STTR Phase 1 Solicitation    Abstract Archives

NASA 2009 SBIR Phase 1 Solicitation



PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.02-8576
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Diagnostic Capability for Aircraft Aging and Damage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated NDE Flaw Mapping System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cybernet Systems Corporation
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ryan O'Grady
proposals@cybernet.com
727 Airport Blvd
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2537

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The prevailing approach to non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of aircraft components is to set an inspection schedule based on what is generally known about the component in question. Engineers perform tests on samples, get field reports, and include a safety factor based on criticality. Then, when the schedule dictates, the component is inspected and a binary decision is made: Back in service? Or retooled/scrapped? Unfortunately, this approach throws away much of the useful information that can be gathered from non-destructive evaluation. When a component is inspected, a detailed picture of the current health of the component is generated. However, the engineer would have to characterize and integrate the flaw data into the CAD model of the component for this information to be useful for predictive modeling. This is a time-consuming process, especially considering the sheer number of aircraft components inspected each year. Cybernet Systems is uniquely positioned to solve this problem, possessing the multi-disciplinary experience necessary to do so. We propose to leverage our experience with Sikorsky's inspection process, as well as our work in the fields of motion tracking and position/orientation determination for augmented reality, to design and build a system that is able to determine component orientation, track sensor head position/orientation, quantify sensor data, and update the component CAD model to represent the results of the non-destructive evaluation

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system would be directly applicable to current NASA efforts to predict the remaining life of aircraft components and analyze age-related damage. The system is also useful for analysis of non-aircraft components. Examples include evaluation of the shuttle access tower systems and transport vehicles such as the Crawler-Transporter. The system could also be modified for use in characterization and tracking of flaws in non-composite components (metals, ceramics, and rubbers for example). For example, magnetic particle inspection is a common inspection for ferrous metal components. The proposed system could be combined with a camera "sensor" to record and characterize the flaws present on components inspected using magnetic particle. Future work could also supplement the system to perform long-term analysis of trends in flaw data.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military Uses The U.S. Navy and Air Force have a combined air fleet of nearly 10,000 aircraft. Much like NASA, the Navy and Air Force would benefit greatly from the ability to characterize, represent, and track flaw data in aircraft components. Modifying the system and providing units enough to service all of those aircraft will see us well through a Phase III. In addition, the military is involved with areas to which the system could be modified for use. Examples include ship component inspection as well as any other area in which NDE is used. Commercial Uses In the commercial sector, the initial commercialization plan is simply to sell aerospace companies and airlines on the system. The concept will have been shown to work for NASA and military fleets, and the same system could benefit any other company which routinely performs inspection and service on field components. In addition, it would see use in quality assurance for new components. In particular, companies such as Sikorsky have expressed a need for a system which enables them to track manufacturing flaws over time. This would then enable them to pinpoint and correct problems in their manufacturing processes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Structural Modeling and Tools
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.03-8806
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Prediction of Aging Effects
PROPOSAL TITLE: DARWIN-HC:¿ A Tool to Predict Hot Corrosion of Nickel-Based Turbine Disks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2559
(434) 973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Burkholder
burkholder@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Ste 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2559
(434) 973-1215

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hot Corrosion of turbine engine components has been studied for many years. The underlying mechan-isms of Type I Hot Corrosion and Type II Hot Corrosion are increasingly well-understood. Nickel-based superalloys have shown strong resistance to high temperature oxidation attack and, of course, excellent high temperature strength. Modern turbine engine designs that seek to achieve better fuel efficiency in part by increasing turbine inlet temperatures are strong candidates for nickel-based superalloy turbine disk materials. As disk temperatures approach 700C, designers must consider the likelihood and effects of Type II corrosion. Type II corrosion is typically characterized by localized corrosion pitting caused by melting of sulfur-containing salts. Type II hot corrosion pits have been shown to decrease the fatigue resistance of superalloys due to initiation of fatigue cracks at hot corrosion pits. However, the rigorous analytical models and tools needed by turbine engine designers to predict Type II corrosion pit formation and fatigue life degradation due to corrosion pits are not currently available. Barron Associates, Inc. and its research partners propose to develop corrosion pitting and fatigue life models for nickel-based superalloys subjected to Type II hot corrosion. The models will be commercia-lized and made available to the research and development community.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA aeronautics defined eight challenge problems for which the Aircraft Aging and Durability (AAD) Project can deliver specific research products to address aeronautics community needs. While the re-search challenges address different aircraft components and specific aging-related issues, the research results will improve the ability to detect, predict, and manage aging hazards. One of these eight chal-lenge problems is "Durability of Engine Superalloy Disks". The research focus is the durability of new disk alloys at higher operating temperatures to enable improved engine efficiency. To improve durability of these new superalloy disks, the issues of microstructural instability, hot corrosion, and fatigue durability must be addressed. Goals include establishment of a long-term database and derivation of analytic models to predict the degradation of new alloys due to microstructural instability and corrosion. The proposed research effort directly addresses these important challenges.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial Non-NASA commercialization strategy is straightforward and significantly bolstered by the inclusion of Southwest Research Institute on the team from the outset of the research. The commercial product output of the proposed SBIR effort will be DARWIN-HC --- an extension of SwRI's existing FAA-sponsored software tool that predicts the probability of fracture of titanium aircraft turbine rotor disks to model and predict the effects of Type II hot corrosion. DARWIN is rapidly gaining acceptance in the aerospace community and DARWIN-HC will further expand the applicability and reach of the DARWIN product line.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Metallics
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.04-8979
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microwave Radiometer for Aviation Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boulder Environmental Sciences and Technology
4425 Hastings Drive
Boulder, CO 80305-6614
(303) 827-6420

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marian Klein
marian.klein@boulderest.com
4425 Hastings Drive
Boulder,  CO 80305-6614
(303) 827-6420

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SBIR Phase I Project proposes a new passive microwave airborne sensor for in flight icing hazard detection, Microwave Radiometer for Aviation Safety. A feasibility study of a relatively inexpensive, small in size, robust, energy efficient instrument with reliable calibration, easy to use, and with minimal maintenance requirement is proposed. Extensive radiative transfer modeling will be carried out. The results of modeling will be used to optimize instrument design, parameters such as frequency of operation, individual channels polarizations, scene sampling strategy (scanning mode), antennae beamwidths, and potential use of auxiliary data will be evaluated. Phase I objective is a preliminary three dimensional model of the instrument.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA aircrafts, especially turboprops and helicopters can use the proposed sensor in everyday operations. NASA research aircrafts could potentially use the instrument for in-flight icing research or for general applications where flights in or close to icing zones are required. The technology proposed here will improve aerospace system safety, efficiency, an could lead to more effective use of national airspace.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When available on market and deployed in regular operation, an instrument of the MRAS class will have applications in general aviation, military operation, search and rescue operations. It could become a part of such weather reporting systems such as ACARS (Aircraft Communication and Report System), or private TAMDAR (Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting). It is conceivable that the private weather data provider, such as WxWorkx (www.wxworx.com) currently providing mobile data service to public through the XM radio channel will be interested to include the local, more detailed information about icing condition into their data service. Corporate aircrafts and individually owned small engine aircrafts, helicopters operating for oil rigs, military and Coast Guard helicopters are potential customers for such devices too. UAV platforms might also be interested in technology that will allow them to seek routes through icing conditions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.04-9447
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation External Hazard Sensor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Dominique Fourguette
dfourguette@michaero.com
1777 Highland Drive, Suite B
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2285
(734) 975-8777

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the absence of any visual cues such as clouds, making it difficult to avoid. The vortices produced when atmospheric waves "break" can have diameters of 900-1200ft and tangential velocities of 70-85 ft/sec. CAT is dangerous for commercial and military aviation, most recently demonstrated by Continental flight 128 from Rio de Janeiro to Houston on August 3, 2009, which encountered severe turbulence and made an emergency landing with 37 injured passengers, nine hospitalized. Many other incidents attributed to turbulence have caused injuries or deaths to passengers and crew. Another recently-highlighted hazard is the inadequacy of current airspeed sensors on commercial aircraft. Federal investigators have reported that on at least a dozen recent flights by U.S. jetliners, malfunctioning equipment made it impossible for pilots to know how fast they were flying. Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) proposes the Molecular Air Data and Clear Air Turbulence (MADCAT) system which will be capable of providing not only a look-ahead capability to predict clear air turbulence but also a full air data solution (airspeed, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, pressure and temperature). The technology has already demonstrated, in-flight, the ability to measure airspeed, angle of attack and angle of sideslip. In addition, ground units based upon the same core technology have demonstrated range-resolved wind, temperature and density measurements from the ground to altitudes of 18km. This proposal will focus on combining the two capabilities into a practical solution. MAC's direct-detection UV LIDAR technology uses molecular backscatter and so does not require aerosols, as required by many competing approaches.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MADCAT will allow NASA aircraft the benefit of having a clear-air turbulence warning system and an optical air data system in one package, suitable for general use by NASA aircraft as well as for flight research concerning clear-air turbulence and scientific studies of atmospheric processes. Ground-based uses include measuring wind speed and direction simultaneously with air temperature and density while also detecting and characterizing shear and turbulence. Potential uses include wind shear detection for space launches, wake vortices detection and characterization for airports, and climate change studies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Clear-air turbulence represents a significant safety hazard as well as passenger-comfort issue for the commercial airline industry. The proposed MADCAT system has application not only for turbulence-warning and gust alleviation, but also as an air data solution that eliminates many problems with current pitot air data and other speed-sensing technologies. This capability also makes MADCAT extremely attractive for military aircraft, including fixed and rotary wing, high altitude and high dynamic, manned and unmanned, and even high-altitude airships. Information on winds near aircraft, if downlinked and compiled, will also be of significant value to forecasters, especially from aircraft flying over areas (oceans, etc.) where balloon radiosonde releases and other wind measurements are sparse or non-existent. NOAA and NASA identify the lack of more comprehensive wind-profile data as a major unmet data need for improving the accuracy of weather forecasts. Inadequate atmospheric data (wind speed, direction, temperature and density) also has a significant negative impact along the entire wind energy value chain, including site assessment, operational farms, turbine control, and grid integration. Turbulence and shear are primary contributing factors to higher than expected turbine maintenance and repair costs. Finally, military applications for artillery and munitions delivery, precision airdrop, and aircraft take-off/landing on ships can benefit from MADCAT technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.05-8718
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hardware Demonstration of a Joint Human/Automated Upset Recovery System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2559
(434) 973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neha Gandhi
barron@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Ste 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2559
(434) 973-1215

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For manned aircraft, loss of control in flight and controlled flight into terrain are two main causes for aviation accidents. Recently, the authors have developed systems that autonomously execute recovery strategies to rapidly restore nominal flight without overcommanding the aircraft, exacerbating the upset condition, or endangering nearby structures and vehicles. The opportunity exists to extend the automated recovery system (ARS) by incorporating it in manned aircraft in a way that collaborates with the crew about corrective actions and utilizes crew expertise in real-time to provide the most effective recovery. The proposed research will develop and demonstrate such crew-specific extensions to show the benefits of a collaborative human/automated (H/A) upset recovery system. Metrics will be defined to evaluate mixed H/A team performance both in terms of performance and crew experience, and a variety of levels of autonomy will be implemented including manned recovery, ARS advisory mode, human oversight of ARS autonomy, and fully autonomous mode. A key goal is to demonstrate that a mixed H/A mode will provide significant advantages over what can be achieved by either the pilot or the fully autonomous system alone. Toward this end, human-in-the-loop hardware demonstrations will be used to demonstrate the benefits of joint H/A approaches and to set the stage for Phase II flight demonstrations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the high-level goals of the Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to improve aircraft safety for current and future aircraft. The technology directly addresses this first goal. Joint H/A upset recovery research sits as the junction of two integral components of the AvSP: Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control research and Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck research. The former seeks to "arrive at a set of validated multidisciplinary integrated aircraft control design tools and techniques for enabling safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions (e.g. faults, damage and/or upsets)." The latter seeks to "establishes transformative integrated display concepts, decision support functions, on-board/off-board information management, high-integrity external hazard detection, and effective mechanisms for human-automation interaction that enable safer flight deck systems for NextGen." The current research seeks to not only transform state-of-the-art automated methods for upset recovery into a powerful decision aid system but to extend human-automation interaction to create a system capable of exploiting H/A collaboration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate non-NASA application is algorithms, software, and tools that enable the use of joint H/A upset recovery systems, as well as generic joint cognitive systems, in the civil aviation industry. The technology is easily extensible to military applications, including remotely piloted systems. The proposer has an excellent track record transitioning algorithms for use in commercial and defense-related applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.06-8711
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Improved Design and Analysis of Flight Deck Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Design and Analysis Environment for Safety Critical Human-Automation Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2559
(434) 973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael DeVore
barron@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Ste 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2559
(434) 973-1215

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Flight deck systems, like many safety critical systems, often involve complex interactions between multiple human operators, automated subsystems, and physical structures. Individual components are extensively evaluated and are often redundantly deployed, so catastrophic failures predominately arise not through component failure but as the result of a sequence of failures that cascade because of some unforeseen combination of off-nominal conditions. Such sequences may involve human operators, control algorithms, software implementations, physical structures, and other components of the system. Analyzing the potential for these failure scenarios is extremely difficult, not only because of the inherent complexity of such systems but also because of the multidisciplinary nature of the system itself. While many development tools exist to conduct deep analyses within individual disciplines, there is a lack of tools available for deep analysis of complex multidisciplinary designs. The goal of this proposed research project is thus to create a new class of development tool that allows designers to specify, design, integrate, and conduct analyses of complex systems across disciplinary boundaries. Through this new tool, the dynamic interactions between system components in the presence of off-nominal conditions can be explored to uncover systemic vulnerabilities, precursory conditions, and likely outcomes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are multiple potential commercial NASA applications that can stem from the proposed research and development effort. The proposed Integrated Design and Analysis Environment has direct application in the design and analysis of flight deck systems and of distributed systems that intersect with flight deck operations. Though the tool is motivated by the particular combination of challenges encountered in flight deck design (complex, safety critical, multidisciplinary, mixed human and automation systems, etc.), this same combination arises in many other contexts related to aircraft and spacecraft operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are multiple potential non-NASA commercial applications of the proposed design and analysis tool. As the tool is intended to support design of commercial flight deck systems, the closest non-NASA commercial application will be in the design of military flight deck systems and related components. Other military applications include UAV, UGV, and UUV operator interfaces. Outside of military applications, Barron Associates can potentially position the tool as a design and analysis capability for the medical device industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.07-9237
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Adaptive Aeroservoelastic Suppression
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-Time Methods for Adaptive Suppression of Adverse Aeroservoelastic Dynamics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Danowsky
bdanowsky@systemstech.com
13766 Hawthorne Boulevard
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 0 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Adverse aeroservoelastic (ASE) interaction is a problem on new and existing aircraft of all types causing repeated loading, enhanced fatigue and undesirable oscillations for pilots. Traditionally, to suppress adverse ASE interaction, notch and/or roll off filters have been utilized in the flight control system architecture to effectively "cancel out" problematic frequencies that will potentially excite the ASE dynamics. This solution has pitfalls; rigid body performance is degraded due to the resulting phase penalty and the filter is not robust to unexpected or un-modeled off nominal behavior. STI proposes an adaptive approach, which is leveraged by the adaptive Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) algorithm for high frequency disturbance rejection. This adaptive approach is robust to system variations, minimizes lower frequency phase penalty, and has been utilized for similar dynamic systems with supporting experimental validation. Development of the adaptive HHC algorithm for ASE suppression will be accomplished utilizing a high fidelity model of a representative high-speed fighter aircraft that is capable of parameter variation consisting of flight condition changes, configuration changes (stores configurations) as well as damage and failures. Validation of the proposed approach will be accomplished via simulation with representative parameter variations. Validation via real-time piloted simulations is proposed for future studies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed adaptive ASE suppression algorithms and subsequent real-time piloted validation simulation toolset will greatly benefit NASA flight test programs by providing a solution to reject adverse ASE dynamics that is 1) robust to off nominal system variations including flight condition changes, configuration changes as well as damage and failure scenarios and 2) minimizes the adverse impact on rigid body performance (i.e., flying qualities, handling qualities and ride quality). Potential NASA benefits other than aeronautics programs include adverse dynamic suppression in both manned and unmanned rocket booster and spacecraft systems. Safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions is further ensured by the comprehensive validation approach that includes real-time piloted simulations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other government flight test centers and commercial aircraft manufacturers, both manned and unmanned, will benefit from the adaptive ASE algorithms and subsequent real-time simulated flight test verification by providing a validated solution that is robust to off-nominal system variation and minimizes adverse impact on rigid body performance. Other aerospace applications include rotorcraft systems, rocket booster and spacecraft structural mode detection and control. Outside of aerospace, other areas of application include automotive (for engine and vehicle dynamic monitoring and control), industrial manufacturing (for rejection of machine noise and structural vibrations), infrastructure (for monitoring buildings, bridges, etc., for changes in stiffness and damping and subsequent active suppression of adverse dynamics), and alternative energy (aeroservoelastic suppression for wind turbine technology).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.08-9406
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Engine Lifing and Prognosis for In-Flight Emergencies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aircraft Engine Life-Consumption Monitoring for Real-Time Reliability Determination

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nastec, Inc.
5310 West 161 Street, Suite G
Brook Park, OH 44142-1601
(216) 464-8388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Klein
dickc123@earthlink.net
5310 West 161Street , Suite G
Brook Park,  OH 44142-1601
(216) 464-8388

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A real-time life-use consumption monitor is proposed for aircraft engine systems. The life monitor will process power data available on the aircraft to calculate the accumulating in-flight power loading which the engine experiences. This power loading reduces the available life of the engine. Under emergency in-flight conditions and/or foreign object damage, engine loads and temperatures can increase rapidly as a sign of decreased remaining engine life and reliability. The life monitor will calculate and display in the aircraft the remaining time for safe operation under these conditions. At present, fatigue life analysis techniques are primarily used as design-analysis tools These techniques have not been adapted for in-service use with an aircraft to date. The reliable use of aircraft engines can be extended with more accurate knowledge of their remaining component and system fatigue lives. Early identification of engines in need of repair due to heavy use will improve their in-service safety. By developing a life monitoring system which can be associated with a specific engine system and have as input the loads and load durations of that system, the reliability and safety of that system can be improved.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA GRC is currently pursuing an overall agency-wide goal to increase flight safety of commercial aircraft as part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. This Program intends to conduct research to improve the intrinsic safety attributes of future aircraft using new and innovative airborne detection methods. In pursuit of this goal, this proposal applies analytical life prediction codes currently used to predict the service life of aircraft engines in the design stage to in-flight on-board monitoring systems that can track the fatigue life usage of specific aircraft. This fatigue-life use knowledge will help to eliminate a safety-related technology void in the maintenance needs of specific aircraft engine systems. By adding airborne detection and monitoring of in-flight fatigue use, NASA and industry can cooperatively achieve increased flight safety goals through a better understanding of the service life of aircraft engines. This effort will provide industry a mechanism to improve the safety, reliability and maintainability of commercial aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Vigilance for safety must continue in order to meet the projected increases in air traffic capacity and realize the new capabilities envisioned for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Present engine monitoring systems consist of vibration sensors that measure damage to the engine after it has occurred. This monitoring system measures a significant cause of this damage as it progresses to provide an early warning of impending damage. The unsafe operation and high costs associated with surprise failures and unscheduled emergency maintenance procedures can be reduced substantially with the use of an in-service life monitor. The accurate prediction of remaining service life will diminish the need for unscheduled maintenance procedures for aircraft with heavy service loads by calling for more frequent servicing of these engine systems. One potential application for this technology is in the U. S. Army Vehicle Technology Directorate for a fleet of helicopters. The U. S. Air Force is another potential end user. We have received assistance from Rolls-Royce and have entered discussions with Honeywell Aerospace for possible applications on their engine systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.09-9235
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Pilot Interactions with Adaptive Control Systems under Off-Nominal Conditions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Smart Adaptive Flight Effective Cue (SAFE-Cue)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 South Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Klyde
dklyde@systemstech.com
13766 Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As a means to enhance aviation safety, numerous adaptive control techniques have been developed to maintain aircraft stability and safety of flight in the presence of failures or damage. The techniques apply a wide array of adaptations from simple gain scheduling to on-line learning algorithms. While the ready availability of low cost, reduced scale UAV systems have allowed for many successful flight test demonstrations, applications to piloted aircraft have been more limited. Flight evaluations of various adaptive control applications conducted by NASA and others have shown great promise. In some cases; however, unfavorable pilot-vehicle interactions including pilot-induced oscillations have occurred. Susceptibility to such interactions is more likely when the pilot interacts with a highly nonlinear vehicle that may no longer have predictable response characteristics. To alleviate these unfavorable interactions, Systems Technology, Inc. (STI) proposes the Smart Adaptive Flight Effective Cue or SAFE-Cue that will provide cues to the pilot via an active control inceptor with corresponding command path gain adjustments. The SAFE-Cue will alert the pilot that the adaptive control system is active and provide guidance through a force feedback cue and command attenuation via a command path gain adjustment as a means to retain pilot-vehicle system stability and performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SAFE-Cue approach directly addresses a concern of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control topic under NASA's Aviation Safety Program to provide a means to prevent pilot-vehicle system loss of control in the presence of an active adaptive control system. A successful Phase 2 program will produce a prototype SAFE-Cue system that will alert the pilot regarding flight control system adaptations due to failures and/or damage and constrain the pilot via active inceptor force feedback and command path gain attenuation as a means to mitigate loss-of-control scenarios. SAFE-Cue will detect deviations in the adaptive aircraft when compared to the nominal aircraft, and when these deviations become too large, the active cueing via control inceptor force feedback and the active command path gain attenuation will be engaged. The interest in preventing loss-of-control is based on a very real problem that has caused loss of life and property throughout the history of flight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SAFE-Cue will be targeted for use in modern commercial transports where it can add a significantly increased level of safety at a reasonable incremental cost. Recent FAA forecasts for the year 2011 indicate that the US commercial and regional airliner fleet will be more than 11,000 aircraft. A small market penetration of the US market alone would be enough to recover development and marketing costs. STI will leverage the ongoing interest of several airframe manufacturers in its Smart-Cue and Smart-Gain concepts as a means to introduce this new, more widely focused approach to preventing loss of control. The worldwide commercial airliner market will provide a significant follow on market. Target military programs where SAFE-Cue would have the potential to reduce accidents in the more extreme military operational environment include the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter and CH-53K heavy lift cargo helicopter, both of which feature active pilot control inceptors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.10-8501
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detection of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surface-borne Time-Of-Reception Measurements (STORM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Invocon, Inc.
19221 IH 45 South, Suite 530
Conroe, TX 77385 - 8746
(281) 292-9903

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Doug Heermann
heermann@invocon.com
19221 IH-45S, Ste 530
Conroe, TX 77385 - 8746
(281) 292-9903 Extension :128

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Invocon proposes the Surface-borne Time-Of-Reception Measurements (STORM) system as a method to locate the position of lightning strikes on aerospace vehicles. Initially developed as a hypervelocity impact location system, the baseline technology lends itself to simple adaptation for lightning location. It uses Time-Of-Arrival (TOA) measurements of the charge wave front imparted on a structure to triangulate the location of lightning attachment. Additional capability can be added to the triggering circuitry that will characterize the lightning strike in order to increase situational awareness for flight crews and provide maintenance crews with information vital to determine the health of an aircraft. This is particularly important for new airframes manufactured from composite materials that have not be fully characterized over the full lifetime of the aircraft.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The primary NASA applications for the STROM system include monitoring aircraft and spacecraft for lightning strikes. Specifically, the Ares I and V launch vehicles can benefit from lightning detection and location in order to quickly assess potential damage prior to and during launch. Additional applications include test instrumentation for studying lightning strikes on aircraft. One of NASA's prime contractors, ATK, has expressed interest in Invocon's STORM system for monitoring its composite encapsulated rocket motors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Many potential Commercial applications of the STORM system exist, particularly in the aerospace industry. As major airframe manufacturers begin to produce composite airframes, it is becoming more critical for them to fully understand lightning strikes on these new designs. The STORM system will benefit them in their internal test programs. Additionally, the STORM system will provide additional benefit as standard equipment on these aircraft due to the increased real-time situational awareness it can provide flight crews and the added information it can provide maintenance crews. In addition to aerospace applications, the petrochemical industry can use this technology to monitor storage tanks for lightning strikes that can potentially compromise the integrity of the tanks.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Composites
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.10-8957
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detection of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Flight and Pre-Flight Detection of Pitot Tube Anomalies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation
9111 Cross Park Drive, Building A-100
Knoxville, TN 37923-4510
(865) 691-1756

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Hashem (Hash) Hashemian
hash@ams-corp.com
9111 Cross Park Drive, Building A-100
Knoxville,  TN 37923-4510
(865) 691-1756

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The health and integrity of aircraft sensors and instruments play a critical role in aviation safety. However, inaccurate or false readings from these same sensors/instruments can lead to improper decision-making resulting in serious if not fatal consequences. This proposal offers a research and development (R&D) effort to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced data analysis techniques to identify failures in pitot tubes resulting from blockage, icing, or moisture. These data analysis techniques will use existing electrical signals of pitot tube sensors that result from measured processes during in-flight conditions and/or induced signals in pre-flight conditions to detect anomalies in the sensor readings. The proposed method for detecting pitot tube anomalies is referred to as the "noise analysis" technique. This technique has been validated and is currently and routinely used by the proposing firm and others for detecting sensing line blockages of pressure transmitters in nuclear power generating stations; a very similar issue to the concern associated with pitot tube blockages. Typically, the output of a sensor that is measuring a process (e.g. air flow) contains two components: a static (DC) component that represents the process parameter, and a dynamic (AC) component. Through the use of the dynamic component of existing electrical signals, the dynamic response of the sensor can be measured in the frequency domain. As the sensor becomes blocked or degraded, changes to the dynamic response can be observed. Specific examples of this are given in the proposal. Another consideration in this proposal is diagnosing pitot tube sensor anomalies in pre-flight conditions. In pre-flight checks, the pitot tubes reside in mild conditions and will not be measuring a turbulent process. As such, a technique is proposed to induce this type of noise on the sensor input and analyze the resultant output using the same noise analysis technique.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The intended end product of a Phase I and Phase II project is the development of hardware and software that can be used for the detection of pitot tube anomalies resulting from blockages either during in-flight or pre-flight conditions. The successful completion and commercialization of this project has tremendous potential for responding to current and long-term needs of NASA in the area of instrumentation failure detection, condition monitoring, and autonomous detection of anomalies for airplanes and aerospace vehicles. It would directly serve NASA's research initiatives within the Aviation Safety Program. Adapting this technology to the aviation industry, which has never been done, could prove to solve a long-standing safety concern associated with aircraft operation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The intended end product of a Phase I and Phase II project is the development of hardware and software that can be used for the detection of pitot tube anomalies resulting from blockages either during in-flight or pre-flight conditions. This end product, which would be commercialized by Analysis and Measurement Services in a Phase III effort, could have a large potential use in the commercial, private, and military aircraft industries. For example, the U.S. Air Force could benefit from a commercially available product for this purpose as evidenced by the B-2 bomber crash at Andersen Air Force base in early 2008 due to water contamination in pitot tubes. This crash resulted in an estimated $1.4 billion in property damage. Adapting this technology to the aviation industry, which has never been done, could prove to solve a long standing safety concern associated with aircraft operation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.11-8183
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Diagnosis of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Flight Diagnosis and Anomaly Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
WW Technology Group
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City, MD 21042-5949
(410) 418-4353

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Walter
cwalter@wwtechnology.com
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City,  MD 21042-5949
(410) 418-4353

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In flight diagnosis and anomaly detection is a difficult challenge that requires sufficient observation and real-time processing of health information. Our approach uses formalized attributes that are available as selectable and enforceable properties necessary for diagnosis based on principles of model based engineering (MBE). Using this information, two strategies are proposed. The first is to use the concept of perfect detectors as executable assertions to verify at run-time correct operating envelope behavior. This information is used to check for correct behavior status or identify entry into a chain of events that could have failure impact. The proposed Phase I effort uses a combination of tool support to analyze the system, identify the properties to be checked, and the failure path information needed by the in-flight diagnosis service. This approach, is relevant to lowering the cost of systems since and provides important benefits related to V&V of complex systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
WWTG is a subcontractor on the CEV Orion program to Honeywell which is responsible for avionics and health monitoring. This offers a high profile NASA application with an excellent opportunity to transition results of this project. We are also working with NASA/LaRC on opportunities for advancing the integration and use of formal methods and proven fault tolerance algorithms. WWTG's on-line diagnosis algorithms were used use in LaRC's research and successfully proven using formal methods. IVHM technologies have the potential to substantially improve aviation safety, hence supporting the safe implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). Data from the FAA and NTSB points out that subsystem and component failures and hazards together contribute 24% to on-board fatalities, and are under lying factors in many of the 26% of the accidents caused by loss-of-control in-flight. We expect results of this research will help accelerate the introduction of health management technologies into commercial aircraft, while also providing benefit to the military and NASA's Space Exploration program. This project directly addresses the IVHM Project goal to improve the safety of both the near-future and next-generation air transportation systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As systems move toward complex, distributed architectures, the demand for diagnostic tools for fault tolerance and dependability is a technology with broad application with relevance to commercial markets for ecommerce, automotive, industrial, and medical, and distributed system/testbed/simulation applications. It has recognized applications in all manner of distributed information processing systems that are the basis for the information age. The dependability technology is well established but has not yet matured to the point where it offers an appropriate framework and associated set of services. WWTG's strategy for entering this market is based on using its extensive experience and strong background in system monitoring and successful fault tolerant/diagnostic systems developments focused on facilitating commercialization.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Teleoperation
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Training Concepts and Architectures
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Instrumentation
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Expert Systems
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Highly-Reconfigurable
Power Management and Distribution
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.12-9941
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Prognosis of Aircraft Anomalies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aircraft Anomaly Prognostics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ridgetop Group, Inc.
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson, AZ 85704-5645
(520) 742-3300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neil Kunst
neil.kunst@ridgetopgroup.com
6595 North Oracle Road
Tuscon,  AZ 85704-5645
(520) 742-3300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ridgetop Group will leverage its proven Electromechanical Actuator (EMA) prognostics methodology to develop an advanced model-based actuator prognostic reasoner (MAPR). Ridgetop's concept is a self-contained, embedded prognostic reasoner with a passive connection to common avionic data busses. By monitoring actuator health in real time and providing early warning of incipient fault conditions, the proposed MAPR would enable condition based maintenance (CBM) of critical avionic flight control systems and support safer, more reliable next generation air transportation. The novel approach will effectively decouple the passive prognostic reasoner from the target flight control system, or actuator, and will support multiple avionic data bus interfaces, such as MIL-STD-1553, easing adoption, validation, integration, and support. Potentially, a single MAPR could monitor multiple flight control systems, reducing overall sensor costs. Furthermore, an embedded MAPR implementation with field upgradeable firmware would support evolving interface standards and prognostic health measurement capabilities. Finally, the proposed MAPR architecture is ideally suited for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing, which dramatically accelerates technology readiness and commercial introduction.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Electromechanical Actuator (EMA) systems can reduce weight in airborne vehicles. This modeling approach can be extended to any EMA system, including exploration robot limbs, thrust vector controllers, landing gear, and aircraft maneuvering control surfaces. Dynamic modeling that incorporates environmental conditions will reduce the likelihood of poor decisions based on bad sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ridgetop is currently working with a large German automaker in applying power prognostics technology area for hybrid vehicle applications. This modeling approach is applicable to the next generation of hybrid and electric vehicles with EMA drive trains. Ridgetop is also working with Japanese automotive firms and subsystem suppliers. Firms working in the field of Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of precision critical robots with maintenance models can reduce downtime of assembly robots. Ridgetop has also met with engineers who design high speed subway train station turn-style ticket-taking machines and held discussions with key firms providing such equipment. In these cases, there is a strong return-on-investment (ROI) associated with minimizing unplanned downtime and the early detection of anomalies is critically important.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Perception/Sensing
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Simulation Modeling Environment
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Expert Systems
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.13-8707
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Healing Material System Concepts for IVHM
PROPOSAL TITLE: Crack Closure Based Self Healing Process for Metallic Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Analytical Services & Materials, Inc.
107 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666-1340
(757) 865-7687

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Dawicke
dawicke@asm-usa.com
107 Research Drive
Hampton,  VA 23666-1340
(757) 865-7093

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. (AS&M) is proposing to develop and validate a process that can extend the fatigue life of and potentially self-heal existing fatigue damage of aluminum and titanium alloys. The genesis of the proposed process is research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center that developed a low melting point coating that flows into the crack when activated. The fatigue crack growth was postulated to be reduced due to a combination of adherence of the healing material to the crack surfaces (crack bridging) and filling of the crack with the healing material (crack closure). This process was demonstrated to reduce the crack growth rate (i.e., extend fatigue life) by a factor of 2 to 4x in inert environments. The proposed Phase I program will deliver experimental evidence of a self-healing material system and a preliminary design for an integrated healing activation system. The original research will be extended to operational environments and loading conditions with the goal of developing a system by the end of Phase II that will be viable for operational testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed concept directly addresses several of NASA's Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project milestones including: (1) reducing fatigue crack growth rates by a factor of at least two in aluminum and titanium alloys used in aerospace structures, (2) an integrated self-healing system for in-situ mitigation of structural damage, and (3) mitigation of damage in areas where access is limited. In addition, the concept also has direct applications of fatigue damage in critical metallic structures in space vehicles. By implementing this technology during manufacturing, it is thought that the total fatigue life of structure can be significantly extended. The process could also be used in combination with embedded sensors and activated when damage is detected or without sensors at a predefined lifetime to extend operational life. The activation can be performed remotely or automatically for vehicles in long duration space flights.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed concept has direct military and commercial aerospace applications as well as applications for any fatigue critical aluminum or titanium structure. An example of a military aerospace application would be the center wing box of the USAF C-130 transport aircraft. This structure has experienced fatigue cracking problems and repair requires extensive rework and down time. The proposed concept could be deployed as a spray and activated on pre-existing fatigue cracks without having to perform a complete teardown. This technology could also be incorporated into the manufacturing process of commercial aircraft as a life extension tool. The self-healing coating would be applied to fatigue critical components and the proposed miniature heating system activated either when damage is detected or at a specified usage lifetime to increase the operational lifetime.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.14-8045
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Verification and Validation of Flight Critical Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
WW Technology Group
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City, MD 21042-5949
(410) 418-4353

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Walter
cwalter@wwtechnology.com
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City,  MD 21042-5949
(410) 418-4353

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Verification and Validation is a multi-disciplinary activity that encompasses elements of systems engineering, safety, software engineering and test. The elements that go into the V&V of a complex, software intensive product come out of activities that are performed by all of these disciplines while also spanning the complete system development cycle. As modern systems become more reliant on software intensive solutions to perform mission and safety critical functions, the effort that is required for system certification experiences a corresponding increase. These systems are expected to perform correctly and safely while being flexible and portable enough to go though system refresh cycles and evolvable enough to take on new system functionality throughout the system lifecycle. . We propose a method of addressing this challenge with advanced modular safety cases to specify system safety properties and support the V&V of those properties with argument and evidence chains. The modular safety cases make use of formal specification of safety claims and use contracts to formalize the dependencies between the case modules. These cases can be used to form powerful verification and validation arguments for a system that are maintainable and can be used to support incremental V&V techniques.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
WWTG is a subcontractor on the L3/Titan and the NASA IV&V Center which is responsible for IV&V of software architectures for a number of critical NASA programs. This offers an avenue for transition to high profile NASA programs with an excellent opportunity to use the results of this project. We are also working with NASA/LaRC on opportunities for advancing the integration and use of formal methods and proven fault tolerance algorithms. WWTG's on-line diagnosis algorithms were used use in LaRC's research and successfully proven using formal methods. IVHM technologies have the potential to substantially improve aviation safety, hence supporting the safe implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). Data from the FAA and NTSB points out that subsystem and component failures and hazards together contribute 24% to on-board fatalities, and are under lying factors in many of the 26% of the accidents caused by loss-of-control in-flight. We expect results of this research will help accelerate the introduction of health management technologies into commercial aircraft, while also providing benefit to the military and NASA's Space Exploration program. This project directly addresses the goal to improve the safety of both the near-future and next-generation air transportation systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As systems move toward complex, distributed architectures that are mission critical, there is an increasing demand for tools for that lower the cost of V&V and certification. Broad application of technology is forecasted with relevance to commercial markets for ecommerce, automotive, industrial, and medical, and distributed system/testbed/simulation applications. It has recognized applications in all manner of distributed information processing systems that are the basis for the information age. The model-based engineering technology is well established but has not yet matured to the point where it offers an appropriate framework for more automated V&V strategies. WWTG's strategy for entering this market is based on using its extensive experience and strong background in system monitoring and successful fault tolerant/diagnostic systems developments focused on facilitating commercialization.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Expert Systems
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A1.14-8756
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Software-Assurance Design Approach for NextGen Enabling Technologies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2559
(434) 973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tony Aeillo
barron@bainet.com
1410 Sachem Place, Ste 202
Charlottesville,  VA 22901-2559
(434) 973-1215

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) brings significant advancements to the current management of the National Airspace (NAS). These fundamental changes have significant implications for safety and security, which, in turn, require new, more flexible techniques for the verification and validation of complex, software-intensive systems and systems of systems. To address this need, Barron Associates will develop a demonstration sense-and- avoid application, representative of the kinds of new systems that are possible in NextGen, and a safety case arguing that it is safe to operate in the NAS. The safety case will rely on run-time assurance and formal methods as evidence to support its claims. Run-time assurance continuously monitors system-level safety properties for impending violations to diagnose software faults and allows a simpler, high-criticality reversionary function to provide assurance for a more complex software function; formal methods provide strong design-time assurance of correctness for software that must operate at the highest levels of criticality. A safety-case-based approach citing these two strategies as evidence offers significant cost savings for similar or higher levels of assurance as compared to traditional, process-based approaches.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Barron Associates anticipates a number of opportunities to apply this SBIR-developed technology to NASA programs. With NASA's ongoing efforts for the development of the NextGen airspace, and their continued progress in both manned and unmanned space exploration, there is renewed emphasis on increased levels of safety, reliability, and affordability for these new and emerging systems and concepts. To address hardware component failures and faults, control and flight operational systems for advanced platforms will need to be intelligent, adaptable, reconfigurable, and often nondeterministic in their behavior in order to provide the required levels of safety and reliability. Current V&V methods cannot address such complex software systems and recent studies have indicated the cost of certifying such applications would clearly be prohibitive. Therefore, along with advanced flight control systems must come advanced V&V methods. Our proposed approach of combining design-time formal methods with run-time assurance directly addresses this need. Finally, the proposed safety assurance technologies will enable cost-effective certification of the assuredly complex software that will be required of the air traffic control system for NextGen.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Barron Associates envisions significant near- and far-term uses for the proposed assurance technologies. For medical applications, formal methods and run-time assurance will allow more powerful, complex software to be safely and cost-effectively deployed on monitoring, imaging, and robotic devices. For unmanned systems, potential applications go beyond air vehicles to all classes of unmanned systems, including ground and underwater vehicles. The autonomy required by these poses a significant challenge to traditional verification and validation techniques; a challenge that is mitigated by the proposed approaches. Finally, the nuclear industry depends upon software for the control of its power plants and propulsion systems. Techniques that can affordably increase the level of assurance of safety-critical software will not only allow more complex software to be deployed in nuclear applications, but also go further to ensure the safety of these systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.01-8057
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency SiC/SiC Composite Heat Exchanger Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper-Therm High-Temperature Composites
18411 Gothard Street, Units B&C
Huntington Beach, CA 92648-1208
(714) 375-4085

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wayne Steffier
wayne.steffier@htcomposites.com
18411 Gothard Street, Units B&C
Huntington Beach,  CA 92648-1208
(714) 375-4085

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Scramjet propulsion systems for future hypersonic aerospace vehicles will be subjected to heating rates far greater than current materials can manage. In order to sustain high thermal loading while preheating the fuel, regeneratively cooled hot flow path components fabricated from ceramic matrix composites are being considered. The limited availability of high-temperature/environmentally durable materials focuses attention to silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites. These materials exhibit a unique combination of low density, high thermal conductivity and outstanding strength to near 3000<SUP>o</SUP>F. In order to exploit the benefits of SiC/SiC composites, methods are needed for fabricating high density/high conductivity components incorporating impermeable metal tube liners. Additionally, practical methods are needed for uniformly distributing coolant to the array of tubes via manifolding on the backside of the hot flow path surface. The objective of this Phase I program is to demonstrate a promising method for producing a high thermal efficiency SiC/SiC composite heat exchanger with low residual porosity and high interlaminar strength without having to resort to exotic and costly 3D fiber preforms. A functional actively cooled composite panel test article incorporating refractory metal tubes will be designed, fabricated and delivered to NASA for burner rig and/or thermal evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Hot structures fabricated from ceramic composite materials are an attractive design option for specialized components of future aerospace vehicles and propulsion systems to increase performance, reduce weight and increase durability. Current fabric-laminated ceramic composite materials and components suffer from insufficient interlaminar strength and are thus vulnerable to delamination when subjected to high velocity impact damage and exacerbated by severe thru-thickness thermal gradients. The ability to improve the interlaminar properties over current materials without having to resort to the use of costly, exotic multidirectional fiber preforms will better enable the utilization of these materials for certain thermal-structural applications critical to the US military and aerospace industrial complex. Fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites are recognized as an enabling class of materials for a variety of high-temperature applications in chemical rocket engine throat inserts, combustion chambers and nozzles; airbreathing scramjet hot flow path components; aero-engine combustors, turbine blades, vanes, and exhaust nozzles; hypersonic airframe hot structure and thermal protection systems; spacecraft re-entry heatshields; and a variety of industrial power generation radiant burner and heat exchanger tubes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Similar requirements for high-temperature materials exist for commercial/industrial applications as well. Although less aggressive than the aerospace/defense and nuclear energy-related initiatives, programs are in place for evaluating fiber reinforced ceramics for land-based turbine components, catathermal combustion devices, heat exchangers and radiant burners, which represent opportunities in energy generation and pollution abatement technologies that may mature over the next 10 or so years.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Airframe
Cooling
Reuseable
Thermal Insulating Materials
Structural Modeling and Tools
Feed System Components
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
Aircraft Engines
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.01-8248
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Transition45 Technologies, Inc.
1963 North Main Street
Orange, CA 92865-4101
(714) 283-2118

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Chen
transition45@sbcglobal.net
1963 North Main Street
Orange,  CA 92865-4101
(714) 283-2118

