow rates. Very large cell active areas are needed to meet this need. The EMA cell design facilitates the building of a large scale EHPC to recycle hydrogen. This will be economically beneficial to NASA while lowering the carbon footprint of NASA testing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The emergence of hydrogen based economy will necessitate the ability to pump and compress large amount of hydrogen. A range of EHPC products with an EMA cell design will facilitate a hydrogen economy by delivering hydrogen to fueling stations and providing the compression for vehicular refueling. Assuming the adoption of a pipeline hydrogen based infrastructure, there is a need to pump the hydrogen along the pipeline to the fueling stations. A medium to large size fueling station would require 300 lbs per day of hydrogen, which at 500 psi is 1,730 cf. A 30 CFM EHPC system, would allow a fueling station to store a day's worth of fuel in 2 hours. Hydrogen powered vehicles require hydrogen at 6,000 10,000 psi to facilitate efficient volumetric storage. Sustainable Innovations' cell hardware has already demonstrated a Compression Ratio (CR) of over 400, which is significant greater the then CR of 20 needed to compress hydrogen from 500 psi to 10,000 psi. Therefore a EHPC system with a EMA cell design and a large flow rate capacity would be a invaluable tool in the developemnt of a hydrogen based economy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Conversion
Distribution/Management
Generation
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
Storage
Actuators & Motors
Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
Pressure & Vacuum Systems
Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X1.02-8882
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Gas, Liquid, and Solid Processing to Produce Oxygen and Fuels from In-Situ Resources
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a Robust, Highly Efficient Oxygen-Carbon Monoxide Cogeneration System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials and Systems Research, Inc.
5395 West 700 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84104-4403
(801) 530-4987

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Greg Tao
gtao@msrihome.com
5395 West 700 South
Salt Lake City,  UT 84104-4403
(801) 530-4987

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This small business innovation research is intended to develop a long-life, highly efficient O2-CO cogeneration system to support NASA's endeavors to pursue extraterrestrial exploration (Moon, Mars, and Asteroids/Phobos). The cogeneration system will be built using a Tubular, Negative Electrode-supported Solid-Oxide Electrolysis Cell (Tune-SOEC) employing MSRI's most promising degradation-resistant ceramic materials and a unique cell design. The system will be capable of co-generating breathable oxygen and CO fuel directly from carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere, lunar regolith/soil, or from the cabin air of extraterrestrial human missions at 750~850C. In Phase I, CO2 electrolysis degradation mechanisms will be investigated via nonequilibrium thermodynamic analyses and tests of Tune-SOECs with special embedded reference electrodes. Unique solutions for long-term, high performance CO2 electrolysis will be developed and implemented. In Phase II, a prototype O2-CO cogeneration system using the Tune-SOEC technology will be developed. A proof-of-concept system will be demonstrated, cogenerating O2-CO directly from a CO2 source at temperatures ranging from 750C to 850C; showing the capability of using ISRU to generate 1 kg oxygen per day (enough to support 1 human).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The subject long-life, highly-efficient O2-CO cogeneration system will be developed to support NASA's development of In-situ Resource Utilization technologies, and will be capable of producing fuel and oxygen from carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere, lunar regolith/soil, and/or from the cabin air of extraterrestrial human missions. In addition, the same system can be used for H2O electrolysis, from which the H2 product is used for synthesizing methane (via Sabatier reaction) to support In-situ Propellant Production (ISPP) development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications lie in both the oxygen related industries and hydrogen markets, which are predicted to grow to $192.3 billion by year 2050 to support hydrogen vehicle deployment. Some applications include: (a) greenhouse gas reduction, (b) hydrogen production, (c) synthetic fuel production via integration of renewable energy with Co-electrolysis of CO2 and H2O, and (d) energy storage (convert renewable energy into synthetic fuels).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Storage
In Situ Manufacturing
Ceramics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X1.02-9266
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Gas, Liquid, and Solid Processing to Produce Oxygen and Fuels from In-Situ Resources
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel CO2 Separation and Methanation for Oxygen and Fuel Production

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Precision Combustion, Inc.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473-3106
(203) 287-3700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christian Junaedi
cjunaedi@precision-combustion.com
410 Sackett Point Rd
North Haven,  CT 06473-3106
(203) 287-3700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes a novel efficient, compact, and lightweight Microlith<SUP>REG</SUP>-based CO2 separator and methanation reactor to separate CO2 from the Martian atmosphere and convert the CO2 with H2 to methane and water vapor with high CO2 conversion and high CH4 selectivity. This offers a lightweight, compact, and efficient implementation of a Mars atmosphere-fed adsorption/Sabatier/electrolysis solution for producing fuel and oxygen. CO2 conversion is expected to be &#8805;90% with near 100% CH4 selectivity at high throughputs and at low operating temperatures (&#8804;~350<SUP>o</SUP>C). The technology will allow use of Martian in-situ resources for producing rocket propellant, reactants, and life support needs such as oxygen to significantly extend the duration and range of human/robotic planetary exploration. PCI has separately developed a regenerable CO2 separator and a CO2 methanation reactor through SBIR projects for the space station and spacecraft applications, demonstrated to be superior (i.e., lower power consumption, lighter, and smaller size) to existing technologies such as pellets and microchannels. This integrated system can contribute significantly to NASA's Martian in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) architecture, offering a potential major step forward towards establishing a human outpost in Mars.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology offers a novel integrated in situ resource utilization concept for Martian atmosphere utilization and processing to support oxygen and fuel production during human exploration, offering a potential major step forward towards establishing a human outpost in Mars. Compared to existing technologies, this offers potential for significant reductions in size and weight while making efficient use of hydrogen and power as well as in-situ Martian resources.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One opportunity is as a methanation reactor for high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells. PCI has a leading fuel reforming technology (that is supplanting microchannel reformers) which has been tested with SOFCs. The ability to convert the reformate gas from the fuel pre-reformer into methane (to be converted to syngas through endothermic steam reforming in the fuel cell stack) could add thousands of hours of life to the stack through temperature moderation. There is also the potential for use in methanation reactors for other processes such as the Haber process for producing ammonia (used to make fertilizer and ammunition) and as part of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) for cleaner power production from coal. The CO2 separation subsystem also may have high value, as a potentially more compact and efficient alternative to conventional pressure swing adsorption systems for targeted applications, e.g. H2 separation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Conversion
Sources (Renewable, Nonrenewable)
In Situ Manufacturing
Resource Extraction
Fuels/Propellants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X1.02-9311
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Gas, Liquid, and Solid Processing to Produce Oxygen and Fuels from In-Situ Resources
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regenerable Contaminant Removal System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 West 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Berggren
mberggren@pioneerastro.com
11111 W. 8th Ave. Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0231

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Regenerable Contaminant Removal System (RCRS) is an innovative method to remove sulfur and halide compounds from contaminated gas streams to part-per-billion levels in support of lunar oxygen production. A series of high efficiency sorbents sequentially removes contaminants at temperatures above dew point. Sorbents are regenerated, and contaminants are recovered in concentrated form. The RCRS is installed downstream from lunar soil reduction reactors to protect hardware from corrosion, to protect catalysts from poisoning, and to reduce the load on aqueous contaminant removal processes used in advance of electrolysis. Custom, high-porosity, high-capacity sorbents are used to minimize sorbent mass and sorption reactor volume while also minimizing process pressure drop. Sorption reactor volumes are small compared to the volume of soil reduction reactors. High porosity and sorbent durability are imparted through the use of organic and inorganic fillers and binders during manufacture of the sorbents. The RCRS imposes very little parasitic load on ISRU oxygen recovery systems during the course of sorbent regeneration and recovery of contaminant byproducts. The basic RCRS process can be tailored to provide contaminant removal for a wide range of reducing gas compositions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary initial application of the Regenerable Contaminant Removal System is for sulfur and halide capture and recovery in support of lunar oxygen production. The RCRS has direct use to both protect ISRU hardware and catalysts and to produce useful amounts of byproducts for future lunar ISRU applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High temperature sulfur and halide capture have been the focus of work related to biomass and coal gasification for chemical or fuels synthesis and fuel cell applications. Alternatives to low-temperature wet chemical systems have been sought to avoid the capital and operating expenses associated with chilling process gases for contaminant removal and subsequent reheating for the intended applications. The Regenerable Contaminant Removal System has the potential to provide novel solutions to the growing use of fossil fuels and biomass in new conversion technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Resource Extraction


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X1.02-9836
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Gas, Liquid, and Solid Processing to Produce Oxygen and Fuels from In-Situ Resources
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plasma Catalytic Extraction of Oxygen from the Martian Atmosphere

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Wheeler, Jr., P.E.
rwheeler@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2661

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Plasma catalytic techniques are proposed for the extraction of oxygen from the abundant carbon dioxide contained in the Martian atmosphere (95% CO2).. The Phase I project will clearly demonstrate the feasibility of achieving these goals by focussing on key aspects of the technology, such as efficient microwave plasma catalytic conversion at relevant pressures and processing rates. The Phase II program will advance the technology through a more in depth development effort to the point where a fully functional prototype will be assembled and tested. Successful culmination of this effort will result in a self contained, energy efficient technique that can be utilized in robotic precursor missions to Mars to stockpile oxygen in support of future manned missions to the planet.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future missions to Mars. Extraction of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere may well be an enabling technology for future manned missions to Mars. Ideally this technology will be purchased as Flight Hardware by NASA, or by an aerospace contracting firm on behalf of NASA, resulting in enhanced capability in support of manned missions on Mars, where increased capacity, minimization of expendables, low power requirements, and reliable operation are highly valued.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Efficient conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to oxygen and carbon monoxide would not only provide a practical means to deal with an important greenhouse gas but also provide a key component for synthesis gas (a mixture of CO and H2), a valuable resource used in a variety of industrial-scale processes, such as the Haber process for ammonia production and in the synthesis of various organic compounds such as methanol and synthetic gasoline. An efficient technique that removes CO2 and creates an important industrial feedstock will be cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and commercially attractive.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Resource Extraction