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular structures (PCS) will be designed and tailored to determine if additional shape memory performance benefits can be derived from the underlying macro-structure when fabricated from SMA's. These structures will be manufactured using an advanced reactive metal casting technology that will allow complex-shaped, integral bulk structures to be fabricated with the requisite composition-microstructure-properties needed for shape memory performance. Casting also offers a relatively low-cost approach for fabricating near net-shape components. The fabricated SMA structures will be characterized for resulting microstructure-properties in order to determine how to best design such PCS to better exploit SMA's for use in aerospace applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications include aeroengine and airframe structural components, particularly those requiring shape memory behavior, light weight, acoustic dampening, and impact resistance. SMA's are also being considered for flexible wings for aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications include armor applications, automotive and land vehicle components and structures, shipboard structures, sporting goods, biomedical implants, and building structures. Essentially, a practically limitless list of potential applications could be made if large-sized SMA material with the requisite shape memory propertie scan be manufactured affordably.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Erectable
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Structural Modeling and Tools
Fluid Storage and Handling
Computational Materials
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.01-8401
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Directional Composite Cylinders Assemblage Module for Physics-Based CMC Durability Modeling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design
300 E. Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Sullivan
brian.sullivan@m-r-d.com
300 E. Swedesford Road
Wayne,  PA 19087-1858
(610) 964-6131

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Compared to superalloys, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) offer reduced weight and superior specific properties at elevated temperatures. However, CMCs are prone to oxidation degradation when exposed to oxygen at high temperatures, which is the primary driver for useful life of the component. Accurate predictions of CMC life require accurate predictions of oxidation behavior, which require accurate values of the material properties that control the oxidation process. One of these key properties is permeability. In this effort, MR&D proposes to gather test data, then appropriately modify, correlate, and integrate a Multidirectional Composite Cylinders Assemblage (CCAMD) model with its current ABAQUS oxidation model. This will allow permeability to be calculated and updated continuously during an oxidation analysis as dictated by external loads, significantly enhancing the accuracy of current durability models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort would directly support all future durability modeling of CMCs, enhance model accuracy, which ultimately enables wider use of CMCs. This would contribute to NASA's goals in hypersonic vehicles and other advanced aircraft, for both structural and propulsion components. Currently, CMCs are primarily niche materials not only because of cost, but also because their long-term behavior in aggressive environments is not thoroughly understood or characterized. As such, it is quite difficult to make lifetime predictions without use of relatively large safety factors. The proposed program would provide significant enhancement to current modeling capability, which could readily be expanded to model tortuosity (another material property which controls oxidation).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Efforts such as the one proposed here contribute to the development of more physically-realistic lifetime models, which are ultimately needed to extend the use CMCs. While these materials are slowly being introduced for use in more mainstream applications such as power generation turbines and commercial jet engines, frequently they are not used to their full temperature or strength capability. However, with more accurate modeling, CMCs could be used more aggressively, for both stationary and rotating turbine components, and in more severe environmental conditions (steam, salt fog, etc.). These materials can allow higher operating temperatures than are possible with superalloys, which can significantly decrease system weight and increase system efficiency. In general, the proposed effort would significantly improve currently-available CMC durability models, which will ultimately be valuable for any company which manufactures CMCs or uses them in their products.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Structural Modeling and Tools
Ceramics
Composites
Computational Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.01-8833
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Interfacial Design of Composite Ablative Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601-5688
(717) 295-6061

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Bonner
richard.bonner@1-ACT.com
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster,  PA 17601-5688
(717) 295-6061

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I Small Business Innovative Research project proposes to develop a multiscale computational methodology capable of accurate prediction of the properties and performance of insulating ablative materials that are used to protect the re-entry of vehicles from excessive thermal loads. In particular, this effort will focus on multi-million atom, reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of pyrolysis of phenolic resins enhanced with carbon nanotubes (CNT). The results will reveal the role of CNT interface on the reaction and the thermo-mechanical properties. The derived interfacial strength characteristics will then be incorporated into continuum-level simulations. The outcome of Phase I will provide a benchmark to perform MD simulations on pyrolysis of resin composites and methodology development to link atomistic-level with continuum-level simulations. Phase II will involve MD simulations on multi-walled, functionalized CNTs in cross-linked resin, optimization of the multi-scale modeling methodology and experimental validation. The outcome of the multiscale computational program will involve a detailed parametric study to find optimal parameters at multiple scales including: nanofiller diameter size, volume fraction and functionalization of nanotubes and ƒÝm-sized carbon fibers. These parameters will be optimized to best meet Orion vehicle¡¦s TPS challenges. The team involves engineers from ACT and researchers from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed computational model is primarily focused towards development of ablation materials to be used in potential space shuttle vehicles such as: Orion. Simulations will be performed to model the evolution of phenolic resin with CNT during the pyrolysis reaction and formation of the char product. The fundamental understanding gained from these simulations will be applied to design a strong interface between the char material and the CNT. A strong char material will act as a thermal insulator and prevent further heating of the shuttle vehicle. In addition, it will also prevent exposure of the underneath virgin material.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Light weight materials such as reinforced plastics are rapidly replacing the traditional structural materials such as metals, woods etc. However, in many instances, these materials are flammable and they require modifications to decrease their flammability through addition of flame-retardant components. Environment regulations have restricted the use of halogenated flame-retardant additives, initiating a search for alternative flame-retardant additives. Nanoparticle fillers such as CNTs have shown that they can simultaneously improve both the physical and flammability properties of the polymer nanocomposite. Our multi-scale simulations will explain the physical mechanisms behind the formation of a continuous, stable, protective char layer on the burning surface that acts as a heat shield for the virgin polymer below the layer. The presence of the protective layer is clearly important in the flammability reduction and it also reduces the mass loss rate. Thus it will directly help in development of the next generation commercial fireproofing materials.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Thermal Insulating Materials
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.01-9131
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: SiC Matrix Composites for High Temperature Hypersonic Vehicle Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper-Therm High-Temperature Composites
18411 Gothard Street, Units B&C
Huntington Beach, CA 92648-1208
(714) 375-4085

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Shinavski
robert.shinavski@htcomposites.com
18411 Gothard Street, Units B&C
Huntington Beach,  CA 92648-1208
(714) 375-4085

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Durable high temperature materials are required for hypersonic engine and structural thermal protection systems. In particular, 2700ºF or greater capable structural materials that can survive stresses on the order of 10 ksi (70 MPa) for at least 100 hours in an oxidizing environment have been identified as an enabling material for future hypersonic vehicles with a long term desired target of 3000ºF. As these applications are structural, a strong degree of damage tolerance is desired, and thus ceramic matrix composites are the primary choice due to the desire for reduced weight, high temperature strength and oxidation resistance. Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are believed to be the most suitable solution due to meeting the requirements with the exception of creep at the highest temperatures/loads. The proposed effort will modify the SiC fiber preform by the addition of a fraction of more creep resistant carbon fibers. The Phase I will encompass engineering the appropriate level of hybridization in a C-SiC/SiC composite, producing and evaluating the ceramic composite material for hypersonic vehicle applications, including stress rupture at temperatures of 2700ºF or greater.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of advanced ceramic composite materials and components with enhanced thermal-structural performance over those currently available could directly support future enabling technologies for hypersonic propulsion and hot structures. Applications for ceramic composites in advanced airbreathing combined-cycle propulsion systems and control surfaces for reusable hypervelocity and exo/transatmospheric aerospace vehicles are directly addressed by this technology. These potential applications are critically dependent on the development of advanced materials capable of high-performance load-bearing operation up to and beyond 1500<SUP>o</SUP>C (2700<SUP>o</SUP>F). Successful demonstration of the life at temperature of the CMC concept could result in a valuable near term increase in airframe performance and reliability for a variety of hot structures and thermal protection systems critical to both DoD and NASA high-speed aircraft and re-entry vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other viable near-term applications for ceramic composites include expendable chemical rocket thrusters for orbital insertion, attitude control system and/or divert thrust chamber components for commercial and military communication spacecraft and/or various ballistic missile defense KE intercept weapons. Hyper-Therm HTC has been providing ceramic composite thrusters and related hardware to Aeojet, Rocketdyne and NASA for over 15 years. Opportunities for retrofit application in turbine engine augmentors (e.g., converging/diverging exhaust nozzle flaps and seals) for military aero-propulsion systems also exist.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Reuseable
Ceramics
Composites
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.01-9471
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MTECH Laboratories, LLC
P.O. Box 227
Ballston Spa, NY 12020-0227
(518) 885-6436

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Hennessy
mjhennessy@mtechlabs.com
P.O. Box 227
Ballston Spa,  NY 12020-0227
(518) 885-6436

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that utilize superconducting motors to drive a number of distributed turbofans. In an early-stage concept, two superconducting turbine generators, mounted on each of the wing tips, are used to supply electrical power to 16 superconducting motors. Conventional electric motors are too large and heavy to be practical for this application, and so superconducting motors are required. These would operate at a temperature near that of liquid hydrogen, between 20 and 65 K. In order to improve maneuverability of the aircraft, variable speed power converters would be required to throttle power to the turbofans. The low operating temperature and the need for lightweight components that place a minimum of additional heat load on the refrigeration system opens the possibility of incorporating extremely efficient cryogenic power conversion technology. A complete study of cryogenic power conversion equipment for use in this application is the focus of this proposal. MTECH has designed, built, and tested a number of cryogenic inverters for different applications, and will adapt the cryogenic power technologies it has developed to the NASA application in this program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Apart from superconducting turboelectric drive systems, cryogenic power conversion, or CryoPower, is a natural fit for a great many NASA applications. These include lunar and Mars missions as well as interplanetary and deep-space missions. In short, this technology is useful wherever small size, low weight, and high efficiency are required. In addition, space applications are perhaps the only ones where the natural environment is often cryogenic. The temperature in orbit of Saturn and Titan is around 90 K, and those reached on Uranus, Neptune, Triton, or Pluto are all between 38 and 60 K. The black-body equilibrium temperature in interstellar space is less than 40 K. Currently, space missions often require heaters to bring the temperature of electronics to about 300 K. Many of MTECH's systems and components not only perform their best in such environments, but are also capable of withstanding much wider temperature ranges.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cryogenic power systems based on the R&D in this SBIR would find use in at least three other major markets. The most immediate and obvious customers will be the military and defense industries. The Navy's all-electric ship program would benefit most from this work, especially if superconducting motors and generators, which provide a cryogenic platform, are deployed. The next-largest package to be reduced in a ship is the power control electronics. Combining these technologies can provide a significant reduction in size and weight at greatly improved efficiency. A second market is the industrial power/utility market. Projects involving superconducting power transmission and distribution, including superconducting wind turbine generators, are perfect candidates for helping to commercialize this technology. The third market is the medical industry, in particular Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or MRI. The technology developed in this SBIR will enhance current MRI power supplies for gradients, pulsed fields, and RF transmission.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Superconductors and Magnetic
Power Management and Distribution
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.01-9895
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: C-SiC Honeycomb for Advanced Flight Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultracor
136 Wright Brothers Avenue
Livermore, CA 94551-9240
(925) 454-3010

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stan Wright
stan@ultracorinc.com
136 Wright Brothers Avenue
Livermore,  CA 94551-9240
(925) 454-3010

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project is to manufacture a C-SiC honeycomb structure to use as a high temperature material in advanced aircraft, spacecraft and industrial applications. The proposers will fabricate a carbon fiber honeycomb structure. The structure will be charred and then converted to C-SiC by means of chemical vapor infiltration. The resultant material will then be tested mechanically at ambient, at high temperature and then at ambient after high temperature exposure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resultant material should be an excellent structural material for hypersonic aircraft. In any area requiring high mechanical performance at temperatures above 2000F, the resultant material would outperform any currently-available honeycomb.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resultant material would be adaptable to industrial applications, especially those currently utilizing silicon carbide. The high density of silicon carbide could be mitigated by utilizing SiC honeycomb.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Reuseable
Thermal Insulating Materials
Ceramics
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.02-8182
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection Combustor Single Element Demonstration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sun Valley Technology
26700 Renaissance Parkway, Unit 4
Warrensville Heights, OH 44128-5764
(216) 464-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frank Sun
svtfrank@sbcglobal.net
26700 Renaissance Parkway, Unit 4
Warrensville Heights,  OH 44128-5764
(216) 464-1322

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to demonstrate the feasibility in a single element of a Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection, ME-LDI, Combustion concept. The concept will have the following innovative features: 1. Independent, mini burning zones created by containing the flame in a cylinder downstream of each fuel injector/swirler element in a multiple fuel injector array, see figure 1. The independent burning zones will enable fuel staging the fuel injectors (turning off fuel to selected fuel injectors) to cover the operating cycle, such that at each point of the operating cycle the combustor will have high combustion efficiency (>99%) and low NOx emissions. At high power conditions the combustion efficiency should be greater than 99.9%. 2. A plain-jet hypodermic fuel injector fuel injector will be incorporated into ME-LDI that is low cost and simple to manufacture but a highly effective atomizer. Modified plain-jet fuel injectors will be studied including an injector with a tip that has a diverging nozzle and one that has a spin chamber at the exit. These alternative plain-jet fuel injectors will increase the surface area at the exit of the injector resulting in a thinner film for better atomization and fuel-air mixing. 3. A restrictor plate upstream of each fuel injector to provide a steady flow to each fuel injector and prevent any feedback from an unsteady flame to the fuel supply

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the course of the development of the concept it is planned to use laser diagnostics to measure droplet sizes from the fuel injector, fuel distribution, air and fuel droplet velocities and turbulence levels. This data would be made available to NASA for computer model development. Alternatively the hardware could be supplied for measurements to be taken at NASA in a collaborative effort.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We propose that the initial application would be for small business and personal jets and regional jet aircraft gas turbine engines. The proposed concept would provide a low emissions combustor that would be economical to build and low cost to maintain. Small engines are particularly sensitive to cost and this concept should appeal to small engine manufacturers. It is a developing market and should be receptive to new ideas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.02-8867
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact Safe Cold-Start (CS2) System for Scramjets using Dilute Triethylaluminum Fuel Mixtures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ACENT Laboratories, LLC
3 Scott Lane
Manorville, NY 11949-2623
(631) 801-2616

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Gallimore
scott.gallimore@acentlabs.com
11917 Ricketts Battery Drive
Bristow,  VA 20136-2815
(571) 248-0134

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the cold-start requirements of scramjet engines by developing a safe, energy-dense, and low volume hydrocarbon fuel conditioning system based on the hydrolysis reaction of water with triethylaluminum (TEA). TEA is an organometallic liquid that reacts exothermically with water and burns readily in air when not diluted in hydrocarbon mixtures. We propose to use the hydrolysis of nonpyrophoric dilute TEA/JP fuel mixtures in an integrated mixing/injection apparatus to heat and vaporize liquid hydrocarbon fuel to enable cold-start capability in regeneratively cooled scramjets. In addition, the hydrolysis reaction also produces ethane gas, which serves the dual purpose of atomizing any remaining liquid by effervescence as well as producing an ethane-rich injectant that is more readily ignitable than the vaporized JP fuel. Furthermore, since TEA is pyrophoric, any remaining TEA in the mixture could serve as an ignition aid once it comes in contact with air. Hence, through a straightforward hydrolysis mechanism, the proposed system would preheat and vaporize the fuel, atomize any remaining liquid through effervescence, add readily ignitable ethane to the mixture, and provide a potential ignition source with any TEA leftover from the hydrolysis reaction. The proposed Phase 1 and 2 research will result in the Compact Safe Cold-Start (CS2) system which will be a key enabling technology for future operational hypersonic vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A dilute TEA-based scramjet cold start system is expected to have significant mass and volume savings compared to equivalent and more traditional scramjet cold start techniques such as silane and ethylene when compared on an equivalence ratio basis. These mass and volume savings translate directly into additional capability and can alleviate some of the system packaging requirements of future hypersonic vehicle systems. Safety is also enhanced over the more traditional high pressure gaseous systems by using low pressure, non-pyrophoric, liquid reactants. It is only upon mixing the dilute TEA/JP with water that heat , ethane, and pyrophoric TEA are released. In addition, the potential low Mach capability of a TEA based system helps extend the utility of scramjet engines proposed for turbine-based combined cycle hypersonic vehicles to lower Mach numbers, providing flexibility in selecting high-speed turbines capable of generating the required Mach number for scramjet takeover. NASA is interested in these types of vehicles as potential solutions for cheaper, reusable, more effective access to space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The key advantage of a TEA based system over currently used single-function engine start techniques is that it provides multi-faceted benefits over other cold start systems such as intense energy release, readily ignitable ethane gas, atomization of the fuel through effervescence, and pyrophoricity for ignition. As such, it likely has utility to assist in not only the cold-start of scramjets but the re-light of turbojets with minimal modifications. If developed for such an approach, the TEA based system would be capable of providing engine start functionality for both the turbojet and scramjet in a turbine-based combined-cycle vehicle, significantly reducing overall system complexity. Companies such as Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne that develop both turbojets and scramjets would find such a capable and simplifying system to be of great benefit in meeting the system requirements of a combined-cycle hypersonic vehicle. The DoD is interested in developing these types of vehicles as well as scramjet powered missile systems to gain a hypersonic strike capability to stay ahead of competing foreign entities. In addition the system may find use in the high altitude relight of turbine engines in fighter and UAV applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
High Energy Propellents (Recombinant Energy & Metallic Hydrogen)
Monopropellants
Propellant Storage
Feed System Components


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.02-8907
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrasensitive, Fast-Response Size-Dependent Soot Spectrometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Freedman
af@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Rd
Billerica,  MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a "black carbon" (soot) monitor for measuring non-volatile particulate emissions from gas turbine engines employing a proprietary optical extinction measurement technique based on cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS) operting in conjunction with a differential mobility analyzer. The singular aspect of the CAPS approach is that extinction is measured by determining shifts in the phase angle of a modulated light beam instead of changes in the intensity of the ransmitted light caused by the presence of particulates. This aspect makes the sensor immune to either abrupt or gradual changes in the intensity of the light caused by temperature or pressure fluctuations or light source deterioration. Furthermore, the sensor rarely needs to be calibrated – i.e., its span value, a function of the optical properties of the particles themselves, remains virtually constant. This sensor does not rely on the deposition of particles on a filter and requires little maintenance. The monitor will be able to measure the size dependent particle mass concentration in the sub-micrograms per cubic meter with a sampling period of only 1 second.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA need for this technology is in its programs to monitor particulate emissions from rocket and aircraft engines. The impact of particulate emissions from aircraft engines, which have a direct effect on radiative forcing, is magnified by the fact they are typically emitted in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where their influence is greatest. In addition, ground-based emissions of small particulates (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5) are regulated by the EPA. As aircraft engine soot emissions continue to decrease in response to regulations concerning the emission of species related to global warming and climate change as well as ground-based PM particulate emissions, the performance of commercially available instruments will become a hindrance to the accurate determination of such emissions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The extinction monitor developed under this program will significantly benefit the scientific community interested in characterizing the radiative propertes of ambient aerosols. The ability of one instrument to simultaneously measure particle extinction at one or more wavelengths with good time resolution and high precision will enable continuous measurements of the particle extinction that can be directly used by regional and global climate forcing models. The development of a CAPS-based extinction monitor would have the largest impact on the ambient air quality monitoring community. PM2.5 and PM10 levels must be routinely monitored as part of ambient air pollution monitoring programs and current technology is labor intensive and expensive.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.02-9291
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Active Combustion Control Concept for High-Frequency Modulation of Atomized Fuel Flow

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jansen's Aircraft Systems Controls, Inc.
2303 W. Alameda Drive
Tempe, AZ 85282-3102
(602) 438-4400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matt Caspermeyer
matt.caspermeyer@jasc-controls.com
2303 W Alameda Drive
Tempe,  AZ 85282-3102
(602) 889-3711

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal by Jansen's Aircraft Systems Controls, Inc presents an innovative solution for Active Combustion Control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept has the ability to provide frequency modulation (greater than 1000 Hz) in combination with high amplitude modulation (in excess of 30% flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing state-of-the-art valves tend to have low flow modulation strength or the size of the valves with higher flow modulation seem too large or consume too much electrical power to be practical. The proposed active Combustion Control valve has high frequency and amplitiude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has been involved in evaluating the need for such technology and continues to pursue it through SBIR-sponsored and other programs. As a result there are numerous applications that can benefit from this technology, including but not limited to, engines for prime propulsion, auxiliary power, and power generation where higher performance and lower exhaust emissions are desired.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Large-frame Power generating gas turbine manufacturers such as Honeywell, United Technologies, Rolls-Royce, General Electric, and Siemens are in need of this technology for their low-emission combustion systems and the market for such a proven device is world-wide.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.02-9410
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Combustion for Aerospace Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra High Temperature Capacitive Pressure Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sporian Microsystems, Inc.
515 Courtney Way, Suite B
Lafayette, CO 80026-8821
(303) 516-9075

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Harsh
harshk@sporian.com
515 Courtney Way, Suite B
Lafayette,  CO 80026-8821
(303) 516-9075

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To improve the working performance, increase efficiency, reduce cost, and track system health status and failure modes of advanced propulsion systems; miniaturized, robust sensing systems for measuring and monitoring physical parameters, such as pressure, would be highly advantageous. Technical challenges for developing reliable sensing systems lie in extremely harsh working conditions the micro sensors must operate. In addition to high temperatures and pressures, these conditions include oxidation, corrosion, thermal shock, fatigue, fouling, and abrasive wear. High temperature (300-1350oC) capacitive pressure sensors are of particular interest due to their inherent suitability for wireless readout schemes. The objective of this proposed work is to develop a capacitive pressure sensor based on SiCN, a new class of high temperature ceramic materials, which possess excellent mechanical and electric properties at high temperatures (up to1600 ºC). The Phase I effort will include an evaluation of sensor designs and fabrication concepts, and the experimental evaluation of proof of principle scale prototypes. This technology, which is currently at TRL 2, will be advanced to TRL 4 at the end of Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed sensor could be directly applicable to a planetary exploration mission to Venus. A high temperature sensor that does not require cooling will significantly reduce payload weight, volume and complexity. The sensor has the potential to support integrated vehicle health management for both several types of onboard systems. Propulsion systems including launch and station keeping both exhibit high temperatures and could potentially benefit. Energy generation systems such as fuel cells also have high operational temperatures that could be monitored by the proposed sensor. Derivative sensor technology could potentially be applied for sensing conditions in thermal protection systems and ceramic matrix composites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aero propulsion turbine engines, communally used in commercial and military jets, would benefit significantly by having a non invasive, small mass, on engine component sensor allowing for visibility of the conditions of the turbine engine. The technology and sensor product described in this proposal would allow exactly that, while existing sensors fall well short of the application's demand. The conditions in this application are harsh, and sensors must be able to withstand high temperatures, high pressures, high flow rates, jet fuel and exhaust. In order for existing and future aero propulsion turbine engines to improve safety, reduce cost and emissions while controlling engine instabilities, more accurate and complete information is necessary. The technology described in this proposal would allow the next boundary in sensing technology to be achieved: direct measurement from the point of interest within the turbine. Commercial applications abound for the successful results of this proposal in commercial and military turbine engine industries, which are made up of companies such as Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce. Additional potential market areas include: marine propulsion, rail locomotives, land based power generation turbines, automotive, oil and gas refining, and government and academic laboratories.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Control Instrumentation
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Ceramics
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.03-8365
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Software Tool for Improved Noise Source Identification and Understanding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Technology Applications Co.
P.O. Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006-6971
(314) 373-3311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Nelson
ccnelson@ITACLLC.com
6712 183rd St. SW
Lynnwood,  WA 98037-4255
(425) 778-7853

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Innovative Technology Applications Company and Drs. P. Morris and K. Brentner will make improvements in noise prediction and measurement methods for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. Possible areas of application for the finished product include aerodynamic noise from fans, jets, turbomachinery, engine cores, propfans, propellers, and airframe components. The proposed Phase I work will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration of a tool which will enable the NASA customer to gain deeper insight into aerodynamic noise sources and develop improved methods for experimentally detecting them. Ultimately, this will enable improved source identification techniques and greater understanding of the physics associated with the data obtained from experimental phased array microphone arrays. The approach taken by the proposed work to accomplish these goals is to use an unsteady simulation of nearfield unsteady flow to feed a Ffowcs Williams-Hawking solver. The acoustic field is then propagated to a numerical phased array of microphones and the data recorded just as it would in a wind tunnel or flyover experiment. The data is then processed according to the state-of-the-art data reduction methods and the resulting predictions of noise sources compared to the detailed data from the unsteady simulation to gain additional insight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The end product of the proposed SBIR effort will include new software that NASA personnel will be able to use in Wind-US and also tools for better understanding the capabilities and limitations of phased array technology. These tools will assist NASA to develop quieter aircraft, which is an important part of NASA's overall aeronautics mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA's interests, the Department of Defense and airplane prime contractors also have a strong interest in technologies that lead to quieter aircraft. The Navy currently has an especially strong interest in finding ways to reduce aircraft noise. We have been in communication with acoustics groups at both Pratt and Whitney and Boeing, and they have both provided letters indicating their interest in our development of these technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.03-9286
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Effect of Engine Installation on Jet Noise using a Hybrid LES/RANS Approach

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CASCADE Technologies, Inc.
1330 Charleston Road
Mountain View, CA 94043-1331
(650) 691-6067

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yaser Khalighi
khalighi@turbulentflow.com
1330 Charleston Rd
Mountain View,  CA 94043-1331
(650) 691-6067

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Installation effects arising from propulsion airframe interaction are known to produce substantial variations in the in-situ jet noise. A hybrid LES/RANS computational framework is proposed for prediction of noise from the engine and airframe, and interactions between airframe and propulsion systems. The basis of LES (large eddy simulation) is that the energy-bearing turbulent eddies in the dominant noise-generating region are directly captured in the simulation. Since LES must resolve the turbulent eddies it requires a grid which captures these motions; the number of grid points needed for LES is much larger than those for RANS and thus a brute-force LES of the entire noise producing region in a propulsion-airframe interaction problem is not feasible. However, the noise generation physics of these flows allows a logical assembly of a hybrid simulation tool where low-fidelity models (RANS) in one region of the flow are combined with turbulence-resolving models (LES) in other regions of the flow. Acoustic effects are another segment of propulsion-airframe interaction problem. Sound generated by various components of engine is altered by the presence of wing, fuselage, deployed flap etc. In the present proposal, alteration of sound due to the presence of airframe is added through application of Boundary Element Method (BEM) and an acoustic projection technique (FW-H surface method). To demonstrate the feasibility of using this framework, we focus on simulating flow configuration corresponding to a separate-flow nozzle of by pass ratio 5 with round fan and nozzle operating at the takeoff cycle point of with freestream Mach number of 0.28. Simulation results will be validated against experiments carried out in the Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel (LSAWT) at NASA Langley's Jet Noise Laboratory (JNL). The high-fidelity model developed and validated in Phase I will be extended to explore more complex engine/airframe configurations in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed hybrid LES/RANS framework is aimed to be a high fidelity simulation toolbox for physics-based aircraft noise prediction. Application of this tool will improve the understanding of noise generation and propagation mechanism in both component and system level. Such understanding is a vital step for discovering novel noise reduction concepts. Accordingly, the function of the final product aligns well with the objective of NASA's Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) program through both Airframe System Noise Reduction (ASNR) and Engine System Noise Reduction (ESNR). In addition, the absence of problem dependent tuning parameters and generality of this framework allows for application of this toolbox to "conventional" as well as "revolutionary" aircraft configurations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR project and its successful completion would result in a strong predictive aeroacoustics toolbox for licensing to clients in electronic cooling (such as Valeo and Siemens), automotive, and transportation industry (such as Alstom Transportation) in addition to the aviation industry as a whole. It would also enable us to pursue consulting projects on a much larger scale. We envision that as part of this project, a complete tool box will be developed which includes but is not limited to: high fidelity compressible, and incompressible LES simulations for direct calculations of noise and boundary element methodology for far field noise calculations. This toolbox will all be packaged into one appropriate design tool to be used by design engineers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Simulation Modeling Environment
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.03-9603
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aero-Acoustics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Drainage Slots for Acoustic Noise Attenuation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Hermiller
hermillerjm@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton,  OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to demonstrate feasibility in the reduction of noise attributed to drainage slots in jet engine acoustic liners. This will be accomplished through the development of design rules for optimum slot design and the implementation of adaptive material technologies. CRG proposes to bring this technology to a technology readiness level (TRL) 2 after the Phase 1 effort and a TRL 4 after the Phase 2 effort. The proposed innovation lies in the recognition that drainage slots in the honeycomb of an acoustic liner may have a significantly adverse effect on its ability to absorb noise. This limits the ability of the acoustic liner to achieve its full potential. The proposed research will enable the acoustic designer to understand and to accurately model the effects of drainage slots on the acoustic impedance characteristics. It will also provide the impetus to find solutions that will counteract the adverse effects of drainage slots through adaptive means.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's A2.03 is Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, this project's technologies directly address requirements for improvements in noise reduction, prediction, measurement methods and control for subsonic and supersonic vehicle systems including fan, jet, turbomachinery, and airframe noise sources. This project's technologies offer system level improvements in noise, emissions, and performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project's technologies will apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Government applications that would benefit would include but not be limited to improvements in noise reduction, prediction, measurement methods and control for subsonic and supersonic vehicle systems including fan, jet, turbomachinery, and airframe noise sources operated by the Department of Defense and all major commercial aviation companies. This technology's attributes are applicable to commercial jet engine manufacturers and should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for implementation of optimum and adaptive drainage slot design for turbofan engine acoustic liners by GE Aviation, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.04-8558
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Reduced Order in Time Models for Problems in Nonlinear Aeroelasticity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Dynamics, Inc.
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington, KY 40511-1628
(859) 699-0441

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Hu
patrick.g.hu@advanceddynamics-usa.com
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington,  KY 40511-1628
(859) 699-0441

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Research is proposed for the development and implementation of state of the art, reduced order models for problems in nonlinear aeroelasticity. Highly efficient and accurate aeroelastic simulation tools will be constructed based upon the mathematical formalism of optimal prediction theory and a novel implementation of a filtered harmonic balance solution methodology. The implications of the proposed work include orders of magnitude reduction in computational time, with minimal loss of accuracy, for time periodic problems in nonlinear aeroelasticity. The application of the proposed innovations spans the range of flight, from high-speed transport vehicles, to small-scale, flapping Micro-Air vehicles. Anticipated results include 1) the implementation of the proposed reduced order methodology into both a standard grid-based aeroelastic tool and a material point method monolithic aeroelastic solver for the production of technology ready, multi-flow regime aeroelastic simulation tools 2) application of the proposed work to large-scale simulation and comparison with experiment and "full-order" aeroelastic simulations and 3) advancement of the state of knowledge for nonlinear problems in aeroelasticity in both the subsonic, low Reynolds number regime and transonic high Reynolds number regime.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A broad range of NASA applications exists for the software infrastructure that is expected to result from this SBIR effort, and NASA centers will be the initial target. The direct application to the NASA represents a prime opportunity for further product development and enhancement, as well as a potential revenue stream from engineering support and technology acquisition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Various DoD components likely to have interests in this technology are the US Air Force, Army and Navy. Particularly, Air Force has a lot of research going on in aeroelasticity. Non-military applications represent another potential market sector. Improvements in the computational accuracy and efficiency for aeroelastic modeling are needed for a wide range of aerospace, ocean, and general engineering applications. The accurate assessment of aero-structural properties of aircrafts has been known to be very important in designing safe aircraft. Companies such as Boeing, Bell, Sikorsky, and AeroVironment are our industrial partners, and during our briefing for the technology to be developed in this SBIR, they indicated their strong interest. They will be actively involved in this project and they are expected to be immediate users of the end product. In addition, Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, General Dynamics, and Lockheed Martin represent other potential customers that we intend to aggressively pursue. And finally, corresponding companies in Europe and Asia represent an opportunity for exporting the resulting methods and technologies, provided that the NASA permits us to do this.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.04-8692
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Variable Fidelity Aeroelastic Toolkit - Structural Model

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
TLG Aerospace, LLC
1700 Westlake Ave N, Suite 430
Seattle, WA 98109 - 6236
(206) 859-5061

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Steve Muenzberg
steve.muenzberg@tlgaerospace.com
1700 Westlake Ave N, Suite 430
Seattle, WA 98109 - 6236
(206) 859-5061 Extension :101

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
The proposed innovation is a methodology to incorporate variable fidelity structural models into steady and unsteady aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic analyses in order to utilize the appropriate level of fidelity for the problem at hand. Some aeroelastic problems require detailed finite element modeling of the structure and servoelastic systems, or a detailed FEM may be the only structural model available. Other problems, such as efficient modeling of wind tunnel models and flight vehicles or multidisciplinary optimization (MDO), benefit from the relative simplicity of reduced order structural models. The unique value of this innovation is the ability to rapidly and repeatedly handle the significant difficulty of moving from a detailed model to a reduced order model and then carrying any subsequent design or optimization changes back to the higher order detailed structural model. The proposed methodology will automate the process of projecting lower order model changes, for example after an MDO application, back to the original (source) higher order model. The methodology will contribute to integrated design optimization tools that can synergistically vary the simulation fidelity to find optimum solutions using design variables from more than one discipline.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The capability will contribute to NASA's core mission of fundamental research and development for NASA SBIR Topic A.2.04, 'Aeroelasticity', by providing a customizable and extensible methodology to generate variable fidelity mathematical models. Follow on contributions will also accrue under A.2.08, 'Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design, and Optimization'. Areas of direct benefit include: efficient creation of models for use in vibration, aeroelastic, and aeroservoelastic studies; rapid investigation of stiffness and strength tailoring; direct development of lightweight, flexible structures under aerodynamic load; numerical zooming within a single discipline; and combination of higher order analytical models from different disciplines in advanced design procedures. This capability will allow NASA to more accurately and quickly move between the lower order structural models needed for MDO-type design efforts and the higher order structural models needed to more closely evaluate and examine structural details. The innovation will contribute to a variable fidelity modeling capability that will allow NASA to easily incorporate higher order structural models into conceptual design cycles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Commercial industry also has a need to more easily move design changes between various levels of structural fidelity early in the design process. The ability to efficiently update higher order FEM models based on design studies with lower order models will be valuable for any commercial industry project using MDO-based processes for structural analysis and design. Many recent TLG commercial projects would have benefited from the application of this toolkit as part of MDO engineering and certification analysis efforts. These projects include: aerostructural optimization of wing planform modifications for improved performance at minimum weight and cost; efficient development of flutter and gust loads models to match test or reference data; and generation of minimum weight modifications to support increased aircraft payload capability.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Database Development and Interfacing
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Structural Modeling and Tools


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.04-9806
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroelasticity
PROPOSAL TITLE: On-Line Flutter Prediction Tool for Wind Tunnel Flutter Testing using Parameter Varying Estimation Methodology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jie Zeng
jzeng@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Dr.
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes to develop an on-line flutter prediction tool for wind tunnel model using the parameter varying estimation (PVE) technique to ensure the safety of the flutter model as well as the wind tunnel system. This tool will be applied to rapidly evaluate parameters, such as modal damping and frequency, which are required to assess the flutter boundary of a wind tunnel model in the pre-flutter test conditions. In this PVE Toolbox, system identification techniques such as Polymax and Subspace methods are employed to consistently estimate the damping/frequency of the physical modes, followed by the implementation of Zimmerman-Weissenburger flutter margin method, linear parameter varying modeling combined with µ analysis, and/or thin plate interpolation method for flutter boundary prediction. In order to minimize the dependence on the experience for obtaining a reliable flutter prediction, an accurate estimation of the auto-spectrum of the output data, k-mean stochastic algorithm for automate modes selection are developed to enhance the on-line capability of the PVE Toolbox. The end product PVE Toolbox can be used by the test engineer as an on-line flutter prediction tool in the wind tunnel to effectively make a timely decision for proceeding to the next test point.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Comprehensive flutter prediction software is still non-existing; leading to cautious and expensive wind tunnel test programs. ZONA envisions that the proposed Phase I research effort will result in a commercial product, called the PVE Toolbox. This Toolbox can assist NASA in its goal to dramatically reduce the cost and time required to ensure the safety of the flutter model as well as the wind tunnel hardware system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA customers for this tool include the R & D arms of USAF, Navy, Army, and the defense industry complex. It can be readily adapted by a wide class of aerospace vehicles ranging from current to next-generation designs such as: (a) USAF's F-22 and F-35 aircrafts at Edwards AFB, (b) UASF's Hilda and/or sensorcraft aircrafts, (c) USAF's next generation stealth and morphing UAV/UCAV, (d) DARPA's new Switchblade Flying Wing Program, and for (e) Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) with enhanced control/maneuver capability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Structural Modeling and Tools
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.05-9018
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Analysis and Design Tools for Fluid-Structure Interaction with Multi-Body Flexible Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jabiru Software and Services
3819 Sunnycroft Place
West Lafayette, IN 47906-8815
(765) 413-9203

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Chai
jc@jabirusoft.com
3819 Sunnycroft Pl
West Lafayette,  IN 47906-8815
(512) 418-6125

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall objective of this proposal (Phases I and II) is to develop a robust and accurate solver for fluid-structure interaction computations capable of addressing multi-body flexible structures as well as rigid body motion. The fluid flow solution will be performed using our unstructured solution-adaptive flow solver TETHYS. We propose to develop a structural solver based on the Galerkin finite element method and to couple structure and fluid strongly using an immersed boundary method (IBM). We will employ operator overloading to perform automatic code differentiation so that sensitivity and adjoint analysis can be performed on the coupled code. We will couple to parameterized CAD geometry and to the state-of-the-art optimization modules in the DAKOTA toolkit to perform optimization of fluid-structure interaction problems. In Phase I, we will (i) establish the feasibility of the immersed boundary method across the range of Mach numbers, (ii) develop a tightly coupled algorithm for fluid and structure, and (iii) demonstrate that sensitivities and Jacobians may computed seamlessly and accurately for fluid-structure interaction. Though the focus of the proposal is on fluid-structure interaction problems of specific interest to NASA, the methodology will be applicable to a wide range of commercial CFD applications as well.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Efficient and accurate flow and structural solvers based on unstructured meshes addressing compressible and incompressible flows and fluid-structure interaction on modern parallel architectures will find wide applicability in NASA. The fluid-structure interaction and sensitivity and optimization modules will find application in space re-entry, rotor-stator interaction, flutter and flexible-wing aerodynamics, as well as in a large variety of applications involving stress analysis in the presence of thermal gradients.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In industry, the applications are nearly limitless. The fluid-structure interaction module will find application in in-cylinder combustion in automotive flows, in rotor-stator interaction and non-synchronous vibration (NSV) in turbomachinery, in the analysis of mixing tanks, gear pumps and screw mixers in the chemical and food processing industries, and in a large variety of fluid-structure interaction problems in the plastics, paper and fiber processing industries, among others. Stress analysis in the presence of thermal gradients forms the staple of a vast number of industrial simulations. Furthermore, the features developed here will be central to expanding the role of sensitivity analysis and optimization in the automotive, aerospace, electronic cooling, power generation, chemicals and materials processing and other sectors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.05-9058
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303-1379
(303) 448-0727

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexandre Likhanskii
likhansk@txcorp.com
5621 Arapahoe Ave
Boulder,  CO 80303-1379
(303) 996-7520

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Traditional approaches for active flow separation control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are limited to relatively low-speed flows and atmospheric conditions. It results in low feasibility of the DBDs for aerospace applications, such as active flow control at turbine blades, fixed wings, rotary wings and hypersonic vehicles, which require a satisfactory performance of the DBD plasma actuators at wide range of conditions, including rarified flows and combustion mixtures. An optimization of the DBD plasma actuators should be achieved using efficient, comprehensive, physically-based DBD simulation tool for different operation conditions. We propose to develop a DBD plasma actuator simulation tool for a wide range of ambient gas pressures. The proposed tool will treat DBD plasma kinetically at low pressures. At high pressures (atmospheric conditions) plasma will be treated using hydrodynamic approach. The proposed tool will be validated by comparison with the experimental and numerical data on the DBD investigations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA applications of the proposed DBD simulation tool are active flow control concepts for both subsonic and hypersonic flights. Predictable active flow separation control, achieved using the proposed tool, will benefit many NASA Projects, such as Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, Subsonic Rotary Wing Project and Hypersonic Project. In addition to the flow separation application, DBD simulation tool can be used for a number of NASA problems, associated with gas discharges at different pressures. For example, DBD simulation tool can be used for the description plasma-assisted combustion for the reduction of carbon emissions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Active flow control using DBD plasma actuators is of interest to a number of government agencies, private industry and universities. Proposed tool will be beneficial for subsonic/hypersonic programs which involve active flow separation control. These programs include, but are not limited to, flow separation control at commercial airplanes during take-off or landing, increase in lift for tiltrotor aircrafts, improvement of engine performance, active flow control at hypersonic vehicles. Besides the primary application for a description of DBD operation, DBD simulation tool can be used for a wide range of plasma aerodynamics applications, such as plasma-assisted combustion, flow control using different types of discharges, reduction of carbon emission, optimization of air vehicle operation, MHD and EHD application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Operations Concepts and Requirements


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.05-9389
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Uncertainty Quantification for Production Navier-Stokes Solvers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-2010
(215) 766-1520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Peter Cavallo
cavallo@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Rd.
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020
(215) 766-1520

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solution errors are inherent in any Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Systematic identification, reduction, and control of these various error sources is crucial if the results of CFD simulations are to be trusted for design and performance assessment of air vehicles. While grid refinement studies may verify the spatial accuracy of a solution, these studies are generally laborious and time intensive. Continued development of a standalone Error Transport Equation (ETE) solver is proposed. The proposed program exploits an existing mesh adaptation and error quantification package, CRISP CFD<SUP>REG</SUP>, which currently interfaces with meshes and solutions from the NASA unstructured Navier-Stokes solvers FUN3D and USM3D. The Phase I effort will explore the use of ETE methodology with these production Navier-Stokes solvers as well as the popular structured grid code OVERFLOW. Improvements in error prediction for aerodynamic coefficients will be sought. In addition, the proposed program will address uncertainty quantification for turbulence models commonly used in computational aerodynamics applications. The ETE solver provides a promising, viable path for reliable error quantification and solution verification. This tool will provide numerical error bars, quantifiable levels of uncertainty in both local and globally integrated variables, for use in computational aerodynamics and other applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research is directly relevant to the application of CFD analysis to air vehicles of current and future interest to NASA. CFD simulations are playing an increasing role in air vehicle analysis and design assessment, and numerical predictions often supplement the databases obtained in ground and flight tests. The proposed research will impact the use of CFD analysis tools by NASA personnel in verifying the accuracy of force and moment predictions, surface pressures, heat flux distributions, etc., providing numerical error bars and certifiable confidence levels. As the research effort addresses fundamental issues in numerical simulation accuracy, numerous applications of interest to NASA exist. Potential applications of the proposed error quantification research include simulation of launch vehicles, planetary re-entry capsules, attitude control jets, liquid fuel feed systems, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA-developed CFD codes are heavily used by a number of private companies and organizations within the aerospace and defense industries. Engineers at these corporations and government laboratories rely on the accuracy of NASA CFD tools in the development of small business jets, commercial airliners, and next generation fighter aircraft. Error quantification is a necessity widely recognized by this community. To date, research in error quantification has largely been limited to academic research groups and government laboratories, and no commercially available package for error quantification and reduction currently exists. This offers a unique opportunity to assume the leading role as the first player in the market for such software. Outside of the aerospace and defense sectors, the proposed error quantification research finds ready application in the areas of biofluid flows, automobile engines, power generation and turbomachinery, chemical processing, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.05-9731
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Uncertainty Quantification in Aerodynamics Simulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jabiru Software and Services
3819 Sunnycroft Place
West Lafayette, IN 47906-8815
(765) 413-9203

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Chai
jc@jabirusoft.com
3819 Sunnycroft Pl
West Lafayette,  IN 47906-8815
(512) 418-6125

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the proposed work (Phases I and II) is to develop uncertainty quantification methodologies and software suitable for use in CFD simulations of aerodynamic flows, ranging from sub-sonic to hypersonic. We will address both pressure and density-based methods, as well as the class of algorithms addressing all-Mach number flows. The software developed here will be based on an existing unstructured finite volume CFD solver, TETHYS, which has been developed by Jabiru Software and Services. A central focus of the proposal is the development and evaluation of generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) methodologies for uncertainty propagation. In Phase I, we will develop non-intrusive sparse-grid based adaptive collocation techniques for all-speed flows to address the curse of dimensionality and to resolve discontinuities and non-linearities in random space. We will evaluate the feasibility of implementing stochastic Galerkin techniques non-intrusively through operator overloading. Phase I will address airfoil flow across the range of Mach numbers. Phase II will address more general implementations of feasible approaches, application to more complex aerodynamics simulations, as well as implementation on parallel platforms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The solver developed during Phases I and II of this project will find wide applicability in NASA. Efficient and accurate flow solvers based on unstructured meshes addressing compressible and incompressible flows will find use in NASA's aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, space entry, internal fluid mechanics, turbomachinery, microgravity, propulsion and materials processing programs. Sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification software will find use in every application in which computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used, but especially in aerodynamics, propulsion, turbomachinery, space re-entry, and materials processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The solver developed in Phases I and II will find non-NASA applications in virtually every application in which computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used today. This includes aerodynamics, automotive, chemicals processing, electronics cooling, food processing, materials processing, power generation, propulsion and many others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Simulation Modeling Environment


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.05-9847
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Use of Leading Edge Waves to Increase Lift/Drag Ratio

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Nixon
1644 Clay Drive
Los Altos, CA 94024-6251
(650) 964-9956

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Nixon
davidnixon@sbcglobal.net
1644 Clay Drive
Los Altos,  CA 94024-6251
(650) 964-9956

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the goals of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics "Subsonic Fixed Wing" project is to reduce fuel burn by 25% 5% by 2018. This corresponds approximately to an increase in Lift/Drag ratio of the same magnitude. While the improvement in design tools funded by NASA will undoubtedly help attain this goal the innovation proposed here is an addition to this effort. In other words, any improvements in performance due to the innovation should be added to any improvements due to the use of new design tools. The innovation proposed here is a "leading edge wave" in which the leading edge of a wing is described by a high frequency, low amplitude wave, rather than the more conventional straight line. Previous results have indicated that such a leading edge can lead to improvements in Lift/Drag ratio of 15%.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation will help NASA in reaching its goals for improving the competitiveness of the national aerospace industry by helping designers to develop more fuel efficient aircraft and UAVs. It will also improve the efficiency of planetary probes designed by NASA that must use aerodynamic lift.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation will improve the efficiency of UAVs and other air vehicles of interest to the Department of Defense. It will also be of interest to designers and manufacturers of UAVs since the innovation will improve the competitiveness of their designs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.06-8042
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aerothermodynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber-Coupled Spectrometer for TPS Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ElectroDynamic Applications, Inc.
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor, MI 48113-1460
(734) 786-1434

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dean Massey
rayle@edapplications.com
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor,  MI 48113-1460
(734) 786-1434

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 0 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Heat shield technology is a critical component of manned spaceflight. In particular, the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) requires thermal protection systems (TPS) beyond the current state of the art. While new TPS shields are under development, a key difficulty is the ability to diagnose TPS performance. In Phase-I SBIR research carried out by EDA and Penn State, we developed a low intrusive fiber optic plug insert for TPS materials that will enable spectrographic measurements of the reentry environment surrounding an ablating TPS. We propose to develop a ruggedized compact spectrometer suitable for coupling with this low-intrusive fiber optic insert. This resulting fiber-coupled spectrometer system plug enables the collection of benchmark data for fundamental flow, radiation, and materials modeling as well as operational correlations between vehicle reentry drag and radiation if implemented in a TPS flight test. The program proposed here will take the concept, originally encouraged at the request of researchers at NASA Ames, from concept to demonstration, through prototype, to a technology readiness level suitable for inclusion in the design of an ablation shield flight demonstrator mission.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The system proposed here will provide an enabling diagnostic capability for NASA programs developing Thermal Protection Systems. Potential applications include development for the CEV TPS, and any other NASA program requiring an entry, re-entry, aero braking, or other TPS technology. In addition, this device will allow placement of spectrometers onboard spacecraft where previously there was a concern due to the requirement of a conventional sapphire window. As such, it will enable scientific uses of spectrographic data, including measurement of planetary atmospheric constitution during landing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are potential applications to DoD program in systems involving hypersonics as well as various reentry vehicle applications. In addition there are potential applications in terrestrial high energy plasmas where the abilities to survive extreme environments and to place multiple sensors quickly and flexibly within a system are of value.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Optical
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.07-9642
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flying Qualities Metrics and Design Guidelines for Modern Transport Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Klyde
dklyde@systemstech.com
13766 Hawthorne Boulevard
Hawthorne,  CA 90250-7083
(310) 679-2281

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current and planned transport aircraft designs are making more use of fly-by-wire technology, allowing an unprecedented design space for control laws, including adaptive control concepts, and resulting response-types. The resulting higher order responses do not lend themselves well to the modal flying qualities requirements that were developed more than four decades ago for conventional aircraft response-types. Furthermore, this expanded design space also makes it possible to implement flight control systems that can lead to unintended degraded flying qualities and undesirable pilot-vehicle interactions. The transport aircraft control system design engineer needs to have tools in the form of modern flying qualities metrics to help determine the permissible thresholds of control while still suppressing undesirable dynamic responses. To address this need Systems Technology, Inc. (STI) proposes to develop the TRansport Aircraft Design Elements – Flying Qualities (TRADE-FQ) toolbox that will feature modern requirements validated from a new flight test database, built-in data reduction tools, and expert system guidance. In Phase 1 critical requirements areas will be identified and explored via piloted simulation to demonstrate feasibility of the proposed approach. Candidate requirements will then be evaluated via a formal flight test program to be conducted in Phase 2 with the Calspan Learjet in-flight simulator.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program will lead to a flight-validated TRansport Aircraft Design Elements Flying Qualities (TRADE-FQ) software toolbox that will feature modern requirements developed from existing data and validated with a new flight test database, built-in data reduction tools, and expert system design guidance. The TRADE-FQ toolbox will directly support the Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics, Subsonic Fixed Wing Aircraft, topic under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics program wherein a stated objective is to develop "flying qualities design guidelines for civil transport aircraft and methods for evaluating the flying qualities of concept transport aircraft…" Beyond this initial focus, the toolbox will also support the NASA Aviation Safety program by providing a means to directly assess aircraft susceptibility to pilot-vehicle system loss of control including pilot-induced oscillations. The toolbox will be designed to support NASA design and test activities including on-line flight/simulator tests as a control room asset and off-line analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate commercial application of the TRADE-FQ technology is the development, testing, certification, and safe operation of modern commercial transport aircraft. TRADE-FQ may significantly enhance the certification process that is currently based on existing requirements that do not account for significant augmentation or non-traditional response types that are possible with fly-by-wire flight control systems. The initial target market envisioned for this product will, therefore, be the worldwide commercial aircraft manufacturing industry and related flight test facilities. Secondary markets include the many large aircraft programs within the U.S. Department of Defense including the Air Force KC-X tanker program, the Air Force C-17, the Navy P-8 Poseidon that is based on a Boeing 737-800, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Expert Systems
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.07-9816
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight and Propulsion Control and Dynamics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flight Dynamic Simulation with Nonlinear Aeroelastic Interaction using the ROM-ROM Procedure

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ping Chih Chen
pc@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Dr.
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes to develop an integrated flight dynamics simulation capability with nonlinear aeroelastic interactions by combining a flight dynamics model and an added-on nonlinear aeroelastic solver in a Simulink environment. This nonlinear aeroelastic solver is generated by interacting a nonlinear structural reduced order model (ROM) with a Neural-Network-based (NN-based) aerodynamic ROM, called the ROM-ROM procedure, to provide the incremental aeroelastic forces and moments to a given flight dynamics model. In this way, the flight dynamics model is kept with minimum changes so that this integrated flight dynamics simulation remains in the frame work of a 6 degrees-of-freedom simulation environment. The nonlinear structural ROM employs a so-called ELSTEP/FAT procedure that operates on a nonlinear finite element method, such as MSC.Nastrans solution 106 to construct a set of modal-based nonlinear stiffness matrices. The NN-based aerodynamic ROM is generated using a system identification technique operating on a CFD code to evaluate the weights and biases in a two-layer feed-forward neural network system. The end product is called NL-DFS which can simulate the key aeroelastic coupling mechanism between nonlinear structural dynamics and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics with classical rigid body dynamics of a slender, flexible and sizable aircraft in nonlinear aerodynamic flight conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A flight dynamics simulation capability with an added-on nonlinear aeroelastic solver is still not available. NASA has been working for many years towards achieving a software package that would accurately predict the interaction between flight dynamics considering airframe structural flexibility in closed-loop with flight control laws. The proposed NL-DFS is aimed at providing an expedient multidisciplinary nonlinear flight simulation tool to perform an efficient flaw debugging for advanced control laws as well as to promote physical understanding of the in-flight observed dynamic behaviors due to evolutionary designs. It also will assist in the prediction of the instabilities onset prior to envelop expansion programs. NL-DFS will be especially valuable during NASA's current and next generation flying quantities and envelope expansion programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ZONA's business plan for NL-DFS will follow ZONA's flagship software, called: ZAERO, product/service sales strategy. The added capabilities developed in NL-DFS will strengthen ZONA's market position in the aerospace industry. NL-DFS will be marketed towards flight test applications on a wide class of aerospace vehicles such as: (a) USAF's F-22 and F-35 aircrafts at Edwards AFB, (b) UASF's Hilda, sensorcraft as well as stealth and morphing UAV/UCAV, (c) DARPA's Morphing Aerostructure (MAS), (d) Boeing 7E7 and future executive jet designs of Cessna, Raytheon, etc. The proposed NL-DFS can also be applied to validate health management strategies specifically designed for aircraft designs with prominent aeroelastic characteristics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Structural Modeling and Tools
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.08-8224
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design Environment for Multi-Fidelity and Multi-Disciplinary Components

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mechanical Solutions, Inc.
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany, NJ 07981-1423
(973) 326-9920

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Olson
ejo@mechsol.com
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany,  NJ 07981-1423
(973) 326-9920

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Many of the most challenging categories of propulsion system development are related to the prediction of interacting effects between the fluid loads, thermal loads, and the structural deflection. In practice, the interactions between technical disciplines are often not fully explored analytically, and the analysis in one discipline often uses a simplified representation of other disciplines as an input or boundary condition. For example, the fluid forces in an engine generate static and dynamic rotor deflection, but the forces themselves are dependent on the rotor position and its orbit. A typical design practice might involve predicting the fluid and thermal loads for various conditions and passing those estimates along for inclusion with the structural model. This practice ignores the interaction between the physical phenomena where the outcome of each analysis can be heavily dependent on the inputs (i.e., changes in flow due to deflection, changes in deflection due to fluid forces). Such a rigid design process also lacks the flexibility to employ multiple levels of fidelity in the analysis of each of the components. In this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) proposes to extend two existing software tools to develop a design environment with both breadth (to cover multiple disciplines) and depth (to cover multiple levels of fidelity).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
By providing an integrated framework for turbomachinery analysis, the work in this project will reduce the time and complexity of the multiphysics analyses (job setup, solution control, pre- and post-processing). This work directly addresses NASA design environment goals as engineering teams will have the capability to employ multi-fidelity physics-based tools to reduce the failure rate and development cost of propulsion systems. In this proposed work, the extension of CoMAT to work with NPSS will enhance the capabilities of both tools, and will facilitate a broader range of multi-fidelity, multi-disciplinary analyses and simulations of complete vehicle systems. The numeric zoom functions in NPSS will be enhanced with the fluid-structure interaction capability of CoMAT. Similarly, the high-fidelity analysis in CoMAT will be leveraged by the high level functions in NPSS. Since both tools are built to work with proprietary and 3rd party solvers, MSI is confident of the commercialization potential of this work.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The accomplishment of all Phase I objectives will demonstrate the significant benefits of the combined multi-fidelity / multi-disciplinary design environment. This capability would be immediately useful for the design and development of civilian and military gas turbine engines. Such an analytical capability will also assist the wider turbomachinery community with avoidance of advanced designs, leading to a successful commercialization of the new tool.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Feed System Components
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.08-8824
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Discrete Geometry Toolkit for Shape Optimization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Optimal LLC
181 Summertree Road
STARKVILLE, MS 39759 - 9761
(662) 325-2286

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Greg Burgreen
burgreen@o-ptimal.com
181 Summertree Road
STARKVILLE, MS 39759 - 9761
(662) 325-2286

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Simulation-based design optimization has been steadily maturing over the past two decades, but not without its own unique and persistent challenges. The proposed project will develop a novel solution to one of the long-standing bottlenecks in simulation-based design optimization. Particularly, we will develop a flexible geometry toolkit for shape parameterization and modification as required for design optimization. With our discrete geometry toolkit, shape modifications will be achieved via an elegant and intuitive "plug-and-play" approach, providing engineers with a wide variety of options for shape parameterization, shape deformation, and geometric constraint imposition. Our geometry toolkit will be composed of independent modules and will be easily integrated into existing or future analysis and design environments. Our approach will offer a modular and intuitive means to interactively synthesize appropriate modifications to discrete geometry shapes in a design optimization setting including the specification of geometric constraints and interdisciplinary data transfer.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Several design-oriented projects and design environments are being developed at the various NASA Research Centers, including the NPSS, CoHAVE, ADVISE, FUN3D, TetrUSS, and CART3D design environments. A common requirement of each of these design environments is the need for shape parameterization and modification. Our proposed geometry toolkit approach enables a very flexible and elegant means to construct, refine, and explore combinations of techniques that produce different final geometry shapes. Our project will make available componentized geometry-related technologies that address critical areas needs to enable next-generation design optimization. NASA can immediately benefit from our design-oriented components in its design efforts as well as in analysis-only environments in which rapid shape modifications are desired.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Design environments incorporating knowledge based engineering are increasingly being developed. Examples include the AVEC environment developed by the Air Force based on the commercially available Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) product as well as the commercial design frameworks of ModelCenter (Phoenix Integration) and MDICE (CFDRC). Our proposed componentized geometry toolkit will readily integrate within such environments, giving immediate relief to the needs that have crippled progress in design optimization for the past two decades. The potential markets for our software are very broad. Our software can be used for fluid dynamic applications in the aerodynamic, automotive, biomedical, turbomachinery, and hydroelectric fields as well as for structural and electromagnetic applications. Each of these markets can immensely benefit from automated design optimization, provided that flexible geometry manipulation is no longer an impediment.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.


TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.08-9364
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Network of Optimizations for Aircraft Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michigan Engineering Services, LLC
2890 Carpenter Road, Suite 1900
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1100
(734) 358-0792

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim He
jim_he@miengsrv.com
2890 Carpenter Road, Suite 1900
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1100
(734) 477-5710

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue, controls, propulsion, corrosion, maintenance, and manufacturing. A lot of attention has been paid during the past fifteen years in the Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) nature of the aircraft design process. However, a consistent void in aircraft design is the ability to integrate high-fidelity computational capabilities from multiple disciplines within an organized MDO environment. Integrating high fidelity simulation technology (that has been developed over the years though significant investments) within a MDO environment will constitute a disruptive technological development in aircraft design. The ability to replace time consuming solvers with metamodels within the highly iterative environment of an integrated network of optimizations is critical for engaging high fidelity simulation tools in the MDO analysis of complex aircraft systems. Previous work completed by the proposing firm has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting such MDO analysis for an aircraft system, while considering outer mold line shape optimization and structural sizing simultaneously. Since the ability to create metamodels from results obtained at a number of sample points from the actual solvers is the key enabling factor for conducting the multi-discipline optimization analysis, the proposed project will use as foundation the existing metamodeling capability of the proposing firm and will pursue new research that will lead to the development of a powerful stand-alone commercial product for metamodel development. The latter, along with the proposing firm's MDO solver will provide the means for operating an integrated network of optimizations for designing aircraft systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerodynamics, strength, fatigue, controls, propulsion, corrosion, maintenance, and manufacturing concerns are present in aircraft structures, rotorcraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. In all of these areas simulations are utilized during design. High fidelity simulation methods have been developed under significant investment in the different disciplines. However they remain rather compartmentalized, and at best only a sequential interaction process is exercised. Therefore engaging available high fidelity simulations within a multi-disciplinary design optimization environment will bring new technology to all NASA groups interested in reducing weight and cost when designing aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The marketing effort will target companies and organizations within the aerospace field (NASA, space vehicles, aircraft manufacturers, rotorcraft applications, launch vehicle industries), the shipbuilding, the automotive, the military ground vehicle, and the heavy construction equipment. All of these industries use multi-physics simulation models for assessing the performance of their products during design; and they all have needs for designing products based on economic viability and making the complex design optimization process easy to use. Thus, there is a great market potential for the outcome of this SBIR project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Expert Systems
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Composites
Computational Materials
Metallics
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.08-9796
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Analysis, Design and Optimization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Fidelity Multi-Strategy and Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dong-Hwan Lee
dhlee@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Dr.
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578
(480) 945-9988

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO) tools developed to perform multi-disciplinary analysis based on low fidelity computation methods have been used in aircraft conceptual design for decades. These tools have been proven very effective for simple problems and mostly have been developed as a single codes. However, as analyses have become more complex and the need to consider more design factors crucial, such codes have grown so large as to be inconceivable and difficult to maintain. Nowadays, the design optimization process of a modern airplane must account for all failure modes and behavior constraints. In addition, it should cover manufacturing constraints and limitations on available resources, such as power, weight, and cost, simultaneously. This has to be done in an integrated way, so that the effects of any change in the design on all constraints and behavior measures are accurately modeled, and all interactions and trade-offs among design variables and disciplines are allowed to affect the design. ZONA Technology (ZONA) and its team member (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), hereinafter referred to as "the ZONA team", propose in Phase I to develop a multi-fidelity, multi-strategy and multi-disciplinary design optimization environment, called the M3 Design Optimization Environment (M3 DOE) that consists of a three-layer optimization strategy, a multi-fidelity aerodynamic discipline, and a finite element analysis including outer mold line morphing and topology re-meshing capability. The M3 DOE allows the designer to select an appropriate optimization strategy and an aerodynamic method with an appropriate fidelity to obtain an optimum design with desired accuracy within the allowable time constraint.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has recognized the benefit of MDO framework applicable to design completely new aircraft and/or improve existing aircraft. The proposed M3 DOE can be directly applicable for sizing and/or shape optimization of aircraft while considering multi-disciplines like flutter, trim, stress, strain, and buckling in conceptual and/or preliminary design phases. The M3 DOE consists of a three-layer optimization strategy, a multi-fidelity aerodynamic discipline, and a finite element analysis including outer mold line morphing and topology re-meshing capability. The multi-fidelity aerodynamic disciplines include three types of aerodynamic methods, i.e., ZONA6/7 for linear subsonic and supersonic panel methods, ZTRAN method in ZAERO for transonic unsteady aerodynamics, and ZEUS (ZONA's Euler Unsteady Solver). The multi-strategy optimization approach provides designers with flexibility to select level of optimization as needed between structural sizing, topology optimization of the internal structure, and outer mold line shape optimization. The M3 DOE will allow NASA to more rapidly modify existing and/or design new aircraft by obtaining a higher level of fidelity in the optimized solutions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The M3 DOE is a necessary tool to design aircraft in conceptual and/or preliminary design phases that establishes multi-fidelity unsteady aerodynamic loads and rapid aeroelastic shape design of complex flight vehicles. It can be directly employed for sizing and/or shape optimization of aircraft considering multi-disciplines like flutter, static aerodynamic loads, stress, strain, and buckling in conceptual and/or preliminary design phases. It is expected that this tool will readily be adopted by the aerospace industry and the U.S. DoD to develop a wide class of aerospace vehicles: UAVs/UCAVs, supersonic business jets and transports, advanced transonic transports, and fighter aircraft, hypervelocity missiles, and winged projectiles (with optimized fin/canard/wing). The M3 DOE has great potential to be adopted by the flutter and loads, conceptual design and configuration development departments of airplane manufacturers' both nationally and world-wide.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.09-8083
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rotorcraft Diagnostics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
100 Great Meadow Road, Suite 603
Wethersfield, CT 06109-2355
(860) 257-8014

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deepak Haste
deepak@teamqsi.com
100 Great Meadow Road, Suite 603
Wethersfield,  CT 06109-2355
(860) 761-9351

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A versatile self-sustained health management (HM) solution comprising of lightweight, power efficient, portable hardware and highly accurate analytic and reasoning software is the envisioned outcome of this effort. The HM solution will be equipped with customizable feature extraction, fault detection, identification and classification algorithms. A built in powerful reasoner and capability of porting dependency models and user defined analytic algorithms make the solution usable in a variety of HM application. Especially, the solution is suitable for on-component embedding in rotorcraft and fixed wing aircraft. Capability of storing data and HM decisions and communicating with a variety of data/communication bus systems empowers such solutions to function in a collaborative manner and attain vehicle level health management capability. Integration of the dependency models embedded in the individual HM solutions on a vehicle computer, and supplying it with component level observations and the HM outcomes achieves the vehicle level HM. The same reasoning and analytic algorithms can be reused here. Combining the vehicle and system level observation HM outcome and usage information can facilitate fleet level CBM through this effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Rotorcraft Diagnostic health management (HM) solution resulting from this approach will comprise of lightweight, energy efficient hardware, powerful real-time reasoning engine, and customizable dependency model and algorithms. Such features make this HM solution ideal for on-component embedding in various NASA and civilian engineering systems. Automobiles, helicopters, and aircraft are the most promising commercial deployment platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Additionally, the solution is well suited in the arena where enterprise level monitoring, HM, and CBM and adaptive updating of reliability estimates are necessary. OEMs and Service Providers of Hi-value machines/equipment whose health condition is imperative (e.g., in semiconductor industry, and medical sector) for business operations are another segment of potential commercial customers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.09-8630
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Alumina Fiber-Reinforced 9310 Steel Metal Matrix Composite for Rotorcraft Drive System Components

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Selin
jim.selin@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AISI 9310 nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy steel is used extensively in military helicopter rotor shafts and gears. This reliable alloy provides excellent fatigue life combined with high hardness, elastic modulus, and tensile strength. However, to facilitate rapid speed changes of variable drive systems in high-performance rotorcraft, these steel components must weigh less and have lower rotational inertia. Ultramet will develop and demonstrate a material system consisting of continuous alumina fiber-reinforced 9310 steel. Relative to the unmodified alloy, this material system will offer reduced weight, increased strength, and increased stiffness while maintaining the excellent heat treatment properties and hardening schedules of 9310 steel. The composite will be lighter than the base alloy by 15–23%, possess significantly higher specific strength and stiffness, maintain comparable corrosion resistance, and allow the continued use of proven 9310 steel. The composite will be produced using an innovative variant of Ultramet's rapid, low-cost pressureless melt infiltration technology previously demonstrated for fabrication of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed material system will combine the many benefits of metal matrix composites with the established material systems for high-performance rotorcraft shafts and gears. Using the technology to make lighter and stronger drive system components will enable rapidly variable speed drive systems suitable for large rotorcraft. The composite will have application in all rotorcraft hardware currently using 9310 or other alloy steels in an axial or near-axial configuration. The technology will also find use in turboshaft output shafts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed material system may find use in air and ground vehicle power train and power transmission components, providing reduced weight, reduced rotational inertia, and increased resonant frequency. Shafts made of the material may also be used in deep oil well drilling and exploration as well as in land-based power generation equipment. Its properties of low wear and high hardness offer the manufacturing and metals industries an opportunity to reduce tool replacement costs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Composites
Metallics
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.09-8823
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flight Adaptive Blade for Optimum Rotor Response (FABFORR)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert McKillip, Jr.
bob@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302
(609) 538-0444

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
While past research has demonstrated the utility and benefits to be gained with the application of advanced rotor system control concepts, none have been implemented to date on a production military or commercial rotorcraft. A key contributor to this fact is the inherent cost associated with installation and maintenance of these control systems, since many system designs require the replacement of a helicopter's rotor blades, rotor hub components, or both. The proposed work addresses this deficiency through the development of an on-blade full-span camber control system that reaps many of the known benefits of advanced rotor control, in a retrofit design approach that has the potential to achieve production status due to its lower risks and costs compared to previous system concepts. The design leverages past work in the use of smart-material actuated bistable tabs for rotor blade tracking, with a newer integral actuation concept that will lead toward a more robust and flightworthy design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Having the capability to alter the spanwise camber of rotor blades could be used to investigate aeromechanics issues of rotorcraft that could lead to the development of optimal operational profiles to maximize the utility and cost-effectiveness of existing and future helicopter designs incorporating these control features.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Retrofit blade controls may enhance the performance, and reduce both acoustic emissions and blade-induced vibrations of suitably equipped rotorcraft over baseline vehicles. Since this capability could be achieved using technology that does not require the re-blading of an existing helicopter, a significant commercial product improvement program for a variety of aircraft would be possible. Military operators would also realize improved mission capability and reduced aircraft downtime with these anticipated improvements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.09-9045
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Towards More Efficient Comprehensive Rotor Noise Simulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CASCADE Technologies, Inc.
1330 Charleston Road
Mountain View, CA 94043-1331
(650) 691-6067

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bono Wasistho
wasistho@turbulentflow.com
1330 Charleston Rd
Mountain View,  CA 94043-1331
(650) 691-6064

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rotorcraft design and optimization currently still rely largely on simplified (low-fidelity) models, such as rotor disk or wake models to reduce the turn-around time and allow exploration of a large parameter space. On the other hand, accurate noise prediction requires first principle, high fidelity simulations to capture small scales, highly unsteady aerodynamic sources of noise. This forces us to resort to component-wise acoustics computations, ignoring the fact that different components in the system affect each other in generating noise. The objective of this proposal is to develop high fidelity rotor noise simulation capabilities that allow multi-components noise prediction and exploration of a large parameter space inherent to design processes. The distinctive aspect of the present proposal is the use of a novel discretization method based on Adaptive Vorticity Confinement technique to counteract the numerical dissipation of the underlying spatial discretization scheme in a dynamic fashion. The concept has been proven successful in controlled flow setting, allowing direct comparison with analytical solution and laboratory experiment. The primary task in this project is to extend this concept to general flow and computational environment, focusing on Blade-Vortex Interaction noise prediction as initially targeted milestone.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The increase efficiency in rotor noise source computations due to the proposed adaptive algorithm to discretely conserve circulation will support NASA objectives regarding system noise prediction. It will enhance system capabilities that combine the components so that rotorcraft source noise and its propagation can be investigated with increase confidence for noise impact due to rotor design and/or rotorcraft operations and procedures. Our multi-code multi-physics flexible framework, CHIMPS, will enable plug and play of various tools with a range of fidelity. Further enhancement of this technology in the area of rotorcraft simulations is align with NASA vision in multidisciplinary predictive capabilities and in development and assessment of range of noise technologies and noise mitigation procedures

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Broader applications of the findings and products resulted from the proposed research project can be found in any engineering problems involving rotor dynamics, such as in maritime and wind-energy applications, and in any niche fluid dynamic problems where vortex generation, capturing, preservation during transport, and subsequent interaction with fluid or solid structures are essential, for instance noise prediction inside hard-disk drive.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Simulation Modeling Environment


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.09-9343
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhanced Prediction of Gear Tooth Surface Fatigue Life

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sentient Corporation
850 Energy Drive
Idaho Falls, ID 83401-2480
(208) 522-8560

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Bolander
nbolander@sentientscience.com
850 Energy Drive, Suite 307
Idaho Falls,  ID 83401-1503
(208) 522-8560

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sentient will develop an enhanced prediction of gear tooth surface fatigue life with rigorous analysis of the tribological phenomena that contribute to pitting failure. Advanced mixed-elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) models that are capable of fully describing the tribology of the mating gear teeth will be utilized to determine the influence of surface roughness and asperity interaction on the stresses driving the degradation of the surface. These factors are not rigorously addressed by currently available solutions. The lubrication analysis will be coupled with a damage accumulation algorithm that takes into account fatigue initiation at the level of the material microstructure. This integrated software will be the world's first physics-based gear tooth life estimation model with rigorous consideration of lubrication and pitting/scuffing damage progression in nominally loaded and misaligned gears. When complete, an end-user of the software will input the design parameters of a gearbox along with a mission load spectrum, and the software will output the estimated service lives of its gears. If the historical or anticipated load spectrum happens to change, the altered spectrum can be input and the life recomputed. This flexibility provides the most accurate and up-to-date estimations of both the current gearbox health and of the remaining life.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential points of application for this technology within NASA. The proposed algorithms and techniques are general to all gear teeth, and as such would find application in the design of new gearbox geometries such as the face gears being utilized in next generation rotorcraft. Gears are a ubiquitous component in power transmission systems, the enhanced lifing capability provided by the this technology would be beneficial across the board.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is enormous commercial potential for design software that fills the gaps in current understanding of gearbox life. Traditionally, due to a lack of fundamental understanding and methods to incorporate gear teeth interaction, gearboxes are simply "overdesigned" by incorporating large safety factors. However, this approach becomes problematic in applications where constrained weight and space are desirable (e.g. aerospace, wind turbines, etc.). The proposed software provides a more rigorous analysis of gear tooth life based on a fundamental understanding of the tribological phenomena at the gear mesh. This software will provide a means of optimizing gearbox designs for weight and size, as well as improved estimations of gearbox life under variable loading. This latter factor is a proving to be of significant interest in both commercial and military applications, as it is an enabling technology for condition-based maintenance strategies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Structural Modeling and Tools
Computational Materials
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.09-9940
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Rotorcraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rotorcraft Diagnostics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ridgetop Group, Inc.
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson, AZ 85704-5645
(520) 742-3300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Justin Judkins
justin.judkins@ridgetopgroup.com
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson,  AZ 85704-5645
(520) 742-3300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Under this SBIR program, Ridgetop will introduce the first low-cost, low-power, and lightweight data monitoring solution for rotorcraft diagnostics. The solution is an integrated MEMS-based sensors fabricated by a MEMS-first CMOS process methodology. The device measures temperature, shock, and vibration from multiple sensors integrated onto a single substrate that also contains submicron-scale CMOS electronics for the associated readout and data storage functions. High-sensitivity MEMS structures will be developed, and associated sense amplifiers that exploit low power transistors biased to operate in the subthreshold regions will be introduced. Further scaling in power is achieved by leveraging ultra-small geometries available in modern processes (e.g., 130 nm minimum feature length and below).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improved temperature-shock-vibration sensors will support the Subsonic Rotary Wing thrust of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, as well as NASA's IVHM goals for future aircraft, satellites, and similar systems. The proposed technology will significantly help monitor and diagnose harmful vibration effects inherent to flight operation. With strong existing relationships with several NASA sites and a reputation for excellent service and products among the NASA community, Ridgetop anticipates collaboration with NASA SRW testbeds at Glenn Research Center to help optimize the technology through Phase II and into actual implementation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial rotorcraft have been known to suffer significantly from structural and electronic stress as a result of the vibration levels caused by routine flight. As such, the proposed innovation which will be able to collect and process critical diagnostic data will be very advantageous for manufacturers and operators. For manufacturers, the tool will be very useful during field testing as a measurement utility for vibration and accumulated stress. For commercial operators such as Bell Helicopter and Sikorsky, the proposed innovation will be instrumental in the real-time efficient analysis of diagnostic routines critical to safe flights.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Highly-Reconfigurable
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.10-8976
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Design and Integration of a Distributed Fan Propulsion System within a Split-Wing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Empirical Systems Aerospace, LLC
561 Airpark Drive, Hanger D
Oceano, CA 93445-9665
(895) 275-1053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Waters
mark.waters@esaero.com
561 Airpark Dr., Hanger D
Oceano,  CA 93445-9665
(805) 275-1053

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A baseline propulsion system has been designed as a starting point in a previous SBIR effort for this project which consists of two turboshaft engines, a generator coupled directly (no gearbox) with each engine, and electric cables to motors that drive shrouded fans installed in or over the wing. For this baseline, there are eight fans per wing, and the turboshaft engines use kerosene fuel as the energy source. One major issue faced by this type of configuration is the propulsion integration of not only the structure with motors in a split wing, but also the aerodynamics of such a configuration. In the previous study, high pressure recovery inlets, exhaust nozzle area control, thrust vectoring and variable pitch fans were considered, along with the initial layout of the entire structural integration. The work proposed here aims to further address these concerns and outline a potential fan, inlet and nozzle design methodology for split-wing distributed propulsion. This methodology can be turned into a design tool, for which the framework will be created as part of this study to be fully completed in a possible Phase II. In addition, and most important to this topic, several aerodynamic aircraft concepts have also been looked at under currently supported work with California Polytechnic State University on their N+2 NRA contract to study future CESTOL aircraft and during internal study efforts at ESAero. The work proposed here will complement much of that work by taking a better look at some novel integration arrangements in the configurations. This will specifically address overall vehicle efficiency by looking at the aerodynamic concepts inherently designed into the aircraft. This will be an important part of the study, as a properly integrated distributed propulsion system will offer the means to reduce "specific" fuel consumption, thereby increasing aircraft operating efficiencies to reduce overall mission fuel burn.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The benefits to civil aviation literally apply to all of the important goals established by NASA for the N+3 time frame. These goals include reduced fuel burn with the attendant reduction in emissions, reduced community noise due to the very low jet velocities of the distributed fans, improved safety with the use of a common electrical bus connecting the engine power to the fans and a prospect for STOL aircraft design due to the versatility of engine and fan cycles between takeoff and cruise. Funding this research could provide the NASA with a better look at the cryogenically cooled superconducting electric distributed propulsion system, which was shown in a previous SBIR proposal to carry substantial benefits over SOTA and even future competing propulsion systems. The Tasks proposed here are directly applicable to NASA's current SSFW directives and a complement to its current activities in not only the SBIR arena, but also the NRA arena specific to these types of aircraft. NASA is looking for improved subsonic transport aerodynamics and noise improvements, of which need to be incorporated early in the aircraft design process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Currently, three major military tactical airlift vehicles are being considered. The C-130 replacement, the EAGL C-5 replacement out of AFRL, and the Joint Future Theater Lift also out of AFRL. The design methodology applied here to regional airliners can be modified for various sizes of cargo aircraft in a straightforward manner, and can be provided as early as the end of Phase I to these organizations to these on-going military mission studies. The propulsion system additionally can be applied to all of the programs. With the anticipated volume of the wings, fuselage and empennage of the anticipated transport aircraft, there is plenty of adequate room to integrate a cryogenically-cooled electric distributed propulsion system with minimal effect on the outer moldlines of the chosen configuration, as the design and integration and potential Phase II analysis would demonstrate. The resulting UAVs from the methodology would be smaller and more efficient than current fuel powered aircraft. With the considerations currently being discussed within NASA and FAA, the noise of the proposed propulsion system and aerodynamic concepts would be less than that of UAVs flying today. A large UAS, like the Global Hawk, or the maritime version, Broad Area Maritime Surveillance can benefit greatly from the proposed propulsion system as an increase of efficiency will lead to longer loiter times for the BAMS mission and longer range flights for Air Force Reconnaissance missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Structural Modeling and Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Composites
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.10-9062
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cooled Ceramic Turbine Vane

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
N&R Engineering
6659 Pearl Road, #201
Parma Heights, OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Boyle
rbrjboyle@gmail.com
6659 Pearl Road, Suite 201
Parma Heights,  OH 44130-3821
(440) 845-7020

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
N&R Engineering will investigate the feasibility of cooled ceramics, such as ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blade concepts that can decrease specific fuel consumption while reducing NOX emissions. The conflict between efficiency and emissions will require a careful balancing of material selection, turbine inlet temperature, and cooling air. Parametric aero-thermal and structural analyses of selected ceramic blade concepts will be performed to identify blade design and cooling concepts, and to quantify vane and rotor cooling flow rates. Tailoring of the cooling flows allows for optimization of efficiency and emission reductions. Both internal only and film cooling flows will be determined for a range of material properties, loads, and mainstream air and coolant temperatures. Probabilistic thermal/structural analysis will identify the sensitivity of heat transfer and structural parameters to uncertainties in blade thermal conductivity and other material properties, as well as loads and geometry. The proposed effort goes beyond previous laboratory demonstrations of cooling concepts by determining more precisely ceramic blade cooling required to achieve specified performance metrics. The methodology will be developed to a level that will permit validation in an environment relevant to commercial jet engines. This will take the TRL from a current level of 4 to 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Fundamental Aeronautics program aims to reduce aircraft emissions and fuel burn. Improved understanding of high pressure turbine cooling air requirements when using ceramic blades contributes to these goals. The higher temperature capabilities of ceramic vanes reduces the required amount of cooling air. For a fixed rotor inlet temperature reduced coolant lowers the combustor outlet temperature, and this significantly reduces NOX formation. Reducing rotor coolant improves specific fuel consumption, which also reduces CO2 emissions. In the long run improved specific fuel consumption has a multiplier effect on total fuel consumption, since either the aircraft empty weight is reduced or the payload fraction is increased. This work is also applicable to applications where cooled ceramics are used. For example, efficiently cooled ceramic combustor liners reduce NOX production.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ceramic vanes and rotors can enable higher turbine inlet temperatures for land based gas turbines. Efficient cooling of these components leads to reduced heat rates (Kg-fuel/Mw-hr) in these applications. Because combined cycle gas turbines operate as base load plants, even a small improvement in heat rate significantly reduces fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Siemens Corporation has publicly expressed their desire to used ceramic blades in the ground power applications. Simple cycle gas turbines, with their lower cycle efficiencies, also benefit from efficiently cooled ceramic blades. A small absolute increase in cycle efficiency from cooled ceramics results in a large relative improvement in heat rates. Solar Turbines published results of their ceramic turbine investigations. Reduced heat rates contribute to the national goals of reduced fuel consumption and fewer CO2 emissions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Cooling
Structural Modeling and Tools
Ceramics
Composites
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.10-9689
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fan Noise Screening Rig for New Open Rotor and Propeller Concepts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aero Systems Engineering, Inc.
358 East Fillmore Avenue
St. Paul, MN 55107-1289
(651) 227-7515

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Week
rweek@aerosysengr.com
358 East Fillmore Ave
St. Paul,  MN 55107-1289
(651) 220-1205

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Recent advancements in open rotor engine concepts warrant continued research, however the cost of wind tunnel tests is not insignificant. Because the jet noise of an open rotor engine, or even that of a geared fan, is very low in relation to the fan noise, it is evident that fan noise reduction technology is now just as important as jet noise reduction. A low cost test system is needed that would allow for comprehensive technology screening of open rotor concepts permitting more testing to be conducted at a lower overall cost. The approach to developing such a system will be to maximize the use of current technology in the selection and development of components. The first step to achieving this goal will be a design study that will include the following activities: define test criteria, further investigate drive motor and bearing technology, perform dynamic and structural analysis, define services such as power, cooling, lubrication, health monitoring, prepare fabrication estimate.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A fundamental enterprise goal of NASA is to develop new and less expensive research and test technologies for the advancement of aerodynamics. The test rig resulting from this study would provide a less expensive technology screening facility capable of demonstrating new open rotor or propeller concepts. A potential site for use of this test rig may be in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Lab (AAPL).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The test technology resulting from this study may allow for derivative test rigs to be constructed for test in other non-NASA test facilities. Examples include the GE Aviation Cell 41 acoustic test facility in Evendale, Ohio or the Boeing Corporation Low Speed Aero-acoustic Facility (LSAF) in Seattle, Washington. Additionally, a modular, transportable test apparatus may be conceived of that would allow for testing a common rig in different test sites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A2.10-9759
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nathan Fitzgerald
nfitzgerald@aurora.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-0279

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been proven to increase the stage loading of gas turbine compressors and fans, potentially allowing weight reduction through the reduction of compression stages or through the reduction of stresses through decreased spool speeds. Additionally, aspiration has the potential to increase the low Reynolds number capability of an engine through improved control of the viscous boundary layer. Low Re capability is important for the performance of high altitude engines operating in low density air, as well as of lower power, micro-scale engines. Although the component level benefits of aspiration have been experimentally verified and the design techniques established, the issues surrounding the integration of the technology in an engine system have yet to be adequately addressed. The performance benefit of aspiration to an engine system will depend on the details of how bleed air from the compressor is utilized elsewhere in the engine cycle. The maximum benefit of the technology will also depend on the net weight reduction achievable once all supporting subsystems are taken into account. Aurora proposes to investigate the interdependences between aspiration flow requirements, weight reduction, and overall cycle efficiency as part of an optimization effort to maximize the capability of a HALE engine. The effort will define the benefits of compressor aspiration in a low Reynolds number environment and provide the rational for using the HALE mission as a launch application for this promising technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has operated many high altitude science platforms that could benefit from the application of compressor aspiration. Vehicles such as the General Atomics Altair, Lockheed Martin ER-2, the Northrop Grumman Global Hawk, and WB-57 are powered by turboprop or turbofan engines, and all provide NASA with time on station at high altitude to perform scientific missions. Several of the aircraft built for NASA's ERAST program used internal combustion engines with multiple stages of turbocharging. The proposed work specifically aims to improve the utility of these kinds of aircraft by increasing the altitude and endurance that can be achieved despite the low density, low Reynolds number conditions. Compressor aspiration has the potential to control the effects of increased viscosity with increasing altitude through the removal of low energy flow from the compressor before it can cause separation and ultimately reduce compressor efficiency. It can also increase stage loading, reducing the number of axial compressor or turbocharger stages required. These performance and weight enhancements could allow for a leap in the ability of high altitude science vehicles to stay on station, as well as allow for increases in the maximum service ceiling.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aspiration has been experimentally proven to roughly double the allowable stage loading of a fan or compressor in a gas turbine engine. The potential exists to cut the number of stages required for a given pressure ratio in half, essentially halving the weight and length of the component. This will directly affect the power to weight ratio the engine and reduce the overall engine volume. This technology is applicable to air vehicles requiring high thrust to weight or compact engines. In particular, the combination of high thrust to weight and compact form factor makes the technology attractive for military fighter aircraft engines. Additionally, this technology may be applied in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, where thrust to weight is of paramount concern. Finally, the low Reynolds number aspect of the proposed research could have implications for small engines. Whereas high altitude engines experience low Reynolds numbers due to low density, the short length scale in small engines increases the importance of viscosity and reduces performance. This technology could be utilized to increase the performance of smaller gas turbines that power many unmanned vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Thermodynamic Conversion
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.01-8137
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Queuing Model-Based System for Triggering Traffic Flow Management Algorithms