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.01-8877
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of Engine Loads Methodology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ATA Engineering, Inc.
11995 El Camino Real
San Diego, CA 92130-2566
(858) 480-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Blades
eric.blades@ata-e.com
127 Appleton Lane
Madison,  AL 35756-4163
(256) 325-1116

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR seeks to improve the definition of design loads for rocket engine components such that higher performing, lighter weight engines can be developed more quickly. The long-term goal of this SBIR program is to substantially improve the overall load determination by demonstrating and validating new methods. The overall plan includes advances in computational fluid mechanics to provide more accurate tools for estimating the nozzle side loads and fluctuating pressure loads as well as the interaction between system models and components models and the combination of dynamic loads for prediction of component margins and life. The Phase I detailed development includes a tightly-integrated coupling of computational fluid dynamics and structural dynamics codes to better predict the nozzle side loads due to flow separation. In addition, improvements will be identified to both the loads process and the combination of dynamic loads in the time domain to support finite fatigue life predictions. These improvements to the loads definition will provide an improvement to the engine development process by providing better loads estimations which can be used to reduce conservatism and to significantly improve performance with reduced weight, cost, and development time. Phase II will include efforts to validate the fluid-structure interaction tool with experimental data and further develop and validate the new loads process methodologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's next generation launch systems require propulsion systems that deliver high thrust-to-weight ratios, increased trajectory averaged specific impulse, reliable overall vehicle systems performance, low recurring costs, and other innovations required to achieve cost and crew safety goals. The methods identified in this SBIR program for improvement to the loads definition provide an immediate opportunity to improve the engine development process by providing better loads estimations which can be used to reduce conservatism and to significantly improve performance with reduced weight, cost, and development time. With validated computation FSI capabilities and loads methodologies, the rocket engine community could apply these methods with confidence in future engine programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The current trend is for access to space to become an increasingly commercial venture. These tools and methods developed as part of this SBIR program will support commercialization of the rocket development industry. In order to develop engines and spacecraft at more competitive prices, the development time must be shortened and thus advancements in design tools and methods are required. For companies who have a long history of developing engines for NASA, there are well established methods and means for design validation of rocket engines. However, it is difficult to make changes to these established methods and adopt advanced simulation approaches without the perception of increased risk. This SBIR program will help provide the credibility to validate advanced loads and analysis tools to allow rocket development to proceed at a commercially competitive pace while still tapping the vast experience and expertise existing at companies, such as PWR, that are so important to U.S. ability to compete in world markets. It is believed that this project will help to increase the competitiveness of U.S. engine development teams of which ATA hopes to continue to serve in an expanding way thus creating an increase in the ATA services and tools development businesses.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Fluids
Structures
Atmospheric Propulsion
Acoustic/Vibration
Verification/Validation Tools
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.01-8919
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design and Analysis of Metal-to-Composite Nozzle Extension Joints

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design
300 East Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Craig Iwano
craig.iwano@m-r-d.com
300 E. Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the operational demands of liquid rocket engines increases, so too does the need for improved design and manufacturing methods for metal-to-composite nozzle extensions. The state of the art utilizes non-domestic composite materials for nozzle extensions. Although this solution does offer weight savings and increased performance, there is an increase in cost and the addition of Export regulations. Within this effort, Materials Research & Design (MR&D) is proposing an analytical study, coupled with subcomponent fabrication and testing, that would result in a design for a domestically available C-C nozzle extension and metallic-to-composite joint for the J-2X. The proposed study would investigate various mechanical attachment methods, such as mechanical fasteners and adhesives for both the CMC-to-metallic joint and the CMC-to-CMC joint. Additional aspects of the trade study would investigate various flange shapes and materials in order to reduce the critical stresses in the region.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nozzle extensions are utilized on many rocket engines that require increased thrust and specific impulse. For large scale engines, there is currently no domestically available technology capable of meeting the operational needs. The technology developed here will have a direct impact on the design and manufacturing of metal-to-composite nozzle joints for all future propulsion system designs by offering a domestically available alternative to the non-domestic state-of-the-art. Although the proposed effort will focus on the J-2X engine design and loads, the developed technology could also be applied to the RL 10B-2 cryogenic application since the CTE issues are present in both cases.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to liquid rocket engine nozzle extensions, the technology developed within this effort would benefit any application that requires a metal-to-composite joint that operates under extreme thermal conditions. Letters of support from ATK and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (Included in Part 12 of the proposal) support the application of the proposed technology for future propulsion system designs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Composites
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Metallics
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE; NDT)
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.01-9105
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Free-Surface Modeling of Cryogenic Fluids Using a Higher-Order, Unstructured Grid Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) Method

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sarma Rani
sxh@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4850

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Accurate and efficient computational modeling of free-surface flows has numerous applications of current and future relevance to NASA. At present, NASA engineers use several commercial codes for modeling cryogenic fluids. However, the free surface modeling technologies in these codes need improvements for better solution accuracy, and most are not scalable for highly parallel simulations. In this SBIR project, CFDRC and Streamline Numerics will develop and implement, in Loci-STREAM, an innovative and improved VOF methodology with the following advanced features: (1) Ability to handle triangle and quadrilateral cell types in 2-D, and tetrahedron and hexahedron cell types in 3-D; (2) Spatially second-order surface reconstruction for these cell-types; (3) Hybrid implicit-explicit time integration scheme that both maintains a sharp interface and allows realistic time-steps for the overall flow solver; and (4) Highly efficient parallelization with scalability to 1000s of processors. To demonstrate feasibility in Phase I, a previously developed 2-D stand-alone VOF module will be coupled to Loci-STREAM and validated. In Phase II, 3-D VOF capability will be developed and integrated with Loci-STREAM. An innovative multi-timescale algorithm that affords significantly larger time steps than standard VOF will also be implemented. Final demonstration of the software will be performed for practical cases to be decided in discussions with NASA/MSFC personnel.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed VOF module in Loci-STREAM will enable NASA and government contractors to better analyze and design liquid rocket engines. These applications include: (1) Sloshing of liquid fuels in fuel tanks; (2) Extrapolation of slosh experiments to cryogenic fluids; (3) Propellant tank stage separation dynamics; (4) Design of anti-vortex baffles; (5) Thrust oscillation impact on the upper stage ullage collapse; (6) Water pooling dynamics associated with launch pad environments mitigation using water deluge; (7) Propellant tank pre-pressurization, re-pressurization and self-pressurization processes, and many others. The software will help achieve better Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM), which is an integral part of exploration systems for Earth-to-Orbit Transportation, in-space fuel depots, planetary exploration missions, and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed computational tool will be of direct use to NASA's current and potential OEM contractors for liquid rocket engines (Pratt & Whitney-Rocketdyne, ATK-Thiokol, AMPAC-ISP, Aerojet, and others). It will also be beneficial to gas turbine engine and diesel engine manufacturers, and has applications in fuel injector design for power plants and in industrial boilers/burners. The tool will also be relevant to chemical industry applications involving flows with phase change, phase separation, and heat and mass transfer. Improved Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) can also play a key role in infrared and x-ray astronomy, and biological sciences.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.01-9934
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design Support and Analysis Tool for Pyrotechnically Actuated Valves

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ashvin Hosangadi
hosangad@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Rd.
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Pyrotechnically actuated valves are triggered on or off by firing an explosive charge that rapidly releases large amounts of high-pressure, gas. Pyrovalves are generally used for critical safety functions in almost all liquid and solid rocket systems and are designed to be fail-proof and provide extremely reliable actuation. However due to the lack of mature analysis tools, current design practices and safety analysis are heavily based on empiricism and are testing driven. The innovation proposed here is a comprehensive design and analysis tool that can characterize the transient performance of pyrotechnic actuators and provide a virtual test bed to assess performance and functional margin of these systems. The objective under this effort would be to develop a comprehensive three-dimensional transient tool that would simulate the gas ?dynamic interactions with combustion, and model thermal effects in the valve material. For more complex initiator designs where multiple initiators may be fired, the tool could be used to identify "skew" effects resulting from the offset between the initiator firings. Since pyrovalves are ubiquitous and necessary for any rocket system, the tools and technology developed here would be useful to a broad variety of programs of core interest to NASA including the constellation program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The end-product will be a high-fidelity, numerical simulation software (CRUNCH CFD<SUP>REG</SUP> code) that would predict the transient performance of pyrotechnic actuators, provide design support by supplementing current empirical rules, and diagnose system anomalies. Since pyrovalves are critical component of any space mission, our product addresses core needs of NASA missions including the Constellation program, the Mars science laboratory, as well as the new heavy lift rocket that may be designed. Pyrovalves are typically used for critical safety functions including emergency deployment of landing gears, chute deployment, and fuel flow control for thrusters. Consequently, pyrovalves have to be fail-proof and need to provide extremely reliable actuation with 99% reliability and 90% confidence interval level. However design and safety analyses have been largely testing driven and heavily based on empiricism since analysis and design tools are not mature. Our product addresses this critical need and would provide a reliable and well-validated tool.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial market for our product is large and includes the broad aerospace and defense industry as well as safety and fire-suppression devices in the general industry including the nuclear, chemical processing and oil sectors. Pyrotechnic actuators are extensively used in products such as fire suppression systems (for deployment and dispersion of suppressants), electric disconnects in safety systems (for high speed termination of electrical circuits), air-bags and safety restraint systems (as a rapid gas generator), cable cutters and explosive bolts among numerous other applications. For these applications, characterizing the transient performance of the system is vital and the availability of a well-validated, reliable computational tool can play a key role in the design process for these critical elements. In addition to these traditional markets, commercial space ventures ranging from space transportation systems (COTS) for the international space station (ISS), to low-cost satellite launch systems would be receptive to this product.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Software Tools (Analysis, Design)
Launch Engine/Booster
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.02-8099
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Non-Toxic In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Carbon-Carbon Rocket Nozzle Development