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
P. K. Menon
menon@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Next generation air traffic management systems are expected use multiple software tools and quantitative methods for managing traffic flow in the National Airspace. NASA and other aerospace research centers are involved in developing advanced numerical algorithms for strategic traffic flow management. These algorithms can be invoked at fixed time intervals, or can be employed whenever adverse traffic flow conditions occur. In order to avoid spurious responses, the control algorithms should be used only when actual traffic flow problems are likely to arise, and not in response to normal flow variations. Queuing models describe the aggregate stochastic behavior of the national airspace, and can provide not only mean flow characteristics, but also the expected variations. This proposal advances the development of a queuing model-based methodology for triggering traffic flow management algorithms. The approach , based on the measured state of the national airspace system. The approach exploits recently-developed queuing models of the NAS, together with recent advances in estimation theory. Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of developing the traffic flow management triggering system using a simulation model of the national airspace system. Phase II research will integrate this methodology with NASA's traffic flow management algorithms, and assess the overall system performance n the ACES environment. Algorithms and software developed under the SBIR project will be delivered to NASA at the end of Phase II work.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
By providing traffic flow management triggers, the proposed system will contribute towards the NASA-NGATS research program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The strategic TFM triggering system developed under the proposed research will contribute towards the development of next-generation air traffic management technologies. The traffic flow management triggering technologies are useful in a wide variety of air traffic management applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.01-8419
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Estimation and Prediction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Trajectories

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive, Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538-6010
(970) 461-2000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nick Coult
nick.coult@numerica.us
4850 Hahns Peak Drive
Loveland,  CO 80538-6010
(970) 461-2000

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is serious concern about the introduction of UAV's into the National Air Space because of their potential to increase the risk of loss of separation (LOS) between aircraft. Many UAV's lack a ``sense and avoid'' (SAA) capability, i.e., they do not possess an adequate means of making the UAV pilot aware of the airspace around the platform, nor do they provide the mechanism for avoiding LOS with other aircraft. This program will address the need for LOS avoidance for UAV's operating in NAS through the development of target state estimation and trajectory prediction algorithms. Numerica proposes a research program that will focus on two critical aspects of SAA algorithms: • Development of a target state estimator that uses data up to the current time to form a robust estimate of the state vector (position, velocity, acceleration, and possibly other parameters). • Development of a target trajectory prediction algorithm. This component will take the target state estimate and probabilistically generate various possible target trajectory paths. The outcome of the research will be a complete proof-of-concept solution with a software prototype, and simulation results showing performance metrics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As NASA and the FAA continue development of the NextGen Airspace program through 2025, the need to safely integrate UAV's into the NAS will only grow. As such, NASA's Airspace Systems Program will be a key customer of the proposed technology. The technology could provide a prototype system for the Airspace Systems Program which demonstrates both a technical solution, and also the associated policies, procedures, and requirements for UAV's operating in the National Air Space. Additionally, the proposed technology could be integrated into a NASA simulation environment such as the Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool. Numerica would work closely with NASA program managers in the Airspace Systems Program and elsewhere as appropriate to develop a more complete NASA/FAA transition path for the technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ultra Electronics' Advanced Fusion and Tracking System (AFTS) could serve as a commercial platform for the technology. Many current users of AFTS have an increasing need for managing airspace with a mix of manned and unmanned platforms. Since Numerica already provides the tracking component of AFTS, the proposed technology could provide a significant add-on capability. The Army's Tactical Airspace Integration System (TAIS) already uses AFTS for airspace management. Con&#64258;ict detection in TAIS is presently handled on a purely manual basis. Numerica's technology would be a plug-in for AFTS which would include both trajectory estimation and prediction modules as described in this proposal, as well as plug-ins for Ultra's TacView user interface that automatically alert operators to potential LOS or other airspace con&#64258;icts. Furthermore, the US Navy uses a number of UAV platforms, and has two major programs developing new platforms, both of which could benefit from the proposed technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.01-8549
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Stochastic Queuing Model Analysis to Support Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos, CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Monish Tandale
monish@optisyn.com
95 First Street, Suite 240
Los Altos,  CA 94022-2777
(650) 559-8585

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has been involved in extensive research efforts to develop advanced concepts, technologies, and procedures for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The research focus area Airspace Super-Density Operations (ASDO) pertains to highly efficient operations at the busiest airports and terminal airspace. Deterministic analysis of the proposed NextGen concepts may not be sufficient, as inability of aircraft to adhere to flight schedules exactly and operational uncertainties may significantly alter the effectiveness of the proposed concepts. The primary objective of this research proposal is to create a High-Fidelity Queuing Model of the Terminal Area and a Framework for Performing Time-Varying Stochastic Analysis of Terminal Area Operations with regards to Input Schedule and Operational Uncertainties. This Queuing Model can be used to evaluate the interaction and combined performance of multiple NextGen concepts in the ASDO research focus area. The Phase I effort will develop a sample Queuing Network Model for a moderately complex terminal area, e.g. JFK. The utility of the developed Queuing Model and Analysis Techniques will be illustrated using two case-studies in the JFK terminal area. Phase II research effort proposes to develop integrated surface/terminal area queuing model of a Metroplex. Stochastic analysis of the Metroplex will be accelerated in Phase II using Graphics Processing Units.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of the Queuing Model developed in the course of this research is to serve as a Stochastic Analysis Tool to evaluate proposed NextGen concepts in the terminal area.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Apart from serving the primary function of supporting NASA research, the developed queuing model can be used: 1. As a Planning Tool by the FAA to forecast future state of the terminal area for TFM decision-making algorithms. 2. By Airline Operations Center to make decisions on canceling or re-scheduling flights in response to off-nominal events such as adverse weather conditions. 3. In Rapid Prototyping Tools that design terminal area routes and procedures to evaluate the efficiency of the designed route.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.01-8820
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Market Mechanisms for Airspace Flow Program Slots

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metron Aviation, Inc.
45300 Catalina Court, Suite 101
Dulles, VA 20166-2335
(703) 456-0123

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Brennan
brennan@metronaviation.com
45300 Catalina Court, Suite 101
Dulles,  VA 20166-2335
(703) 234-0743

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to design a system to support a marketplace in which flight operators can exchange arrival slots in traffic flow management (TFM) initiatives such as airspace flow programs (AFPs) and ground delay programs (GDPs) while requiring no changes in FAA automation or procedures. The advent of AFPs in 2006 has generated many more potentially exchangeable resources that would be valued sufficiently differently by their owners to make a trade desirable. We believe that NAS users and the FAA would embrace such a marketplace and that it would enable users to collectively reduce their operating costs resulting from NAS congestion. Both FAA and NASA research has highlighted the need for efficient and equitable allocation of NAS resources and increased operational flexibility. In the past market-based mechanisms have been suggested for transferring system-imposed delay from more critical to less critical flights. No such capability is available to NAS users today. In this SBIR, we will show how the advent of AFPs changes the forces at work in a slot-trading marketplace, making its functions much more valuable to flight operators. We will also design a system that will provide the aviation community with a means of reducing operating costs and increasing effective throughput by trading scarce NAS resources.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR directly benefits NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Air Traffic Management Airspace Project, whose primary goal is to develop integrated solutions for a safe, efficient and high-capacity airspace system. Efficient airspace allocation requires early research in market-based mechanisms for design of the next-generation air transportation system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed arrival slot marketplace has application in commercial air traffic management (ATM) both in the United States and abroad. In the U.S. ATM market, any resource broker attempting to establish a slot market will require the tools and procedures output by Phases 2 and 3 of this SBIR to act as a central processor and tracker of ATM-induced flight controls. At the same time, U.S. air carriers will require tools with which to monitor and manage their flight schedules and make informed, effective decisions for exchanging resources. Estimates of ATM costs due to delays range from hundreds of millions of dollars to billions of dollars per year. The opportunity to save even a fraction of these costs creates a significant amount of motivation for airline participation in a delay management system. It is reasonable to assume that the number of carriers willing to participate in this system will be comparable to the number of carriers now signed up as active members of the collaborative decision making (CDM) program there are about 25 CDM members which together operate 90% of all flights controlled by FAA-imposed ground delays.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.01-8821
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Integration into the NAS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metron Aviation, Inc.
45300 Catalina Court, Suite 101
Dulles, VA 20166-2335
(703) 456-0123

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hoffman
hoffman@metronaviation.com
45300 Catalina Court, Suite 101
Dulles,  VA 20166-2335
(703) 234-0760

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Technological innovations have enabled a wide range of aerial vehicles that can be remotely operated. Viable applications include military missions, law enforcement, border patrol, weather data collection, telecommunications, land use imaging, and cargo transport. NASA and other organizations have invested heavily in this unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) research. UAVs can be flown in the National Airspace System (NAS) today, but only with special permission from the FAA – a process that often takes 60 to 90 days. Moreover, permission is often contingent on heavy restrictions, such as accompanying the UAV with a manned chase plane, thereby nullifying the cost savings of a UAV. Full fruition of UAV technology will require incorporation of UAVs into mainstream air traffic management (ATM) practices, including traffic flow management flow control programs and possible creation of special use airspace (SUA). In this SBIR, we propose a UAV-to-traffic flow management (UAV-TFM) interface. This allows traffic managers to anticipate and track UAVs. In turn, this allows UAV operators to understand the their impact on commercial air traffic and their involvement in traffic management activities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR benefits NASA in three ways. (1) It furthers one of the main goals of NASA's Strategic Airspace Usage project, the increase of capacity and the enhancement of throughput in the national airspace system via development of long-term operational concepts for collaborative traffic management. (2) This SBIR preserves the integrity and applicability of NASA research and development of UAV technology by helping to overcome a primary obstacle to integration of UAVs into today's national airspace system. In particular, this research will encourage policy makers to accept the viability of UAVs. (3) NASA decision support tools developed for ATM, such as CTAS, TMA, FAST, and SMS will benefit from recommendations for how to account for UAV traffic into their logic.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FAA will benefit from this innovative research in several ways. (1) They will have a greater understanding of how they can grapple with changing traffic demand patterns and NAS user needs stemming from remote operation of vehicles. (2) The FAA will have access to a tool and operational paradigm for data exchange between UAV operators and FAA traffic managers. (3) The FAA will partially achieve one of the NextGen programmatic goals of equitable access to NAS resources for all NAS users. (4) This research will assist the future FAA task of setting UAV operation policies by providing insight into and feasibility of UAV integration into the national airspace system. (5) There possibly being a strong relation between UAVs and special use airspace, our proposed tool could be integrated with, thereby furthering, the FAA's special use airspace system (SAMS). Several other government agencies share responsibility for UAV integration, such as Dept. of Transportation, Dept. of Defense, US Forest Services, US Coast guard, and Office of Homeland Security.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.01-9485
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Agent-Based Collaborative Traffic Flow Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vcrsoft, LLC
2310 Bamboo Drive, Suite J303
Arlington, TX 76006-5952
(817) 213-6184

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
VC Ramesh
vcr@vcrsoft.com
2310 Bamboo Drive STE J303
Arlington,  TX 76006-5952
(817) 213-6184

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose agent-based game-theoretic approaches for simulation of strategies involved in multi-objective collaborative traffic flow management (CTFM). Intelligent agents represent two types of entities / players: FAA Traffic Management Unit (TMU) representatives, and Airline Operations Center (AOC) coordinators. The software modules resulting from this work are intended to be part of the NASA ARC multi-agent simulation toolkit for CTFM. The goal is to utilize game theory to understand the behavior of AOCs so that the CTFM system may be designed to yield improved performance of the NextGen AirSpace without compromising safety. We consider a spectrum of information sharing cases, from complete information sharing to incomplete information sharing where AOCs limit the transparency of their strategies to the FAA TMU. This agent-based simulation software will enhance the ability of the FAA (and other parties including NASA) to design proper collaboration protocols and incentives by studying the effects of different strategies by both types of players. We call this a "co-opetition" simulation tool since it allows analysis of competitive strategies between AOCs, while providing insights into how the TMU can promote greater cooperation by the AOCs for the common good. We should emphasize that the intent of the proposed software is NOT to design effective AOC strategies since that will be determined by the individual airlines, and not the CTFM system designers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We build on the ongoing research performed by NASA ARC researcher Shawn Wolfe and his colleagues, on the CTFM simulation system built using the Brahms multi-agent simulation environment. Our game theory module will be a "plug-in" to this toolkit and will enable the CTFM system designers to better appreciate the dynamics of cooperation and competition between the AOCs and the TMU. The obvious technology transition is to the NextGen Airspace project in the area of traffic flow management. The tool can be used both for simulation and for operational automation of CTFM concepts. There are many other potential NASA applications involving multi-agent negotiation and co-opetition, for example in scheduling rocket launches using global coordination.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other members of the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), such as the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Transportation (DoT), have similar CTFM needs. In particular, the proposed game-theoretic CTFM approach is very relevant to the integration of UAVs into the NAS. The DoD is interested in increasing the number of UAVs that can be controlled by one operator. Agent-based automation of coordination between UAVs, and between UAVs and other aircraft, will become an increasing need; the proposed game-theoretic approach is one solution to this problem. The agent-based game-theoretic negotiation strategies can also be integrated into a wide variety of modeling and simulation tools currently employed by the DoD, to help improve the fidelity of such simulations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.01-9634
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airspace
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automatic Generation of Least-Possible-Impact Traffic Management Initiatives

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Air Traffic Analysis, Inc.
3802 Ridgelea Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-3245
(703) 801-8381

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Klein
aklein@airtrafficanalysis.com
3802 Ridgelea Drive
Fairfax,  VA 22031-3245
(703) 801-8381

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Weather accounts for 70% of the annual cost of air traffic delays and cancellations, of which about 60% are estimated to be avoidable. Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs), including reroutes and ground delays, are used by Air Traffic Management (ATM) operators to mitigate impact of en-route convective weather. The efficiency of today's TMIs leaves a great deal to be desired, due in part to insufficient accuracy of today's weather forecast products. As new, higher-accuracy probabilistic forecast products are beginning to emerge, there is a major functionality gap between their visual aspect (enhancing comprehension and decision making by operators) and their application in automated NextGen ATM decision support tools. Our proposal seeks to address this gap. We will develop a prototype tool for automatic generation of "Least-Impact TMIs" using probabilistic convective forecast information. This tool will generate a combination of least-deviation-from-shortest-path reroute and/or minimum ground delay for each flight predicted to be impacted by convective weather. Innovation in this proposal: • New, original "step-out-and-scan" rerouting algorithm. • Probabilistic forecast information converted to ATM constraints ("permeability") and used to find viable reroute paths. • Combination of economical reroutes plus minimum delays resulting in least-impact traffic management solutions. We already have a suitable platform for this research: the WITI (Weather Impacted Traffic Index) toolset developed by Principal Investigator, Dr. Klein, funded by the FAA and the National Weather Service. It can ingest actual and forecast weather, traffic demand, airport and airspace capacities; as well as compute weather permeability by a flight (using the so-called scanning algorithm) and airspace capacity degradation due to weather. NASA sponsored research ("Translating Weather Information into TFM Constraints" NRA) is also using WITI technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed under this proposal can be applied in NASA and Joint Program Development Office (JPDO) NextGen airspace toolsets that facilitate automated traffic flow management and utilize the planned 4D weather cube technology (integrated weather diagnostics, forecast and decision support environment).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
• Assessing the effectiveness of today's TMIs ("actual" vs. "best-possible"). Target customer would be the FAA Air Traffic Organization (ATO) and possibly also the FAA ATC System Command Center; • Comparison of the effectiveness of new weather forecast products (accuracy of forecast affects the length of reroutes and delays). Target customer would be the FAA SysOps (ATO-R) and Planning (ATO-P) as well as Finance (ATO-F) organizations; • As a module in ATM decision support tools. Target customer would be the FAA ATC System Command Center and possibly facilities such as ATC Centers; • As an aid in Airline Operations Center (AOC) flight planning systems. Target customers would be major airlines such as American, Delta, FedEx, United and others. The PI on this proposal, Dr. Alexander Klein, has had extensive experience working with airlines including the ones mentioned above.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.02-8211
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Testbed for Environmental Analysis of NextGen Concepts using ACES

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frederick Wieland
fwieland@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5268

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the development of an analysis testbed to integrate simulation tools, such as ACES, with aviation environmental effects models, such as the Aviation Environmental Design Toolkit (AEDT), to provide a "360-degree" evaluation of new operational concepts. The testbed will be demonstrated by producing a "360-degree" evaluation of advanced NextGen concepts such as four-dimensional trajectories (4DTs), dependent arrivals to parallel or converging runways, continuous descent arrivals (CDAs), time-based merging and spacing, flow corridors, and many other NextGen operational improvements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Analysts at NASA Ames, NASA Langley, as well as analysts at JPDO could all use this tool.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potentially the tool could be used by any airport, FAA analyst, or aviation consultant interested in performing a comprehensive analysis of new concepts under consideration. As such, congested airports (approximately thirty five), all enroute traffic control centers (twenty one), and many aviation consulting and analysis firms could use the tool.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Airport Infrastructure and Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.02-8507
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metroplex-Wide Runway Configuration Management using COBRA (Configuration Optimization for Balanced Runway/Route Assignments) Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jovan Boskovic
jovan@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6562
(781) 933-5355

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSCI proposes to develop and test a Configuration Optimization for Balanced Runway/Route Assignments (COBRA) tool, which includes analysis and planner algorithms for optimizing runway selection and arrival/departure paths considering the neighboring airports in the metroplex that are competing for slots in the National Airspace System (NAS). Current practices are largely devised under the context of locally optimal planning, i.e. the plans are designed to yield as large a number of safe operations to a single airport during peak loads as possible. COBRA provides a semi-global look at the problem, considering that, periodically, what is best for a single airport may be not be the best plan for the system as a whole. During Phase I we will focus our efforts on 1) Formulating the Problem for a subset of Los Angeles metroplex, for which flight-data is available, 2) Algorithm development using a fast-time Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) to determine which routes provide the fewest conflicts and most efficient use of the terminal airspace, 3) Testing algorithms against Los Angeles metroplex scenarios, and 4) Providing thorough documentation of results. COBRA solutions will map flights to routes within a particular runway configuration and runway assignment. Another layer of the solver will review the nominal runway selection to determine if further balancing might be advantageous for surface operations. Designs will be flexible to incorporate a wide base of airportal constraints and objectives such as wind conditions, approved routes plans, airport surface geometry, and flight restrictions (e.g. noise abatements, separation requirements, etc.), and will be extensible to other metroplexes. Phase II work will seek to extend COBRA to a full metroplex, include uncertainty in the optimization, and test the algorithms against time-varying constraints.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed effort directly supports the NASA Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen NGATS) and provides advanced algorithms and software tools to perform metroplex area NextGen Airportal traffic and resource management. Results generated using the COBRA tool can be evaluated using NASA tools and software such as FACET and ACES. Immediate NASA applications are for civil and commercial aviation as part of the NextGen program, and the development of an effective Runway Configuration Management system is also consistent with the goals and objectives of the NASA Aviation Safety Program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FAA and other government agencies will benefit from an automated Airportal resource and traffic management tool through improved throughput of the airports with minimal delays. Performance-based automated runway configuration and flight routing in a metroplex could also enable efficient and safe operations of diverse aircraft types including unmanned vehicles alongside commercial flights. Besides aerospace, the proposed algorithms and software can easily be generalized towards transportation, manufacturing, logistics and military resource and asset planning.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.02-8812
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lidar Wind Profiler for the NextGen Airportal

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Masstech, Inc.
6992 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200
Columbia, MD 21046-2985
(443) 539-1739

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anand Radhakrishnan
anand@sesi-md.com
6992 Columbia Gateway Drive Ste 200
Columbia,  MD 21046-2985
(443) 539-3102

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
MassTech, Inc. proposes to develop a Lidar Wind Profiler for standoff sensing of concurrent 3-component wind velocities using an eye-safe, rugged, reliable optical device. We propose to use a multi-beam lidar system to obtain aerosol backscatter data from the flowfield and to develop a time-lag cross-correlation algorithm to extract three-component velocity measurements. In addition, we propose to determine the feasibility of measuring atmospheric turbulence, cloud ceiling as well as the location and intensity of aircraft wake vortices from the lidar backscatter data, in combination with the derived wind data products. In Phase I, a breadboard prototype will be designed and built to demonstrate proof-of-concept of obtaining velocity measurements from a representative flowfield and the results will be validated using sonic and cup-and-vane anemometers. This breadboard will be used to benchmark the system requirements for the design of an ALV prototype that will be built in Phase II and tested in an experimental test facility such as a wind tunnel. These measurements will be validated by comparing with anemometers and existing test data, along with computational predictions. Key design goals are reliability, eye-safety, portability and low cost.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A remote wind profiler for measuring winds, turbulence, cloud ceiling and aircraft wake vortex location and intensity can become an integral part of the multi-agency NextGen Aeroportal system, in order to increase throughput in airports and to detect aircraft external hazards. In addition, the ability to non-intrusively obtain 3-component concurrent winds can be used to study key NASA challenges in aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and aero-flight dynamics as a part of ground test facilities such as wind tunnels, hover chambers and anechoic facilities. Other potential NASA applications include atmospheric forecasting, wind surveys for wind turbines and aerodynamic test facilities such as wind tunnels and ballistic correction equipment for launch vehicles. An airborne version of this instrument can potentially be used for sensing air speed and warning of external hazards such as turbulence and wake vortices.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications include small, inexpensive wind profiling systems for use at National Weather Service instrument stations, DoD ballistic correction cross-wind sensors of different sizes ranging from sniper rifles to heavy artillery, field surveys of wind profiles for wind turbines and atmospheric research. Wind sensing also has broad applicability to R,D,T&E in a variety of industries for ranging from manned and unmanned air, land and sea vehicles for defense, wind tunnels for the automobile and racing industries, civilian aerospace, etc. Other commercial applications could include analyzing the effect of aircraft wakes on personnel and equipment at airports, offshore installations and building helipads, as well as measuring the flowfield in the vicinity of buildings and other structures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.02-8818
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Software Tool for Significantly Increasing Airport Throughput

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metron Aviation, Inc.
45300 Catalina Court, Suite 101
Dulles, VA 20166-2335
(703) 456-0123

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frederick Foreman
foreman@metronaviation.com
45300 Catalina Court, Suite 101
Dulles,  VA 20166-2335
(703) 234-0738

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Airportal effort seeks to optimize aircraft surface movements through approaches that could double or triple airport and metroplex throughput. This goal can only be achieved through accurate modeling of airport/metroplex throughput, identifying the real causes of bottlenecks (not simply those that are politically palatable), proposing an innovative solution to eliminate these bottlenecks, and developing performance metrics that actually capture when the innovative solution is working and any corrective actions that may be required. The proposed innovation by Metron Aviation consists of the following components: (1) Accurate model of airport throughput taking into account aircraft and gate attributes (2) Virtual sequencing and scheduling program: Virtual queue based on aircraft type, scheduled departure time, and air carrier constraints; Aircraft virtual departure sequence prior to pushback based on the minimum time to drain a virtual queue by taking into account wake vortex constraints, (3) Increased Situational awareness and communications among ground/metering, local, and ramp controllers, and (4) Airport throughput performance metrics. Overall, this Metron Aviation innovation provides a software tool that will improve airport situational awareness, the reduction/elimination and management of potential surface flow bottlenecks that lead to a significant improvement in airport throughput.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR benefits NASA in three (3) ways: (1) It furthers one of the main goals of NASA's Airportal project -- the increase of capacity by increasing throughput and operational efficiency in an airportal environment by harmonizing gate and aircraft attributes for airport arrivals, (2) the introduction of an innovative technique for increasing departure rate throughput through virtual queues and aircraft sequencing as part of NASA's vision of maximizing productivity in the use of runways and taxiways, and (3) NASA's decision support tools developed for surface operations, such as SMA and SMS will benefit from recommendations on reducing or eliminating bottlenecks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FAA, other government agencies, airport authorities, and air carriers will benefit from the proposed software tool for the efficient management of traffic flow through improved throughput at airports with minimal delays. Performance based automated traffic flow planning will also improve situational awareness at airports among controllers at the Airport Traffic Control Tower and Ramp Controllers at the Airport Terminals. Besides aerospace, the proposed algorithms and software can easily be generalized towards transportation, manufacturing, logistics and military resource planning.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.02-9691
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: ATC Operations Analysis via Automatic Recognition of Clearances

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5686
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Brinton
brinton@mosaicatm.com
801 Sycolin Road, Suite #212
Leesburg,  VA 20175-5686
(800) 405-8576

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Recent advances in airport surface surveillance have motivated the creation of new tools and data sources for analysis of Air Traffic Control (ATC) operations. The Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool, which is being used by NASA to conduct airport ATC operations analysis, is a prime example of one such analysis tool. What is missing from ATC operations analysis, however, is accessible and reliable data regarding the clearances issued by the controller and other communication that is conducted with the pilot that influences the behavior that is seen in the surveillance data. The current command and control paradigm for managing air traffic in the National Airspace System (NAS) is highly dependent on voice communication. This approach has benefited the development of ATC over the last century in a number of ways, including a low level of required aircraft equipage and the ability to handle contingency situations and adapt to new requirements easily due to the flexibility and adaptability of the human air traffic controllers and pilots. However, the reliance on voice communication in ATC operations presents challenges to the researcher who is trying to obtain data and conduct detailed analyses of ATC operations. In this proposal, we draw on existing Mosaic ATM expertise and tools to perform automatic speech recognition of ATC clearances. The recognized ATC clearances will be associated with the flight that is the subject of the clearance, time-stamped and encoded into an analysis database. The SODAA tool will be used as the platform for storage and analysis of this verbal clearance data.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The capabilities of the proposed ATC automatic speech recognition capability as have been presented in this proposal would provide significant usefulness to NASA and the FAA in the research and analysis of future NGATS airportal and airspace concepts. Because ATC clearances are issued by verbal command via a radio channel, there is currently no easy way to obtain large amounts of reliable data regarding the clearances that are issued to aircraft. For research efforts that have required ATC clearance data, it has been necessary to obtain the data through manual observation and recording of clearances issues, or by laborious and time-consuming manual review and transcription of recorded ATC audio tapes. However, access to such clearance information would provide additional insights and understanding regarding the strategies and limitations of the air traffic controller for NASA research efforts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FAA and NASA are currently collaborating on the continued research and development of SMS/SDSS. Mosaic ATM currently supports NASA in the development of a data mining and analysis tool for airport surface research, as well as in the expansion of the SMS concept and system. The culmination of this collaborative research between Mosaic ATM, NASA and the FAA will be the development and deployment by the FAA of an advanced ATC Tower automation system. The integration of AASR into this advanced ATC Tower automation system will allow tower controllers to continue to operate using the verbal command and control approach that is most conducive to safe and efficient operations, while the advanced ATC automation system will be able to receive electronic data without requiring additional user entries and manual workload.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Database Development and Interfacing
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A3.02-9692
SUBTOPIC TITLE: NextGen Airportal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Research of Off-Nominal Airport Traffic Management using a Surface Management System-Based Simulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175-5686
(800) 405-8576

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Atkins
atkins@mosaicatm.com
3 Primrose Lane
Westford,  MA 01886-3312
(978) 692-9484

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project is complimentary and directly beneficial to NASA's Safe and Efficient Surface Operations (SESO) research. NASA has previously developed a modular architecture for testing airport control concepts and algorithms within the Surface Management System (SMS). However, SMS currently uses live or pre-recorded surveillance data and, therefore, must be connected to a separate simulation environment. We will develop a self-contained, fast-time SMS simulation environment by incorporating an aircraft taxi model. The proposed stand-alone platform would complement NASA's current SMS-ATG environment by providing a fast-time simulation capability that uses the desired SMS plug-in architecture. We will also develop and integrate within the SMS simulation departure scheduling and taxi planning algorithms. These algorithms will supplement NASA's existing work and be independent of external optimization solvers. Lastly, the project will apply the fast-time simulation and integrated planning algorithms to study JFK airport surface traffic management under regular and off-nominal conditions, studies that complement NASA's research. JFK was chosen because of its complex geometry and traffic. We have received permission from the FAA to use JFK data, which is already available to Mosaic ATM as part of our FAA work.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for the research results beyond Phase 2 include use by NASA for continued research and by the FAA. The proposed SBIR has two primary focuses. First, we will deliver a simulation capability to NASA that NASA may apply to a large number of internal research projects. We expect we will also continue to use and expand the simulation capability to perform other NASA and FAA work. Second, we will perform specific research studies to complement NASA's internal projects. Both the airport planning algorithms and study results will be directly useful to NASA. The study results will guide subsequent NASA research studies. The algorithmic approach may be re-used by NASA or may influence the approaches NASA takes on future projects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SMS simulation capability developed within this project will be useful for FAA research and we have identified opportunities to apply this capability within FAA projects on which we are working. The FAA will also benefit from the surface traffic management algorithms tested throughout this project. As described in the FAA's letter of support, this work contributes to future FAA technology segments identified by the RTT for technology transfer from NASA to the FAA. Universities and other research organizations could also build on this work. Lastly, elements of the developed algorithms may be useful to develop automation to help flight operators participate effectively in future collaborative airport traffic management.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A4.01-8214
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Blade Vibration Measurement System for Unducted Fans

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mechanical Solutions, Inc.
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany, NJ 07981-1423
(973) 326-9920

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Olson
ejo@mechsol.com
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany,  NJ 07981-1423
(973) 326-9920

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise, there are two emerging avenues for advanced gas turbine technology: the geared turbofan and ultra-high bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine OEMs. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan which features a bypass ratio of over thirty, along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. The innovation being developed in this project is improvement is the test and measurement capabilities of the fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) will work with GE Aviation to define the requirements for fan blade measurements, to leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring, and to develop, validate and deliver a non-contacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The goals for this project are to design and construct an innovative and non-intrusive unducted fan blade dynamics measurement system with resolution capable of characterizing fan blade dynamic modes. Development and demonstration of such a system will provide substantially superior capabilities to current measurement technology. As the NASA / GE program moves ahead, the work in this project will deliver a unique non-contacting blade measurement system to improve the test and measurement technology in the NASA Glenn 9x5 and 8x6 wind tunnel facilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this project will directly useful to the OEMs of turbofan and turboprop engines for military and commercial use. Beyond propulsion systems, there is great potential in blade health management systems for wind turbines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Microwave/Submillimeter
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A4.01-8257
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Piezoelectric MEMS Microphones for Ground Testing of Aeronautical Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Baker-Calling, Inc.
836 Brookside Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48105-1100
(734) 645-0571

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Littrell
rlittrell@gmail.com
836 Brookside Dr
Ann Arbor,  MI 48105-1100
(734) 846-2268

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Improving the acoustical environment is critical in aeronautics. Airports and aeronautical systems manufacturers are facing ever-increasing demands to reduce noise levels. Aeronautical applications require the use of large arrays of high quality microphones with a large dynamic range. These arrays are expensive. The advent of lower cost microphones that meet the users' specifications would dramatically improve the ability of engineers seeking to quantify the acoustic impact of either their designs or their facilities (e.g., airports) to make data driven decisions to improve any adverse conditions. We seek to develop commercially viable, piezeoelectric micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) microphones capable of withstanding the high amplitude sound pressure levels and adverse environmental conditions found in ground testing of the acoustics of aeronautical systems. The acoustical specifications of these microphones (measured by noise floor, linearity, sensitivity) will met or exceed those of existing microphones. Our microphone is a shift from the capacitive sensing scheme that is used in nearly every microphone in use today. Piezoelectric MEMS microphones have significant advantages, over an above their small size (<4 mm x mm). Piezoelectric MEMS microphones require no polarization (unlike capacitive sensors), a significant price advantage when considering implementation in large arrays. In addition, the piezoelectric MEMS microphones can withstand the higher temperatures needed for lead-free re-flow soldering – a significant advantage over electrets (that cannot withstand these high temperatures). This microphone, therefore, holds the promise of superior acoustical performance, lower cost than current technology, ease of implementation into large arrays, and seamless integration into modern microelectronics manufacturing procedures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a great number of NASA test facilities where lower cost microphones are needed that can withstand harsh environmental conditions and acoustic loading. A partial listing includes: 1. Glenn Research Center: Acoustic Test Lab: phased array systems (e.g., 16 element linear array, 80 element microphone cage array, 63 element microphone spiral array); Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig; AeroAcoustic Propulsion Lab; Advanced Noise Control Fan Rig. 2. Langley Research Center: Structural Acoustics Loads and Transmission facility; Jet Noise Lab; Mobile Acoustics Research Capability; Anechoic Noise Facility. 3. Noise mapping at airports using large arrays. The applications of noise control are to aircraft noise mitigation (jet engine noise, flow noise and structural acoustic radiation) as well as for understanding the acoustics surrounding airports.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
More than 2 billion microphones are sold each year. A piezoelectric MEMS microphone can address the needs of the vast majority of this market but will need to be designed appropriately for each sector of the market. This market can be broken up into roughly three categories. About half of the market, 1 billion units per year, is for extremely inexpensive microphones for toys and other applications where size and performance are not crucial. Roughly 1 billion units per year are also sold for consumer electronics, mostly for mobile phone applications. There is also a small market of high-end microphones for instrumentation, recording studios and live events. Examples of large arrays of instrument quality microphones used in the aerospace industry include the wind tunnel measurements (where over 1000 microphone could be used) and in the ground test arrays (like the Boeing QTD2 array with over 600 microphones). The overall instrumentation microphone market is estimated at 100,000 units per year with prices around $1500 to $3000 per microphone. This instrumentation market will be the initial target of the microphones fabricated by Baker-Calling. Other applications include: hearing aids and noise cancelling headsets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Particle and Fields
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A4.01-8856
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel, Portable, Projection, Focusing Schlieren System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
8 Chrysler
Irvine, CA 92618-2008
(949) 553-0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Drew L'Esperance
dlesperance@metrolaserinc.com
8 Chrysler
Irvine,  CA 92618-2008
(949) 553-0688

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The schlieren technique has been used for flow diagnostics in wind tunnels since the beginning of aerospace research, due to its ability to make airflows – especially shock waves and turbulence – visible. This proposal describes a novel type of schlieren system that would increase efficiency, capability, and productivity for ground test facilities. The concept and the availability of state of the art components make the system more portable, easier to align, and more versatile than existing systems. A major drawback of current schlieren systems and one that has restricted their widespread commercial use is that they require exact alignment between a pair of widely separated mirrors or grids, which takes time and limits portability, and costs are prohibitive for most such applications. This problem is partially relaxed by focusing schlieren methods. The proposed concept incorporates features of existing schlieren systems while removing the primary limitations. All of the elements that require precise alignment are contained within a camera body and can be relatively inexpensive. Also, very large fields of view are made possible. This is advantageous in wind tunnel facilities, since experiments are frequently installed only to be torn down shortly afterwards.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications exist in all forms of research and development associated with flow fields where schlieren viewing could be useful, including aero-optics, flow control, drag, boundary layer transition, and flow separation. The proposed developments could be extremely important in enhancing ground test facility capability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications include aero-optics, flow diagnostics, flow control, free-space laser communication, active laser imaging, high bandwidth video transmission, spectroscopy, and high-resolution imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A4.01-9486
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Quantitative kHz to MHz Frame Rate Flow Diagnostics for Aerodynamic Ground Test Facilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431-1262
(937) 266-9570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sukesh Roy
sroy@woh.rr.com
5100 Springfield St., Suie 301
Dayton,  OH 45431-1262
(937) 902-6546

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed Phase I SBIR program will study the feasibility of building next-generation burst-mode laser diagnostics that will enable unparalleled planar imaging capabilities for quantitative analysis of flow parameters, such as velocity, temperature, and species concentration in large-scale hypersonic flow facilities, including short run duration "impulse" facilities. In particular, the instrumentation would provide the unique capability for measurements of multiple parameters at data collection rates as high as ~1 MHz with flexible wavelength and interpulse spacing for quantitative velocimetry and thermometry. During the Phase I, the proposal team will study the feasibility of developing burst-mode Nd:YAG technology with programmable temporal output while pumping a wavelength-agile UV OPO for multi-line fluorescence imaging. This requires innovation of the burst-mode pump laser to allow dual-pulse seeding, an appropriate chain of laser amplifiers, and a narrowband OPO designed for pulse-pair operation and rapid wavelength switching. Proof-of-concept demonstrations of NO molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) and two-line NO PLIF will be accomplished in a laboratory scale high-speed flow facility (up to Mach 5). Finally, the feasibility of performing high frame rate (~50 kHz) imaging in high enthalpy impulse facilities using Rayleigh scattering will also be evaluated. This program will enable prototype development of a next generation ultra-high frame rate imaging system for high-speed flows, demonstration tests in NASA facilities, and the potential delivery of a prototype system to NASA during the Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include measurements in ATP facilities under the auspices of the Aerothermodynamics Laboratory, such as the 31" Mach 10 facility, the 20" Mach 6 facility, the 15" Mach 6 facility, and the 20" Mach 6 CF4 facility. These facilities can utilize measurements of planar velocimetry molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) and dual-line NO PLIF for temperature measurements. In addition, dual-line NO PLIF can be used for vibrational temperature measurements in non-equilibrium flows. The ability to track flow features at MHz rates allows detailed visualization of flow behavior, such as boundary layer separation, to aid with understanding re-entry phenomena, and for studying scramjet ignition and combustion, Finally, the Phase I will also evaluate the requirements for high frame rate (~50 kHz) imaging in high enthalpy impulse facilities, enabling ~20-30 UV or filtered Rayleigh scattering images to be obtained during single-millisecond duration "shots." The ability to capture this many planar data sets in single run would greatly enhance the productivity and reduce the cost of acquiring data in such facilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Instrumentation for measuring temperature, velocity, and species concentrations in high-speed flows are critical for the development of propulsion and flight systems. The diagnostic system proposed here addresses measurement needs in a wide variety of applications in DoD facilities, national laboratories, industry, and academia. Planar measuremenets of temperature and velocity are useful in hypersonic flows, gas-turbine engines, scramjets, and pulse detonation engines, among others. Measurements of vibrational temperature are useful in non-equilibrium flows. Other applications include internal combustion engines and high-speed diesel sprays. These applications as well as follow-on work in OH PLIF, CH PLIF, acetone PLIF, and planar Doppler velocimetry are areas for significant market potential.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Testing Facilities
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A4.02-8652
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Modular, Multi-Channel, High Speed Fiber Optic Sensing System for Acoustic Emissions Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vahid Sotoudeh
vs@ifos.com
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara,  CA 95054-1008
(408) 565-9000

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) proposes to prove the feasibility of innovations based on ultra-light-weight, ultra-high-speed, multi-channel, optical fiber sensor system for acoustics emissions (AE) monitoring for detection of impact damage and cracks in structural components in Aerospace structures. The project goals are to design an ultra-high-speed/high resolution with a small foot print fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogator, construct a system model, test platform including embedded FBG sensors and develop signal processing algorithms to identify and measure AE signals in the presence of a quasi-static background strain field. The system model will demonstrate proof-of-principle and the test results will provide proof-of-functionality of the proposed sensor system for monitoring AE including using the advanced fiber optic sensor signal processing algorithms. AE will be simulated in an Aluminum by performing pencil break or impact hammer tests. The model test results will be compared to the measurements made concurrently by a standard single channel piezoelectric AE transducer. IFOS and its collaborators in this project will develop a Phase II strategy plan that includes development and integration strategy, potential demonstration opportunities, program schedule, and estimated costs. The key proposed innovation is a modular, light-weight, ultra-high-speed, multi-channel, optical fiber sensor system for AE monitoring.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All aviation companies and other entities within this market benefit from in-flight health monitoring of their aircraft structures. An acoustic emission monitoring system attached to the aircraft structure, in the areas susceptible to fatigue and impact damage provides the data that can be used reliably to determine the health status of the aircraft structure in real time. IFOS commercialization strategy is to provide a robust and economically feasible AE monitoring system to both government and private sector fleet aircraft owners and operators. The U.S. government customers for the proposed calibration system include organizations such as NAVY, AIR FORCE and NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many non-NASA commercial markets exist that can realize significant benefits from this new technology for highly integrated/synergistic structures in the aerospace, automobile, and infrastructure industries. Commercial aviation will benefit significantly from this technology. For example, wide spread area fatigue damage has been determined to be a major source of problem for commercial aviation. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Regulations require that aircraft structures critical to their safe operation must not fail during flight due to damage caused by the repeated (cyclic) loads typical to its operations. This requirement generates the need for evaluating the fatigue life of critical aircraft structures. IFOS's proposed approach addresses such needs of FAA. In addition to aviation other commercial application areas of the proposed methodology include automotive, wind and gas turbines, the oil industry and land and marine vehicles qualification.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Structural Modeling and Tools
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A4.02-8759
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Propeller Flow Control for Increased Propulsive Efficiency

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo, CA 90245-2822
(310) 640-8781

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kerho
Mike.Kerho@RollingHillsReseach.com
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo,  CA 90245-2822
(310) 640-8781

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 0 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An important mission for NASA is the development of revolutionary flight concepts and technology. The development of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), the resurgence of general aviation, and growing interest in environmentally conscious, all-electric, emissionless aircraft have brought about a renewed interest in propeller design. Overall, since the propeller's golden age during the WWII era, very little has changed in propeller design. Computers have automated the design processes, but the basic design methodology, from an aerodynamic point of view has changed very little. Strides have been made in acoustics and multidisciplinary optimization (MDO), but the basic aerodynamic design and performance of the subsonic propeller has basically remained unchanged. The explosion of UAVs and a need for more efficient designs allowing greater payload, range, and loiter times have taken UAVs from simple cut-and-try designs to sophisticated, aerodynamically efficient systems. An area as of yet not fully exploited by this class of aircraft, is that of propeller efficiency. Most smaller UAVs and micro-UAVs simply use off-the-shelf radio control propellers, while moderate size UAVs rely on propellers designed using classical blade element theory or those derived for general aviation aircraft. While these propellers provide industry acceptable levels of thrust for a given torque, the majority of propellers suffer some form of flow separation. The extent of flow separation can range from small areas in cruise regions of the flight envelope, to large areas during climb and wind milling. Significant propeller performance gains in the form of increased thrust and reduced torque can be obtained by eliminating these separated regions across the flight envelope. A simple, efficient, and robust flow control technique is proposed to eliminate these separated regions and provide a marked increase in propeller performance and vehicle propulsive performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Propeller flow control technology will provide NASA with a means to develop new vehicles, or retrofit existing aircraft that can take advantage of an improvement in propeller propulsion efficiency. In the case of electric powered vehicles, the increased efficiency can be used to extend battery life and range, or to allow a larger payload to be carried to altitude. Exploratory aircraft, whether used for terrestrial missions or on other planets, will benefit from the ability to eliminate separated flow on the propeller, which will improve flight efficiency in off-design flight conditions or particularly challenging flight envelopes, such as those found in very low Reynolds number flight. High-altitude long-endurance (HALE) aircraft, used for such tasks as atmospheric sampling, ground mapping, or communications relaying operate in a very low Reynolds number environment, where laminar separation bubbles can dominate the flow field, and could benefit from improvements in propeller efficiency.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The propeller flow control technology will provide enhanced performance for propeller-based aircraft across a wide range of flight regimes and missions. Considering the recent proliferation of small and moderate size UAV designs, the commercialization potential for the technology is excellent. This fact, coupled with the recent rise in the price of petroleum based fuels and the push for greener, more efficient vehicles, will make the improved performance and efficiency of the propeller flow control system very attractive to both the military and commercial sectors. Additionally, the applicability of the technology to the retrofit market is extremely high. Finally, the propeller flow control technology can also be easily licensed to existing airframers and propeller design and manufacturing companies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 A4.02-9523
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Test Techniques and Measurement Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
VIP Sensors
32242 Paseo Adelanto, Suite C
San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675-3610
(949) 429-3558