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Firestar Engineering, LLC
1122 Flightline Street, #76
Mojave, CA 93501-1610
(661) 860-1088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Greg Mungas
greg.mungas@firestarz.com
1122 Flightline Street, #76
Mojave,  CA 93501-1610
(661) 755-8819

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This development will provide an inexpensive vacuum nozzle manufacturing option for NOFBX<SUP>TM</SUP> monopropellant systems that are currently being developed under NASA SBIR funding. NOFBX<SUP>TM</SUP> is non toxic and utilizes a much simpler monopropellant feed system architecture. Furthermore NOFBX<SUP>TM</SUP> meets the criteria for a non-toxic propellants that will meet NASA's performance targets (as indicated by high specific impulse and high specific impulse density) while improving safety and reducing handling operations as compared to current state-of-the-art hydrazine-based propellants. During the proposed effort we will develop CC composite in-space nozzles for use on 100lbf class NOFBX<SUP>TM</SUP> thrusters. We have built the first CC composite rocket nozzle prototype that does not require autoclaving or CVD/CVI processes. In fact our process is more akin to typical carbon fiber lay-up standards than that of typical CC composites manufacturing methods.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include Non-Toxic In-Space Propulsion including 100Lbf and 5lbf Thrusters, Upper Stage Launch Vehicle and Kick motors, Small launch vehicle engines, Large launch vehicle engines

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High temperature Carbon-Carbon composites are used in all sorts of high temperature applications. This development will provide an much less expensive way of manufacturing CC components that may be used in many terrestrial applications such as the nuclear and renew ables power industries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aerobraking/Aerocapture
Processing Methods
Ablative Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Spacecraft Main Engine
Surface Propulsion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.02-8561
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Non-Toxic In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Mass, Aluminum NOFBX Combustion Chamber Development

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc.
7522 Slater Avenue, #122
Huntington Beach, CA 92647-7738
(714) 847-9945

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jack Fryer
jayfryer@microcoolingconcepts.com
7522 Slater Avenue, #122
Huntington Beach,  CA 92647-7738
(714) 847-9945

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our team proposes to define a diffusion bonding process for aluminum as an enabling step to ultimately develop an innovative, lightweight, long life, aluminum combustion chamber technology for Non-toxic NOFBX<SUP>TM</SUP> monopropellant In-Space 100 lbf rocket thrusters and rocket engines in general. In a companion proposal, we are investigating aluminum injectorheads: the results from these two efforts will ultimately allow us to produce an entire NOFBXTM aluminum engine. On a strict density basis, this aluminum engine would be ~30% of the mass of a nickel engine which already has a 22:1 T/W. Optimizing the design for aluminum will drive the performance even higher. This aluminum injectorhead/thrust chamber assembly will eventually be coupled to carbon-carbon nozzle assemblies. The result will be high performance, non-toxic engines with significantly increased Thrust-to-Weight Ratios approaching ~100:1. These engine assemblies can eventually be scaled up for resusable launch vehicle upper and lower stages or down into smaller in-space thrusters

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA-related applications for devices fabricated from diffusion bonded layers of etched Aluminum foil are vast, assuming the process can be developed to provide even moderate material strength and retain a relatively high thermal conductivity. The non-toxic NOFBX-based thrusters are suitable for on-orbit position and attitude control thrusters for NASA spacecraft, and particularly suitable for Mars ascent applications. Small aluminum-based rocket motors have the potential to obtain very large thrust-to-weight ratios, which is important for small-scale Earth-based launch vehicles as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Both pure commercial entities and non-NASA government agencies are likely customers for the high performance rocket engines enabled by the proposed development. Additionally, the ability to fabricate small, lightweight structures with complex internal features without casting extends the potential reach of this technology well beyond the traditional aerospace sector into medical devices, energy, and other markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Processing Methods
Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
Structures
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Active Systems
Heat Exchange


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.02-9554
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Non-Toxic In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy McKechnie
timmck@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have superior performance as compared to hydrazine with Isp (261 seconds, 12% greater), higher density and volumetric impulse, lower melting point, and much lower toxicity (No self contained breathing apparatus required). HAN based monopropellants require higher chamber temperatures (2083K vs 883K) to combust. Current hydrazine based combustion chamber technology (Inconel or niobium C103 and silicide coating) and catalyst (Shell 405) are inadequate. However, current state of the art iridium lined rhenium chambers are compatible with monopropellants and new ignition techniques are being developed. The goal of the SBIR project is fabricate and test a flight weight thrust chamber for HAN based monopropellants.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mars Ascent Vehicle, lunar landers, reaction control systems, in-space propulsion, attitude control, orbit maintenance, repositioning of satellites/spacecraft, and descent/ascent engines, nuclear power/propulsion, microgravity containment crucibles and cartridges.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rocket nozzles for satellites and military. Commercial applications are crucibles, heat pipes, propulsion subcomponents, x-ray targets, sputtering targets, turbines, rotors, furnaces, power generation, catalysts, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
Space Transportation & Safety
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Fuels/Propellants
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.02-9724
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Non-Toxic In-Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Resistant Zirconia Coating for In-space Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spire Corporation
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730-2396
(781) 275-6000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kelsey Carvell
kcarvell@spirecorp.com
One Patriots Park
Bedford,  MA 01730-2396
(781) 275-6000

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To enhance NASA systems, Spire proposes a novel technique for growing a graded nanocrystalline ZrON/ZrO2 protective coating with superior heat tolerance on relevant in-space substrates. The proposed coating technology will adhere to and protect engine components such as injectors, combustion chambers, nozzles, and nozzle extenders. Conventional high temperature coatings applied by chemical vapor deposition inadequately adhere, and often spall. The proposed coating will distribute stress induced by thermal cycling and improve adhesion, resulting in an improved and longer lasting coating. The high temperature phase of ZrO2 is produced by controlling nucleation, grain growth, and grain size via the unique features of our deposition technique. The increased surface energy of the nanograins results in the formation of a dense cubic phase of zirconia, which is stable at very high temperature. Phase I will develop a base-line process for applying highly adherent, thermally-resistant cubic ZrO2 layers on in-space propulsion substrates with a functionally graded ZrON metalloceramic transition layer at the metal interface. The deposition guidelines for nanocrystalline ZrON/ZrO2 coating will be perfected to each unique substrate in Phase II. In addition, a number of metallic components will be coated and delivered to NASA to be evaluated for in-space propulsion use.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thermal resistant coatings could be used for a multitude of NASA's engine components to protect the parts from high heat exhaust. The coating is applicable to a majority of substrates, from polymers to metals. Once commercialized, the coating application would take little time and would cost much less than replacing the engine components. A longer lifetime of the relevant parts would be particularly attractive for lengthy in-space missions. Spire Corporation would willingly accommodate NASA in terms the capacity and manpower to fulfill commercializing our coating on engine components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Zirconia coatings can be used to protect against thermal damage or to improve the hardness of the surface. The medical field is one area both these qualities are in high demand. Thermal barriers could be applied to laser components when performing surgeries that use high heat to ablate skin or body tissues. The coating could also be applied to surgical screws, cervical plates, or orthopedics to improve hardness and longevity of the implantable devices. Medical applications are just one area that would benefit from a single step Zirconia coating.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Space Transportation & Safety
Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Ablative Propulsion
Fuels/Propellants
Launch Engine/Booster
Active Systems
Cryogenic/Fluid Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.03-8631
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved CVD Coatings for Carbide Based Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Fuel Elements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Technology Assessment & Transfer, Inc.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401-8907
(410) 224-3710

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Larry Fehrenbacher
larry@techassess.com
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis,  MD 21401-8907
(410) 224-3710