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Karolys
alex@vipsensors.com
32242 Paseo Adelanto, Suite C
San Juan Capistrano,  CA 92675-3610
(949) 429-3558

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
VIP Sensors proposes to develop a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array for measuring air flow pressure at multiple points on the skin of aircrafts for Flight Load Test applications. The array consists of multiple micro-miniature optical MEMS pressure sensors interconnected by a common optic fiber to an interrogation system located inside the airplane. The proposed optical pressure sensors are essentially flat, light weight, fully passive (no electrical power), and EMI/RFI immune, they exhibit superior performance regarding accuracy, dynamic range and noise. They are inherently self identifiable; the interrogation system knows what data belongs to what sensor. The proposed sensor array technology is applicable to different types of optical sensors (accelerometers, strain, temperature, etc). Each sensor in the array is designed to work at preset optical wavelengths; they are read by the interrogation system using Wave Division and/or Time Division Multiplexing. Testing of aircrafts requires a large numbers of sensors. Each sensor needs four to six wires to interconnect to signal conditioners. For large measuring systems, this means very large numbers of wires that add weight and occupy space. The proposed FO sensor array system not only has the potential to significantly improve pressure measurements for Flight Load Testing, but its novel technology of micro-miniature networking sensors will benefit many other aircraft ground and flight testing applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA main potential applications are in flight and ground/wind tunnel testing of aircrafts where surface pressure measurements are needed. The proposed Fiber Optic Pressure Array system, for many applications, is a better alternative to the Electronic Scanner Pressure (ESP) system, which are used across NASA wind tunnel facilities and flight test programs such as: 1. Subsonic Facilities • Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC • Subsonic Tunnel at LaRC • Vertical Spin Tunnel at LaRC 2. Transonic Facilities • National Transonic Facility at LaRC • Unitary Plan Facility at ARC • Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at LaRC 3. Supersonic Facilities • Supersonic Wind Tunnel at GRC • Supersonic Wind Tunnel at ARC • Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at LaRC's • Supersonic Wind Tunnel at GRC 4. Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). This laboratory is already using fiber optic strain gage systems for structural testing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array and its innovative technology that comes out of Phase I and II are not only applicable to aircraft testing at NASA, but also to many other fields where passive sensors of small size, high accuracy, robustness and networking features are important. Some of these applications are: • Flight Testing Aircraft manufacturers use large numbers of sensors (as many as 4,000) to test and qualify aircraft; the networking feature drastically reduces cabling and testing costs. • Wind Tunnel Testing - NASA and other international facilities. • Airplane and Satellite Monitoring A large number of sensors of different types are used for on-board monitoring. • Ship Monitoring There are thousands of sensors on board military and commercial ships

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors



PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X1.01-8239
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automation of Health Management, Troubleshooting and Recovery in Lunar Outpost

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qualtech Systems, Inc.
100 Great Meadow Road, Suite 603
Wethersfield, CT 06109-2355
(860) 257-8014

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sudipto Ghoshal
sudipto@teamqsi.com
100 Great Meadow Road, Suite 603
Wethersfield,  CT 06109-2355
(860) 761-9341

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's Lunar and other future extraterrestrial outposts will be built for long duration missions that are likely to experience significant number of faults and degradations over its lifetime. Additionally, these systems will have a highly reconfigurable architecture and perform multimodal operation. Being a resource constrained environment, health management, troubleshooting, maintenance, and repair of the Lunar outpost poses formidable challenge. To address this challenge Qualtech Systems, Inc. proposes to automate a major part of the HM and recovery decision support systems through a TEAMS-based approach. The approach will provide the facility to develop on-the-fly reconfigurable diagnostic models that can be used to automatically update a TEAMS model upon configuration changes. Residual functional capability estimation techniques and automatic updating of diagnostic models based on current condition of components will be developed through this effort. Dynamic multiple fault diagnosis techniques will be used for enhancing the diagnostic accuracy obtained from TEAMS-based diagnosis. Such accuracy enhancement will greatly reduce the amount of human intervention required in troubleshooting of spurious faults, and faults that are isolated with a large ambiguity group. On the overall, the proposed effort will provide a solution for automating the HM related activities in highly reconfigurable systems with resource constraints.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resultant solution from this effort will be valuable in automating the health management, maintenance, and repair of all NASA systems that can operate in multiple configurations and/or are designed for long term missions. Space stations, Lunar Outpost, Mars Outpost, and spacecraft planned for faraway planetary expeditions are potential candidates for using this solution. Additionally, ground support systems that interact with each other and operate in multiple configurations can benefit from the solution as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Continuously monitored hard to replace systems are major Non-NASA candidates for using the resultant solution from this effort. The solution will be useful in condition assessment and maintenance decision support for reconfigurable systems in Aircraft, Automobiles and Ships. Industrial systems that use equipment in multiple configuration, such as those in Semiconductor, or Machine Building plants will constitute another segment of non-NASA candidates for using the resultant technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Expert Systems
Software Development Environments
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X1.01-8474
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Executable SysML Model Development Accelerator for the Constellation Program

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tietronix Software, Inc.
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston, TX 77058-2794
(281) 461-9300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michel Izygon
mizygon@tietronix.com
1331 Gemini Avenue, Suite 300
Houston,  TX 77058-2794
(281) 404-7256

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project is aimed at investigating ways to accelerate the creation of SysML based models that can be used for model checking and more generally for Model-Based System Engineering. In the past few years, multiple projects in the ISHM domain as well as the operations domain (Procedure V&V) have started to leverage the power of model checking through the use of the Finite State Machines (FSM) formalism. These models have been typically developed manually by subject matters experts in the different spacecraft systems and subsystems. This is a significant hindrance to the widespread use of models for any targeted application. The envisioned suite of tools would allow non experts to derive the appropriate SysML models for their intended use. In addition to providing a generic library of space systems models, methods to customize these models to the specific target system, our proposal will also design tools that enable the automatic or semi automatic extraction of appropriate information from different source, thus significantly accelerating the development and the usage of such models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A toolset for accelerated development of executable models of spacecraft systems has multiple applications in the NASA community, the DoD environment, as well as in the commercial arena. The envisioned toolset can be applied to any complex system that needs to use model-based techniques for design or validation. Desktop based tool support for such system is currently missing. In the short term, the tool can be used for NASA projects such as the Orion, the Small Pressurized Rover, and Lunar Habitat test bed . The tool should allow these projects to significantly reduce the need for prototyping activities and associated costly simulation. In the longer term, the tool can be directly applicable to all components of the Constellation program and any software intensive system supporting the new exploration vision.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The toolset for executable models development that can be customized to different systems will be useful within DoD organizations in which software intensive product lines are common. For example, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Domain is enjoying a period of significant expansion. UAVs have progressed from target drones to reusable weapon systems. Their software systems have become complex and extremely diversified. Domain specific executable SysML models could reduce development risks by enabling many alternative operational concepts and designs to be evaluated before significant effort is expended developing poor designs. In the commercial arena, adopting the same type of approach for software intensive system can be used in a broad range of areas, such as airplane, power plant SCADA systems, and vertical business applications such as Human Resources applications. This type of technology can be adapted to these different domains and provide benefits similar to those provided to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X1.01-8666
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: PM/IDE - An Integrated Development Environment for Planning Models

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360
San Mateo, CA 94404-1585
(650) 931-2726

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Ong
ong@stottlerhenke.com
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360
San Mateo,  CA 94404-1585
(650) 931-2700

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 0 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Action Notation Modeling Language (ANML) is a relatively new language for specifying planning domain models. These models are created by someone who understands the planning domain and can express the essential aspects of the domain as ANML variables, functions, and actions in a way that supports the generation and execution of safe, efficient, and robust plans. An integrated development environment is essential for enabling programmers and non-programmers to create high-quality, large-scale ANML models more easily. Without such a tool, ANML modeling will remain a tedious and difficult task that can be carried out only by the small number of people who have the necessary specialized programming skills and patience. This, in turn, will severely limit the exploitation of automated planning systems that rely on these models. We propose to develop PM/IDE, an integrated development environment (IDE) for constructing, reviewing, understanding, and testing planning domain models expressed in the Action Notation Modeling Language (ANML) more quickly and effectively. During Phase I, we will characterize the planning domain modeling task to identify the types of analyses and decisions that modelers carry out and the kinds of information they review and assess. Based on this understanding of the task, we will then identify and design useful PM/IDE capabilities and user-system interactions that help people develop ANML models. The system design will specify user-system interactions, software functions and operations, and databases, knowledge bases, and algorithms that implement these functions. We will then develop a limited, proof-of-concept software prototype that demonstrates key parts of the PM/IDE's model editing, query, analysis, and visualization capabilities to demonstrate their utility and feasible implementation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research effort will result in an operational IDE that NASA personnel can use to develop high-quality, large-scale ANML models more quickly and easily. After Phase II, Stottler Henke will market the IDE to NASA contractors and will enhance the IDE to support additional NASA and NASA contractor requirements. The technology developed during the project will also enable Stottler Henke to develop planning domain models for other modeling languages used by NASA, its partner space agencies, and its contractors. The technology will also enhance the domain modeling capabilities of Stottler Henke's Aurora<SUP>TM</SUP> intelligent scheduling tool suite that is used by NASA, NASA contractors, and major aerospace manufacturers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting technology will also serve as an important new part of Stottler Henke's intelligent sensing and control solution offerings to the Department of Defense that support military operations, simulation, and training. For example, automated planning could be used to support more intelligent computer-generated forces used within training and wargaming exercises. It can also be used to control next-generation unmanned vehicles and intelligent software agents. The technology will also enhance the domain modeling capabilities of Stottler Henke's Aurora<SUP>TM</SUP> intelligent scheduling tool suite that is used by NASA, NASA contractors, and major aerospace manufacturers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X1.01-9674
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation for Vehicle Habitat Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robotic Vehicle Proxy Simulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energid Technologies
One Mifflin Place, Suite 400
Cambridge, MA 02138-4946
(888) 547-4100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James English
jde@energid.com
One Mifflin Place, Suite 400
Cambridge,  MA 02138-4946
(888) 547-4100

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Energid Technologies proposes the development of a digital simulation that can replace robotic vehicles in field studies. This proxy simulation will model the dynamics, terrain interaction, sensors, control, communications, and interfaces of the robotic vehicle with the goal of making field studies easier and more thorough. The simulation will be easy to use by simple execution on a networked PC. It will be thorough in its ability to model a range of environments, from terrestrial to lunar, and through its ability to provide extensive sensor and truth data for analysis. The effort will include the development of robot and environment models tailored to the simulation of field-study vehicles, and it will emphasize mimicking the network interfaces used by NASA. The proxy simulation will be able to model multiple robots simultaneously, and included in the effort is the development of tools to support the control and visualization of multiple robots during field tests. Energid will design the system and implement components for demonstration at the end of the Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The simulation tool will have application to many of NASA's training exercises and studies. Many types of robotic vehicles will need to be simulated for testing, verification, and training prior to upcoming lunar and planetary missions. The tool Energid proposes will reduce cost and improve schedule in many efforts and is expected to be widely used by NASA. In addition to the direct tool for proxy simulation, the underlying capability will be developed as a C++ software toolkit. This toolkit will benefit NASA in ways other than just proxy simulation. It will also support verification and validation and stand-alone simulation to test hardware improvements, control algorithms, and interface software. Energid will commercialize this through support contracts and extensions to meet NASA's developing needs. Energid will partner with larger NASA contractors to commercialize the capability through contracts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Energid will develop the proxy simulation as a software toolkit for resale and as a turnkey program. The toolkit will extend and augment Energid's Actin toolkit in its support for testing, training, and robot control. Robot developers in the government and in commercial entities will use the software to reduce development time and improve the quality of completed systems. Potential toolkit customers will purchase the toolkit as software libraries and header files. By linking these libraries into their code, developers will have full access to all the simulation capability provided by the toolkit. Turnkey software customers will create new CAD models of robots in third-party software that can be loaded and used immediately. Energid currently sells its Actin robot control and simulation toolkit and its Actin Viewer turnkey software commercially, and is well positioned to commercialize the capability developed under this project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Mobility
Manipulation
Perception/Sensing
Teleoperation
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Testing Requirements and Architectures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X1.02-8746
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reliable Software for Exploration Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Runtime Verification System for Developing, Analyzing and Controlling Complex Safety-Critical Software

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ThinkRuntime, Inc.
2506 Lakewood Drive
Champaign, IL 61822-7527
(217) 418-0418

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patrick Meredith
pmeredit@uiuc.edu
1106 W. Stoughton 3B
Urbana,  IL 61801-7713
(217) 418-0418

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 8

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A comprehensive commercial-grade system for the development of safe parallel and serial programs is developed. The system has the ability to perform efficient parametric runtime verification of programs. This can be used to ensure the safety of mission critical systems at runtime. The system also has the ability to extrapolate all feasible program traces deriving from thread inter-leavings that meet the casual dependencies of a program from a single running. These feasible traces can be checked, using the same parametric trace slicing algorithm used for runtime verification, against safety properties. An extensive evaluation of the system on software critical to NASA is also performed, with the aid of Klaus Havelund.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The software developed by NASA is particularly safety critical. Our tool will allow NASA not only to test the safety of pre-production software, but also to guarantee safety of portions of software systems at runtime. The addition of predictive runtime analysis will allow NASA to easily find safety violations in multi-threaded programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Non-NASA applications are much the same. Not all companies produce software that is as safety critical as NASA, but even those that do not will benefit from the ability to rigorously test formal safety policies in pre-production software, and guarantee safety in production software. Predictive runtime analysis only becomes more important as commercial software adapts to the massively multi-core future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X1.03-8468
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Induced Fault Analysis for Wide Temperature BiCMOS Circuits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynguent, Inc.
P.O. Box 19325
Portland, OR 97280-0325
(503) 241-7195

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Holmes
holmes@lynguent.com
700 W. Research Blv.
Fayetteville,  AR 72701-7174
(479) 575-9222

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
State of the art Radiation Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques do not account for wide temperature variations in BiCMOS process. Silicon-Germanium BiCMOS process offer inherent advantages for operation in radiation environments where single event transient and total iodization dose effects on the circuit are important. Recent access to libraries of wide temperature and RHBD BiCMOS designs provide the reference data for developing radiation aware automation design automation. Lynguent's efficiency gains in compact model composition have enabled radiation domain experts to transfer observed radiation effects from TCAD simulators into the commercial circuit simulators. These compact models are augmented with radiation effects such as the ISDE 90 nm Bulk CMOS Bias Dependent Charge Sharing SET Effect. These rad-aware models are used within the LynRad Fault Analyzer, taking into account circuit schematics, layout and cosmic ray scenarios. Extending this design automation to a BiCMOS AMS designs is the logical next step in establishing radiation awareness over wide temperature. Previous investigations were limited to circuits with a small number of transistors that could be simulated in mixed TCAD-SPICE environments. Consequently, scaling the LynRad Radiation Fault Analyzer to larger, more complex AMS circuits is a key aspect of this investigation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The radiation induced fault analysis for BiCMOS circuits has direct application for grading finer lined BiCMOS processes. The ability to re-characterize the radiation effects and wide temperature effects makes the tools re-usable and extendable as new BiCMOS design rules are discovered and systematically applied. The immutability of the PDK remains the key cost reducing feature of the analysis flow making useful improving active BiCMOS designs and grading legacy designs. The modularity and re-use will be beneficial for determining the design margins for circuits and processes targeted for wide temperature, Mrad profiles expected in missions such as EJSM.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radiation induced faults are narrow sub-category in the field of analog/mixed signal fault modeling and simulation. Successful completion of the proposed work greatly strengthens Lynguent's ability to penetrate the fault modeling market for terrestrial A/MS ASICs. The design automation proposed can be easily retargeted to commercial customer requirements in the area of analog fault detection and mitigation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Instrumentation
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Radiation Shielding Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Superconductors and Magnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X1.03-9438
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Design of Radiation Hardened, Wide-Temperature Analog and Mixed-Signal Electronics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marek Turowski
mt@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4889

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA space exploration projects require avionic systems, components, and controllers that are capable of operating in the extreme temperature and radiation environments of deep space. To design wide-temperature radiation-hardened (rad-hard) electronics and predict characteristics and reliability in space, advanced models and simulation tools are required at multiple levels. Analog and mixed-signal circuits for space have not been adequately addressed so far. This project aims to design, develop, validate, and demonstrate novel Radiation Hardened By Design (RHBD) analog/mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs) aimed for the extreme environments of space. In Phase 1, CFDRC in collaboration with Georgia Tech will: (1) enhance and demonstrate the CFDRC's unique physics-based mixed-mode simulation tools (NanoTCAD coupled with Cadence Spectre) for predicting extreme-wide-temperature and transient radiation response of analog/mixed-signal ICs based on silicon-germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS technologies; (2) perform first-ever mixed-mode simulation-based investigation of single-event effects (SEE) in SiGe analog, mixed-signal, and radio-frequency (RF) circuits in wide temperature range, and provide important understanding of currently unexplained physical phenomena behind the experimental radiation/temperature data collected under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP); and (3) develop preliminary RHBD concepts for SEE hardening. In Phase 2, we will demonstrate and validate the improved physics-based models for temperature range from -230<SUP>o</SUP>C to +130<SUP>o</SUP>C, and apply them to evaluate and develop RHBD designs over the expected operating range. New RHBD devices and analog circuits will be fabricated in prototype chips and tested at wide temperatures and radiation, and delivered as a component library to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Prediction of electrical performance and radiation hardness of electronic components in extreme environments (wide temperatures, high radiation) are crucial to design reliable electronics for all NASA Exploration Missions, for both crewed and robotic systems. Since electronic parts are getting smaller, the radiation/temperature effects are more severe the life time and reliability become critical the physics-based capability to predict them increases confidence and reduces risk. Radiation-hardened and wide-temperature analog and mixed-signal circuits are essential for all the avionic systems used in the NASA Constellation and other exploration projects for which advanced technologies are being developed by the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). The optimized, wide-temperature RHBD designs from this SBIR will add to the pre-existing NASA "component library" being developed in the ETDP SiGe electronics effort. The new tools and RHBD circuits will be immediately applicable to the NASA Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Exploration (RHESE) Program. The wide-temperature physics-based mixed-mode tools will help NASA to design rad-hard analog and mixed-signal electronics with better understanding and control of design margins; better evaluate the wide-temperature performance and radiation response at an early design stage; set requirements for hardening and testing; and reduce the amount of testing cost and time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Various critical analog and mixed-signal circuits are used in space electronics, such as, DoD space systems (communication, surveillance, ballistic missiles, missile defense), and commercial satellites. Since modern electronic technologies and parts are getting smaller all the time, the radiation and extreme temperature effects become more severe, the life time and reliability become critical, and the capability to predict them increases confidence and reduces risk. The new RHBD designs and circuit/cell libraries, as well as the physics-based computer aided design (CAD) tools, can also be applied to cryogenic electronics for high-sensitivity, low-noise analog and mixed-signal applications, such as metrology, infrared (IR) imagers, sensors (radiation, optical, X-ray), radiometrology, precision instruments, radio and optical astronomy, infrared and photon detectors, and other high-end equipment. For all such devices and systems, predictive and accurate modeling and design tools reduce the amount of required radiation/temperature testing, thus decreasing their cost, and time to market or field application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X1.03-9811
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Unconditionally Stable Low Dropout Regulators for Extreme Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SJT Micropower
16411 N. Skyridge Lane
Fountain Hills, AZ 85268-1515
(480) 816-8077

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Seth Wilk
swilk@sjtmicropower.com
16411 N Skyrige Lane
Fountain Hills,  AZ 85268-1515
(602) 703-3730

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We have developed a fully integrated LDO regulator using a patented transistor technology that can be manufactured in high volume commercial semiconductor foundries with no changes to the process flow. The regulator is stable under all load conditions without the need for an external compensation capacitor thereby reducing the mass/volume of the power management system and increasing reliability. The existing LDO component has very competitive figures of merit (dropout voltage, transient response, power supply rejection) compared to existing components targeting commercial consumer electronics. The work we are proposing for this Phase 1 activity will confirm the expected wide temperature range operation (-180C to +150C) and radiation tolerance (200krads(Si) to 1 Mrad(Si)) of the existing component. Based on these measurements we shall design, simulate and layout LDO regulators for nominal load currents of 100 mA and 1A for fabrication at two rad-hard CMOS foundries during a follow-on Phase 2 activity. The LDO regulators will be designed as drop-in replacements for many existing components. They can also be integrated directly on chip as part of an application specific integrated circuit thereby reducing the chip count still further.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radiation tolerant low dropout regulators capable of operating in extreme environments with fewer external components will be of widespread use to NASA missions that target the moon, Mars and Europa. The LDO regulator is a key component in most power management systems including point-of-load supplies. By developing power management components for wide temperature range operation (-180C to +150C) we are enabling missions that will benefit from components mounted directly in the Lunar and Martian environments i.e. outside of any thermally controlled warm box. These components will also be of use in missions to Venus that employ environmental chambers with temperatures controlled to < 150C. The transistor technology we have developed shows very promising high frequency performance and therefore has potential NASA applications beyond power management. These include power amplifiers for X-band (5-10GHz) as well as for ultra-low power data telemetry from medical implants that target the Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS) at 403-405 MHz for monitoring astronaut health. Our metal-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor (MESFET) technology is capable of high voltage operation >>10V. NASA faces challenges with component obsolescence due to the reduction in supply voltage of application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) with each new CMOS generation. Our MESFET component has the potential for extending the life of an ASIC product without the expense of a complete re-design.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low dropout regulators are ubiquitous in commercial consumer electronics and automotive systems. A non-hardened version of the regulator we are proposing to develop will be inexpensive to manufacture using high volume commercial CMOS foundries. Our business models suggest that such a component can be manufactured at a cost per die that is competitive with existing products but without the need for an external compensation capacitor thereby reducing the overall costs and part count of the power management system. If this is confirmed our regulator component has the potential for widespread commercial adoption. Other non-NASA commercial applications of our patented transistor technology include low power transceivers for medical implants that use the FCC approved MICS band as well as for data telemetry within the Industrial, Scientific & Medical (ISM) bands. Our MESFET technology is capable of higher voltage operation than the CMOS transistors making it very suitable as the input/output device in commercial ASICs such as those offered by Honeywell and our other Phase 3 commercialization partners.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X1.03-9937
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Hardened/Tolerant and Low Temperature Electronics and Processors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extreme Temperature, Rad-Hard Power Management ASIC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ridgetop Group, Inc.
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson, AZ 85704-5645
(520) 742-3300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ronald Carlsten
ronald.carlsten@ridgetopgroup.com
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson,  AZ 85704-5645
(520) 742-3300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ridgetop Group will design a rad-hard Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for spacecraft power management that is functional over a temperature range of -230 to +130 <SUP>o</SUP>C. This ASIC is intended to work in conjunction with a Fuel Cell power system and battery back-up to provide uninterrupted power to critical modules in Space. Ridgetop will combine Radiation Hardening (RH) techniques with Large Scale Integration (LSI) methodologies to build a power management system for spacecraft applications onto a single monolithic circuit. The significance of this innovation is a single reliable component (ASIC) that will meet platform requirements for high voltage, wide operating temperature range, and radiation tolerance (minimum 100 krads Total Ionizing Doze (TID), 100 MeVcm2/mg Single Event Latchup (SEL). During phase 1, we will select two functional blocks from within a representative NASA power management system as test cases. Designs for these blocks will be developed and validated through SPICE circuit and radiation simulations, using technology files provided by a commercial foundry. In phase 2, Ridgetop will deliver working prototype integrated circuits (ICs) that meet and exceed the above requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will provide numerous tangible benefits to the Altair and other space vehicle programs, including; (1) lower power draw, (2) higher reliability, and (3) lower mass. Commercial applications include power management systems for remotely located telecom switches having critical, uninterrupted power management.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology will be directly applicable to the energy generation and automotive markets. In the electric vehicle market, stacks of fuel cells or batteries are used to power the drive motors. These stacks would be an ideal application for this technology. Power management is essential during use, refueling, or battery recharging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Mobility
Manipulation
Perception/Sensing
Teleoperation
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Portable Life Support
Tools
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Energy Storage
MHD and Related Conversion
Photovoltaic Conversion
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy
Thermodynamic Conversion
Thermoelectric Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X1.04-9306
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated System Health Management for Ground Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fusion of Built in Test (BIT) Technologies with Embeddable Fault Tolerant Techniques for Power System and Drives in Space Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd.
Rochester, NY 14623-2893
(585) 424-1990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Antonio Ginart
antonio.ginart@impact-tek.com
75 Fifth Street NW, Suite 312
Atlanta,  GA 30308-1037
(404) 526-6188

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As NASA develops next generation space exploration systems as part of the Constellation program, new prognostics and health management tools are needed to ensure reliability, safety, mission success, and fault tolerant reconfiguration capabilities. Electrical power systems constitute a critical division of the exploration systems in enabling reliable ground and settlement operations. Even with the added hardware redundancy in the design, early diagnostics at the component level and application of fault tolerant techniques at the system level are imperative in providing an integrated reliability solution. Moreover, the proposed technology is highly adaptable across many systems of the Constellation program, including the Orion crew exploration vehicle, Altair Lunar Lander, and the lunar surface vehicles. This effort proposes an ambitious plan to improve the state-of-the-art in power system and converter (silicon and wide band gap based) in built-in-test (BIT) capabilities, enhance reliability assessment, and minimize fault propagation. Impact is proposing to develop the power system BIT capabilities based on: 1) high frequency ringing characterization in power devices, 2) an L1 norm based algorithm to monitor power quality, primarily in the converter, and 3) a dynamic differential current sensor to predict component aging and failure. These BIT techniques will continuously provide system and component level health assessment, which will be fed into the "Health Manager Reasoner" module to analyze the severity of fault and invoke the appropriate response to avoid system-wide failure propagation and enable reconfiguration techniques to promote mission completion. These techniques are mindful of the strict power, cost, size, and weight requirements for space exploration systems. They are designed to be embedded into the current configuration with minimal hardware and utilize unused processing resources.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of the proposed prognostics and fault tolerant reconfiguration strategies will directly contribute to NASA's IVHM efforts, particularly for the Constellation program. The proposed technologies are generic in nature and are applicable to future generation aviation platforms, leading to benefits in the form of improved reliability, maintainability, and survivability of safety-critical electrical power and electro-mechanical systems. The long term implications of a successful completion of this program will be the development of reliability tools for state-of-the-art technologies in power generation, management, and intelligent control. A lot of NASA's NextGen and current activities can take immediate advantage of these technologies. In the short term, the device level modeling and reconfigurable strategies to be developed in this program can be directly transitioned to ongoing research at the NASA research centers. The adaptable nature of the modules presented in this program will allow them to act as health management, design, and development tools for a wide variety of NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential benefits from the successful completion of this program are enormous and will significantly impact the way critical aerospace, power devices, controllers, and other systems are designed, particularly in the alternative energy generation and management domain. Examples of key customers that could benefit from use of the developed technologies include: power system manufacturers, commercial airlines, power semiconductor device and drive manufacturers, land and marine propulsion systems, unmanned air vehicles, JSF, future combat systems, industrial actuation systems, and robotic applications. Particularly, the push towards fly-by-wire control system implementation in commercial airlines by manufacturers like Boeing has generated specific requirements on health management performance for which these technologies can provide value by increasing reliability and safety for critical components. The following applications provide a sample of the immediate technology transition possibilities: BAE Systems' Bradley vehicles, General Dynamics' Land Systems, such as the M1A2 Abrams Tank, and Lockheed Martin's JSF program and the Multifunction Utility/Logistics and Equipment (MULE) vehicle.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Highly-Reconfigurable
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X1.04-9938
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Integrated System Health Management for Ground Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Prognostic Fault Detection and Isolation for EMA and EPS Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ridgetop Group, Inc.
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson, AZ 85704-5645
(520) 742-3300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Justin Judkins
justin.judkins@ridgetopgroup.com
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson,  AZ 85704-5645
(520) 742-3300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to NASA SBIR topic X1.04, Ridgetop Group will extend and adapt RingDown: an innovative system for the non-invasive prognostic monitoring of the health of electromechanical actuators and related power systems. This comprehensive solution provides both advanced hardware sensors to monitor the systems and prognostic health management algorithms to interpret the signals available in them. RingDown will significantly improve the reliability of and confidence in these critical NASA systems by alerting NASA personnel to impending failures well before they occur, averting disaster and improving confidence in the health of the systems. Electromechanical actuators (EMAs) are comprised of a complex system-of-systems: a high-power switch mode power supply to power the EMA's servo drive, a lower-voltage switch mode power supply to power the EMA's logic controller, power inverters, and the EMA itself. The sensors and algorithms provided by Ridgetop will allow NASA to monitor the health of—and anticipate failures in—all of these systems. In addition, these algorithms will be applicable to other switch mode power supplies (SMPSs), which are a very common component in NASA's electrical systems. Ridgetop's goal in this SBIR program is to transition these EMA prognostic health management technologies into fielded systems. In Phase I, Ridgetop will extend the RingDown sensors developed under previous NASA SBIRs to monitor additional components in the EMA system-of-systems. Ridgetop will also prototype the algorithms to interpret the data from those sensors in this Phase. In Phase II, Ridgetop will implement additional functionality for these algorithms and then field-test the combined algorithm and sensor solution. In a future Phase III or other commercialization program, a final version of this comprehensive solution will be demonstrated in-flight and then transitioned into actual system usage.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The RingDown technologies developed under this SBIR are applicable to electromechanical actuators and power systems across all of NASA's programs. The benefits of this prognostic health management solution will be reduced maintenance costs, reduced downtime, and improved reliability for critical EMA systems. Under this SBIR program, Ridgetop intends to continue its close collaboration with the Ames Research Center to prepare and position this technology for insertion into NASA's Constellation program. Ridgetop is also partnering with Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) to integrate these technologies into their TEAMS diagnostics software suite. This will ensure that these technologies are available in the baseline diagnostic tool for the Ares and Orion programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation has strong potential in the commercial aerospace market. Today's commercial operators are plagued by ever increasing operating and maintenance costs while facing tighter safety restrictions by the FAA. The EMA PHM innovation can be used as a dynamic utility to monitor an array of critical systems accurately, remotely, and non-invasively, thus eliminating the need for tedious line and system inspections which are performed routinely. The savings realized on the part of aircraft operators will be in the form of countless labor hours and parts while the value will be realized in operators having full system health visibility and resulting improved safety of passengers and crew. The proposed EMA PHM unit will also directly benefit the emerging hybrid vehicle market which comprises roughly 3% of the total automotive market . This market is particularly in need of this solution as its electronic actuator and power systems are critical. As such, the proposed technology will enable auto manufacturers and service centers to more accurately monitor critical component health data in real time, thus minimizing the risk of in-field failure. Ridgetop plans to integrate the proposed technology to add-value to existing on-board diagnostic platforms with consolidated sensor network and advanced reporting/data capabilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Attitude Determination and Control
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.01-8301
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Revitalization and Particulate Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Membrane Water Recuperator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Wolf Engineering, LLC
24 Gulf Road
Somers, CT 06071 - 2148
(413) 896-3288

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Karen Murdoch
karen@wolf-engineering.com
24 Gulf Road
Somers, CT 06071 - 2148
(413) 896-3288

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
One of the CO2 reduction technologies currently being developed by NASA is the CO2 and Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed System (CAMRAS). One of the disadvantages of the CAMRAS for long duration missions is that it removes moisture in addition to CO2. One way to minimize the water loss from the atmosphere, yet still be able to implement the highly desirable CO2 removal function of the CAMRAS, is to implement a membrane water exchanger, or recuperator, at the inlet of the CAMRAS system. The water exchanger passes humidified, CO2 laden air on one side of a membrane. The water vapor passes through the membrane leaving the CO2 laden air to be treated by the amine system. The air returning from the amine system is dry and CO2 free, as its remaining moisture and CO2 have been absorbed by the amine beads. This dry air passes on the second side of the membrane. Its low dew point provides the driving force for the moisture that passes through from the inlet stream. The CO2 free air becomes re-humidified, thus conserving water in the overall system mass balance. The membrane is highly selective for water, and not for CO2. The amount of carbon dioxide passing through the membrane and returning to the cabin is negligible; therefore the functionality of the CAMRAS as a CO2 removal system will not be impeded. The improvement over the current state-of-the-art is a reduction in power and the elimination of moving parts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
This proposed membrane water recuperator has immediate application in the current NASA vision for space exploration. As an add-on component to the CAMRAS, the recuperator provides water recovery capability for long duration missions (lunar habitat and Mars exploration) that require high degrees of loop closure. Other Air Revitalization components that exhaust a humid gas stream (such as Sabatier) could also benefit from water recovery using a membrane recuperator.

Other NASA applications include integration of the membrane recuperator into other technology systems that vent humidified gaseous products, such as the Sabatier system. A 6 crew size Sabatier loses up to 80 kg/year by venting a humidified methane product. Also, the membrane recuperator can be integrated into systems designed for cryogenic storage of reactants (vis-à-vis ISRU methane/oxygen storage) to reduce/remove the moisture before the gas is liquefied.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
After heating and cooling, humidity control is the next major element of indoor air quality control. Removing humidity is a major driver of the energy requirement for conditioning the air.

Humidity can be removed in several ways including condensation on a cold surface or chemical absorption. Both of these methods require large amounts of energy. Another means of humidity removal is to exchange the water vapor from a wet stream to a dry stream using a membrane barrier. A highly selective membrane barrier will allow water to pass without losing the content of the main air stream. This membrane water recuperator could be easily developed to transfer water from fresh air makeup to exhaust air as a means to lessen the load on a condenser prior to cooling the air. By reducing the cooling load, it allows the use of more fresh air makeup, which in turn improves the quality of indoor air in modern air tight buildings.

A successful Phase I development program would aid in the development of a working relationship with major corporations in the heating/air conditioning industry.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.01-8518
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Revitalization and Particulate Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: CO2 Removal from Mars EMU

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gokhan Alptekin
galptekin@tda.com
12345 W. 52nd Avenue
Wheat Ridge,  CO 80033-1916
(303) 940-2349

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CO2 control for during ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) on mars is challenging. Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters have impractical logistics penalties, and regenerable metal oxide canisters weigh too much. Cycling bed systems and permeable membranes that are regenerable in space vacuum cannot vent on Mars due to the high partial pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere. Although sweep gas regeneration is under investigation, the feasibility, logistics penalties, and failure modes associated with this technique have not been fully determined. TDA Research, Inc. proposes to develop a durable, high-capacity regenerable sorbent that can remove CO2 from the breathing loop. The system design allows sorbent regeneration at or above 6 torr, eliminating the potential for Martian atmosphere to leak into the regeneration bed and into the breathing loop. In the proposed work, we will synthesize sorbent formulations to remove CO2 from the breathing loop of the PLSS and evaluate the performance of these sorbents under representative conditions (adsorption and regeneration under sub-atmospheric pressures across the desired temperature differential). We will explore the methods to prepare these sorbents on engineered structures to increase durability and promote better heat transfer during the thermal regeneration process. We will perform a minimum of 1,000 adsorption/regeneration cycles to demonstrate the life of these sorbents. Finally, we will carry out a detailed engineering analysis and design to assess the technical viability of the concept.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main attraction of our research to NASA is its ability to provide a lightweight, compact, and efficient CO2 removal system capable of regenerable operation during the EVAs. The regeneration during the EVAs eliminates the consumable requirement related to the use of LiOH canisters and the mission duration limitations imposed by MetOx system. If proven successful, the the concept will minimize the amount of consumable to be brought from Earth and make the mission more affordable, while providing great operational flexibilities during the EVAs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The sorbent developed in this project could potentially find use in a large commercial market in the removal of CO2 emissions from the coal-fired power plants. If regulations are put in place to curb carbon emissions from power plants the potential market for a successful sorbent is in the order of billions of dollars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Life Support
Suits


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.01-8688
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Revitalization and Particulate Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Reduction via Sabatier Process

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Precision Combustion, Inc.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473-3106
(203) 287-3700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christian Junaedi
cjunaedi@precision-combustion.com
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven,  CT 06473-3106
(203) 287-3700

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a novel, efficient, and lightweight catalytic Sabatier CO2 methanation unit, capable of converting a mixture of CO2 and H2 to methane and water with targeted CO2 conversions of &#8805;90% at high throughputs and at low operating temperatures (&#8804;350<SUP>o</SUP>C). In the spacecraft cabin air revitalization system (ARS), the utilization of CO2 to produce life support consumables, such as O2 and H2O, via Sabatier process as part of the CO2 Reduction Assembly (CRA) is an important aspect for long-term manned space explorations. The maturation of this technology will significantly reduce the need of re-supply from Earth. Sabatier reaction is highly exothermic and is limited by the thermodynamic equilibrium; therefore, the ability to control and maintain axial reactor temperature and catalyst surface temperature is crucial for obtaining good reactor performance and preventing catalyst deactivation. The proposed program will build on the short contact time kinetic benefits of Microlith<SUP>REG</SUP> technology (patented and trademarked by PCI) and PCI's proven catalyst coating development process from prior NASA programs, to demonstrate a proof-of-concept toward delivering a modular, compact, and durable Sabatier CO2 reduction prototype to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will provide an ultra-compact, high efficiency catalytic CO2 methanation reactor for converting CO2 and H2 to methane and water vapor for use with an electrolyzer to generate O2 for spacecraft and space station cabin ARS. Because of the extremely small size and weight, this catalytic Microlith<SUP>REG</SUP> reactor will be highly competitive in NASA spacecraft applications. Additionally, due to its modular and flexible design, the proposed reactor can be easily integrated with existing ECLSS and ARS concepts. Targeted NASA spin-off applications include in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) concept for future lunar base and Mars missions, both for generating life support consumables, such as O2 and H2O, and for producing methane as propellant fuel. The use of Microlith CO2 methanation reactors as part of the ARS and ISRU concepts has potential to address the main concerns of this application, namely mass and size reduction, energy efficiency, and long-term durability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Targeted non-NASA applications include as a methanation reactor for high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells and molten carbonate fuel cells. PCI has a leading fuel reforming technology (that is supplanting microchannel reformers for this application) which has been tested with solid oxide fuel cells. The ability to convert the reformate gas from the fuel pre-reformer into methane (which could then be converted to syngas through endothermic steam reforming in the fuel cell stack) could add thousands of hours of life to the stack through temperature moderation. There is also the potential to use the technology in methanation reactors for other processes such as the Haber process for producing ammonia (which is used to make fertilizer and ammunition) and as part of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) for cleaner coal-based power production

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.01-9602
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Revitalization and Particulate Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Thermal Plasma Recovery of Hydrogen from Sabatier Waste Methane

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Hennings
brian.hennings@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station,  TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Effective methods for recovery and regeneration of cabin atmosphere to supply oxygen are critical to facilitate extended duration manned missions including expeditions to Mars or a return to the Moon. Currently, oxygen is recovered as water using the Sabatier reduction process. One of the by-products of this reaction is waste methane, which is vented into space. Lynntech proposes to reclaim the hydrogen from the methane by utilizing a low power, high efficiency, non-thermal plasma (NTP) process based on high frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HFDBD). The HFDBD is characterized by electrons and heavy particles being in thermodynamic non-equilibrium. The electron temperatures are near 10,000K, while the ions and neutrals species remain at ambient temperature. The high energy electrons have the potential to recover up to 75% of the hydrogen from methane. Since the majority of the electrical energy in the discharge is used to accelerate electrons rather than heat the plasma gas, Lynntech's process produces minimal soot. Hence, a complex filtration system to remove soot from the exhaust stream is not required. Recovery of hydrogen from methane minimizes the hydrogen resupply requirements and improves the efficiency of the Sabatier process by closing the mass loop of the reduction reaction.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include reducing hydrogen resupply requirements and improvement of the Sabatier process efficiency for oxygen recovery using the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA). The plasma process can also be tweaked to produce other low molecular weight fuels such as methanol and ethanol which can be used for power co-generation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications include reformation of natural gas to produce hydrogen to be utilized directly as a fuel, or to power PEM fuel cells for commercial and military applications. In addition, the non-thermal plasma process is capable of reforming any liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon feedstock such as JP-8 and heavy oils to produce low molecular weight fuels and fuel additives such as gasoline, diesel, aviation fuels, methanol and ethanol. The proposed plasma approach provides an alternative means for the US to battle rising crude oil prices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.01-9873
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Revitalization and Particulate Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a Cathode Liquid Feed Electrolyzer to Generate 3,600 psi Oxygen for Both Lunar and Space Microgravity Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy Norman
tnorman@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0556

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Giner Electrochemical Systems (GES) proposes to develop a cathode liquid feed, proton-exchange membrane electrolyzer stack and system capable of producing 3,600 psi oxygen. In preparation for this Phase I effort, we propose to collaborate with Hamilton-Sundstrand Human Space Systems (H-S) to share unique state-of-the-art technologies that provide the best path to meeting program objectives. GES will share their data and expertise with high balanced pressure electrolyzers and H-S will contribute their data and expertise in high differential pressure electrolyzers. Based on this exchange, GES would modify its electrolyzer performance model. In a third task, GES will build two single cell electrolyzers with GES and H-S components. One stack will be dedicated to balanced pressure operation, while a second unit would be dedicated to high differential pressure (oxygen over hydrogen) operation. A full experimental matrix will be conducted on these units in a cathode liquid feed configuration. Balanced pressure operation would be conducted at GES facilities (from atmospheric to 2,000 psi). Differential pressure testing would be conducted in H-S facilities (at pressures between 2,000 and 3,600 psi). Data would then be integrated into the GES analysis code, and be available as a design analysis tool for future phases of the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is charged with returning humans to the moon in a permanently occupied lunar station. This mission will require astronauts to conduct extravehicular activities while en route to the moon, and while on the lunar surface. To operate in these environments, the astronauts need an on-site source of pressurized oxygen to refill empty tanks. A very-high-pressure PEM water electrolyzer is proposed that can produce a minimum of 3,600 psi oxygen and hydrogen without the need for high-pressure pumps and/or compressors. A very-high-pressure water electrolyzer will permit smaller launch volumes, saving space aboard the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The electrolyzer might also be useful for the production of hydrogen and oxygen for space vehicle propulsion, enabling missions to Mars. Other electrolyzers of similar designs may be used to produce oxygen and hydrogen for energy storage purposes in regenerative fuel cells on the lunar and Martian surfaces. Other electrolyzers may be used for generation of oxygen on the lunar surface without a net consumption of water through in situ resource utilization (ISRU). By making all of these electrolyzers compatible with one another, if not identical, it may be possible for NASA to save significant development resources while improving astronaut life support safety margins by increasing redundancy. Given a successful development it may be possible to replace troublesome oxygen compressor currently aboard the International Space Station.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Quiet and compact oxygen generators may be useful for Navy SEAL missions. Such electrolyzers as closed-loop regenerative fuel cells are potential battery substitutes for applications that require high energy density. Several agencies of the U.S. Government and several private businesses are engaged in development of long-endurance aircraft and airships. The high-pressure electrolyzer developed under this proposed program may be applicable to these vehicles. Large-scale power storage via regenerative fuel cells may have terrestrial applications in telecommunications and other industries that require uninterruptible power supplies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Life Support
Suits
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Microgravity