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the great hurdles to further development and evaluation of nuclear thermal propulsion systems is the issue surrounding the release of radioactive material from the fuel during ground testing and its subsequent impact on test facility siting and operation. Therefore, the development of a crack resistant coating system on nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements that is insensitive to hydrogen corrosion and erosion is considered enabling. Technology Assessment & Transfer Inc. (TA&T) proposes a systematic approach for CVD deposition and evaluation of a family of niobium carbide (NbC) coating systems for both uranium carbide-zirconium carbide solid solution [(U,Zr)C] and advanced triple carbide (uranium carbide-ziconium carbide-niobium carbide) solid fuel elements designed for use in space nuclear power and propulsion reactors. These refractory metal coating systems will be evaluated in high temperature hydrogen and helium in concert with a preliminary performance modeling effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a high quality coating for space nuclear reactors will be enabling for the development of nuclear thermal propulsion, in particular if one uses fuel elements based on the Rover/NERVA heritage design or the Pebble Bed design. These coatings are considered a critical technology for first in-space applications of solid core nuclear thermal propulsion systems. The higher specific impulses afforded by NTP will provide significantly shorter travel times to the moon and Mars, reducing the time in zero gravity for manned missions and greatly increasing the speed of cargo/supply deliveries and unmanned exploration missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a high quality coating for space nuclear reactor fuel elements could have potential across a variety of nuclear applications. A variety of designs exist for the next generation nuclear power plant, such as the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) and the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). In the case of both of these the final fuel form has not been decided. The triso fuel particle has been suggested for both as well as clad solid fuel pins. Either of these two fuel forms could benefit from an improved fuel coating of this type. The idea of using mixed carbides (U,Zr)C, (U,Nb)C, which would allow for much higher operating temperatures, for both pellets and solid fuel pins has been put forth and both would require a cladding material. Most of these systems will operate above the temperature limit of SiC or would have compatibility issues with the standard C/C/SiC/C (triso) coating developed for pebble type fuel. The case of the VHTR the reactor has the ability to generate hydrogen by splitting water molecules, the presence of hydrogen and oxygen pose serious problems for the triso coating.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Fuels/Propellants
Spacecraft Main Engine
Destructive Testing
Lifetime Testing
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.03-8779
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ductile Tungsten-Rhenium Coating for Long-Term Protection of Nuclear-Thermal Rocket Fuel

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Williams
brian.williams@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories, Ultramet previously demonstrated the feasibility of using low-density, high specific stiffness open-cell foams for creation of innovative fuel elements for use in space nuclear reactors. Highly porous and structural foam material was produced by chemical vapor infiltration of uranium, niobium, and zirconium carbides into a foam matrix. The foam structure and versatility in fuel composition were used to take advantage of the potential for high power density, high thermal efficiency, and small core size. The lifetime of this fuel material, as well as current pellet-type fuels in industry, would benefit greatly from the development of an impermeable surface coating that would prevent hydrogen attack of the underlying fuel and contain fission products for extended periods. Tungsten is an attractive surface coating in terms of temperature capability, hydrogen compatibility, and neutronics, but is inherently brittle and prone to cracking when subjected to modest mechanical or thermal stress. Ultramet has extensive experience in development of tungsten alloys with improved ductility for applications including ballistic penetrators and liners for solid rocket motor throats. In this project, Ultramet will develop the processing for deposition of thin tungsten-rhenium alloy coatings on open-cell foam fuel elements. Components will be exposed to high temperature hydrogen at Ultramet, followed by surface and cross-sectional coating characterization. Sandia will perform preliminary modeling experiments to determine the optimal concentration of rhenium in the coating and coating thickness. The potential exists to utilize the proposed containment coating over a variety of high-efficiency open-cell foam fuels including carbides and cermets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Propulsion technologies are sought that will enable dramatic improvements in space transportation safety, reliability, and cost. Key to this goal is the application of innovative, non-traditional propulsion technologies, devices, and systems that could significantly increase the structural margins of future launch systems and substantially reduce the mission times for interplanetary and deep-space spacecraft. Development of such technologies is sought to enable ambitious commercial, robotic, and human exploration missions in the future. Technology innovations are sought that would provide significant advancements in space transportation capability and lead to the development of safe, affordable, high-performance propulsion technologies, including high-efficiency nuclear-thermal and nuclear-electric propulsion systems which utilize a nuclear fission reactor for propulsion as well as production of the large amount of electrical energy required for scientific instruments (including deep penetrating radar), mission design options, and telecommunications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to compact, high-performance space reactors, the proposed technology will assist development of ion drive, plasma thrusters, and fusion propulsion. The tungsten-rhenium-coated fuel could also contribute to a new DOE Generation IV power system that significantly lowers cost, improves passive safety, has no carbon dioxide emissions, uses an advanced, proliferation-resistant fuel cycle, and reduces nuclear waste. The fuel could also be used in ground-based power or in portable power systems for military or surveillance applications and remote deployment, as well as impact other applications in electronics, aerospace, and catalysis.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Generation
Models & Simulations (see also Testing & Evaluation)
Processing Methods
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Composites
Metallics
Fuels/Propellants
Spacecraft Main Engine
Simulation & Modeling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.03-9748
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extreme Environment SiC Wireless Sensor Suite for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arkansas Power Electronics International, Inc.
535 West Research Center Boulevard, Suite 135
Fayetteville, AR 72701-6959
(479) 443-5759

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jie Yang
jyang@apei.net
535 W. Research Center Blvd.
Fayetteville,  AR 72701-6959
(479) 443-5759

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this program, APEI, Inc. will build on successful demonstrations of SiC-based wireless transmitter designs in high temperature and high mechanical load environments to develop silicon carbide (SiC) based integrated wireless sensor-transmitter suites for extreme temperature operation in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) engines. These sensor suites will allow for the real?time monitoring of critical engine components, reducing the risk of catastrophic failure and decreasing the inherent risk associated with NTP operation. Arkansas Power Electronics International, Inc. (APEI, Inc.) will prove the feasibility of the concept and design through the successful demonstration of a prototype SiC wireless sensor suite operating in excess of 450 <SUP>o</SUP>C at the conclusion of Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SiC wireless sensor suite can be used not only in NTP rocket engines but also in chemical rocket engines, since a similar extremely harsh environments can be found in these engines (except the high radiation in NTP engine). With proper sensors, the SiC wireless sensor suite can also be applied as a part of telemetry systems in planet exploration such as Mars and Venus, and future space exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate application of the proposed hash environment SiC wireless sensor suite will be the health monitoring of turbine engine for both military and commercial aircraft. The ability to have embedded sensors (in both aircraft and spacecraft) that can detect temperature, strain, vibration, cracks, etc. will provide much needed engine health status as well as prognosis for possible or eminent in-flight failures. This technology will enable nearly continuous on-board situational awareness of the vehicle health state for use by the flight crew, ground crew, and maintenance depot, and contribute to the reduction of aircraft system and component failures and malfunctions that cause and contribute to aircraft accidents and incidents.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Transmitters/Receivers
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Prototyping
Data Acquisition (see also Sensors)
Acoustic/Vibration
Ionizing Radiation
Pressure/Vacuum
Thermal
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.04-9362
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Radiators for Electric Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601-5688
(717) 295-6061

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Anderson
bill.anderson@1-ACT.com
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster,  PA 17601-5688
(717) 295-6061

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The VASIMR propulsion system uses a high temperature Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) radiator to reject heat from the helicon section. The current baseline radiator uses titanium/water LHPs, however, deployable radiator and trace heating features are required to keep the water in the condenser from freezing when the radiator is turned off. The proposed project will develop high temperature toluene LHP radiators that will minimize the freezing problem, since the freezing temperature of toluene is roughly 100<SUP>o</SUP>C lower than water. Preliminary calculations on the toluene LHP radiator showed that a graded wick is required, with the pore size decreasing from the center to the surface of the wick. One goal of the project is to develop a graded alumina wick that reduces wick mass, back conduction, and pressure drop, enabling toluene as the working fluid. The ceramic wicks will also have near net shape fabrication, eliminating much of the current machining which adds costs to the LHP wicks. Optimizing the radial variation in porosity and permeability reduces the transport line sizes of toluene LHPs, significantly improving their mass and performance. The ceramic wicks can also be used in conventional LHPs, potentially reducing the LHP wick mass, pressure drop, and back conduction by 50 to 90% when compared with conventional nickel wicks. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating these wicks, demonstrate the wicks' machine-ability, conduct life tests, and evaluate the benefits of a graded wick versus a conventional wick with uniform properties. In Phase II, ACT will fabricate and test toluene LHP radiators with graded ceramic wicks to fully demonstrate their performances. We expect the technology to reach TRL 6 at the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate NASA application is high temperature toluene LHP radiators for the VASIMR propulsion system. These radiators are used to remove heat from the Helicon section of the VASIMR rocket and reject the heat at around 200<SUP>o</SUP>C. While water LHPs have been baselined for the first generation of VASIMR rockets, the water must be prevented from freezing in the LHP condenser. The freezing point of toluene is roughly 100<SUP>o</SUP>C lower than water, minimizing the freezing problem. Wicks with optimally graded pore radius and permeability properties in the radial direction are required to enable the use of toluene as the working fluid. The ceramic wicks developed on the project will be able to meet this requirement while also reducing mass and back conduction. These wicks can also be used to reduce the mass and improve the performance of conventional ammonia LHPs. NASA is currently examining space power systems for spacecraft and the lunar surface. ACT plans to use the ceramic wicks developed on this program in future LHPs that it manufactures for NASA spacecraft as well as DOD and commercial satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LHPs with graded ceramic wicks can also be used in commercial and military satellites. Another application is cooling of aircraft components, for both manned aircraft and UAVs. ACT has already identified actuator cooling as one area where graded wick LHPs can be very beneficial. Heat must be removed from the electrically powered actuators, which are located in the aircraft wing. A second area is cooling the FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) box on both military and commercial aircraft. A third application is for planar LHPs used to cool electronics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Spacecraft Main Engine
Passive Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.04-9542
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Thrust Efficiency MPD Thruster

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited
11711 North Creek Parkway South, Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hoyt
hoyt@tethers.com
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., Suite D113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8808
(425) 486-0100