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.02-9024
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Habitation Systems, Water Recovery and Waste Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Component Remediation System for Generating Potable Water Onboard Spacecrafts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fractal Systems, Inc.
108 4th Street
Belleair Beach, FL 33786-3213
(727) 595-6175

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matt Aldissi
maldissi@fractalsystemsinc.com
108 4th street
Belleair Beach,  FL 33786-3213
(727) 595-6175

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fractal Systems Inc. proposes to develop an innovative, energy-efficient water purification system to enable humans to live and work permanently in space. Water recovery in space is essential to produce potable and hygienic water from wastewater generated onboard spacecraft. In phase I, we will demonstrate feasibility of a new and highly efficient method that will combine several technologies based on high surface area nanoparticles in one compact, portable filtration/remediation system for generating potable water. In Phase I, we will fabricate, characterize and test each component with respect to its remediation efficiency. The proposed effort is based on in-house work and developed devices. This effort will be conducted in collaboration with academia and industry partners to achieve a viable technology that will be developed further in Phase II and result in a complete system as a Phase II deliverable, which will be used by our industrial partner, a water purification company, for commercialization purposes. Our purification system will be easy to handle, very cost effective and free from chemical by-products.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed multi-component filtration/remediation system will be the most ecological way of generating drinking water from wastewater generated by spacecraft crew. Our compact and portable water purification system will be simple, inexpensive and creates no by-products. Such a system will be ideal for recycling wastewater generated by humans in space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications for the proposed multi-component filtration/remediation system includes purification in private wells, camp grounds, hotels, bottlers, aquaculture, hospitals, food, cottages, restaurants, breweries, water systems, laboratories, marine, pharmaceutical, dairies and many other places.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Waste Processing and Reclamation

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.02-9318
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Habitation Systems, Water Recovery and Waste Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Odor Control In Spacecraft Waste Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
NANOSCALE MATERIALS, INC.
1310 Research Park Dr.
Manhattan, KS 66502 - 5000
(785) 537-0179

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Franklin Kroh
fkroh@NanoScaleCorp.com
1310 Research Park Dr.
Manhattan, KS 66502 - 5000
(785) 537-0179

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Spacecraft and lunar bases generate a variety of wastes containing water, including food wastes, feces, and brines. Disposal of these wastes, as well as recovery of water, is necessary. However, evaporation of water also evaporates compounds with foul odors, some of which are much more volatile than water. Even apart from a water recovery system, foul odors sap crew morale, and must be eliminated.
NanoScaleREG Corporation has developed a formulation of its proprietary sorbents, termed OdorKlenzTM, that has been shown to effectively remove odorous compounds from air by destructive adsorption. NanoScale proposes development of a similar formulation, built around nanocrystalline metal oxides manufactured by NanoScale's proprietary procedures, such as NanoActive TiO2, NanoActive MgO, and NanoActive ZnO, to remove foul odors in a system that can recover water from wastes. The odor control system will function during waste storage, and also during water recovery .
In Phase I, NanoScale will demonstrate feasibility by developing a formulation of metal oxides capable of removing odorous compounds from food and sanitary wastes, and compatible with a water recovery system. Specific test compounds include skatole (3-methylindole, found in feces), putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane, in rotten protein), ammonia (urine), ethanethiol, hydrogen sulfide (rotten eggs, flatus), butyric acid (rancid butter), and butyraldehyde. Gas streams containing these compounds will be passed through beds of the metal oxide formulation, with concentrations measured by GC, before and after passing through the bed. In Phase II, the odor control system will be integrated into the specific details of spacecraft and envisioned lunar stations. Then, brassboard hardware will be developed and evaluated.
NanoScale, having pioneered the synthesis and manufacture of nanocrystalline metal oxides for destructive adsorption of hazardous compounds, is uniquely qualified to perform the proposed work.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The primary NASA application envisioned for the proposed technology is for odor control in a waste management and water recovery system for spacecraft and lunar/Mars bases. However, these living spaces have such limited air exchange that simple deodorizing of the air offers a great benefit to astronauts and crew members.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The most direct commercial applications include use in recreational vehicles, airplanes, water craft, nuclear submarines, and undersea or polar research stations, in which people spend long periods in tight quarters with limited air exchange. Work environoments such as slaughterhouses, feedlots, waste processing facilities, funeral homes, morgues, and hospitals have odors that can reduce worker morale or even safety and productivity. The market value of the commercial applications, which encompasses the air filtration market, currently exceeds $5 billion and is expected to continue growing. Recently industrial emissions and treatment of contaminated air has become important due to increased concern for the environment. The presence of VOCs in the environment is of such concern because of the toxicity and the tighter regulations on air quality. The industrial applications NanoScale is pursuing such as pollutant removal and gas scrubbing have already gained support from GE and WRI (Western Research Institute). Equally important, the approach proposed utilizes manufacturing methods that are scalable, cost efficient, and environmentally friendly.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support
Portable Life Support
Waste Processing and Reclamation



 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.02-9461
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Habitation Systems, Water Recovery and Waste Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency, High Output Plastic Melt Waste Compactor (HEHO-PMWC)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeff Johnson
johnsonj@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53717-1961
(608) 229-2828

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC proposes to develop processes and waste heat recovery techniques to be incorporated into the existing Plastic Melt Waste Compactor (PMWC) to increase efficiency and throughput. The end goal will be to incorporate these processes and techniques into the PMWC system developed by Ames Research Center (ARC). The PMWC has shown to be the best technology for waste management for space applications. It can compress, recover water, and stabilize the waste in one compact system. Even though the PMWC has been built and is being tested by ARC, many technical challenges remain. This Phase I effort is in response to those challenges to increase the PMWC Technology Readiness Level significantly by the end of Phase II. During Phase I much will be done by computational analysis to analyze the best materials to minimize heat losses and how to most effectively add forced air convection to the process. A benchtop simulator will also be developed and tested to more accurately quantify and validate the computational results. Phase II will expand upon these efforts by incorporating the Phase I designs into the current PMWC or by constructing a next generation PMWC, which will have a TRL of 5 or 6.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The system provides integrated trash drying, melt compaction, water reclamation, and air revitalization with limited crew interaction. As long-term human spaceflight missions are launched, the need for a viable source of clean water is required for survival. It will not be possible to launch an exploration vehicle with an adequate supply of water without recovering and reusing the limited water supplies included. A vital link in the water recycling chain is enabling water reclamation from trash. The primary application is on lunar and Mars planetary surface applications but it can also be used for longer duration transit operations. The ESM ROI increases with increasing crew size and mission length. Integration into a Lunar Outpost would be a stepping stone to long-duration Martian missions. In addition to saving the volume and mass associated with carrying extra water, crew time and stowage are reduced.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As commercial space travel becomes a reality, launch mass and volumetric savings provided by the proposed technology will directly impact the viability of commercial space travel. In addition to working with the NASA applications and customers, ORBITEC has been discussing technology applications with several aerospace and commercial space companies. As part of ongoing discussions with large aerospace companies, ORBITEC anticipates integrating this technology into one or more architectures and concepts on future proposals to be submitted for funding and implementation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.02-9562
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Habitation Systems, Water Recovery and Waste Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Akse, Ph.D.
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102
(541) 863-2653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The use of combinatorial methods is proposed to rapidly screen catalyst formulations for the advanced development of aqueous phase oxidation catalysts with greater activity than current catalysts at temperatures less than 100„aC and low pressure. To accomplish this goal, a large catalyst library will be prepared using seven noble metals at two concentrations on three supports. With a maximum of three metals each, 840 unique catalysts will be synthesized in parallel. Rapid determination of comparative oxidation activity for these catalysts will be critical to success, and will utilize organic dyes as oxidation substrates in an array format. Color changes will reveal relative activity at each reaction condition, allowing rapid screening for the most active catalysts. Then, the top three catalysts will be evaluated using water recovery system (WRS) ersatz wastewater challenges and compared to the current WRS catalyst. The Phase I project will clearly demonstrate the feasibility of achieving these goals using combinatorial methods. The Phase II program will optimize performance and provide sufficient catalyst for evaluation using prospective Lunar Outpost (LO) WRS hardware. The advanced catalyst will lower ESM, and provide new applications in commercial water purification markets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of NASA's return to the moon as well as the International Space Station (ISS). Advanced Aqueous Phase Oxidation Catalysts will be suitable for near term use in the water recovery system (WRS) aboard the ISS, and later use in a permanently manned Lunar Outpost (LO). This will lower operating temperature, reducing energy usage, and improve oxidation capacity. Such a catalyst will be purchased as Flight Hardware by NASA, or by an aerospace contracting firm on behalf of NASA, resulting in enhanced capability in support of manned missions aboard the ISS, LO, and beyond, where increased capacity, minimization of expendables, low power requirements, and safe operation are highly valued.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Catalysts that function at lower temperatures will have numerous commercial applications. These include the elimination of organic contaminants in wastewater or groundwater, or for the production of ultra-pure water. Such catalysts are extremely attractive for in situ environmental clean-up using a pump and treat system, where energy usage must be minimized. Current ultra-pure water production technologies are limited to treating specific contaminants and will be challenged by more stringent requirements in the next generation semiconductor fabrication facility. Low temperature catalytic processes will help meet these higher water quality standards in a cost-effective manner.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.02-9599
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Habitation Systems, Water Recovery and Waste Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Self-Cleaning Surfaces for Biofouling Prevention

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anjal Sharma
anjal.sharma@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station,  TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the most problematic issues that facing efficient water reclamation processes for long duration space missions is biofilm growth and biofouling on RO membrane and transfer line surfaces. An immediate need therefore exists to develop new technologies to solve the problems associated with biofouling of water recovery subsystem surfaces. Lynntech, Inc. proposes a novel technology for the preparation and demonstration of stimuli-responsive, reagent-free, self-cleaning surfaces. This technology is based on an innovative yet simple and inexpensive approach to functionalize base membrane and water line surfaces with novel coatings. These coatings respond to the application of a physical stimulus such as a change in temperature by changing their physical attributes such as their physical dimensions. The change in their physical dimensions in turn triggers lifting off of adherent biofilms thereby regenerating the surface and reverting to optimal operational efficiency parameters such as optimized operational RO pressures as well as optimal transfer line flow rates. Phase I work will concentrate on providing proof-of-concept for the self-cleaning surface technology, while Phase II will involve the fabrication and delivery of prototype self-cleaning RO membranes and water transfer line components to NASA-JSC for integration and testing within its integrated advanced water recovery test system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The directly relevant NASA application includes self-cleaning RO membranes and transfer lines for integration into water reclamation systems on board future planetary and lunar habitats, to provide clean drinking water. Possible additional NASA applications may include low microbial count water to support future hydroponic crop system growth and self-cleaning spacecraft and habitat surfaces.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications include more durable and longer use RO membranes and transfer lines for water processing and supply plants, crop irrigation units, home water purification units and low microbial count water sprayers for the produce section of grocery stores etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Biomedical and Life Support
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.03-8721
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micro GC's for Contaminant Monitoring in Spacecraft Air

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cbana Laboratories
2001 South First Street
Champaign, IL 61820-7478
(217) 239-1963

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qingmei Chen
qingmei.chen@cbana.com
2001 South First Street
Champaign,  IL 61820-7478
(217) 244-4872

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this proposal is to create new gas chromatographs (GCs) for contaminant monitoring in spacecraft air that do not require any reagents or special carrier gases. Under DARPA support, Cbana has created a new class of microGCs that are smaller than ever before and yet show performance similar to those of full scale commercial GCs. In the proposed work we will redesign the GCs so that they can use air as a carrier gas. Key to the device is a very low pressure drop adsorbent bed that can capture the contaminants for analysis and produce a very pure air stream as a carrier gas. Phase I tests will be performed to optimize the performance of the adsorption bed and to verify that the GC columns work with air. The result will lead to a cabin air monitoring system that can detect all of the contaminants listed in the NASA report NASA report "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations For Airborne Contaminants" and not require special carrier gases or reagents.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If we are successful through Phase II, we will demonstrate that the Cbana microGCs can detect a broad range of contaminants in spacecraft air without needing externally supplied reagents. The devices will increase the number of contaminants that can be detected and lower the need for unstable reagents or calibration mixtures. Further the GCs will be small enough and light enough to be included in Extravehicular Mobility Units for the first time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The microGCs have a wealth of potential commercial opportunities. Examples include: indoor air quality (IAQ) monitoring and remediation, industrial pollution containment and elimination, narcotics detection, cargo monitoring, explosives detection, and lung cancer screening. Also, we will have a military device to detect chemical warfare agents that can support a 7-day mission packaged in the space of only a few cubic centimeters. This integrated device comprising a micro-GC, detectors, reagents and power supply will have the potential to: 1) identify chemical threats in a battlefield; 2) provide assessment of warfighter health status, chemical exposure, stress level, and hydration; and 3) detect human activity in caves and other structures. The use of Cbana components in NASA missions will aid the deployment of Cbana's sensors in the commercial market. One of the key milestones in Cbana's business plan is to secure independent groups to validate the technology. Inclusion of the Cbana equipment as an integral component of one or more NASA missions would facilitate our goal of independent validation, hence furthering commercial market acceptance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
In-situ Resource Utilization
Organics/Bio-Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.03-9435
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Miniaturized Sensor for Microbial Monitoring of Spacecraft Water Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yi Wang
yxw@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4858

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Accurate real-time microbial monitoring of water environment is of paramount importance to crew health as well as to ensure proper functioning and control of the life support system during space exploration. The existing methods are time-consuming and labor-intensive, and the devices used are bulky, consumable-hungry, and ill-suited for spacecraft deployment. We propose to develop and demonstrate a novel, fully automated, microfluidics-based sensor for detection and identification of microbes in water. The final product will be compact, accurate, fully integrated and automated, power-effective, and fieldable in research and space environments. The program objectives will be accomplished via several innovations: (a) a milli-fluidic microbe preconcentrator to improve detection sensitivity; (b) CFDRC's proprietary dielectrophoresis technology will be adapted to develop a dielectrophoretic focuser for differentiation and separation of target microbes from complex sample matrices; and (c) microfluidic impedance spectroscopy-based cytometry to enable label-free detection and near reagent-free operation. In Phase I, we will demonstrate all critical components to establish proof-of-concept of the proposed technology. Phase II efforts will focus along two lines. First, component design optimization will be carried out with fabrication enhancements and extended testing and characterization for technology validation. Second, an integrated microfluidic cartridge and instrumentation capable of automated operation (sample processing and detection) will be developed. The prototype instrument will be demonstrated in both terrestrial and hypogravity environments (in collaboration with NASA researchers/facilities).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The end product of the proposed SBIR effort will be a first-of-its-kind, compact, low-cost, label-free, fully automated and integrated microbial sensor device for water monitoring. The device will provide NASA a powerful tool for real-time microbial detection and identification, and greatly aid in NASA's efforts to minimize microbial exposure/infection hazard, develop countermeasures, and ensure proper functioning and quality-control of life support system in spacecrafts, space shuttles and space stations. The device will be of direct use to NASA's ground-based research facilities and amenable for space deployment as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed sensor technology will have direct commercial value in both federal and civilian sectors. The device can be used for US Navy shipboard wastewater monitoring or on-field assessment of water quality during military mission. The anticipated civilian applications include: • Pre-clinical and Clinical Diagnostics (e.g., microbial detection in body fluids) • Public & Natural Water Monitoring (e.g., hospital & health site, recreational and drinking waters) • Industrial Wastewater Surveillance (e.g., water treatment and food-processing plants)

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Biochemical
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.03-9510
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mesa Photonics
5 Bisbee Court
Santa Fe, NM 87508-1419
(505) 216-5015

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Bomse
dbomse@mesaphotonics.com
5 Bisbee Court
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-1419
(505) 216-5015

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long missions. Some gases are generated by people and emitted through the skin or by exhalation. In addition to carbon dioxide, these anthropogenic gases include carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, acetaldehyde, and methanol. Plastics used in the spacecraft cabin can outgas formaldehyde, and heat exchangers can leak ammonia into breathing air. Overheating electronics can release carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. Thus, continuous air monitoring is required. Mesa Photonics proposes development of a highly miniaturized, highly efficient Fourier Transform (FT) spectrometer for continuous monitoring of contaminant air. The spectrometer will be able to detect a wide range of compounds with response times of about 30 seconds. Our approach combines several innovations that will lead to a rugged and reliable spectrometer capable of space-based operation and having a long shelf life. Spectrometers will be about the size of a lap-top computer, weigh about 4 kg, and consume about 10 W. Most target contaminants will be detectable at part-per-million or lower concentrations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA commercial applications for trace gas detection include crew habitat air monitoring, crew physiology monitoring by breath analysis, early warning fire sensing, launch pad and test bed safety monitoring, and leak detection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Gas monitoring and detection encompass a wide range of medical, industrial, and environmental commercial markets. Quantitative detection of ammonia the gas that will be used in the Phase I experiments has commercial applications as diverse as in leak detection for industrial refrigeration, breath analysis for monitoring kidney dialysis, and sensing of clandestine methamphetamine laboratories. The planned modular design of our instrument platform will give us considerable flexibility in addressing different markets. Initially, we will focus on instruments for the research community. Mesa Photonics has already developed a large customer base in university and government research labs through sales of our ultrafast laser diagnostic tools. Starting with these customers and their colleagues will speed product development because we do not need to also develop the packaging and sample handling accessories that are required for most industrial applications. Experience obtained from the research community will guide us toward identifying good choices for industrial applications and larger markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.03-9601
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature, Low Power Vacuum Pump for Trace Contaminant Monitors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840 - 4023
(979) 693-0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Brian Hennings
brian.hennings@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840 - 4023
(979) 693-0017

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
With the ever increasing complexity and duration of International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with planned lunar and Martian missions, the need for more advance capabilities for monitoring the astronaut crew environment becomes ever more critical. Accompanying this is an unprecedented need for reduction in instrumentation size, weight, and power consumption. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of miniature analytical instruments. However, many of these systems require a means of producing a vacuum with pressures under 1 Torr to either supply a rough vacuum or to back a high vacuum pump such as a molecular drag pump or turbo pump. Unfortunately, currently available rough vacuum pumps remain large, heavy, power hungry and unreliable. Lynntech proposes to develop a long-life, robust, low-power, miniature rough vacuum pump for trace gas contaminant monitors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The need for vacuum pumps to be of small mass and volume and require low power is obvious for space and planetary exploration missions. With recent advances in sensor technology leading to the development of miniature mass spectrometers and other analytical instruments needing high vacuum, there will be many applications for a highly efficient, robust, long-life vacuum pump in future NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Many portable instruments used for scientific and engineering applications require a means of producing a vacuum with pressures under 1 Torr. Such instruments include mass spectrometers, cooled infrared sensing instruments, microwave spectrometers using Stark cells, instruments containing unsealed low-pressure lasers, trace gas concentration systems, leak detectors, etc. In these instruments the vacuum pump tends to have the greatest mass, volume, power consumption and cost penalties. A lightweight, low power, miniature vacuum roughing pump is expected greatly expand the market for portable analytical instruments.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.03-9855
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Handheld FRET-Aptamer Sensor for Water Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Operational Technologies Corporation
4100 N.W. Loop 410
San Antonio, TX 78229 - 4253
(210) 731-0000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
John G Bruno
john.bruno@otcorp.com
4100 N.W. Loop 410, Ste, 230
San Antonio, TX 78232 - 4253
(210) 731-0015 Extension :2228

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Operational Technologies Corporation (OpTech) proposes to expand its current NASA Phase 2 SBIR handheld fluorometer and bone marker fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-DNA aptamer assay system to include detection of bacteria, fungi, and parasites that may contaminate astronauts' water supplies. For Gram positive bacteria, teichoic acids and peptidoglycan will serve as targets. For Gram negative bacteria, common lipopolysaccharide moieties such as 2-keto-3-deoxyoctanate (KDO antigen) will be targeted for aptamer development. Similarly, for fungi, cell wall chitin will be used to select highly specific FRET-aptamers from a randomized DNA library. Parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia will require more specific whole cell or surface protein aptamer selection approaches, but OpTech has recently demonstrated detection of 30 E. coli bacteria per ml using such an approach under NSF Phase 1 SBIR funding. Prototype assays will be lyophilized in plastic cuvettes and capped under vacuum or otherwise sealed to prevent opening in negative pressure environments. Lyophilization with trehalose or other excipients will extend shelf-life to greater than 2 years for these rapid (15 minute) one step (homogeneous) FRET assays that will be quantified with an ultrasensitive commercial handheld fluorometer. Data can be displayed on the handheld reader and downloaded to a laptop computer.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
In addition, to its present intended use for monitoring bone loss in astronauts under OpTech's Phase 2 SBIR funding from NASA, this same platform technology could be used as a portable means to monitor water quality by ultrasensitive detection of bacteria, fungi and specific parasites. Clearly also, NASA could monitor other non-bone-related clinical analytes in urine or serum for astronauts during spaceflight with one step push-button ease, if appropriate FRET-assays were developed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
OpTech is already successfully working on portable FRET-aptamer technology to rapidly (less than 15 minutes) detect fecal bacteria in water supplies and wishes to expand its repertoire of assays to include parasite and general fungal detection. The FRET-aptamer and handheld sensor package has many other applications in clinical point-of-care diagnostics, portable veterinary diagnostics, environmental pollution and chem-bio terrorism or military detection. In addition, aptamers that bind lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) and other bacterial components could be very useful in antibacterial or antibiotic-like therapies against life-threatening conditions like sepsis and antibiotic-resistant infections.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.04-8356
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Quantum Cascade Laser-Based CO Sensor for Fire Warning

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Maxion Technologies, Inc.
5000 College Avenue, Ste 3121
College Park, MD 20740-3817
(301) 405-8426

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Bradshaw
jbradshaw@maxion.com
5000 College Avenue, Ste 3121
College Park,  MD 20740-3817
(301) 405-1090

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Maxion Technologies and Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) propose to jointly develop a compact, rugged, highly reliable, and autonomous sensor for in-situ monitoring of CO in spacecraft crew areas for fire warning. Our innovation is to combine a custom fabricated Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) with PSI's proprietary single board electronics package that incorporates both a high sensitivity optical detection technique and all system control functions, to create a laser spectrometer for CO. The advent of QCLs enables the development of a very compact and highly sensitive monitor. This technical approach will result in a sensor that has the requisite dynamic range of 1 to 500 ppmv with a precision of 1 ppmv CO, in a physically robust and compact package. The Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of a breadboard sensor and create a detailed conceptual design for an advanced prototype. The TRL at the beginning of Phase I is level 2 and the TRL at the end of Phase I will be level 4. The Phase II program will fabricate a prototype that can be demonstrated at a relevant simulator. The TRL at the end of Phase II will be level 6. Successful completion of Phases I and II will result in a rigorously validated prototype sensor that can monitor ambient CO with high speed and precision. The sensor architecture can be easily modified to measure other species.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The QCL-based sensor will serve as a platform for a suite of compact and low cost gas sensors that can measure a variety of species ranging from carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other air components that are important for many air quality monitoring missions. This sensor platform will provide a compact, low power consumption, low cost tool that is particularly suited for deployment in spacecraft cabins and on small aircraft such as UAVs. Maxion Technologies will make the single mode Quantum Cascade Laser developed in Phase 1 commercially available for insertion into other laser-based chemical sensors by NASA developers and/or other government and commercial concerns that work with NASA. Development of the single-mode QCL described in the proposal will generate high performance, room temperature laser material suitable for other laser-based chemical sensing applications in the technologically important 4.55-4.75 micron wavelength region.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The QCL-based sensor will serve as a platform for a suite of compact and low cost gas sensors that can address a variety of applications ranging from air quality monitoring and other atmospheric research tools to combustion emissions monitoring, carbon sequestration monitoring and verification, biomedical diagnostics (specifically breath analysis and operating room health monitoring), home or mobile toxic gas alarms, smart HVAC control, and as a total hydrocarbon sensor for environmental and process control applications. Maxion and PSI anticipate working with several strategic marketing partners to address the large range of potential commercial applications. Maxion Technologies will make the single mode Quantum Cascade Laser developed in Phase 1 commercially available for insertion into other laser-based chemical sensors by NASA developers and/or other government and commercial concerns. Development of the single-mode QCL described in the proposal will generate high performance, room temperature laser material suitable for other laser-based chemical sensing applications within the technologically important hydrocarbon, CO and CO2 spectral regions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.04-9618
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Flammable Crew Clothing Utilizing Phosphorus-Based Fire Retardant Polymers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innosense, LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tania Betancourt
tania.betancourt-1@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245
(310) 530-2011

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For maintaining U.S. leadership role in space exploration, there is an urgent need to develop non-flammable shirts, shorts, sweaters, and jackets without compromising the comfort and flexibility of the fabrics. InnoSense LLC (ISL) proposes to utilize its phosphorus-containing ionic polymers in crew clothing. In Phase I, this project would demonstrate flame retardancy and perform standard tests showing adequate comfort, appearance, durability, and non-toxicity, which can be realized from ISL polymers. The overall goal is to take existing fabrics, with their desirable physical properties and high level of comfort, and inserting flame retardancy. The innovations of the proposed approach will offer durability of the treated fabric since the polymers will be covalently bonded to the fabrics. Phase I evaluation will also include biocompatibility of the treated fabrics. Fine-tuning and process scale up will be accomplished in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate targeted application for NASA is crew clothing. Fire poses a great safety threat to the crew. This technology will be applicable to NASA crew clothing items like shirts, shorts, sweaters, and jackets without compromising the comfort and flexibility. ISL's phosphorus polymers can also be incorporated to insulation materials, packing materials, foams, upholstery or bedding used in space habitats and exploratory vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flame retardant polymers can be incorporated into items used in our everyday life. Examples include: linen, blankets, mattresses, upholstered furniture covers, furniture fabrics, carpets, textile wall lining, curtains, protective clothes, tarpaulins, and tents. A major NASA prime contractor has shown interest in the ISL technology for their commercial enterprises.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Thermal Insulating Materials
Pilot Support Systems
Biomedical and Life Support
Suits
Organics/Bio-Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.04-9771
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Fire Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Glow Discharge Analyzer for Spacecraft Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973 - 9064
(530) 895-2770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Benjamin Ward
bward@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973 - 9064
(216) 587-4750

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and Penn State University (PSU) propose to develop a highly sensitive spectrometer based on glow discharge emission for the detection/classification of gas and aerosol species in post-fire cleanup scenarios. This device would complement technology that is already under development for intelligent fire detection and would provide a robust system to simultaneously monitor the reduction of carbon monoxide and other toxic species by fire cleanup filtration systems.
MEI and Dr. Randy Vander Wal of PSU are actively developing a glow-discharge based detection system for DoD (NAVAIR) that will be extremely compact (<1 lb.) and provide highly sensitive detection of explosives and the potential to detect a broad range of chemical and biological agents. This system is a microhollow glow discharge-based electronic sniffer (MHGD Sniffer) and provides the basis for the proposed NASA effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The instrument concept is anticipated to be relevant to manned missions as well as unmanned missions. The proposed instrument would also be compatible with landers, rovers for soil, dust, and atmospheric analysis and in airplanes and balloons for atmospheric composition

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
This work would be leveraged for applications in homeland security (e.g. explosives detection and drug interdiction), environmental analysis (e.g. atmospheric aerosols and their effect on global warming), and industrial safety markets.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Combustion
Optical


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.05-9202
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nonventing Thermal and Humidity Control for EVA Suits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-0071
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Izenson
mgi@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-0071
(603) 640-2405

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these future space suits are extremely challenging, since they must maintain healthy and comfortable conditions inside the suit for long-duration missions while minimizing weight and venting no consumables. We propose an innovative system for thermal and humidity control in a space suit that is simple, rugged, lightweight, and nonventing. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of our approach by analysis and laboratory testing of a proof-of-concept unit to identify the optimum configuration. We will produce a conceptual design for a full-size system. In Phase II we will develop fabrication methods to produce a full-size prototype, then demonstrate operation in a prototypical environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system can be used in any future space suit, with applications that include lunar and Mars exploration or constructing/servicing next-generation space telescopes while maintaining a clean environment. The basic technology can also be used to provide rugged, nonventing thermal and humidity control for spacecraft, manned rovers, and habitats.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous commercial and military applications for the proposed technology. Commercial applications include untethered personal cooling systems for law enforcement, nuclear/chemical plant workers, and heat-sensitive multiple sclerosis patients. Military applications include personal cooling systems for soldiers or marines wearing chem/bio protective gear, body armor, EOD suits, or level-A HAZMAT suits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X2.05-9667
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Thermal Control Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Sublimator Driven Coldplate for use in Active Thermal Control System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 E. Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ 85714-2221
(520) 903-1000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Leimkuehler
tleimkuehler@paragonsdc.com
1120 NASA Parkway
Houston,  TX 77058-3364
(281) 862-7797

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The original Sublimator Driven Coldplate (SDC) design sought to provide significant mass savings over a traditional pumped fluid loop by combining the functions of a cold plate and a sublimator and eliminating the fluid loop (Leimkuehler, et. al., "Design of a Sublimator Driven Coldlpate Development Unit," 2008-01-2169). The target application was to provide heat rejection for the ascent module of the Altair lunar lander vehicle during the lunar ascent mission phase. However, in order to provide heat rejection for the ascent module during the rest of the mission, it is desirable to keep the ascent module integrated with the fluid loop in the rest of the Altair vehicle. Therefore, we propose an Integrated Sublimator Driven Coldplate (ISDC) that can function as both a standard flow-through cold plate and a Sublimator Driven Coldplate. The ISDC builds on the original SDC concept by adding coolant layers so that it can be integrated with the pumped fluid loop on the rest of the vehicle. This approach provides mass savings by (1) combining multiple pieces of hardware into a single piece of hardware and (2) providing additional fault tolerance without the need for redundant hardware.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main application this SBIR could directly impact is the Altair lunar lander, in particular operation of the ascent module once it separates from the descent module. However, other NASA applications could benefit from this research program as well. For example, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle may see similar benefits. Instead of an ascent module and descent module on Altair, Orion has a crew module and a service module. Just like the Altair ascent module separates from the descent module before lifting off of the lunar surface, the Orion crew module separates from the service module before re-entering Earth's atmosphere. Because of the analogous arrangement of these modules, Orion may see similar mass and reliability benefits from an ISDC due to combining multiple functions into one piece of hardware and/or strategic location of various components between the two modules and the associated "gear ratios" for launch propellant.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA space vehicles, commercial space vehicles may benefit from this technology as well. Paragon has been working with a number of commercial space companies to design their thermal control systems. Due to the nature of the vehicles and their concept of operations, cold plates and sublimators almost always end up being included in these systems along with a pumped fluid loop. The same mass and reliability improvements discussed previously may potentially be applied to these commercial space vehicles as well.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Reuseable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X3.01-8530
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Contaminant Robust System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 E. Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ 85714-2221
(520) 903-1000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christine Iacomini
ciacomini@paragonsdc.com
3481 E. Michigan Street
Tucson,  AZ 85714-2221
(520) 382-4824

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The necessity of oxygen for consumption by human inhabitants on the lunar surface is readily apparent. NASA is pursuing several ways to generate oxygen from lunar regolith and reduce reliance on Earth for consumable re-supply. The most mature method is via hydrogen reduction. Paragon SDC proposes an innovative method for removing the problematic acidic contaminates from the water vapor compound released during the first stage of the hydrogen reduction process. This innovation also includes a subsequent high temperature water electrolysis technology that is insensitive to dissolved ions, should they persist beyond the acid scrubber. The final product of this system could essentially produce a source of oxygen using almost only in situ resources including lunar regolith (assumed to contain trace amounts of hydrogen) and sunlight. The process could be built to require very little crew interaction and is planned to be highly resistive to harsh chemical interactions. Further, the high temperature electrolysis proposed produces pure, dry oxygen making it a very appealing solution to the challenges facing ISRU programs in generating oxygen from lunar regolith.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The acid scrubber will remove acid contaminants from a moist stream directly received from a lunar regolith hydrogen reduction reactor. This acid-free water stream can then be delivered directly to a high temperature solid oxide electrolysis (SOE) unit to produce pure, dry oxygen. The acid scrubbing technology can also be applied to several NASA processes where water needs to be separated from methane. Specific NASA examples include down stream of Sabatier reactors used in air revitalization systems, lunar regolith carbothermal reduction systems, and propellant production systems on Mars. In all, the water is separated and sent to an electrolyzer to recycle hydrogen and produce oxygen as a consumable. SOE is currently being developed as a technology for air revitalization systems, enabling 100% oxygen regeneration from human metabolic byproducts alone. As SOE can electrolyze carbon dioxide as well as water, SOE can also potentially be used in other lunar regolith reduction systems that use carbon monoxide or methane as the reducing agent.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA applications are significant as terrestrial based applications of SOE (and its other function as a solid oxide fuel cell) also are threatened by contaminants such as sulfuric acid. The acid scrubber and SOE unit may be used in carbon sequestration and oxygen reclamation systems installed in petroleum refining plants.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X3.01-9079
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Centrifuging Step-Screw Conveyor for Regolith

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grainflow Dynamics, Inc.
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore, CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Otis Walton
walton@grainflow.com
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore,  CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A variety of ISRU operations will utilize lunar regolith as feedstock. The proposed centrifuging step-screw conveyor concept will provide a well controlled robust, reliable, dust-free method of transporting loose regolith over short distances (up to 10's of meters) at any inclination angle, ranging from vertical-up to vertical-down. The method offers immediate variable flow-rate control, including complete reversal of the direction of the solids flow without changing the rotation rate of the conveyor drive. This novel approach for transporting loose granular solids can provide a reliable means of moving regolith from a lower to an upper hopper – a stated NASA need for oxygen production from regolith. This SBIR project will demonstrate the feasibility of the basic variable-flow-rate centrifuging step-screw. Planned follow-on Phase-2 development will optimize the shape of the step-screw blades to minimize wear and power requirements and couple the basic step-screw with a reliable pre-screening method to reject material greater than 5mm in size. The unit could be sized for Oxygen production scale operations (50kg/hr) or for construction-scale operations (300kg/hr). This conveying technology has very low frictional losses compared to conventional screw conveyors. The basic modular design allows any number of individual modules to be Daisy-chained together, with arbitrary, abrupt, changes in angle from zero to 180<SUP>o</SUP> at each module transition. Each succeeding leg can go at any arbitrary direction or inclination, even vertically up or down, always maintaining precise, adjustable solids flow control. Centrifuging step-screw conveyors could be used in any solids-transport situation where conventional screw augers, bucket elevators, or short conveyor belts are the current transport means being considered. The potential advantages include robust operation, and precise control of solids flow rates with minimal set of moving parts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Almost all plans for extended lunar operations include the production of oxygen from lunar regolith, but even shorter missions will involve collection, moving, handling, and often processing of fine cohesive regolith powder. The excavation rate needed for O2 production is on the order of 50kg/hr and for Site preparation tasks up to 300 kg/hr would need to be excavated and moved. Total amounts of regolith required are 100 tons for O2 production and over 2,000 tons for a full outpost deployment. NASA needs hardware that is able to operate over broad temperature ranges (40 K to 400 K) and in the presence of abrasive lunar regolith and partial-gravity environments. Generally NASA needs lunar regolith handling hardware that is robust, lightweight, abrasion resistant, made from vacuum and large temperature variation compatible materials, and with low power, low maintenance, and has a minimum of dust generation during operation. The centrifuging step-screw conveyor developed under this project meets all of those requirements. The method can be scaled to any required capacity, moving loose granular material over distances up to 20m in any direction, at any inclination, independent of gravity, with precise flow control, easily meeting the stated Oxygen production requirement of a 2m elevation change for 50kg/hr.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Most short-distance bulk material transport operations are potential applications for this new technology. Relatively rapid, yet gentle transport of solids is possible with appropriately designed screw-steps so that no abrupt velocity changes occur. In many situations this technology could replace conventional screw augers or dense-phase pneumatic transport lines. The centrifuging step-screw is particularly well suited for any situation where rapid, precise control of solids flow rate is desired. The range of industries utilizing granular solids is very broad, including the mining, agriculture, chemical and pharmaceutical fields. All of these industries have operations where the centrifuging step-screw could be utilized.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X3.01-9113
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Instrumentation for Lunar Regolith Oxygen Production Facilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650) 965-7772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douglas Baer
d.baer@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1529
(650) 965-7772

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the Phase I is to develop, demonstrate and test novel instrumentation based on ultrasensitive laser absorption spectroscopy for sensitive real-time measurements of several important parameters for monitoring and control of oxygen production facilities and for analyses of lunar surface resources. The instrumentation will provide measurements of multiple trace gases and impurities on the lunar surface with a speed, accuracy and sensitivity not possible with current instrumentation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Instrumentation for rapid, sensitive chemical analysis of several gaseous species will enable NASA scientists and engineers to monitor the quality and quantity of oxygen production in real time and to analyze the impurities generated during processing of lunar regoliths.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Instrumentation for sensitive and accurate measurements of trace gases and impurities for industrial process monitoring and control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Optical
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X3.01-9324
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Production of Electrolysis-Purity Water

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530) 895-2770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Susana Carranza
scarranza@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,  CA 95973-9064
(512) 589-0718

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Removal of impurities from water has been studied extensively by NASA in the context of water recovery from wastewater. However, the Water Recovery System and Urine Processor Assembly currently used in the International Space Station can only recover as much as 90% of the water (Carter, 2009). Complete dewatering is not possible for these technologies since they are not designed for handling solids and processing is stopped before precipitates form. The only water recovery process that can handle solids is the Air Evaporation System (AES) which uses porous rayon wicks but its performance is severely limited by its low thermal conductivity and susceptibility to microbial growth. We propose to improve on the AES by designing an evaporation system using thermally conductive porous media. The high surface area and porosity of these porous media coupled with the use of vapor-compression distillation results in a novel system that can recover almost 100% of the water at the desired purity with high energy efficiency and minimal consumables. Makel Engineering and Cornell University are proposing the use of two processes, (1) freeze-concentration and (2) porous media evaporation, to produce water that meets electrolysis purity requirements needed for oxygen production from lunar regolith. While freeze-concentration systems have been shown to be effective in purifying water for terrestrial applications, we believe that our proposed process is the first to power the freezing-melting cycle by a thermoelectric heat pump. Our innovative system will exploit the property of thermoelectrics to reverse their heating and cooling sides, leading to the reuse of the enthalpy of fusion and simple equipment design. In principle, our process will operate at high energy efficiency, recover more than 99% of the water from the feed at the desired purity, and use no consumables.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Clean water is a common requirement for many mission scenarios. Therefore, a process to purify water with a high level of recovery and to a high degree of purity will enable reclamation from various sources.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Small scale water purification can find military uses, where water resources may be limited, as well as in remote locations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X3.01-9415
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717 - 1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Robert J. Gustafson
gustafsonr@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717 - 1961
(608) 229-2725

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
ORBITEC proposes to develop the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) reactor to efficiently extract oxygen from lunar regolith. Unlike state-of-the-art carbothermal reactors that use concentrated solar energy or laser energy to heat the regolith, the ACE reactor uses new innovative electric resistant elements to heat the regolith. The ACE reactor eliminates the problems encountered with traditional carbothermal hot-wall reactors and offers significant advantages over current carbothermal reactor approaches. By eliminating the need for a solar energy collection and delivery system, the ACE reactor offers a significantly lowers system mass and eliminates the need to keep optical surfaces clean. The ACE reactor approach can also produce the processed regolith in a form that can be directly used as a structural material. This proposal directly meets the needs of Subtopic X3.01, specifically "Advanced reactor concepts for carbothermal reduction or molten oxide electrolysis." The proposed Phase 1 Effort will define requirements, develop the heating elements, perform performance tests in a sub-scale ACE reactor, and create a preliminary design for a prototype ACE reactor that would be built and tested in Phase 2. The Phase 2 Effort will include fabrication and performance testing of the prototype ACE reactor before it is delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The purpose of ISRU is to harness and utilize resources at the site of exploration to create products and services which can enable and significantly reduce the mass, cost, and risk of near-term andlong-term space exploration. In particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, fuel cell reagents, and radiation shielding can significantly reduce the cost, mass, and risk of sustained human activities beyond Earth. The ACE reactor will support this need by efficiently producing oxygen from the lunar regolith. The ACE reactor would be capable of satisfying oxygen requirements for EVA and life support in Exploration Surface Systems, and can be used to provide LOX for propulsion requirements in both Lunar and potential Mars missions. The ACE reactor could also produce the oxygen used in future architectures involving Earth-Lunar shuttles and orbital propellant depots.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The development of ACE reactor is clearly focused on supporting the needs of the NASA lunar exploration program. However, there are several commercial companies making significant progress towards spaceflight, including Bigelow Aerospace, Scaled Composites, and Space-X. There are significant cost/propulsive savings associated with obtaining oxygen from the Moon versus bringing it from Earth, and systems have been proposed to use lunar oxygen to resupply vehicles anywhere from LEO down to the lunar surface. As commercial flight systems mature, the ACE reactor could provide an economical source of oxygen. In addition, the innovative electric resistance heaters developed for the ACE reactor could have a significant commercial market as the first high-temperature heating elements that can operate in oxidizing, reducing, or vacuum environments.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X3.02-9169
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar ISRU Development and Precursor Activities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Organic Waste Reformer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Zubrin
zubrin@aol.com
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516
(303) 980-0890

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In the LOWR, solar thermal concentrators are used to heat steam directly to 900 C, after which the steam is injected into a reactor which is being fed with waste materials via a lock hopper. At the high temperatures, the steam will react with all organic materials to produce a gas mixture largely composed of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, with small fractions of methane and CO. After removing the remaining steam from the product stream via condensation, the gases are dusulfurized and then fed through a polysulfone membrane which separates CO and CH4 in the retentate from CO2 and H2 in the permeate. The retentate CO/CH4 gas stream can be used to reduce regolith, while the CO2/H2 permeate stream is sent to a Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) reactor which transforms the CO2/H2 gas into CO and H2O. The CO can then be used for regolith reduction, while the H2O can be used as is, or electrolyzed to make oxygen and hydrogen. With effective recycling of the steam, no consumables are lost in the process. All products are liquids or gases, making the system highly reliable and subject to automation. In the proposed Phase 1 program, Pioneer Astronautics will build on its extensive heritage with development of RWGS and regolith reduction systems developed for Lunar and Mars in-situ propellant production to build and demonstrate a LOWR unit.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The LOWR would provide NASA with a technology capable of completely recycling the metabolic and plastic wastes of the crew of a lunar base to produce pure breathing oxygen, water, as well as useful reductants or fuels including CO, hydrogen, methane, and/or methanol, thereby significantly reducing lunar base logistic support costs. Mass savings for a 4 person base could be as much as 6 tons per year in lunar payload delivery, which translates into a reduction of 30 tons per year launched to orbit. Using electrical heat in place of solar thermal concentrators to superheat steam, the LOWR could also be used to recycle wastes on the International Space Station, the Orion spacecraft, or at a Mars base. In addition, LOWR technology can also be used to turn Martian atmospheric CO2 into useful methane and oxygen bipropellant. The ability to make such propellant on Mars is potentially a huge cost saver for both robotic Mars sample return (MSR) missions and well as human Mars exploration. Indeed, currently a major show stopper for the Mars sample return mission is the inadequacy of existing aerobrake technology to deliver a payload as massive as a fully-fueled Mars ascent vehicle to the Martian surface. By sharply reducing the mass that needs to be delivered to the surface, LOWR technology could not only reduce the cost of the MSR mission, but potentially enable it.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
On Earth, the LOWR could be used as a means of recycling plastics and other wastes to produce such useful clean burning fuels as methane, which is a prime product for generating electricity, and hydrogen and methanol, both of which are of great interest for use in fuel cells. Manufacture of such fuels from wastes could help achieve a reduction in total emission of greenhouse gases, since if disposed of otherwise or left to decay on their own, the carbon in the waste products would eventually turn into CO2 without displacing other fuel use. Currently, there is much public discussion over the possibility of converting cars to run on natural gas or methanol. If such programs move forward, LOWR technology could also be used to produce fuel for the automotive transportation market as well, thereby contributing significantly to liberating the nation from its dependence on foreign oil.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Solar
Biomass Production and Storage
Biomedical and Life Support
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Biochemical Conversion
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X3.02-9586
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lunar ISRU Development and Precursor Activities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Gravity Mimicking Simulants and Evaluation of Simulant Flow