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters can provide the high-specific impulse, high-power propulsion required to support human and robotic exploration missions to the asteroids, Moon, Mars, and the outer planets. MPD thrusters, however, have traditionally been plagued by poor thrust efficiencies due primarily to power lost into the anode caused by the Hall effect. We propose to combine three innovative techniques to create a high thrust efficiency MPD thruster. The first is an unconventional applied magnetic field geometry that counter the Hall effect near the anode surface, the second is shaping of the electrodes to optimize current uniformity, and the third is "through-anode" propellant injection to prevent depletion of the anode plasma. In prior experiments we demonstrated elimination of the anode fall using these novel magnetic fields, and in recent simulation efforts we developed novel magnetic nozzle designs that succeed in counteracting the current concentrations and plasma starvation effects that cause the anode fall. These magnetic nozzles also showed the ability to increase the amount of axial thrust extracted from the accelerated plasma by over 50%. In the Phase I, we will test the effect of a prototype 'optimized' magnetic nozzle on the thrust efficiency of a MPD thruster; both the magnetic nozzle prototype and thruster test article are already constructed. Additionally, we will develop technology for through-anode propellant injection, and evaluate its performance through tests and simulations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Manned exploration of the asteroids, Mars, and the outer planets will require fast transport of personnel and supplies to these destinations. Due to their high specific impulses and ability to process hundreds or thousands of kilowatts of power in a small device, MPD thrusters can provide shorter trip times and higher payload fractions than currently available propulsion technologies. However, significant improvements in MPD thruster efficiency and lifetime are required to achieve this potential. The anode propellant injection and electrode geometry optimization innovations to be developed in the proposed effort have strong potential to achieve the necessary efficiency and lifetime improvements, and thus may enable MPD thruster technologies to dramatically reduce trip times and costs for manned and robotic Exploration missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Magnetically nozzled MPD thrusters will also provide cost-effective in-space propulsion for orbit raising of commercial spacecraft such as GEO communications satellites and orbit transfer of large DoD payloads. In terrestrial applications, MPD thruster derived technology has applications in environmentally-friendly materials processing, for uses such as selective material ablation, ion implantation, and surface tempering. Our PI has previously collaborated in the successful development of a magnetically nozzled plasma accelerator for materials processing that is now in commercial use by the 3M company. Additionally, magnetically-nozzled MPD technology has applications in pulsed-power systems as well as fusion power research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.04-9626
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Inorganic Nanostructured High-Temperature Magnet Wires

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eltron Research & Development, Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241
(303) 530-0263

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sara Rolfe
eltron@eltronresearch.com
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder,  CO 80301-3241
(303) 530-0263

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will develop a high-temperature tolerant electrically-insulating coating for magnet wires. The Phase I program will result in a flexible, inorganic coating for copper, nickel, aluminum and their alloy wires that can be wound to produce magnets with superior thermal resistance. Eltron will produce a conformal insulating coating that permits continuous operation at temperature of at least 500 deg. C (932 deg. F), which exceeds current SOA coatings by 100%. According to NEMA, magnet wire is required for the production of 90% of all electricity. As industry attempts to shrink process size and increase output from these devices, their operating temperatures increase and conventional wire insulation tends to fail. High-temperature magnet wire allows for continuous operation under these environments. Few competitors exist that are producing magnet wire capable of functioning in this temperature range.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Electric propulsion devices such as Hall effect thrusters make use of electromagnets to steer and confine charged particles as an integral part of the propulsion system. Current designs are limited by the capability of the magnet wire to survive high-temperature operation. The operating temperature in current designs is a result of both joule heating effects derived from high current loads dissipated by the magnets and close proximity to hot plasma from the thruster. Improved insulation will increase the maximum operating temperature, allowing for greater flexibility in placement and design while also facilitating higher field strengths through larger current loads across the magnet circuits.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This topic addresses the need for functional high-temperature magnet wire coatings. Eltron Research & Development has the experience to produce a conformal insulating coating that far exceeds the maximum working temperature of current magnet wires while maintaining excellent flexibility and mechanical toughness. Magnet wire is widely used in most motors, pumps, power generators, alternators, power transformers, particle accelerators and MRI/NMR instruments. Providers within these diverse markets strive to reduce the physical size and increase the output of these devices. As a result, operating temperatures increase and conventional wire insulation fails. Eltron's high-temperature magnet wire will allow for continuous operation up to at least 500 deg. C (932 deg. F). No known competitors produce magnet wire with comparable functionality in this temperature range. In addition, the proposed magnet wire coatings are vacuum compatible?an advantage for applications in the aerospace and nuclear physics sectors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Materials (Insulator, Semiconductor, Substrate)
Conversion
Generation
Ceramics
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Metallics
Nanomaterials
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices
Spacecraft Main Engine


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X2.04-9863
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
e-beam, inc.
21070 Southwest Tile Flat Road
Beaverton, OR 97007-8739
(503) 628-0703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bernard Vancil
bernie@ebeaminc.com
21070 SW Tile Flat Road
Beaverton,  OR 97007-8739
(503) 628-0703

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose. Reservoir cathodes are the only emission sources that are capable of providing the necessary current density (>5.0 A/cm2) and life (>100,000 hours) for next generation high-power thrusters. More powerful thrusters are needed for interplanetary and lunar missions, including earth escape and near-earth space maneuvers. Reservoir cathodes are able to provide sufficient new barium to the cathode surface to overcome the high barium removal rates in ion engines. We have many years' experience developing reservoir cathodes. The key challenge is the stresses exerted on the cathode tube due to differential expansion and large temperature excursions. These lead to fracturing and weld failure. Our innovation solves this problem. In Phase I, a prototype is built and tested. In Phase II, we optimize for specific ion engines.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For Mars and lunar missions and the upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter. Also, piloted interplanetary missions become feasible with sufficient cathode output and life. Reservoir cathodes are also needed in linear beam amplifiers (traveling wave tubes and klystrons, etc.) to increase output, life, bandwidth, and frequency. This would raise data rates of wireless space communications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Any current application requiring long life and high emission density would profit from this innovation. The biggest market now is the Department of Defense for radars and communications. Other commercial applications requiring high loading and life are new high-speed x-ray tomography systems, electron beam stimulated lasers, geosynchronous satellite downlinks.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Amplifiers/Repeaters/Translators
Ablative Propulsion
Maneuvering/Stationkeeping/Attitude Control Devices


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.01-8064
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Process Technologies for Life Support System Loop Closure
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Process Technologies for Disinfection of Potable Water

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
KWJ Engineering Incorporated
8440 Central Avenue Suite 2D
Newark, CA 94560-3453
(510) 405-5911

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jospeh Stetter
jrstetter@kwjengineering.com
8440 Central Avenue
Newark,  CA 94560-3453
(510) 405-5911

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
KWJ is proposing a microfabricated multichannel ozone source, and will evaluate several designs for efficiency of ozone production in Phase I. The voltage requirements to produce a sustainable plasma discharge in the microchannel depend on the field strength required to cause the electrical breakdown of gas, and can be minimized by reducing the electrode gap as well as by impedance matching to optimize the power transfer to the ozone generation reaction. The proposed innovation combines microplasma ozone generation with a microreactor platform to provide a low energy-cost, highly efficient and compact sterilization system using ambient air for ozone production. Our vision includes efficient, scalable micro-reactors that are safe, need no handling of chemicals, are low power and effective for direct use in NASA applications to disinfect potable water. The design incorporates closed-loop process flows with no chemical handling required by the crew. The technology will produce spin off products to clean air, water, and surfaces for NASA as well as commercial clients.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Applications: Purification of recovered water Purification of air Surface and utensil Disinfection

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improved energy efficiency will open a number of residential and commercial applications: Small-scale water disinfection systems RVs, homes Localized, on-site decontamination and disinfection recycled and waste water Public Pools and spas Residential Pools and spas

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Methods
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Food (Preservation, Packaging, Preparation)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.01-8146
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Process Technologies for Life Support System Loop Closure
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel, Regenerable Microlith Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Reduction via Bosch Process

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Precision Combustion, Inc.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473-3106
(203) 287-3700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Saurabh Vilekar
sVilekar@precision-combustion.com
410 Sackett Point Rd.
North Haven,  CT 06473-3106
(203) 287-3700

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop an extremely compact, lightweight and regenerable Microlith<SUP>REG</SUP> catalytic CO2 reduction reactor, capable of converting mixtures of CO2 and H2 to carbon and water vapor with high CO2 conversions at high throughputs and at low operating temperatures. This is based on a novel catalytic reactor approach with high heat and mass transfer, high conversion efficiency, narrow temperature distribution, and novel approaches to carbon removal. The utilization of carbon dioxide to produce life support consumables, such as O2 and H2O, via Bosch reaction offers a potential advance for NASA's cabin atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) concepts for long-term manned space missions. Current Bosch reactor designs suffer from a large recycle penalty due to slow reaction rates and the inherent limitation in approaching thermodynamic equilibrium, plus significant challenge in carbon removal. PCI's short contact time catalysts offer the potential for faster reaction rates, higher conversions and a reduced need for recycle. In addition, strategies will be explored for more effective mechanical and chemical approaches to carbon removal and catalyst regeneration. The approach offers a potential for an ultra-compact Bosch reactor with improved effectiveness and robustness, with lower pressure drop and power requirement.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Targeted NASA spin-off applications include future ISRU concepts for Mars missions. A Bosch reactor offers a potentially more efficient use for hydrogen in producing water and oxygen, but suffers from heretofore intractable limitations

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Targeted non-NASA applications for high quality carbon formation will be explored.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.01-8790
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Process Technologies for Life Support System Loop Closure
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Catalysts for Continuous Operation Bosch Reactor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
PH Matter, LLC
54 E. Como Avenue
Columbus, OH 43202-1232
(614) 657-4683

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Matter
phm@phmatter.com
54 E. Como Ave.
Columbus,  OH 43202-1232
(614) 657-4683

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has a need for process technologies that enable life support loop closure for manned exploration missions beyond earth's atmosphere. A critical component in life support loop closure is the removal of carbon dioxide (produced by the crew) from the cabin atmosphere. An attractive approach for removal of carbon dioxide is the Bosch reaction, where carbon dioxide is reacted with hydrogen (produced from water electrolysis) to produce solid elemental carbon and water. However, no technology currently exists for the continuous operation of a Bosch reactor. The process cannot be run in a continuous manner because of degradation of the catalysts, which are required to precipitate carbon at a reasonable rate. In this Phase I SBIR, PH Matter, LLC will develop a catalyst for the continuous formation of carbon in a system fed with carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Researchers will demonstrate continuous operation of the catalyst in Phase II. Based on the catalyst performance, a reactor will be designed to allow continuous carbon formation without the need for regular maintenance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main application for the technology being developed for NASA will be as a component in life support systems. As NASA plans longer manned missions beyond earth's atmosphere, the technology will enable continuous removal of carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere without the removal of oxygen as well. These systems will be used in spacecraft, space stations, and planetary bases to maintain habitable environments. On earth, this same technology can be used for submarines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications for the technology could include improved processes methods for the manufacturing of nano-structured carbon. The technology will enable scalable and continuous production of nano-materials. Such materials could have multiple uses, including polymer composites, coatings, electronics, catalysts, sorbents, sensors, and electrode materials.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.01-8989
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Process Technologies for Life Support System Loop Closure
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Variable-Output Bio-Electrochemical System for Wastewater Treatment and Increased Loop Closure in Exploration Life Support Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intact Labs
21 South Street
Somerville, MA 02143-4213
(617) 307-1755

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Silver
silver@intactlabs.com
21 South Street
Somerville,  MA 02143-4213
(617) 307-1755

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this project IntAct Labs proposes to develop a novel system to increase loop closure for water treatment in regenerative life support using bio-electrochemical processes (BEC processes). One of the limiting factors in space exploration, particularly outside of low earth orbit (LEO), involves the power draw and significant mass in oxygen, water and other supplies needed for life support. Bio-electrochemical systems (BECs) are a class of technologies capable of treating water while generating electricity or other value-added products such as methane and hydrogen. In this particular project IntAct Labs proposes a variable-output BEC cell that switch between cathode reactions, generating water, hydrogen, or CO2 reduction to water and methane, depending on the operation. A properly designed cell might thus switch between cathodic outputs based on day-to-day exploration needs, while continuously treating BOD at a bio-anode at ambient temperature and pressure. During Phase I IntAct Labs will construct a variable output BEC cell, demonstrate simultaneous BOD treatment and value-added product generation with ersatz exploration wastewater streams, and conduct preliminary systems analyses to determine the relative benefit in mass and power associated with operating the system with each output at two unique process points in the ISS Water Recovery System. Based on these experimental and simulation studies, Phase II R&D will focus on one, two, or all three operating modes. Through Phase II and Phase III R&D we hope to develop and test a system for potential utilization aboard the ISS or related crewed systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a mobile, variable output BEC system for wastewater treatment provides a range of potential commercialization options for IntAct Labs. First, successful Phase I and Phase II R&D could lead to a larger research program funding by NASA and/or other space agencies, constituting an important source of income for an R&D company like IntAct Labs. Second, the concept is being provisionally patented and the research will result in intellectual property and know-how which could be spun-off or acquired by larger firms seeking to develop the next generation life support systems for NASA such as Lockheed Martin or Hamilton Sundstrand.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system might also find use in other mobile water treatment applications. In particular the military may find the flexibility of the proposed system useful for treating water at mobile bases, such as forward operating bases. The system might prove useful for wastewater treatment for humanitarian applications such as disaster relief or developing world infrastructure. These and other options with be thoroughly investigated and pursued during Phase I and Phase II R&D.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.01-9280
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Process Technologies for Life Support System Loop Closure
PROPOSAL TITLE: Employing Ionomer Membrane Technology to Extract Water from Brine

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 East Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ 85714-2221
(520) 903-1000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Straus
jstraus@paragonsdc.com
3481 E Michigan Street
Tucson,  AZ 85714-2221
(520) 382-4809

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Paragon Space Development Corporation proposes the use of an microporous-ionomer membrane pair to improve the robustness and effectiveness of membrane-based water separation processes. Improved robustness and effectiveness will be evident through (1) reduced loading on the downstream post processor due to the ionomer's unique property of selective permeability, and (2) inclusion of a backup barrier between the rententate and permeate. The microporous membrane's function is to prevent liquid wastewater from direct contact with the ionomer, a condition that would reduce the effectiveness of the ionomer. The ionomer's unique characteristic of selective permeability suggests a possible role in water purification processes. This activity is accomplished by means of the sulfonic acid groups. It is this property that we wish to exploit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Contemplated long-duration missions to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, and Mars will be mass-constrained. The successful development and application of Nafion<SUP>REG</SUP> membrane technology to spacecraft water processing will lead to improvements in the efficiency, robustness, and reliability of these systems. These improvements will in turn translate directly into safety improvements and mass reductions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA applications are significant as fresh water demands are becoming a serious problem at many regions of the planet. The technology generated here may very well help improve the efficiency and/or portability of terrestrial-based water recovery systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.01-9475
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Process Technologies for Life Support System Loop Closure
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Cleaning Particulate Air Filter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 393-9308

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anjal Sharma
anjal.sharma@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station,  TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA requires an innovative solution to the serious issue of particulate fouling on air revitalization component surfaces in order to address the potential for catastrophic mission failure from severely compromised air revitalization performance. Additionally, this would not only limit the number of replacement components to be carried on a long term crewed mission, but would also lower launch weight and equivalent system mass. Lynntech proposes to provide proof-of-concept for innovative stimuli-responsive smart coating functionalized particulate air filter surfaces which respond to an applied stimulus by generating a pushing off force to trigger lifting off of adherent particles which are responsible for lowered air flux and reduced airborne contaminant removal efficiency. The aims of the effort involve the preparation and down-selection of suitable self-cleaning particulate air filter surfaces followed by a demonstration of the in-place regeneration of the modified high efficiency particulate air filter surfaces in a simulated flow through air filtration system using standard regolith simulants to mimic airborne dust. The maturation and eventual availability of this reagentless self-cleaning technology will allow NASA to more efficiently close the air revitalization loop and thereby sustain the vision for existing and future manned deep space missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include unique regenerable air revitalization components, to allow increased service life through periodic self-cleaning cycles, lower the number of replacement units and decrease the equivalent system mass. Cleaner air quality will eventually contribute greatly to NASA's goal of closing the breathing air recycling loop and sustain the vision for long term manned exploration missions of the future.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications include regenerable HEPA filter modules for consumer homes and commercial and government offices and facilities. Additionally, self-cleaning engine and cabin air filters for consumer vehicle usage and self-cleaning air filters for commercial airliners may also be potential uses of this technology in the future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.01-9527
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Process Technologies for Life Support System Loop Closure
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hydrogen Generator by Methane Pyrolysis with Carbon Capture

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeff Johnson
johnsonj@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53711-1961
(608) 229-2828