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grainflow Dynamics, Inc.
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore, CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Otis Walton
walton@grainflow.com
1141 Catalina Drive, PMB 270
Livermore,  CA 94550-5928
(925) 447-4293

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will provide a new method for testing flow/no-flow conditions and other gravity-driven flow behavior of Lunar or planetary regolith under reduced gravity, through the use of surrogate regolith simulants which mimic the effects of reduced gravity. New calibration data for numerical flow simulation models will also be obtained. The new low-g simulants will provide readily accessible, inexpensive means to verify that equipment intended to function under reduced gravity conditions, will actually function as intended when deployed in the 'real' application environment. Drop towers or parabolic flights are the only current viable methods available to create reduced gravity environments for testing equipment, without involving actual flights in space; but they have severe restrictions on test duration, volume and expense. Recent simulations, drop tower tests, and centrifuge tests have demonstrated that granular materials tend to act more 'cohesive' at reduced gravity. This change in behavior at reduced gravity, is not due to a change in cohesive strength of the material, rather it is due to a reduction in the gravity driving force inducing material to flow. Under reduced gravity, reduced flow rates and/or flow stoppages are observed in hoppers; and, in rotating drum flows large clumps and large avalanches develop, which are not seen for the same material at one-g. The large fine-fraction, and potentially increased surface energies, of in-situ regolith material already increase the likelihood of flow stoppages, or no-flow conditions, occurring within in-situ resource utilization processing equipment. The additional risk of flow stoppages because of reduced gravity is difficult to test terrestrially. The low-gravity-emulating surrogate regolith simulants developed and verified under this research, and the calibrated numerical simulation models, will offer new, inexpensive, methods to test whether solids will flow or not under reduced gravity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Almost all plans for extended lunar operations include the production of oxygen from lunar regolith, but even shorter missions will involve collection, moving, handling, and often processing of fine cohesive regolith powder. Reduced gravity will increase the sensitivity of handling and processing equipment to the high-cohesion properties of the fine regolith powder, and dramatically increase the likelihood of plugging or no-flow conditions (as occurred with the Phoenix regolith delivery for testing on Mars, for example). This project includes the design of a series of parabolic-flight regolith simulant flow calibration tests, using existing lunar and Martian regolith simulants. Utilization of these flow-calibration tests, to verify that the new low-g simulants do indeed mimic the effects of reduced gravity, will provide NASA designers the confidence needed to utilize these low-g simulants early in the design/testing process, thereby minimizing the number of no-flow surprises later, when real reduced-gravity environments are encountered.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If commercialization of space, other than LEO, occurs in the next few decades, it will be with lunar operations. Whether those are robotic recovery of scarce minerals, or manned operations, equipment will still need to be designed that will handle, move and process regolith under reduced gravity. Because of the great expense of moving mass to the moon (~$2M per kg in 2009), most testing of equipment will be done terrestrially. The low-g simulants developed under this research will provide an economical means of doing preliminary flow/no-flow condition testing of regolith handling hardware, intended for use on the moon or other low-g environments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X4.01-8079
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Metal-Polymeric Laminate Radiation Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Powdermet, Inc.
24112 Rockwell Drive
Euclid, OH 44117-1242
(216) 404-0053

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Doud
bpdoud@powdermetinc.com
24112 Rockwell Drive
Euclid,  OH 44117-1242
(216) 404-0053

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposed Phase I program, a multifunctional lightweight radiation shield composite will be developed and fabricated. This structural radiation shielding will be a high strength, syntactic polymeric where the polymer is filled with high strength low Z material. Specifically, this program will produce structural Polymeric aluminum alloy-LiBH4 composite materials layups. These structural composites are derived from similar structures Powdermet currently produces using hollow spheres (lightweight insulating structures), and more recently, energetic materials (such as KClO4). These materials serve to provide combined structural properties, thermal insulation, mass-efficient radiation shielding, and collision and micrometeroid impact energy adsorption.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Commercial applications include, Radiation shielding and structural members for space craft, landers, habitat structures and satellite components.The replacement of parasitic shielding, and enabling shielding to be used in sun, electronics, and reactor exposed areas where temperatures exceed 120 C is enabled. The primary insertion target will be the lunar lander and lunar habitat structures, where we have time to reach the required TRL level consistent with program schedules, and mars missions (electronic boxes, reactor shielding, etc.). It is imperative that any new material development be downselected in the next few years to meet even these insertion opportunities, and the lightweight structures exploratory development investment must be made today to achieve any significant return on the investment prior to mars missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Traditional aircraft materials such as aluminum make up about typically 80% of aircraft and launch vehicle structures by weight. The major commercial application of the high strength ultralightweight syntactic laminate composites will be launch vehicle and satellite structures, particularly dry bay structures and cryotank structures made from structures without the radiation shielding fillers, but the same process and materials).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Erectable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Thermal Insulating Materials
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Composites
Metallics
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X4.01-8309
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multilayer Polymeric Shielding to Protect Humans from Galactic Cosmic Radiation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Scientific Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 757
Dublin, VA 24084-0757
(540) 633-1424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Churchill
intlsci@earthlink.net
P.O. Box 757
Dublin,  VA 24084-0754
(540) 633-1424

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Sub-topic X4.01, NASA has identified a need for advanced radiation-shielding materials and structures to protect humans from the hazards of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) on long-duration lunar missions. The radiation species of greatest interest are light ions (particularly protons), heavy ions (such as iron-56) and neutrons. International Scientific Technologies, Inc., in conjunction with the College of William and Mary, proposes the development of lightweight, multi-layered, polymeric shielding against GCR. Phase I Technical Objectives include selection, design and fabrication of materials tailored to shield against hazardous radiation, and measurement and test of individual and layered materials using available radiation sources. The anticipated result of the Phase I and Phase II programs is the development of multi-layered shields with an outer layer of hydrogenous polymeric material for significant dose reduction of incident GCR ions and inner layers of polymeric composites containing additives chosen to moderate and absorb neutrons resulting from fragmentation of incoming heavy ions and to absorb short wavelength electromagnetic radiation resulting from the slowing of the GCR particles and capture of neutrons. The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at the beginning of Phase I is 3. At the end of Phase I, the TRL will be 4 or higher.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed multi-layered radiation shielding will find application in meeting the needs of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA in protecting astronauts and settlers from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) hazards resulting from long-duration operations on the lunar surface. It is expected that the multi-layered shields will provide an approach to GCR shielding of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion), pressurized lunar rovers, the mobile human habitat and human habitats not amenable to regolith radiation protection, and the long duration surface suit as well as other extravehicular activity ensembles. The reductions in weight and volume afforded by the multi-layered shielding would be welcomed for space transport and mobile shielding systems. Other missions supported by NASA, such as the Exploration Technology Development Program, could also make use of the multi-layered materials in low earth orbit or in other orbital paths traversing high radiation regions of space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lightweight multilayered shielding will find application in the commercial sector in reducing collateral damage from heavy charged particles currently emerging as a therapeutic approach in nuclear medicine. The shielding will lead to decreased fatigue among medical personnel required to wear heavy protective garments during radiological procedures. Workers in industrial facilities using radiation for materials-processing and in nuclear power facilities will also benefit from more comfortable garments having reduced weight and thermal stress. Department of Defense and Homeland Security applications include protection of soldiers, first responders and emergency medical personnel against high energy gamma radiation and neutrons resulting from so-called dirty bombs as well as from hazards brought about through accidental release of radiological materials. It is also expected that the shielding can be fabricated into temporary shelters used by defense personnel and considered for use in the protection of individuals in case of a nuclear or radiological event. Potential applications can also be found in protecting crew and others who frequently fly at high elevations where the effects of GCR may be hazardous.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Erectable
Inflatable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Suits
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X4.01-8615
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost, Lightweight, Multifunctional Structural Shielding Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Powder Solutions
14102 Halprin Creek Drive
Cypress, TX 77429-4062
(661) 373-1729

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dean Baker
stbaker2000@cs.com
14102 Halprin Creek Drive
Cypress,  TX 77429-4062
(661) 373-1729

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 6 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR involves the development of a lightweight innovative material for use as structure and radiation shielding in one. APS has assembled a uniquely qualified team that includes designers, testing experts and consolidation companies to address this need. Reducing the number of parts on a vehicle is important from a cost, weight and performance aspects. Several systems and radiation sources will be evaluated, and APS will use its TRL 6 materials to meet current NASA and aerospace needs. Phase II will involve further component, characterization and performance issues.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CEV and other space exploration missions that are weight, safety and performance critical. Use as structural and as protective are improtant to many NASA missions. Lighter weight, high stiffness, low cost materials can be used in all applications- automotive, oil and gas, energy, aircraft, electronics, etc....

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lighter weight, high stiffness, low cost materials can be used in all applications- automotive, oil and gas, energy, aircraft, electronics, etc.... This material can replace Beryllium, ALBemet, Gr/Epoxy, Aluminum and others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Thermal Insulating Materials
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Composites
Metallics
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X4.01-8801
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials and Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Application of Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials to Inflatable Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tec-Masters, Inc.
1500 Perimeter Pkwy Suite 320
Huntsville, AL 35806-3520
(256) 830-4000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barry Battista
Barry.F.Battista@nasa.gov
1500 Perimeter Parkway, Suite 215
Huntsville,  AL 35758-3520
(256) 830-4000

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This innovation is a weight-optimized, inflatable structure that incorporates radiation shielding materials into its construction, for use as a habitation module or rover vehicle. An inflatable fabric enclosure can provide better radiation protection than an aluminum structure (which generates harmful secondary radiation). The proposed inflatable structure represents a hybrid restraint system in which a gas-impervious cloth barrier is structurally reinforced using an external grid of cordage. This hybrid design is based upon the premise that materials providing the surface coverage and impermeability necessary for fluid containment are ill-suited to withstand global pressure and mass loads—and vice versa. Segregating material roles enables significant weight reduction while satisfying stringent requirements for strength, dimensional stability, abrasion and impact resistance, and thermal control of the interior volume.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Habitation Structures: Lunar habitation structures require significant amounts of thermal insulation and radiation shielding. Early habitation modules will not likely be buried in lunar regolith, and therefore, will be fully exposed to the harmful radiation environment of the lunar surface. This technology will allow surface habitation structures to provide both thermal protection and radiation shielding. Crew Exploration Vehicles: The development of a crew exploration vehicle will need radiation protection for journeys to the moon and/or Mars. Thermal insulation that can provide a portion of this protection will reduce mass and volume requirements, resulting in substantial cost savings and more efficient use of habitable space. Robotic Rovers This innovation can be utilized as thermal protection and radiation shielding techniques for robotic rovers and satellites. Although no human presence will occur for these systems, electronics will benefit from reduced radiation levels and the integration opportunities offered by the innovation to combine radiation shielding with thermal insulation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military Applications Members of the United States' armed forces are called upon to serve in remote areas of the world, and often under harsh climatic conditions. Hence, the need for transportable shelters is universal, whether to house troops, establish command posts, or protect costly equipment employed by the war fighter. Said shelters must be robust, packable and easily deployed under adverse conditions. Moreover, the ability to affect some level of thermal control over the interior space has become much more important as US troops face adversaries in harsh desert regions. The materials, processes, and products derived from the proposed investigation could redefine the notion of a field "tent" and alleviate the need for makeshift plywood shelters. Nuclear Power Industry In the nuclear power industry, radiation shielding is employed to protect plant equipment, the health and safety of people, and the environment, from the harmful effects of radiation. Improvements in nuclear radiation and reactor systems shielding would enhance safety of plant workers and the public and possibly reduce the cost of energy generation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Thermal Insulating Materials
Structural Modeling and Tools
Composites
Computational Materials
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X4.02-8295
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Ground Habitats for Lunar Operational Outpost (IGLOO)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NextGen Aeronautics, Inc.
2780 Skypark Drive, Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505-5341
(310) 626-8384

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LAILA ASHEGIAN
skpshi@nextgenaero.com
2780 SKYPARK DRIVE, STE 490
TORRANCE,  CA 90505-7519
(310) 626-8360

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NextGen Aeronautics, Inc. is proposing an alternate architecture for inflatable lunar habitats that takes advantage of inflatable beam technologies currently being used in various military, aerospace, and commercial applications. Current technology uses a fiber-reinforced elastomeric composite capable of containing high gas pressure, giving the beams the strength needed to form a robust structure that can withstand being buried by regolith for radiation/micrometeorite protection. NextGen's novel approach is to join multiple beams, forming a continuous cellular arched structures or a series of connected rings to form cylinders. Key advantages of this approach include: ability of structure to maintain strength and stiffness independent of pressure in habitable volume, double wall construction preventing puncture of internal/external wall, ability to isolate leaks in affected elements without compromising habitat pressure or structural integrity, possible use of water or other radiation absorbing material to fill beams, and relative ease of creating a rigid structure by filling the beams with foam. We will achieve TRL of 2 in Phase I and technology transition to TRL of 5 in Phase II. NextGen team's strength lies in related prior work, and with investigators who have an exceptional background in inflatable structures and low-stowed volume designs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future manned lunar missions with surface stays of more then a few days will require structures to provide habitation and support in addition to that provided by lunar landing vehicles. These structures must provide a pressurized environment with protection from thermal effects, radiation, dust, micrometeorites, moonquakes, and other hazards while being lightweight, easy to transport, and easy to deploy. Direct applications of the proposed effort pertain to these lunar or other missions where habitable space is needed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Can be used for any application where low weight/volume is needed in transit, but large environmentally isolated habitable space is desired at location. This type of structure has seen previous applications even on Earth for Antarctic structures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Erectable
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X4.02-8435
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Expandable/Foldable Structures for Habitat

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Folded Structures Company, LLC
1142a Old York Road
Ringoes, NJ 08551-1045
(908) 237-1955

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Kling
dkling@foldedstructures.com
1142a Old York Road
Ringoes,  NJ 08551-1045
(908) 237-1955

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Folded Structures Company (FSC) proposes the development of an innovative design approach for multi-laminate, primary and secondary structures for planetary habitats that integrates the dynamic deployment means with the static structural design using an advanced mathematical folding theory. The proposed approach holds the promise of a much simpler structure design that is both lightweight and compactable (low delivery volume) and yet capable of expanding into an expansive surface volume. FSC research indicates the possibility of a new class of deployable, space-based structures that utilize an advanced folding methodology as the primary engineering and assembly method combined with the use of multi-laminate sheet materials. The proprietary patterning algorithms design tessellations for planar sheets that articulate dynamically on the edges of the tessellation allowing for uniform deployment across the entire sheet. Previous to the development of these algorithms, there was no general system for generating doubly periodic folded structures. Based on results from a previous NASA SBIR project, FSC will apply its proprietary folding techniques to the broad topic of expandable habitat structures. The proposed project will essentially become the demonstration stage for the previous research effort, and thus, extend and provide continuity to the ongoing NASA interest in this area.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applying, adapting and/or additional development of the proposed folding theory will provide a technical break-through in folding architectures for expandable structures (such as floors, airlocks, and connecting tunnels) for lunar habitat applications. Other space-based applications include arrays, parabolic reflectors, sun and radiation shielding and extendable masts and booms. In addition to inflatable architectures, other strategies (including solar heating/radiation, elastic memory, and mechanical force) can be employed for self-activating and sustaining the unfolding process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Material folding lends itself to a number of applications from very sophisticated (aerospace) to the ordinary such as packaging materials. Kraft paper cores based on the folding techniques could yield a superior product to corrugated cardboard. The chevron pattern could be used in a single layer to absorb shock similar to bubble-wrap. Multi-layer blocks could replace Styrofoam for use in space-filling and shock absorbing. For aerospace using aluminum or composite materials, the folded structures could improve upon the existing honeycomb cores, which are used throughout the airplane in the floors, luggage compartments, and wings. For the transportation industry, aluminum or steel folded tessellations in flat laminated panels could be used for high strength but lightweight truck beds. Folded materials could be specifically designed for automobile floors to give a resilient strength to the frame while also serving to dampen the overall vibrations of the automobile. The lightweight strength and energy absorbing properties are also suited for bumpers, hoods, and crash protecting car doors. On highways, new crash barriers may be possible because of their low cost and high-energy absorption.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Erectable
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X4.02-9611
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440 - 3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jason Hermiller
hermillerjm@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440 - 3638
(937) 320-1877

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's VeritexTM materials. These structures will provide a rigid, durable habitat that will reduce the risk of mechanical failure due to crew or environmentally induced damage compared with inflatable structures that are more susceptible to punctures and damage from micrometeoroid impacts. Veritex is a composite material consisting of common reinforcement fibers, such as e-glass, carbon, KevlarREG, or high-strain capable fabrics, and one of CRG's shape memory polymers (SMP). Veritex materials will return to a memorized shape when raised above a specific activation temperature. This unique feature enables the use of Veritex as a primary lunar structure for its predictability and repeatability, which will offer quick, self-deploying lunar habitat that can return to a rigid enclosure after the deployment process. The development of expanding composite habitats will offer increased packing efficiency compared with fully rigid structures that lack expandable characteristics and waste valuable cargo space. This habitation structures technology will achieve Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 4 during Phase 1 with proof-of-concept feasibility studies and will be designed for future implementation into lunar and Martian outposts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Supporting NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, this project's technologies directly address requirements for expanding habitation systems for multi-gravity environments (micro and reduced gravity), multi-use work stations, and long duration, deep-space habitats. This project's technologies offer significant volume reduction potential that will utilize storage volume more efficiently in transit to its destination. The self-deploying habitat will also minimize manual labor required by astronauts during the deployment process.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
This project's technologies developed for NASA systems would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises.
Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include, but not be limited to, uninhabited space structures, barracks, mess halls, and operation centers operated by the Department of Defense.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Erectable
Kinematic-Deployable
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X4.02-9770
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Expandable Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Verification and Validation of an Innovative Inflatable Structure Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 E. Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ 85714-2221
(520) 903-1000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sarah Luo
sluo@paragonsdc.com
3481 E Michigan Street
Tucson,  AZ 85714-2221
(520) 382-4825

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An inflatable habitat is a pressure vessel with flexible shell. Notable features such as low weight, large inflated operational volume, and small pre-deployment volume offer significant advantages over traditional rigid metallic and composite habitat structures. Conventional designs suffer from indeterminacy of load sharing between meridional and circumferential members as well as the internally rigid metal support structure. The designs must functionally index the meridional and circumferential members to one another to minimize sensitivity to manufacturing, handling and operational trauma, all the while maintaining their independent load carrying roles. This design process results in oversized members to account for load uncertainties. The unique Ultra High Performance Vessel (UHPV) technology provides the solution to the design and manufacture of robust inflatable structures with exceptional accuracy and dimensional stability. UHPV technology provides high shell load containment architecture with fully determinate load pathways that can be modeled mathematically. The lightweight, low cost inflatable fabric structure, consisting of barrier film layers, carrier cloth containment layers, and pressure restraint tendons can be designed and fabricated to provide an accurate geometry without the need for an internal skeletal frame. Eliminating the need for a rigid internal load-bearing frame allows the collapsed inflatable to be packaged in the smallest possible volume. To bring this innovative inflatable design to use for lunar habitats, airlocks and myriad other space environment and containment applications, a verification and validation plan using both testing and predictive analytical models is proposed to conclusively demonstrate that the fully load-determinate UHPV can meet all structural design requirements for habitable space structures and be accurately and repeatedly manufactured.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential post NASA applications are lunar surface system habitats, airlocks and other crewed vessels, deployable antenna reflectors, solar collectors, solar sails, payload fairings, water storage tanks, cryogenic propellant tanks, greenhouse enclosures, debris shields, radiation shields, re-entry vehicles, large telescopes, propellant depots, rover vehicles, orbital debris removal systems, emergency escape vehicle (ISS), and Martian air ships

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential Non-NASA commercial applications are air bags, high altitude air ships, aerostats, compressed air energy storage. underwater habitat, underwater emergency escape system (submarine), portable storage tanks for oil transport, remote fuel depot stations, remote water storage tanks for forest fire control, cargo lift balloons, large, deep space antenna reflector for ground stations, antenna radome, emergency shelters, and troop shelters with integrated ballistic protection.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Structural Modeling and Tools
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X4.03-8325
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Temperature Mechanisms
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Halbach Array Motor for Use Over a Wide Temperature Range

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc.
5735 Hollister Avenue, Suite B
Goleta, CA 93117-3420
(805) 683-9659

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jessica Dozoretz
jdozoretz@launchpnt.com
5735 Hollister Avenue, Suite B
Goleta,  CA 93117-3420
(805) 683-9659

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Motors used in rovers, cranes and instruments for use on lunar and Mars missions present unique design requirements. Weight reduction is critical, so motors with high power density and torque density are desirable. Also, the motors need to be designed to work over a wide temperature range: from 40 K to 403K. The proposed axial flux, coreless, brushless, Halbach array motor has been demonstrated to have the highest power density and the highest efficiency in land based applications. In this phase I effort, the motor will be developed for use in lunar and Mars missions in which the operating temperature range is from 40 K to 403K. This would be a significant technical advancement.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lunar and Mars missions with a wide temperature range Rovers Cranes Drills Crushers

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
lightweight commercial aircraft alternators unmanned aerial vehicle propulsion electric vehicle wheel motors

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Mobility
Manipulation
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X4.03-8928
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Temperature Mechanisms
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QM Power, Inc.
441 Marlborough Street, #2
Boston, MA 02115-1208
(857) 350-3100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Flynn
jflynn@qmpower.com
25409 Timberlake Trail
Greenwood,  MO 64034-8921
(816) 537-5306

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space Exploration Vehicles and Lunar Surface Systems require electromechanical systems that are varied and include long life capability, high reliability, high thermal tolerance, high vacuum tolerance, significantly lower mass and volume, higher mass specific power and improved efficiency over the state of practice components/systems. Space, Weight, Power efficiency, and Cost (SWaP-C) are the key performance drivers for most designs. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate QM Power's high performance motor and actuator technology called Parallel Magnetic Circuit (PMC<SUP>TM</SUP>) that excels at all of those key performance parameters in low temperature lunar environments. PMC motors and actuators have higher power density (over 20% lower weight and volume than alternative high perofrmance electric motors and actuators), higher torque density, run cooler, and operate more efficiently (over 90-94%) over a wider power output range than any known conventional AC or DC motors or actuators.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Due to the improved efficiency and other specific performance characteristics, PMC would greatly increase the range, payload capability, and functionality of the targeted mobility or robotic manipulator arm systems found in exploration vehicle or lunar surface systems. The motors and actuators developed in this effort will be ideal for rovers (drive train, suspension and steering), cranes, instruments, drills, crushers, and other such facilities whether for lunar missions or other space exploration missions including Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High energy prices and usage have accelerated the growing global demand for energy efficient products and low cost energy generation. QM Power has begun working with strategic industry leaders to demonstrate the improved efficiency and performance of PMC enabled motors, generators and actuators for power tools (Black & Decker), electric or hybrid electric vehicles (Ferrari), wind and hydro power generation (NREL), linear actuators/pumps/clamps (NSF), industrial motors (BC Hydro), military (US Army Medical) applications and a variety of other stand-alone applications. According to Frost and Sullivan reports, the global market opportunity is around $70 billion per year.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic Thrusters
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Mobility
Manipulation
Erectable
Inflatable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Fluid Storage and Handling
Production
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Tools
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Composites
Metallics
Superconductors and Magnetic
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy
Thermodynamic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.01-8081
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Practical Monitoring and NDE for Composite Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Passive wireless temperature sensors with enhanced sensitivity and range

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Applied Sensor Research & Development Corporation
1195 Baltimore-Annapolis Blvd., Unit #2
Arnold, MD 21012 - 1815
(410) 544-4664

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Leland P Solie
leesolie@asrdcorp.com
1195 Baltimore Annapolis Blvd, Unit 2
Arnold, MD 21012 - 1815
(410) 544-4664

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature sensors with enhanced sensitivity and detection range for NASA application to remote wireless sensing of temperature distributions in composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) and development flight instrumentation (DFI) for test facilities for large area composite component validation testing. ASR&D has developed a novel SAW device structure that is more sensitive to temperature variations than previous SAW temperature sensor devices, that will function with the high S/N interrogation electronics being develop by ASR&D for longer range SAW sensor measurement. These demonstrated high sensitivity temperature sensors can be individually coded for identification, to operate in a multi-sensor system consisting of multiple passive solid-state SAW sensors that can be interrogated remotely using RF signals, and that respond with a signal that encodes both the sensor's identity as well as measurements of temperature. The proposed Phase I effort will modify the current temperature sensor devices to incorporate coding, build and test these sensors (wired), verify compatibility of the sensors with the wireless interrogation system electronics, and demonstrate wireless temperature sensing of multiple uniquely identifiable sensors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The primary NASA application for the proposed sensor system would be the distributed wireless measurement of temperature, within cryogenic (and other) storage tanks, and as DFI for large area composite validation testing in facilities such as the thermal vacuum chamber (Plumbrook Facility). Numerous small, passive, lightweight sensors could be mounted in locations throughout the area to be monitored, and a central RF interrogation system could quickly scan through the sensors, providing rapid temperature distribution information. Due to wireless operation of the sensors, applications in tanks would require only one tank feed-through for the antenna, minimizing heat-loss pathways.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
In addition to these identified NASA applications, the proposed sensor system could be used in a wide range of commercial applications. The ability of the proposed system to uniquely identify large numbers of individual sensors, combined with a hand-held interrogation system, could make this type of approach useful for inventory purposes where knowing the temperature history of a set of products is significant. The temperature sensing capability could be applied to the monitoring of containers used for shipping products internationally. For such an application, a small, battery powered interrogation system could be included inside the packaging. This system could contain memory capable of logging the history of the container, so that upon delivery the recipient could download the data and see if the shipment was maintained at appropriate temperatures during transit. The ability to identify unique shipping containers has also been discussed recently in light of homeland security issues. If such a system could be made to tell the interrogator if the packaging had been tampered with, it would provide U.S. inspectors with a powerful tool to scan incoming shipments for potentially hazardous containers.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Testing Facilities


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.01-8105
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Practical Monitoring and NDE for Composite Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Genziko, Inc.
3070 Windward Plaza, Suite F-275
Alpharetta, GA 30005-8782
(678) 297-0484

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Craig Near
craig.near@genziko.com
3070 Windward Plaza Ste F-275
Alpharetta,  GA 30005-8782
(678) 983-3548

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to develop, fabricate, and characterize a novel frequency steered acoustic transducer (FSAT) for the structural health monitoring of aerospace structures for impacts, damage, and leakage. A single compact, cost effective FSAT is expected to replace high-element-count phase arrays, significantly reducing cost, weight, size, and power requirements for multiple channel data handling, wiring, electronics, and powering. FSAT will allow for permanent continuous leakage detection and localization of simple and complex structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will allow the structural health monitoring of impacts and leakage of numerous NASA structures including airframes, airlocks, vehicles, space structures, spaceport infrastructure, and tankage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will allow the structural health monitoring of impacts, defects, and leakage of aerospace structures, pipelines, dams, levees, tanks, oil wells and rigs, industrial and biomedical equipment, and HVAC equipment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Modular Interconnects
Tankage
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Ceramics
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.01-8657
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Practical Monitoring and NDE for Composite Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Handheld Nonlinear Detection of Delamination and Intrusion Faults in Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LEEOAT Company
2631 Colibri Lane
Carlsbad, CA 92009-4304
(760) 431-8180

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eli Wiener-Avnear
leeoat@worldnet.att.net
2631 Colibri Lane
Carlsbad,  CA 92009-4304
(760) 438-1439

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I of the SBIR program, LEEOAT Company will develop a hand-held high-resolution ultrasonic nonlinear imager for non-destructive inspection (NDI) of delamination and intrusion faults in composite structures. We will reduce-to-practice the innovation by conducting experiments on composite structures with calibrated faults. Additionally, we will design as well as theoretically simulate the imaging NDI system. Finally, we will estimate the cost/effort for the fabrication and testing of the portable cost-effective NDI prototype to be executed in Phase II of the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of the portable cost-effective ultrasonic nondestructive inspection methodology and imager for the detection of delamination and faults in composites, will open a wide window of commercial opportunities for NASA maintenance and mission ready applications, as well as for high technology manufacturing quality control of NASA components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of the portable cost-effective ultrasonic nondestructive inspection methodology and imager for the detection of delamination and faults in composites, will open a wide window of commercial opportunities in civilian aviation diagnostic applications, as well as for high technology manufacturing quality control. Additionally, the imaging technology will be used for medical imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.01-8826
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Practical Monitoring and NDE for Composite Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Composite Structure Monitoring using Direct Write Sensors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MesoScribe Technologies, Inc.
7 Flowerfield, Suite 28
St. James, NY 11780-1514
(631) 686-5710

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Smith
wsmith@mesoscribe.com
5445 Oceanus Drive
Huntington Beach,  CA 92649-1514
(714) 894-8400

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Direct Write (DW) sensors deposited directly and precisely on to complex (3D) components are proposed. Sensors proposed include strain gages and thermocouples, intended as diagnostic elements of a larger health management (HM) scheme. The sensors are deposited using a high precision derivative of thermal spray, affording them the advantages of high temperature tolerance and compatibility with coatings. Strain gages will be deposited as patches onto a range of composites, and laser micromachined to produce their characteristic resistive elements. Signal routing may be via microwelding or DW lead-lines. Thermocouples will be deposited as conformal, parallel traces of paired thermoelements, overlapping to form a junction at the location whose temperature is to be measured. The sensors, having been deposited onto substrates representative of structures on upcoming NASA space vehicles (Orion, Ares, Altair), will then be exposed to conditions similar to those anticipated for said structures, such as low temperatures for fuel tanks, biaxial stress for other pressure vessels, and thermal cycling for on-orbit and lunar exposure. The sensors, having demonstrated their diagnostic capability and compatibility with existing DAQ and HM infrastructures, would form the cornerstone of a potential Phase II continuing application-specific sensor development while expanding to tackle HM integration issues.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MesoPlasma Direct Write sensors may be employed for a variety of ambient and high temperature (beyond 1000<SUP>o</SUP>C) applications. These are not limited to composite structures, including also metallic, ceramic and coated components. Applications for thermal and flow monitoring using these embedded sensors include measuring component temperature; insulation and heat shield integrity; blowby detection; and heat flux measurement (coaxial thermocouple-based or thermopile-based). Applications for mechanical sensors include health monitoring (as proposed herein); strain monitoring for pressurized tanks; launch load measurement; payload shock detection and measurement; and measuring deformation of shape-sensitive space structures e.g., telescopes, antennas.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Direct Write sensors for composites have generated considerable interest in recent years for Army and Navy rotorcraft and repair operations. Other composites applications include fuel cells for automotive applications, high speed rail, long term monitoring of infrastructure (bridges, tunnels), and certainly commercial aerospace. Next generation aircraft such as the Boeing 787 use composite materials for a number of critical structures. Monitoring of these structures is of considerable interest to the manufacturers and operators of these aircraft, particularly as neither have experience fielding such extensively composite-based systems over the timescales on which these aircraft are expected to be in service.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Structural Modeling and Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.01-9215
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Practical Monitoring and NDE for Composite Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Structural Abort Trigger for Ares Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metis Design Corporation
10 Canal Park
Cambridge, MA 02141-2250
(617) 661-5616

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Seth Kessler
skessler@metisdesign.com
10 Canal Park
Cambridge,  MA 02141-2250
(617) 661-5616

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Structural health monitoring (SHM) methods have been limited for wide-area applications due to the implied infrastructure, including sensors, power/communication cables, and acquisition/computation units. Particularly for mass-sensitive space applications such as Ares V, every gram can matter when scaling-up to cover 10 meter diameter composite sections. The payoff of a reliable real-time SHM system would be an abort trigger, which could be implemented to save precious cargo if structural anomalies are detected. This system would be installed upon composite component fabrication to track health during shipping/integration, and continue to monitor during launch. Metis Design Corporation (MDC) has demonstrated point-of-measurement datalogging and cable-free sensor-busing during prior SBIR work, which minimizes the mass of sensor hardware and infrastructure. During the proposed research, MDC will further exploit this SHM architecture to fully satisfy Ares V mission specifications. This SBIR would focuses on optimizing sensor geometry and placement as well as customizing testing and algorithm parameters to obtain the desired monitoring coverage, accuracy and reliability with minimal mass. A large portion of the research will focus on constructing and inspecting models for the various structural configurations being considered by NASA. The SBIR would conclude with a "blind" detection demonstration on a representative test article.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Once this product is completed through Phase I and II SBIR research, it will be ready for deployment within several NASA applications. Of direct immediate relevance would be the Ares V composite interstage, however other parts of Ares V could also potentially benefit from this technology with little change. Other NASA space applications could also benefit within the Constellation system, including Ares I, Orion & Altair, however customization would likely need to occur. In the future, this technology could also play an important role for reusable launch systems for quick turn-around times, and the international space station to detect impacts or other damage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There will be many commercial applications for this technology beyond NASA. First would likely be for DoD Aerospace applications such as Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV) and Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). Next would be ageing fixed and rotary-wing aircraft retro-fit, followed by new fixed and rotary-wing aircraft integration. Unmanned vehicles (UAV and UCAV) would so have a need for this technology. Commercial aviation would have similar needs. Outside of DoD there are other commercial applications such as naval vessels (ships, submarines, carriers), ground vehicles (cars, trucks, tanks) and civil infrastructure (bridges, tunnels, buildings).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Inflatable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Structural Modeling and Tools
Tankage
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.01-9932
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Practical Monitoring and NDE for Composite Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adverse event detection, monitoring, and evaluation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Extreme Diagnostics, Inc.
2525 Arapahoe Avenue, Building E4 #262
Boulder, CO 80302-6746
(303) 523-8924

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Owen
rowen@extremediagnostics.com
2525 Arapahoe Avenue, Bldg. E4 #262
Boulder,  CO 80302-6746
(303) 523-8924

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project delivers a single-sensor structural health-monitoring (SHM) system that uses the impedance method to monitor structural integrity, wave propagation methods to assess surfaces, and acoustic SHM to detect adverse events (impacts). This Adverse Event Detection (AED) unit supports nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems and evaluates advanced composite structures. Implications of the innovation Increasingly demanding weight and performance needs encourage widespread use of composite materials. New systems are needed to detect incipient flaws in composites before damage becomes critical. Health analyzers that actively examine structures across several length and time scales in an autonomous fashion greatly reduce the number of sensors required and lower system complexity and cost; however, no practical system exists. We address this deficiency by building on our existing SHM system. Technical objectives AED leverages our previous NASA SHM research. Our initial Phase 1 prototype takes the form of a single custom printed circuit board, and is a TRL 5 unit. We have demonstrated both the impedance method and wave propagation SHM as implemented by a single sensor. Phase 1 will focus on performing similar demonstrations for acoustic SHM using the same single sensor element. Research description We have established feasibility for a chip-level approach that combines the impedance method and wave propagation, and demonstrated damage detection on a model composite. Phase 1 will validate chip-level feasibility for acoustic operation, and demonstrate this additional capability in a laboratory prototype. Anticipated results Phase 1 attacks the problem of monitoring structural integrity across multiple time and distance scales and completes a TRL 5 prototype that can be deployed wirelessly. Phase 2 delivers a TRL 6 unit that autonomously senses damage across several length and time scales by integrating impedance based, wave propagation, and acoustic SHM.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AED directly supports NDE systems for safety assurance of future exploration vehicles—specifically those making heavy use of composite materials. By provided increased reliability, AED also supports low-cost and reliable access to space (LCRATS). AED provides enabling technology for this effort. AED supports the NASA Engineering and Safety Center by providing tools for independent testing, analysis, and assessment of high-risk projects. AED applications include on-wing SHM of various aircraft components and is applicable to the next generation of turbine engines. These advanced propulsion systems will use revolutionary materials and structures. Structures based on such materials must withstand severe stresses and hostile aero-thermo-chemical environments, while weighing less and operating at higher temperatures than current engines. AED sensors are embeddable and are well suited to the highly curved surfaces found in pressure vessels and hard-to-access composite members of all sorts. AED detects incipient damage in near real-time and automatically provides early warning of structural damage. These capabilities are well suited to support of exploration missions where routine action may be taken to rectify damage situations before failure occurs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include Homeland Security structural analysis to mitigate threats (preparedness) and assess damage (response), smart structures, and SHM of civil infrastructures, land/marine structures, medical devices, and military structures. Civil infrastructure includes bridges, highway systems, buildings, power plants, underground structures, and windmills. Land/marine structures include automobiles, trains, submarines, ships, and offshore structures. Medical devices include implants and health monitoring devices. Military structures include helicopters, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and others. SHM is an emerging industry driven by an aging infrastructure, malicious humans, and the introduction of advanced materials and structures. SHM applications are also driven by a desire to lower costs by moving from schedule-based to condition-based maintenance. Government customers include NASA and the Departments of Defense, Transportation, and Energy. Non-government customers include energy companies, and other crucial-structure custodians. The Boeing Company is one of our civilian commercialization partners; we are also working with the United Space Alliance, Lockheed-Martin and Ball Aerospace.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Airframe
Erectable
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Thermal Insulating Materials
Modular Interconnects
Tankage
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Fluid Storage and Handling
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Portable Life Support
Suits
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.02-8504
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Cryotanks
PROPOSAL TITLE: Functionalized Graphene Sheets-Polymer Based Nanocomposite for Cryotanks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanotrons
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801-1003
(781) 935-1200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Je Kyun Lee
jlee@agiltron.com
12A Cabot Road
Woburn,  MA 01801-1003
(781) 935-1200

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks advanced high strength and toughness composite materials with the highest microcrack resistance at cryogenic temperatures suitable for use in fuel containment of liquid oxygen, hydrogen, and methane. Nanotrons Corporation, in collaboration with Prof. Bungki Kim at NSF nanomanufacturing research center in University of Massachusetts Lowell, proposes to develop lightweight functionalized graphene sheets-polymer nanocomposite materials for advanced composite cryotanks. By uniformly dispersing high performance functionalized graphene sheets through novel polymer matrix the new lightweight nanocomposite will be fabricated and should exhibit significantly increase resin strength and modulus and reduce coefficient of thermal expansion of polymer resin. The resultant nanocomposite material can much increase the resistance to microcracking at cryogenic temperature in ways it has never done before. The new composite materials also provide additional advantages in forming an impermeable barrier to gas and liquid molecules ideal for fuel tanks. Nanotrons' proposed new multifunctional nanocomposite based carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite cryotanks will replace the currently used aluminum-lithium cryotanks providing significant weight savings and can be economically scaled-up for manufacturing. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The optimized proposed composite material is expected to demonstrate excellent multifunctional performance and durability at extreme environments reducing the weight of aeronautic and aerospace vehicle components. Decreasing the weight of a vehicle while improving materials performance will improve vehicle fuel efficiency and safety. The composite materials would be potentially applicable to EDS propellant tanks, Altair propellant tanks, lunar cryogenic storage tanks, Ares V tanks, and satellite propellant tanks. Other space and aerospace applications such as space and aerospace structure and engine components and turbine may be found which require highly tough, low CTE composite matrixes

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lightweight multifunctional composite materials will be used for the fuel tanks of other commercial and military airplane and vehicles. Other applications which benefit from the use of advanced composite include in protective structure materials from high impact, blast mitigation and ballistic/fragment protection, and EM shielding such as military and commercial building, aerospace, vehicles, ship, armor. Additional applications may include medical, recreational, and sports equipments and coating materials.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Tankage
Fluid Storage and Handling
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.03-8068
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Low-Density (ULD) Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MATECH Advanced Materials
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362-6731
(818) 991-8500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Pope
ed@matechgsm.com
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village,  CA 91362-6731
(818) 991-8500

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA Phase I SBIR proposal seeks to demonstrate a new class of ultra-low-density (ULD) polymer matrix composites of high specific modulus and specific strength for mass sensitive space and aerospace applications. the "baseline" composite system for this program is state-of-the-art carbon fiber reinforced epoxy and/or bismaliimide. The key materials innovations are light-weight hollow carbon fibers in a light-weight porous (closed pores) polymer matrix. This innovation in composites technology would enable structural composites of lower density and higher specific modulus and strength than any currently available. If successful, this technology could have a profound impact and reduced payload weight and cost. Potential applications include planetary landers, satellites, large orbiting arrays and structures, booster motor cases. This program benefits from the support and participation of Lockheed Martin and Raytheon.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If successful, this technology could have a profound impact and reduced payload weight and cost. Potential NASA applications include planetary landers, satellites, large orbiting arrays and structures, booster motor cases, as examples of space and aerospace related uses.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This new class of ultra-low-density (ULD) polymer matrix composites (PMCs) could find applicability in the automotive industry inasmuch as lowering vehicle weight has a dramatic impact on increasing fuel efficiency. This new class of composites could also be utilized in commercial aircraft structural applications and in maritime applications, given that both industries are increasingly reliant upon polymer matrix composites as light weight alternatives to traditional metals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Tankage
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.03-8372
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Metal Matrix Composite Filament Wound Tank Liners

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd.
The Millennium Centre, 1142 Middle Creek Road
Triadelphia, WV 26059 - 1139
(304) 547-5800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Brian L. Gordon
blg@trl.com
The Millennium Centre, 1142 Middle Creek Road
Triadelphia, WV 26059 - 1139
(304) 547-2800 Extension :225