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC proposes to develop, fabricate, and test a system to provide 99.999% hydrogen by efficiently performing methane pyrolysis. The system has three unique features: (1) the methane pyrolysis reactor that does not rely on high single-pass efficiencies (which will make the system robust), (2) it incorporates batch processing modes, cleaning cycles, and a carbon capture device (which makes it reusable), and (3) it uses palladium membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the methane stream (which makes the H2 effluent very pure). ORBITEC proposes the Hydrogen Generator by Methane Pyrolysis with Carbon Capture, herein referred to as the H2Gen system. During Phase 1 of this effort, ORBITEC will test the four major components of the system: the methane pyrolysis reactor, the carbon removal mechanism, the carbon capture device, and the hydrogen remover. The performance and efficiency of each component will be tested and characterized. Phase 2 will expand upon these efforts and a full-scale brassboard prototype will be developed and built, maintaining the efficiencies of the system while optimizing overall mass and volume.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As the future of manned spaceflight will depend on creating and utilizing a water-based economy, this technology will ultimately benefit NASA human spaceflight as it will assist in closing the water resource loop by recovering additional water (when used with the Sabatier system) from waste resources for all long-duration manned missions. This technology will not only support future long-duration objectives such as lunar surface, Mars transit, and Mars surface missions, but with the extension of the ISS operation, the H2Gen system could be employed on the ISS and used with the existing Sabatier system. Additionally, if hydrogen is a desired propellant for a Mars mission, this technology could be used with a Sabatier to convert Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide into hydrogen fuel.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For commercial human spaceflight, application of this technology will be of great importance to commercial Low Earth Orbit destination provides such as Bigelow Aerospace. Again, creating and utilizing a water-based economy will be of great importance to keep launch costs and overall operational costs at a minimum. ORBITEC is the primary life support system provider for Bigelow Aerospace and envisions that the H2Gen system would be a great addition to their inflatable ECLSS. Terrestrially, the proposed technology has the ability to produce a fuel (hydrogen) from a fossil fuel (methane). Creating an economy based on hydrogen fuel has been a primary goal of society throughout the past decade. Primarily, this technology could be useful in the fledgling hydrogen fuel cell markets such as propulsion technologies, backup power units, and vehicular transport and auxiliary power units.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.01-9783
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Process Technologies for Life Support System Loop Closure
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regenerative Bosch Reactor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Akse, Ph.D.
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Oxygen (O2) contained within waste carbon dioxide (CO2) is a vital resource during long-duration, manned missions that must be reclaimed by Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware. Current CO2 reduction technology to recapture oxygen as water utilizes the Sabatier reaction, in which, two moles of water and one mole of methane are produced for each mole of CO2 reduced. Unfortunately, only half of the hydrogen consumed in the reaction can be recovered by water electrolysis. In contrast, the Bosch reaction produces water and elemental carbon, recovering all hydrogen consumed and closing the O2 - CO2 reduction loop. Previous experience has shown the primary problem with the Bosch reaction is carbon production, which deactivates the catalyst and eventually plugs the reactor. An innovative Regenerative Bosch Reactor (RBR) is proposed to overcome this problem, in which, a bed of small spherical ferromagnetic catalyst beads is periodically agitated using mechanical or magnetic forces to abrade carbon from the catalyst surface. Carbon is expelled from the RBR by the gas stream and collected downstream. The Phase I project will demonstrate catalyst regeneration. A prototype RBR will be designed, assembled, and thoroughly tested during the Phase II program providing NASA with a test bed for independent evaluation. The RBR will improve atmosphere loop closure and lower the ESM for CO2 reduction by recovering all of the hydrogen reductant.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application for this technology will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future, long duration exploration objectives beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) where efficient, reliable, low ESM atmospheric revitalization to reduce logistics burden for ECLSS hardware. The Regenerative Bosch Reactor (RBR) technology provides a simple, microgravity compatible method to continuously recover oxygen from carbon dioxide without the loss of the hydrogen reductant or degradation of process efficiency. The complete recovery of hydrogen will lower the ESM for this technology compared to Sabatier reaction based methods. Moreover, long-term Bosch reactor operation with the concomitant lowering of hydrogen resupply penalties will favor this approach in future atmospheric revitalization systems used aboard spacecraft and within extraterrestrial habitats.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are two major areas for commercial application of the RBR technology. The first area concerns the mitigation of carbon dioxide release into the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas. In this case, industrial processes can be retrofitted with a RBR system that converts carbon dioxide to a collectable solid, carbon, and a harmless gas, water vapor. The second commercialization area concerns reactor technology, and in particular, applications where catalyst fouling by reaction byproducts are a significant concern. As such, the RBR design can be modified to accommodate a variety of catalysts used in a variety of reactions and reactors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.01-9786
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Process Technologies for Life Support System Loop Closure
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Air Evaporation System with Reusable Wicks for Water Recovery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Akse, Ph.D.
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2653

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A microgravity-compatible Advanced Air Evaporation System (AAES) is proposed for recovering nearly 100% of water from highly contaminated wastewater without concern for precipitation of organic and inorganic solids. The AAES incorporates reusable wicks, and heat exchange and thermoelectric heat pump technologies which reduce Equivalent System Mass (ESM) by lowering consumable supplies and energy use when compared to previous air evaporation system designs. AAES will help meet the challenge of improving water loop closure in future water recycling systems as missions venture beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), where higher fractional recovery of water from wastewater resources is needed. Highly contaminated wastewater streams such as urine, hygiene water, and RO brines are major wastewater resource streams for the AAES. The Phase I project will focus on development and characterization of reusable wicks. The Phase II will incorporate heat exchange and thermoelectric heat pump technology into a working prototype whose performance will be thoroughly characterized and delivered to NASA for independent testing. These efforts will increase water recovery, reduce logistics, increase reliability, and lower ESM for water recycling during future space missions beyond LEO.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application for this technology will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future, long duration exploration objectives beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) where efficient, reliable, and low-maintenance water reclamation systems will play a critical role in reducing ECLSS logistics. The Advanced Air Evaporation System (AAES) technology provides a simple, microgravity compatible method to recover water from highly contaminated wastewater and brines without concern for organic and inorganic solids. The use of reusable wicks, heat exchangers, and an efficient thermoelectric heat pump will lower the ESM for this technology compared to previous air evaporation technologies. Such a water recovery system will be purchased as Flight Hardware by NASA, or by an aerospace contracting firm on behalf of NASA, resulting in enhanced capability in support of manned missions beyond LEO, where minimization of expendables, reliability, and simple operation are highly valued.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With respect to non-governmental commercial applications, this specialized, innovative technology cannot compete effectively against large-scale distillation or reverse osmosis based desalination processes. However, the AAES technology is ideal for smaller scale or specialty applications, due to its simplicity, small size, and ability to rapidly produce pure water and concentrate salts. These applications include routine or emergency water production and reduction of wastewater disposal volumes aboard ships, at industrial sites, or where nuclear wastes require concentration and confinement. Other potential commercial applications include the recovery of valuable salts from concentrated solutions where relatively low temperature recovery is required, or the de-watering of highly hazardous slurries prior to disposal, to minimize volume.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.01-9805
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Process Technologies for Life Support System Loop Closure
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Oxidation Technology for Potable Water Disinfection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 393-9308

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anuncia Gonzalez-Martin
anuncia.gonzalez-martin@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station,  TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The availability of high-quality potable water is essential in crewed space missions. Closed loop water recycling systems as well as potable water holding tanks and waterlines provide environments for biofilm formation that can facilitate the growth of human pathogens, as well as organisms that can cause deterioration of distribution lines. Prevention requires the maintenance of a chemically stable and biologically effective residual concentration of biocide in water and wetted surfaces of the system. Current disinfection technologies in potable water systems for space applications utilize either iodine or silver biocide. Limitations exist in terms of incompatibility with some disinfection chemistries and surfaces, long-term health risk, rapid biocide depletion, and need for consumable supply and waste disposal. Lynntech proposes to develop an advanced disinfection system for water disinfection and biofilm prevention based on an on-demand biocide generator which does not require consumable chemicals. Excess disinfectant is decomposed on-demand into water and oxygen, representing zero toxicity for crew consumption of potable water. During the Phase I project, the effectiveness of the proposed system for potable water production will be demonstrated. During the Phase II project, an automated system will be developed and delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The availability of high-quality potable water is essential in crewed space missions. The proposed system will provide an effective biocide for water disinfection and biofilm prevention in potable water systems for space applications. Other NASA applications of this system are in water treatment and reclamation, urine pretreatment, potable and technical water storage, supply of clean water for hydroponic crop systems, and disinfecting water for surfaces within spacecraft, space stations, and future planetary habitats.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include incorporation into water treatment and supply plants, portable field water treatment units for use during camping, hiking, fishing and outdoor activities and in-home water treatment units. The system also has applications for the production of pyrogen-free water (i.e., sterilized water), such as in the medical industry (e.g., hemodialysis units, irrigation of operating rooms), pharmaceutical industry (intravenous drug delivery) and hydroponics industry. On-demand, on-site generation of the biocide can be used for numerous commercial applications which presently transport hazardous solutions and dilute the disinfectant at the point of use. Other commercial applications include environmental remediation of ground water and soil, production of high quality potable water, and food and surface sanitation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Remediation/Purification
Waste Storage/Treatment


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.02-9925
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Accommodations and Interfaces with Spacecraft Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Quiet, High-Efficiency Vaneaxial Fans

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Hemmelgarn
hemmelgarncd@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During this Phase I effort, CRG proposes to demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce the acoustic signature of vaneaxial fans by establishing quiet aerodynamic, mechanical, and electronic design features. CRG will focus primarily on reducing tonal and broadband aerodynamic noise, using a combination of theory and experimentation to investigate the acoustic benefits of i) asymmetric blade spacing, ii) serrated trailing edge features, and iii) wearable blade tip liners on a scale representative of the NASA applications. In addition, CRG will leverage its experience in high-efficiency vaneaxial fan design, which includes the development of state-of-the-art motor and controller technology, to identify the potential noise reductions in the drive system. The Phase I results will provide a baseline for Phase II acoustic modeling, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, drive system development, and vaneaxial fan system demonstration. Finally, the transition of next generation quiet, high-efficiency vaneaxial fans into future NASA human exploration systems to increase occupant comfort, such as the predecessor to the space shuttle, commercial crew and cargo systems, lunar exploration systems, and even Mars exploration systems, defines the overall goal of the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, this project's technologies directly address requirements for low noise ventilation fans for application in human exploration systems. These systems include next generation crew launch systems, lunar exploration systems, Mars exploration systems, and even private sector space exploration, such as projects supported by NASA's Commercial Crew and Cargo Program. This project's technologies offer significantly reduced acoustic signature, coupled with high fan efficiency, to increase occupant comfort and reduce power demand. Human comfort and energy conservation are both critical for long endurance space missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Government systems that would derive the benefits due to quiet vaneaxial fans would include but not be limited to thermal management systems for land, air, space and sea vehicles, and building and deployable habitat HVAC operated by the Department of Defense. This technology's attributes for high-efficiency, low-noise vaneaxial fans should yield a high potential for integration into private sector space systems, such as those supported by NASA's Commercial Crew and Cargo Program. In addition, the fans are also ideal candidates for commercialization into building HVAC systems by a variety of building engineering firms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.03-7997
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Monitoring and Control for Spacecraft Environmental Quality and Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Plasma Induced Micro Flame Ionization Detector for Environmental Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ElectroDynamic Applications, Inc.
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor, MI 48113-1460
(734) 786-1434

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Liu
liu@edapplications.com
3600 Green Court, Suite 300
Ann Arbor,  MI 48105-1570
(734) 786-1434

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Abstract

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
EDA has experience transferring technology from the University of Michigan through its technology transfer office. We currently have a license agreement in place for the NanoFET technology, a thruster design with applications for terrestrial materials processing, and are working on others. In addition to providing agreements for use of co-generated IP, the UM's tech transfer office provides assistance in bringing these technologies to market, as the resulting royalty stream benefits the university as well. The Silane program is also working towards market realization via investments and business agreements from potential customers Thus, as the PIMFID sensor comes to maturity, we will have assistance in marketing, sales, and other areas to help us expand to match the needs required for a full production program. EDA's business model is to remain a technology incubator while technologies such as this are spun off to associated corporations to focus on production. In the long run EDA will step back to providing research and design assistance, as the spin-off company focuses on production, marketing, sales, etc., thus optimizing commercialization efficiency for each product while retaining the core research and development capability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a very compact, portable, low cost, and accurate chemical analysis device has many benefits outside of spacecraft and spacesuit life support systems. A realized PIMFID can be used for general environmental monitoring (i.e., early warning system for chemical leaks) and sensors for controlling industrial chemical processes. Since the PIMFID concept lends itself to a portable system, it can serve as an accurate, point-of-use chemical analysis device to aid emergency first responders and environmental agencies that are tasked to deal with local environmental pollution and potential terrorist acts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Space Transportation & Safety
Tools/EVA Tools
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Biological (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.03-8236
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Monitoring and Control for Spacecraft Environmental Quality and Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanostructured Humidity Sensor for Spacecraft Life Support Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Synkera Technologies, Inc.
2605 Trade Centre Ave, Suite C
Longmont, CO 80503-4605
(720) 494-8401

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Smith
jsmith@synkera.com
2605 Trade Centre Ave, Suite C
Longmont,  CO 80503-4605
(720) 494-8401

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Humidity is a critical variable for monitoring and control on extended duration missions because it can affect the operation and efficiency of closed loop life support systems. Humidity sensors are needed for real-time process control over the critical O2, H2, and CO2 gas streams in the system. Sensors with the right combination of performance, size, low power consumption, and durability for this application are not available. Synkera proposes to develop an advanced microsensor for humidity, which takes advantage of an innovative combination of nanomaterials and ceramic MEMS technology to meet the need for reliable and accurate humidity process control sensors for spacecraft. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of integrating the elements described above to prepare a stable and accurate sensor, which will advance the technology from TRL 3 to 4. Then, in Phase II and beyond, we will work with an ECLSS prime contractor to develop space-qualified prototypes that are commercially viable for NASA and third-party applications and to integrate these sensors within NASA's closed loop life support systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Significant advancements have been made in technology to implement Significant advancements have been made in technology to implement regenerative, closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS). Humidity is a critical variable for monitoring and control in ECLSS because it can affect the operation and efficiency of a number of key subsystems. Currently, humidity is monitored on the International Space Station primarily in the crew cabin using a mass spectrometer, which is complex, costly, and not amenable to in-situ process control. However, a network of reliable and ultra-compact humidity microsensors, developed in this program and distributed at specific locations within the ECLSS, would allow for real-time process control over the critical O2, H2, and CO2 gas streams used in ECLSS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond the NASA application, there are significant opportunities for an innovative humidity sensor in the commercial sector including: food processing, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries, indoor air quality control, heating/air conditioning systems, and industrial process control. Humidity and temperature transmitters are being introduced for climate control in luxury cars. Moisture control during construction plays a key role in preventing microbe growth and monitoring concrete drying. Moisture sensors are also used for control of the basement and crawl space ventilation in residential buildings, especially in areas prone to flooding and with soil expansion problems. Many high temperature baking and drying processes require water vapor control. All of these applications share a common problem, the need for reliable and robust humidity sensors, which can resist environmental contamination and wetting.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Circuits (including ICs; for specific applications, see e.g., Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Control & Monitoring, Sensors)
Manufacturing Methods
Prototyping
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Nanomaterials
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and smaller
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.03-9691
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Monitoring and Control for Spacecraft Environmental Quality and Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Sensors for Hydrogen and Oxygen for Unambiguous Detection in Their Mutual Presence

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense, LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Uma Sampathkumaran
uma.sampathkumaran-1@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the Phase I SBIR project is to develop sensors that can discriminate the presence of combustible gases like oxygen (O2) in hydrogen (H2) or H2 in O2 backgrounds. These sensors will meet NASA applications for on-orbit crew and mission safety. Currently, H2 and O2 are produced by electrolysis of water. The O2 is used in the environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) of spacecraft while the hydrogen is vented. H2 is a flammable gas while oxygen aids in combustion. InnoSense LLC (ISL) will utilize its Chemical Fingerprint (TM) sensor array fabrication technology in Phase I to engineer a miniature device with multi-analyte detection capability. The Phase I working model would be evaluated to demonstrate NASA use potential. Upon fine-tuning various parameters in Phase II, the system performance will be tested with a prototype hardware. ISL has received technology endorsement letter from a prime contractor in the NASA application area. For assuring success of this project, ISL has assembled a technical team with a cumulative 60 person-years of experience in developing commercially viable sensor systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA vision calls for safe, affordable human missions beyond Earth orbit to Mars, and through the Solar System. To support the transport of small crewed missions with capabilities to extend this to outer space, monitoring and controlling of the life-support process needs to be performed by devices having attributes such as: (a) high accuracy and precision, (b) reduced size and weight, (c) long operational life, (d) reliable performance, (e) minimal maintenance requirement, and (f) in-line operational ability. Hazardous trace gases within the space-craft crew habitat pose risks to human health during long duration missions. Therefore, the proposed sensor technology provides NASA with a low-cost, robust, real-time monitoring format for protecting both the crew and spacecraft at least for 3 years.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The multi-analyte capabilities of the device make it very attractive for applications ranging from environmental monitoring to process control. The study by Frost & Sullivan on World Gas Sensors, Detectors and Analyzers Market reveals that these markets earned revenues of over $1 billion in 2005 and estimates this to exceed $1.4 billion in 2012 (Source: Frost and Sullivan Report MC1377591, August 31, 2006). Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, fermentation monitoring, cell culturing, and tissue culturing represent some important applications. Upon repackaging, the device will have applications in a variety of civilian emergency response and occupational environment monitoring or related research facilities. Examples include: firefighting, hazardous material response, hazardous material workers, industrial safety workers (e.g., coal miners, steel workers, etc.), and industrial confined space monitoring associated with many occupations (e.g., industrial chemical manufacturing).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Transportation & Safety
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)
Space Transportation & Safety
Tools/EVA Tools
Autonomous Control (see also Control & Monitoring)
Biomass Growth
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)
Medical
Remediation/Purification
Algorithms/Control Software & Systems (see also Autonomous Systems)
Condition Monitoring (see also Sensors)
Process Monitoring & Control
Characterization
Microfabrication (and smaller; see also Electronics; Mechanical Systems; Photonics)
Processing Methods
Aerogels
Coatings/Surface Treatments
Nanomaterials
Organics/Biomaterials/Hybrids
Polymers
Smart/Multifunctional Materials
Detectors (see also Sensors)
Materials & Structures (including Optoelectronics)
Chemical/Environmental (see also Biological Health/Life Support)
Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
Verification/Validation Tools
Visible
Diagnostics/Prognostics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.03-9702
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Monitoring and Control for Spacecraft Environmental Quality and Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Portable Sensor for Rapid In Situ Measurement of Trace Toxic Metals in Water

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner, Inc.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Badawi Dweik
bdweik@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0520

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Water is one of the most crucial provisions that astronauts need to live and work in space, whether orbiting Earth, working at a lunar base or traveling to Mars. For long-duration human missions, drinking water can come from a variety of sources including treated humidity condensate, urine, hygiene water or makeup sources (e.g., water brought up from the ground or obtained through fuel cells). There are concerns that reclaimed water may contain trace toxic metals and/or the recovery and treatment processes may result in corrosion and leaching of metals during storage (methods for spacecraft guidelines). As a result, these systems must be continually monitored to ensure the health of the crew. The overall objective of the proposed program is to develop a field compatible electrochemical sensor for the identification and measurement of trace heavy metals in the water. Phase I will investigate the optimal design configuration, electrode configuration, and operating conditions, which will enhance sensitivity and enable reproducible detection of the dissolved compounds such as cadmium, nickel, silver and zinc in water. The proposed process can be carried out rapidly without the use of dangerous chemicals and will fulfill NASA's need.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications include a compact electrochemical monitor, which can be integrated into the water recovery system to identify and measure a list of trace heavy metals in the water.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is also growing demand for field-deployable monitoring systems which would provide reliable on-site monitoring for wastewater quality assessment (pre- and post-treatment) by waste treatment facilities (private and municipal) and government regulatory/enforcement bodies (e.g., U.S. EPA).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Analytical Instruments (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Energy; see also Sensors)
Analytical Methods
Space Transportation & Safety
Essential Life Resources (Oxygen, Water, Nutrients)
Health Monitoring & Sensing (see also Sensors)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:10-1 X3.03-9825
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Monitoring and Control for Spacecraft Environmental Quality and Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Intelligent Wireless Fire Detector System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Integrated Micro Sensors, Inc.
10814 Atwell Drive
Houston, TX 77096-4934
(713) 748-7926

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Starikov
dstarikov@imsensors.com
10814 Atwell Drive
Houston,  TX 77096-4934