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) materials offer tremendous potential for lightweight propellant and pressurant tankage for space applications. Thin MMC liners for COPVs would have enough strength to withstand tensile loading at maximum expected operating pressure (MEOP) and compressive loading at zero pressure without buckling. Thus, performance benefits would be expected when compared to aluminum, titanium, and stainless steel liners. Touchstone proposes to team with Carleton Technologies Pressure Vessel Division (part of the Cobham Life Support Division, Westminster, MD) to extend current MMC technology into the area of lightweight, multifunctional pressure vessels that can minimize propulsion system mass growth and achieve the efficiencies that will make future propulsion systems viable. The development of improved cryotanks can easily be extended to programs within the Departments of Defense and to private industry. The successful completion of the proposed work will expedite the implementation of this enabling technology into aerospace, military, and commercial applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The proposed Phase I project will provide advanced development of a new MMC technology for specific application to lightweight storage of pressurants for chemical propulsion systems. This same processing technology could help overcome technical hurdles in the areas of lightweight cryogenic tanks, ducting, and payload bays for space vehicles. Other applications include fairings, intertank structures, and truss members for both reusable and expendable launch vehicles. The Mechanics and Durability Branch at NASA Langley has also expressed interest in using the MMC prepreg tape technology in advanced aerodynamic and structures technologies for subsonic transport air vehicles, specifically for selectively reinforcing aircraft skins to obtain aeroelastic tailorability. Other aircraft structures such as stiffeners, wing skins, and wing spar caps could also be manufactured out of MetPreg.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
This innovative technology will be useful in a broad spectrum of commercial applications wherever strength-to-weight performance is crucial, especially at elevated and/or cryogenic temperatures. Specific applications in the automotive market sector include selectively reinforced aluminum and magnesium castings, flywheels for hybrid vehicles, liners for lightweight composite tanks used on alternative fuel vehicles, and other types of storage tanks. This technology could also make its way into the sporting goods market incorporated into golf club shafts, tennis rackets, and bicycle frames. Touchstone has conducted preliminary discussions with True Temper Sports, the world's largest manufacturer of golf shafts. The proposed work will move the technology closer to a point to be tailored to meet the technical and manufacturing requirements for golf club shafts.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Fluid Storage and Handling
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Propellant Storage
Tankage


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.03-9269
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Cure Repair Kit for Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vladimir Rubtsov
sbirproposals@intopsys.com
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance,  CA 90505-5217
(424) 263-6316

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has a need for technologies that will enable them to repair damage to composite structures. Fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials are fast gaining ground as preferred materials for the construction of aircraft and spacecraft. In particular, the use of composites as primary structural materials in several technology-demonstrator front-line aerospace projects worldwide has provided confidence leading to their acceptance as prime materials for aerospace vehicles. Respectively, materials and tools that can provide rapid, permanent or temporary repairs of composite structural damage in a space environment should follow the wide utilization of composites in airspace vehicles. This proposed project will result in the development of a fast cure repair kit for composites (C-kit) that will consist of the basic composite fabric preimpregnated (prepreg) with an ultraviolet (UV) light-curing resin, a dispenser containing UV curable resin with properties close to the basic matrix resin, and a battery-operated portable, efficient single light emitting diode (LED) as the source of UV radiation. The prepreg material, which will be in the form of tape and precut patches, and the resin will be stored separately in protective dispensers. The cure of each layer of repair material will take less than a minute. Surface cleaning materials will also be included in the kit. In this project, IOS will collaborate with a manufacturer devoted specifically to the development of UV cured adhesives for specific high end applications. This work will extend the knowledge and experience previously attained by the IOS/ SGL team in the development of light-curing adhesives for Navy ships corrosion protection and for corrosive barrier restoration in Navy fleet composite materials.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The structural repair kit will provide NASA with a versatile technology for in-space repair applications. Potential uses include the repair of such items as the composite parts onboard spacecraft, the international space station, habitats under development, and rovers. The broader use of composite parts in spacecraft in recent years has brought about the need for this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The eventual commercial market for fast curable adhesives technology for structural repairs is vast and virtually unlimited. Examples of sectors that could benefit from this technology include the home repair, automotive, sporting goods, pipeline, marine, construction, landscaping, and many other industries. The superior properties of the adhesives necessary for composites repair extend the market to heavy industries such as shipbuilding, the new generation of aircraft, military track production, heavy weaponry, and large scale construction.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.03-9295
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: SMP Bladder Tooling for Manufacturing Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Everhart
everhartjj@crgrp.com
2750 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton,  OH 45429-3638
(937) 320-1877

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CRG's shape memory polymer (SMP) Bladder Tooling is a cutting-edge manufacturing technology that can meet the manufacturing needs of the Ares launch vehicles. This process provides labor savings, weight reductions, and reliable manufacturing results for fabricating complex composites. SMP bladder tooling eliminates the transferring process by operating as both a rigid lay-up mandrel and an elastic bladder. Initially, the tooling is a rigid, durable surface for composite lay-up, then when heated during the cure cycle the tooling transitions to a flexible bladder to provide consolidation force. The tooling can then be easily removed from the cured composite while in the elastic state, reformed, and reused for the next part. In addition to increased part quality, SMP bladder tooling can present a significant cost reduction over current manufacturing processes. When comparing SMP bladder tooling with a silicone bladder over a foam insert for manufacturing of an Environmental Control System (ECS) duct, there is a 46% savings over the first three parts and 80% savings over twelve parts. A second cost saving example is the comparison of SMP bladder tooling with washout tooling for the same ECS duct. Cost saving for the first three parts is 40% and 79% over twelve parts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Exploration System Mission Directorate, this project's technologies directly address requirements for large-scale, lightweight structures, manufactured in low cost, consistent, reliable process for the Ares launch vehicles. SMP Bladder Tooling offers manufacturing benefits which can reduce labor costs and decrease vehicle weight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
SMP bladder tooling has been demonstrated in the government and commercial areas for use in manufacturing composites parts. The results of this program would provide the necessary quantification of performance and increase in scale to increase technology readiness of this technology to additional applications. Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include, but not be limited to, large aerospace vehicles and composite structures operated by DoD. This technology's manufacturing benefits should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for manufacturing low cost large-scale composites such as aerospace vehicles, rocket bodies, and launch vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Tankage
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.03-9347
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wright Materials Research Co.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek, OH 45430-1120
(937) 431-8811

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Seng Tan
sctan@sprintmail.com
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek,  OH 45430-1120
(937) 431-8811

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lightweight structures has enormous potential for space vehicles applications as the reduction of weight from metallic structures add to vehicle performance, reduce launching and maintenance costs. The high strength, superior stiffness, and lightweight characteristics of carbon fibers have created enormous interest as reinforcing element for use in various structures of polymer matrix composites. Majority of the commercial carbon fibers are produced from a PAN and pitch precursors. Since carbon fiber is the key constituent material in composite materials that contribute to the load carrying capability of composite structures any improvements in carbon fiber properties and manufacturing process is vital for the further improvement and application of composite structures. In this SBIR Phase I project we propose to develop pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers and use them for manufacturing of composite cylinders via a filament winding technique. These nanocomposite carbon fibers and the associated composite structures will possess excellent structural, thermal and electrical conductivity properties. Preliminary research results indicated that the proposed idea is very promising. The results of the proposed research will contribute to NASA's goal of performance enhancement, and reduction of launching and maintenance costs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications of the proposed nanocomposite carbon fibers include reinforcing element for advanced polymeric composites. Carbon fiber reinforced resin composites have many structural applications in space structures, load-carrying structures for air, ground, and surface vehicles that require lightweight and high performance. Carbon fibers can also be used as reinforcement and repair of building and bridges. Polymeric composite cylinders/structures have numerous NASA applications including composite shroud, components for Ares rockets, International Space Station, Orion crew capsules, beams and struts for many other space structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed nanocomposite carbon fibers can potentially replace the conventional carbon fibers. They have a number of potential applications including reinforcing elements for structural components, fuel cell electrodes, filter, and many others. It is particularly useful for aircraft, space structures, ground, and surface vehicles that require lightweight yet high performance to save fuel consumption. Nanostructure carbon fibers can also be used as reinforcement and repair of building and bridges.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Erectable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Reuseable
Modular Interconnects
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Composites
Organics/Bio-Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.03-9388
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long Out-time, Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Poleramic, Inc.
6166 Egret Court
Benicia, CA 94510-1269
(707) 747-6738

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Hayes
hayesb1@sbcglobal.net
6166 Egret Court
Benicia,  CA 94510-1269
(707) 747-6738

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the size of composite parts exceed that of even the largest autoclaves, new out-of-autoclave processes and materials are necessary to achieve the same level of performance as autoclave cured composites. Unfortunately, the quality of composites manufactured with current out-of-autoclave prepreg systems is limited by their short shelf-life at ambient conditions. The resin advancement, due to long lay-up times, commonly causes variations in fiber volume and higher void content in the cured structures. Also, current out-of-autoclave prepreg systems do not provide the same level of performance, especially damage tolerance, as many current autoclave cured prepreg systems. It is the objective of this work to develop a matrix and prepreg system for out-of-autoclave processing that has a year out-time at ambient conditions while also providing an excellent balance of mechanical properties and damage tolerance. As an additional functionality, the out-of-autoclave prepreg system will be developed to have inherent skin-core self-adhesive properties so that film adhesives are not required for designs with honeycomb cores. It is expected that the TRL will be 4 at the end of this Phase I program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of this research program will enable the development of high quality large composite structures that are manufactured out-of-autoclave and require long lay-up times. The utilization of this out-of-autoclave prepreg material is initially targeted for NASA Ares launch vehicle structures but other NASA applications could benefit from this technology as related to the topic "Low Cost and Reliable Access to Space" LCRAS. There are many cost advantages that will result from this specific technology for producing high performance composites including no autoclave capital equipment or consumables, no freezer storage due to the year out-time at ambient temperature, no film adhesives required for honeycomb core composites, and more damage tolerant structures that require less repair. This material may also find use in out-of-autoclave composite cryotank development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Opportunities for this material may be found in commercial, military, and civilian aircraft and helicopter applications that are trying to reduce material and processing costs of composite parts. Specific applications may be found in primary and secondary structures including fuselage, wing structures, fairings, engine core-cowls, and rotor blades. In comparison to current out-of-autoclave prepreg materials, the new technology will provide the avenue for development of much larger composite structures that require longer lay-up times. The material system will provide better damage tolerance and enable the development of lower cost honeycomb composite structures due to the advantage of inherent skin-core self-adhesive properties. Applications may follow for lower temperature cure systems in the manufacturing of composite marine vessels and ships due to the large structures and long lay-up times.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Airframe
Erectable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Tankage
Fluid Storage and Handling
Composites
Organics/Bio-Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X5.03-9578
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Composite Structures - Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Drastic Improvements in Bonding of Fiber Reinforced Multifunctional Composites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Integrated Micro Sensors, Inc.
10814 Atwell Drive
Houston, TX 77096-4934
(713) 748-7926

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Starikov
dstarikov@imsensors.com
10814 Atwell Dr.
Houston,  TX 77096-4934
(713) 748-7926

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Achievement of a dramatic increase in the bond strength in the composite/adhesive interfaces of existing fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite material joints and structures suitable for NASA applications is the main goal of this Phase I project. The Phase II project will focus on implementation of the proposed technology for newest materials developed up to date and scaling of the proposed technology to large area and complex shape FRP composite structural joints. The proposed technology developed at Integrated Micro Sensors Inc is based on laser-assisted fabrication of Micro Column Arrays (MCA) on the surface of the two materials prior to bonding. There are several advantages of the MCA technology in the drastic improvement of bonds between any similar and dissimilar materials. First, mechanical strength increases due to interlocking of the adhesive or brazing material between micro columns. Second, the bond strength increases due to the increase of the specific surface area by more than an order of magnitude. Third, stability increases due to the inherent elasticity of the micro cones during a deformation that can occur due to stresses induced by difference in thermal expansion between the material and adhesive or braze or under shear stress). Fourth, increase in the bond durability because of the repeated bend contours of the surface preventing hydrothermal failure. Fifth, wettability of the material surface significantly improves due to (i) a highly developed surface morphology at the micro and submicron level resulting from rapid solidification of the material surface during laser processing, and (ii) changes in local chemistry due to surface oxidation that could be beneficial to promoting a stronger bond.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerospace applications require novel and reliable material systems and structures to meet the increasing requirements of innovative designs. Lightweight composite materials have a high potential for applications in the areas of increased payload, reduced costs, and better survivability. Subsonic, supersonic, and especially hypersonic thrusts pose an extraordinary challenge for structures and materials. The airframe and engine require lightweight, materials and structural configurations that can withstand the extreme environment of the flight. One of the very important issues in the aerospace industry is bonding of dissimilar materials, since high bond resistance to high and rapid thermal and mechanical loads is required. Composite materials have very different coefficients of thermal expansion. In addition, structural properties and thermal conductivities are different too, which actually adds to the problem. Aerothermic heating, and high mechanical loads caused by ultra-high speeds, is one area of intensive research targeted by the current project.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MCA technology is efficient, highly reproducible, environmentally safe, and can be applied virtually to any solid state material. In addition, the MCA technology is highly scalable to large areas and minimum processing times, as the MCA fabrication efficiency is proportional only to the average laser power. Lasers with average powers up to 5 kW are currently commercially available. In addition, precise CNC systems are currently available for providing the MCA fabrication process on curved and complex shape parts. As a result the MCA application range will expand to any area where reliable bonding between to materials is required. Such areas can include medical applications (dentistry and bone surgery), sport gear (golf and hockey clubs, boats), automobile (lighter and stronger parts), etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Thermal Insulating Materials
Structural Modeling and Tools
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X6.01-8031
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems for Human Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Modeling Tools for Controlling Complex Assets Across Time Delay

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 N.E. Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-4727
(210) 822-2310

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Burridge
burridge@ieee.org
100 N.E. Loop 410, Suite 520
San Antonio,  TX 78216-4727
(281) 461-7884

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Prior to human arrival, lunar robots will conduct a variety of precursor operations. Some of these will need supervision from Earth. After humans arrive, robots will continue to follow a mix of autonomy, local control, and ground control. For best utility, a strong model is needed of the expected responses of the robots to various commands. Such a model enables procedure authors to verify expected outcomes, enhances situational awareness for remote operators in the presence of time delay, and provides a mechanism for planning. We propose a simulation module for assisting an operator across a time delay. The proposed innovation is a hybrid simulation module to replace the current "Behavioral Sim" in JSC's Predictive Interactive Graphical Interface (PIGI). PIGI helps an operator compensate for lunar-scale time delay, and is part of NASA's "RAPID Workbench". The Behavioral Sim acts as an oracle, taking initial conditions and a sequence of commands and producing trajectories and expected final location of the robot. We propose to provide functionality to (1) keep and reason about the robot's internal state; (2) model relevant aspects of the robot's workspace; (3) reason at a high level about manipulation; and (4) model the uncertainty cone of the predictions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). This program is developing concepts for lunar habitation and robotics infrastructure. Hardware testbeds such as the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) and the Lunar Electric Rover (LER) are being produced and tested in analog environments. Our work will flow immediately into these tests, greatly enhancing remote commanding capabilities across time delay. LSS contacts are Robert Ambrose of NASA Johnson Space Center and Terry Fong of NASA Ames Research Center.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Department of Defense deploys large numbers of unmanned vehicles, all of which could benefit from increased capabilities in their operator control units. In particular, our work will provide greater situational awareness to the operators and enable them to explore the effects of actions before actually committing the commands. Congress has mandated that one-third of all military vehicles must be unmanned by 2015. Robotic customers such as US Army TACOM, US Navy SPAWAR, NAVEODTECHDIV, Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE), as well as major robotics contractors such as iRobot and QinetiQ are striving to deliver more autonomy in their systems. Together these markets total several thousand potential licenses -- one for each platform. TRACLabs Inc. is a member of the JRGE-sponsored Robotics Technology Consortium, which gives us access to government and industry robotics customers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Mobility
Teleoperation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X6.01-8839
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems for Human Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: GameSAT: Game-Based Situational Awareness and Telepresence

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
BreakAway, Ltd.
10150 York Road, Suite 250
Hunt Valley, MD 21030-3346
(410) 683-1702

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew House
ahouse@breakawayltd.com
10150 York Road Suite 250
Hunt Valley,  MD 21030-3346
(410) 683-1702

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose that a virtual environment is necessary to allow NASA robot engineers and operators to study rover design concepts, develop user interfaces and focus on providing the highest possible level of situational awareness and telepresence possible. The two main areas of research for this virtual environment focus upon: • determining the appropriate level of modeling and simulation required for the environment, and • the on-going use of the virtual world as a sandbox or testbed for robot experimentation and analysis. We intend to research and develop GameSAT, a game technology based virtual world sandbox to study rover design concepts and perfect the user interfaces, situational awareness and telepresence needed to use those rovers in a lunar mixed human/robot environment. GameSAT is envisioned to interface with existing systems to allow current NASA tools to operate a virtual rover in our simulation, a rover on the test range or the moon seamlessly – invisible to the current control tools.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Direct to NASA GameSAT has relevance within the Constellation program planning for our next series of missions to the moon. The program will provide an immediate relief for frustrations felt by NASA Ames Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG). We believe research and development of this program will advance the rover capabilities at IRG and provide increased situational awareness and telepresence for the human operators of robots used in lunar and Mars exploration. In addition, GameSAT will provide a virtual testbed to allow researchers to push the limits of experimentation with future concepts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The research in Phase I of the GameSAT project and the tools developed in Phase II and III are applicable to five categories of commercial applications: infusion into NASA programs, incorporation into our existing serious game products to increase the user base and functionality offered, development funded/license supported new applications for new robot operator markets including: military (aerial, surface & submarine), homeland defense/disaster response, mining, factory and laboratory, sales to device manufacturers for experimentation and inclusion in our GameSAT products, and use within technical education as part of the STEM effort targeting robotics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Teleoperation
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interfaces
K-12 Outreach
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X6.01-9100
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems for Human Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Robotic Excavation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Astrobotic Technology, Inc.
4551 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3524
(412) 682-3282

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Gutierrez
alex.gutierrez@astrobotictech.com
4551 Forbes Avenue, Suite 300
Pittsburgh,  PA 15213-3524
(412) 682-3282

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Robust, lightweight, power-efficient excavation robots are mission enablers for lunar outposts and surface systems. Lunar excavators of this type cost-effectively utilize native materials for both outpost preparation and in-situ resource utilization. They address the need for implements that dig, collect, transport, and dump lunar soil. Past prototypes, while providing valuable insights, have either been too large, too slow, or had too little pound-for pound regolith moving capacity (payload ratio) to be real options for a lunar outpost. Novel designs incorporating dump beds, high-speed driving, and composite materials are game changers, making lightweight excavation robots advantageous for lunar site and surface work. Performance of elemental actions such as digging or driving has been studied, but it is performance in achieving a site-level task like berm building that matters. This proposal team has identified payload ratio and driving speed as dominating parameters governing site work. This has been done by creating and applying a task-level simulator, REMOTE (Regolith Excavation, Mobility & Tooling Environment), for a prior NASA contract. Current excavation force models do not adequately address cohesion and soil-tool friction within a lunar-relevant regime, as this work proposes to do. Trade studies and prototypes of lunar excavators are informative, but direct controlled comparisons of configuration options (ex. loader or dozer) will yield the best means of choosing a real design. The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at the beginning of the proposed Phase I work is 2. The anticipated results of Phase I include a prototype design as well as experimental data supporting the feasibility of the concept, bringing the TRL to 3. Phase II will result in a completed prototype that will be used to validate predictions of key parameters, bringing the TRL to 4.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Regolith excavation is a fundamental need of government and commercial endeavors on the moon in establishing habitats, landing zones, observatories, roads and resource utilization facilities. The innovation of lightweight excavation robots will enable NASA and other surface operators to deploy a robust solution to excavation early in these development activities because the delivered mass is minimized and thus suitable for inclusion in the beginning phases of surface development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Astrobotic will commercialize this technology through incorporation into its own series of private-sector lunar robots to perform services and emplace payloads for both commercial and government customers. Development of teleoperation and autonomy technology for small excavation robots will also lead to commercialization opportunities in earthworking equipment. In terrestrial construction, small excavation machines are specialized for work in tight spaces. These machines are volume-minimized, but even the smallest are still on-board human operated. Further minimization of machines for even more constrained work as well as unstable environments where the life of a human operator would be at risk can be achieved via teleoperation and autonomy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Mobility
Manipulation
Teleoperation
Simulation Modeling Environment
In-situ Resource Utilization
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X6.01-9649
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems for Human Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Hybrid Microwave Heating for Lunar Surface Solidification

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
CERALINK INC.
105 Jordan Road
Troy, NY 12180 - 8376
(518) 283-7733

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Shawn M Allan
shawn@ceralink.com
105 Jordan Road
Troy, NY 12180 - 8376
(518) 283-7733

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
This SBIR project addresses the need for a system that will provide automated lunar surface stabilization via hybrid microwave heating. Surface stabilization is paramount to future lunar missions due to severe complications from dust on the Apollo space missions. This project focuses on development of a microwave surface solidification device, which could be incorporated into a roving system, to provide adequate working planes for robotic and manned operations.
Phase I will demonstrate microwave system feasibility using advanced computer modeling and sophisticated laboratory experimentation with lunar simulant. Research will target surface heating of deep powder beds to best simulate in-situ use. Microwaves coupled with radiant heat sources will maximize heating efficiency. Hybrid microwave heating models will provide process optimization, direct correlations to lunar regolith heating, and a foundation for advanced automated control systems.
Ceralink has assembled a team including research partner Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and commercialization partner Gerling Applied Engineering to successful bring this technology from a TRL 2 to a TRL 4 in Phase I. The team is well positioned to achieve TRL 6 with prototype demonstrations by the completion of Phase II, and ultimately deliver a fully functioning system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The primary use of this technology by NASA is for surface solidification and stabilization. In addition, microwave heating holds promise for other lunar and planetary applications, which require in-situ heating of regoliths and minerals. Applications include:
• Oxygen, water, and other gas evolution from regolith
• Mineral and metal refinement
• Mineral beneficiation
• Ore comminution

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
• Enhanced control and automation of continuous high-temperature microwave manufacturing systems
• Microwave sintering of ceramics
• Microwave sintering of powder metals
• Microwave brazing (ceramic-ceramic, ceramic-metal, metal-metal)
• Microwave synthesis (calcination, hydrothermal synthesis)
• Microwave-assisted mineral beneficiation, including ore cracking to improve comminution

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Composites
In-situ Resource Utilization
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X6.01-9794
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotic Systems for Human Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Parametric Optimization and Prediction Tool for Lunar Surface Systems Excavation Tasks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W. 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320
(212) 966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kris Zacny
zacny@honeybeerobotics.com
460 W 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320
(510) 207-4555

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a software tool for facilitating lunar excavation system trades in support of selecting an optimal architecture. This will provide engineers with the ability to quickly examine "What if?" scenarios within a trade space by specifying an excavation architecture and receiving data and graphs evaluating that architecture's performance in terms relevant metrics, such as total energy used or total duration. Excavation tasks supporting outpost development and lunar ISRU will require moving hundreds to thousands of tons of regolith per year. Moving this much regolith will require substantial machinery, but transportation costs on the order of $50K to $100K per kilogram to the surface of the Moon make it an economic necessity to make optimal use of lunar excavation equipment. An architecture that saves a few thousand kilograms in equipment will save hundreds of millions in program dollars – a substantial return on investment. This software aims to be (a) user friendly, (b) relevant to LSS's priorities, and (c) accurate for lunar excavation. Phase 1 will address user-friendliness, relevance, and the theoretical side of accuracy. Phase 2 will expand the tool's relevance to a larger trade space, and attack selected gaps on the empirical side of accuracy. This tool will be based on the very best models and data available, and will benefit from the knowledge and experience of both Dr. Kris Zacny, the Principal Investigator, and Dr. David Carrier, a subcontractor in this effort. Phase 1 will result produce the basic framework for the software, which will be capable of performing analyses for a selected set of excavation scenarios. Phase 2 will then add depth to that framework to address a wide range of excavation tasks and tools, and will involve experimentation to validate and fine tune the software.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The software developed under this SBIR effort is specifically intended to facilitate system and architecture trades related to excavation activities on the lunar surface. The next steps in lunar excavation will require moving large quantities literally tons of lunar regolith. At transportation costs of $50K-$100K per kilogram to the surface of the Moon, it is economically imperative that lunar excavation and ISRU tasks be accomplished as efficiently as possible. Doing so requires not just minimizing the mass of individual systems, such as an ISRU reactor or a rover, but maximizing the efficiency of the overall architecture. This is no mean feat, and will require many trade studies as different architectures are devised to make use of the landed resources available. This software will speed the process, enabling quicker turnaround on trade studies and providing the best information available for decision making.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Honeybee has witnessed the interest of major international mining concerns in introducing robotics to industrial surface mines. The issues of maintaining trained and trusted personnel in increasingly remote and sometimes conflict-prone locations makes autonomous, semi-autonomous, and teleoperated mining equipment very attractive. In some cases, applying robotics to the mine is as simple as automating a formerly manual procedure. In other cases, the issues are more complex and require careful consideration of multiple alternative architectures. It is actually rather similar to the challenge of selecting appropriate excavation architecture for the Moon, with the added wrinkle of interfacing with legacy logistics and processing architecture. With appropriate modifications, this software could provide a means to facilitate trade studies for commercial mining concerns increasing the use of robotics in the mine. This software will be especially well-suited to high-investment, high-payoff automation projects that introduce a completely new architecture as opposed to simply automating the existing equipment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X6.02-8148
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Fidelity, High Volume Agglutinate Manufacturing Process

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zybek Advanced Products, Inc.
2845 29th Street
Boulder, CO 80301-1229
(303) 530-2727

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Weinstein
mike@zybekap.com
2845 29th Street
Boulder,  CO 80301-1229
(303) 530-2727

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Up to 65% of the lunar soils are comprised of agglutinates. Although the importance of agglutinate in simulants is often debated, the fact is that agglutinates account for a large portion of the lunar soil and have known effects on final material properties. Increasing the fidelity of terrestrially manufactured simulant can reduce mission risk. Zybek Advanced Products, Inc., is proposing an important innovation to the agglutinate manufacturing process to address mission-critical needs for lunar regolith simulants that achieve NASA's cost and quantity objectives, provide reproducible production processes, and supply required particle size distributions. Additional value is provided to the program by ZAP's unique knowledge of simulant mechanical and material properties gleaned from its production of simulant components for NASA. The majority of ZAP's work completed to date has been focused on high volume, bulk lunar simulant components, including glass, agglutinates and melt breccias. The primary purpose of this SBIR proposal is to innovate the agglutinate manufacturing process to provide significantly higher quality material that will contain nanostructure Fe0. This innovation will leverage ZAP's current investment in the high-volume simulant manufacturing and provide the industry with more accurate simulants that will reduce future mission risks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Zybek Advanced Products has identified several different programs that require high-fidelity simulants. These include: oxygen extraction, connector testing, electro-mechanical effects on devices, medical testing, excavation development, etc. New applications are being identified as other NASA centers learn of the high-volume, high-aspect ratio particulates ZAP is manufacturing. Examples are: dust adhesion and need for high volume, high-fidelity simulants for process development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several other applications for agglutinate manufacturing exist. An example is the use of agglutinate containing zero-valent iron for groundwater remediation. The industry is currently using Fe0 for hazardous waste remediation at superfund sites. The cost and handling complication make Fe0 not an option for several other programs. The agglutinate "capsule", similar to what is on the moon's surface can be an ideal package.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Manned-Maneuvering Units
K-12 Outreach
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X6.02-8804
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanotube Electrodes for Dust Mitigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eikos, Inc.
2 Master Drive
Franklin, MA 02038-3034
(508) 528-0300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Glatkowski
pglatkowski@eikos.com
2 Master Drive
Franklin,  MA 02038-3034
(508) 528-0300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Dust mitigation is critical to the survivability of vehicle and infrastructure components and systems and to the safety of astronauts during EVAs and planetary surface operations. The proposed project seeks to demonstrate a broadly applicable and extremely space durable dust mitigation technology by combining transparent conductive circuits, based on carbon nanotechnology, with electrodymanic shielding. Presently metals and metal oxides are used to form the electrodes in electrodynamic dust mitigation devices. However the simple substitution of these traditional materials with nanocomposite conductors will provide a far more space durable electrode applicable to a broader array of surfaces and applications. The resulting dust mitigation system will have broad common value to its own mission and to other mission directorates. This approach exploits the unique capabilities of singlewalled carbon nanotubes and binders to form conductive circuits with existing dust mitigation technology developed at NASA-KSC. This approach provide the widest utility making the combined technologies suitable for vehicle structures, spacesuits, modular infrastructure, lightweight deployable and inflatable structures, and habitats. The thin transparent dust shield technology will mitigate the effects of charge, dust and other contaminates on materials, electronics and other space systems. This technology will provide significant improvement in robustness, reliability, and safety. The proposed project will build from a foundation created by NASA and Eikos over the past ten years. It is a natural extension of both efforts to combine Eikos Invisicon technology with the dust mitigation technology being conducted at KSC.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ESC mitigation is critical to the survivability of vehicle and infrastructure components and systems and to the safety of astronauts during EVAs and planetary surface operations. This technology will provide significant improvement in robustness, reliability, and safety. Once fully matured, this technology will be implemented to sustain affordable exploration in remote environments where surface contamination, like dust, is persistently reducing the effectiveness, safety, and sustainability of key systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Eikos is currently marketing these conductive coatings under its register trademark, Invisicon<SUP>REG</SUP>, as a replacement of ITO in existing applications and a core part of our second thrust is to use Invisicon coatings for rapid prototyping of new electronic devices and enabling entirely new device structures. Based on superior performance and lower costs Invisicon<SUP>REG</SUP> can be a transparent electrode that is easily printed and patterned that allows manufacturers to produce more efficient and cost effective PV's, displays, and electronic devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Suits
Tools
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X6.02-8920
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mass Production of Mature Lunar Regolith Simulant

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558
(256) 851-7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Butts
dbutts@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville,  AL 35763-1558
(256) 851-7653

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As NASA prepares for future exploration activities on the Moon, there is a growing need to develop higher fidelity lunar soil simulants that can accurately reproduce the properties and behavior of lunar soil. Simulants are employed on earth to verify the performance of equipment, mechanisms, structures and processes to be used on the lunar surface. One of the significant limitations of current simulants is the lack of constituents, such as agglutinates and spherules, which often contain nano-phase iron (Fe0). These constituents are needed in any high fidelity simulant. Recently, Plasma Processes, Inc. (PPI) has developed a process to create simulated agglutinates and volcanic glasses from JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant. Microstructural characterization has shown that these components contain an appreciable amount of nano phase Fe0. However, current production of these simulant additives is limited. The ultimate objective of this Phase I effort is to develop an economical, large scale manufacturing process to produce simulant agglutinates and volcanic glasses. This production process promises to be a viable route for significantly enhancing the fidelity of existing and future lunar regolith simulants.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Feedstock for development and verification of in-space fabrication: Si - solar cells; Al, Ti, Fe - structural use; O2 (H2O) for life-support, habitat and propulsion use, high fidelity lunar simulant for dust, abrasion, mining & excavation research.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Powder metallurgy products, protective coatings, catalysts, composite additives, sintering aids, microfiltration membranes, rocket fuel additives, rocket motors, electronics, fuel cell technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits
Tools
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X6.02-9720
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface System Dust Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Resistant Hybrid Lotus Effect Photoelectrocatalytic Self-Cleaning Anti-Contamination Coatings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Photonics Consultants
38 Knife Edge Place
Pagosa Springs , CO 81147-9004
(970) 731-0619

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Taylor
IntPhoton@aol.com
38 Knife Edge PL
Pagosa Springs ,  CO 81147-9004
(970) 731-0619

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will develop radiation resistant hybrid Lotus Effect photoelectrocatalytic self-cleaning anti-contamination coatings for application to Lunar Operations. The coatings will be demonstrated to operate in galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar event proton (SEP) environments. The coatings will have low surface energy to significantly reduce Van der Waals forces (superhydrophobicity), which also reduce contaminant adhesion and will integrate a biocide stoichiometric and photoelectrocatalytic component which has been successfully demonstrated against a range of biological pathogens and toxic chemicals. The Lotus-effect sheds particles, such as dust and spores, by reducing the surface energy and the amount of surface area needed for attachment by utilizing a nano-textured structure to achieve its anti-contamination and self-cleaning properties thereby minimizing contaminant accumulation on surfaces. Dust mitigation coatings on various surfaces will be developed for > 99% removal of initial dust contaminant compared to conventional materials, without damage to the surface being cleaned. The coatings utilize a unique approach for biocide and chemical neutralization and will simplify decontamination procedures by neutralizing microorganisms or harmful chemicals on surfaces of structures and equipment in low gravity, as well as in extraterrestrial environments, preventing potential catastrophic contamination.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radiation resistant Lotus-Biocide coatings have the potential to save NASA mission resources by extending the performance of components and systems, which could enhance system efficiency and ultimately extend mission durations. An extension in lifetime of components could provide a return on investment of saving millions of dollars in typical replacement parts. Potential mission applications are antibacterial, anti-contamination coatings for air ventilation systems, waste management structures, habitation airlock walls, and crew module walls and surfaces. The coating has the potential to enhance the capabilities of current life support technology and techniques by working in conjunction with those systems to eliminate contaminants. This biocide/self-cleaning technology will assist in minimizing contamination effects by neutralizing bacteria and will assist in mitigating potential health and safety issues for our astronauts. The coatings are designed to provide lunar environmental durability, suitable for use in dust mitigation applications on the lunar surface and potentially for application to satellite solar power systems. The hybrid coatings will demonstrate reduced initial contamination (>90%) compared to conventional materials and improved efficiency of cleaning processes (>99% removal of initial contamination) without damage to the surface being cleaned including cleaning in a radiation environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radiation resistant hybrid Lotus Effect photoelectrocatalytic self-cleaning anti-contamination coatings for commercial application include a direct application as protective coatings on aircraft canopies, optical sensors and on solar cell coverings. The efficiency of solar arrays can be degraded by terrestrial sources such as dust, rain, soil and other contaminants. Other applications requiring antibacterial, anti-contamination coatings include, but are not limited to: air ventilation systems and waste management structures, hospital walls and surfaces and potential application to the US NAVY Epidaurus Project (DOD Hospital of the future).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Solar
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Optical
Suits
Photonics
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials
Organics/Bio-Materials
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Energy Storage
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X7.01-8216
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Energy Density Li-ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive N., Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3723
(732) 868-3141

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nader Hagh
nmhagh@neicorporation.com
400 Apgar Drive, Suite E
Somerset,  NJ 08873-1154
(732) 868-3141

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NEI Corporation proposes to develop a mixed metal oxide nanocomposite cathode that is designed for delivering high energy density with good rate performance at low temperatures (T=0 C). The two-fold innovation in the proposed effort is the simultaneous intrinsic (i.e. defect chemistry) and extrinsic (electrically conductive surface coating) modification to the active material, which itself is a composite of two layered materials. The proposed intrinsic and extrinsic modifications are projected to beneficially impact both ionic and electronic conductivities of the cathode material, and thereby enhance the Li-ion cell performance at low operating temperatures. The target specific capacity of the proposed cathode is more than 300 mAh/g with a nominal working voltage of 3V, and delivering more than 900 Wh/kg specific energy at T=0 C. The objective of the Phase I program is to demonstrate the feasibility of a new high capacity and high voltage cathode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. In Phase II, the composition and morphology of the powders will be optimized, and integrated into large format prototype Li-ion batteries by working in partnership with a battery manufacturer(s).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Currently, Li-ion batteries are utilized only for low-cycle life space applications, but reliable and high energy density storage devices with low temperature performance are essential for Altair-lunar lander, extravehiclular activities (EVA) and surface operation on the Moon or Mars. With NEI's cathode materials, a high performance Li-ion battery will be produced to meet NASA high power and high energy density (more than 300 Wh/kg, C/2) requirements at operating temperature of T=0 C.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Currently available commercial Li-ion batteries do not adequately meet the requirements of electronic appliances, such as cell phones, laptop computers, power tools, sensors, and remote controllers. The cathode materials developed in this program will increase the overall performance of Li-ion batteries used in these applications. Others applications for the materials developed here include Electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles, power backups, and alternative power generation, such as solar panels, wind turbines, which need batteries to store the generated energy.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X7.01-8568
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes for High Capacity, High Performance Li-ion Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EIC Laboratories, Inc.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062-2612
(781) 769-9450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dharmasena Peramunage
pera@eiclabs.com
EIC Laboratories, 111 Downey Street
Norwood,  MA 02062-2612
(781) 769-9450

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new high capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is proposed. By virtue of a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode material will be able to accommodate significant volume changes expected upon alloying and de-alloying with lithium. The mesoporosity will be created without the aid of a surfactant template using a novel high volume synthetic process. The anode composite based on this material is designed to have a reversible Li-ion capacity exceeding 600 mAh/g or nearly twice that obtainable with graphite anodes; indeed much higher capacities could be practically attainable. Coupled with our advanced polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode, we expect a fully developed battery to have a specific energy of >150 Wh/Kg, and energy density of >300 Wh/l and the capability to produce >1000 deep charge/discharge cycles and thus makes it very desirable for space power applications of NASA. The work plan will include the materials synthesis, fabrication of electrode structures, evaluating rechargeability and cyclability of the anode, and reporting results.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Principal NASA applications will include landers, rovers and Extravehicular activities (EVA). Coupled with a suitable electrolyte Li-Ion cells based on this anode will be suitable for space-related applications, in moon and other planetary habitats etc, requiring high specific energy rechargeable batteries with unique attributes such as non-flammability and sub-ambient temperature operation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new anodes will result in high performance Li-ion batteries suitable for electric vehicle propulsion and for use in portable consumer products such as cellular phones, portable power tools, cameras and laptop computers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Mobility
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Energy Storage
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X7.01-8775
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Safer Battery with Switchable Polymer Coating

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Lang
lang@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to utilize a switchable polymer (SWP) to prevent catastrophic failure due to internal shorting or overdischarge in lithium-ion batteries. The SWP, applied to both the surface of the cathode particles and the cathode current collector, can be reversibly "switched" from an insulator to a conductor upon oxidation permitting normal battery operation. In Phase I, PSI will demonstrate that upon a short or overdischarge the polymer reversibly switches to an insulator reducing the current flow to the cathode material protecting the system and preventing unsafe operation. This reduced current flow will be demonstrated to decrease the localized heat generation by more than two orders of magnitude. PSI will also demonstrate that insulation of the cathode material limits irreversible degradation of the discharge capacity upon overdischarge maintaining cell balance and improving cycle life. In the Phase II program, we will scale up the coating procedure to a production scale, in order to demonstrate the technology in a 5Ah battery. At the conclusion of Phase II, PSI will have demonstrated the technology in full battery systems and be prepared to partner with NASA's industrial partner SAFT America to have cells built for a mock application demonstration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology could be utilized in all battery applications to improve their safety. In particular application of the technology in human-rated systems could help the system meet NASA's two fault NASA human-rated safety requirement. Incorporation in NASA's high and ultra-high energy cell designs would substantially reduce the potential for catastrophic failure on the development of internal shorts or overdischarge.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial market for the proposed technology is the military where battery safety is paramount. The increased tolerance to overdischarge and shorting offered by the proposed coating would improve the safety of battery systems. The technology can be further extended to commercial devices such as hybrid and electric vehicles, cordless power tools, remote sensing devices, and portable communications such as cell phones and two-way radios.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X7.01-9228
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Lithium Ion High Energy Battery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Farasis Energy, Inc.
23575 Cabot Blvd., Suite 205
Hayward, CA 94545-1657
(650) 759-7563

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keith Kepler
kkepler@farasis.com
23575 Cabot Blvd., Ste 205
Hayward,  CA 94545-1657
(510) 732-6600

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Under this SBIR project a new chemistry for Li-ion cells will be developed that will enable a major advance in secondary battery gravimetric and volumetric energy density with improved safety and reliability. By the completion of the Phase I effort the feasibility of the chemistry to achieve energy densities in excess of 300 Wh/kg and 600 Wh/l will have been demonstrated in lab cells, corresponding to a TRL of 3 to 4. A Phase II effort will involve further optimization of the chemistry and cell designs and extensive evaluation of 18650 or larger size cells incorporating the new chemistry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high energy battery cell design being developed under this SBIR can be used as a performance enhanced replacement in existing lithium ion cell applications which include LEO and GEO satellite batteries. This design is expected to have safety improvements related to overcharge which will provide an enhanced safety level which is an important factor for operations in which batteries are located in close proximity to humans for applications such as EVA suites, handheld electronic equipment batteries and independently powered sensors. The cell design can also be used with fuel cell hybrids in high powered propulsion applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high energy battery cell design being developed under this SBIR has commercial applications as a drop in replacement for existing commercially available lithium ion batteries. The materials and processes used in the design are expected to be compatible with high volume production to allow for fast adoption of the technology. The first adopters of the technology are expected to be applications such as advanced cell phones that have video and internet applications which require more energy than previous generations of phones. We also expect that laptop batteries will be an early adopter for the enhanced runtime and safety features of the battery especially for use aboard aircraft. The longer term and potentially the largest application for the technology will be for use in plug in electric and electric vehicles for both commercial and defense applications where high energy and safety are an enabling feature to help the emerging markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
High-Energy
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X7.01-9403
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: A New Li Anode Technology for Improved Performance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TH Chem, Inc.
8415 Manuel Cia Place NE
Albuquerque, NM 87122-2815
(505) 856-8277

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tuqiang Chen
tchen@thcheminc.com
8415 Manuel Cia Pl. NE
ALBUQUERQUE,  NM 87122-2815
(505) 610-6027

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lithium (Li) metal-based rechargeable batteries have many advantages over Li-ion systems including significantly higher energy density, lower cost, and the option of using positive electrode materials that do not have to be pre-lithiated. Unfortunately, Li metal electrodes form metal dendrites upon cycling, compromising battery safety and limiting cell life. TH Chem, Inc. (THC) proposes to team with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technologies (NMT) to develop a novel, low-cost approach to stabilization of Li metal anodes for high performance rechargeable Li batteries. Novel electrolyte additives will be selected and utilized in Li cell electrolyte systems, promoting formation of protective coating on Li metal anodes for improved cycle and safety performance. In Phase I, electrolyte additives will be selected and studied trough assembly and electrochemical evaluation of Li cells. The PI and his team have extensive experience in lithium battery chemistries and technologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has applications in next generation Li batteries for the power sources of NASA's many missions, including the Altair lunar lander and surface operations on the Moon and Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rechargeable Lithium-based batteries have extensive applications in commercial products including electric vehicles, radios, telephones, televisions, video cameras, computers, tools, and other consumer products. They have corresponding applications for the Federal Government in defense, spacecraft, and probes. The proposed technology has the potential to improve performance of next generation Li batteries that are significantly lighter, smaller, more powerful, and safer and have great impacts on performance of many commercial and military devices and equipment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X7.01-9416
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Space Rated Batteries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Safety via Thermal Shutdown for Space Rated Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Quallion, LLC
12744 San Fernando Road
Sylmar, CA 91342-3728
(818) 833-2029

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hisashi Tsukamoto
Hisashi@quallion.com
12744 San Fernando Rd.
Sylmar,  CA 91342-3728
(818) 833-2002

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Li-ion battery safety has inspired many safety features from CID, to safety valves. However, none of the current features protect a battery from internal over-current, which can be caused by foreign material contamination, dendrite formation, defects in separator or high impact on the battery. Another problem is that these devices shut-down the function of the entire battery, even when the problem arises from a localized spot. The entire battery shutdown is costly, especially when the battery size increases. Space batteries are especially of concern because of long mission life and large battery size. Quallion is interested in using a novel material developed by UCSB as a means to accomplish a battery which eliminates short circuits via a thermal trigger; this material could be used to develop safe, high-energy high energy, long life li-ion space rated batteries.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This safety enhancement would be used for Space-rated batteries for multiple applications: ranging from surface missions to satellite batteries and launch vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The safety can be an asset in any application where safety is of particular concern, especially in larger format batteries. Quallion foresees the safety feature being used for commercial and military vehicle batteries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X7.02-8908
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface Nuclear Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomus I&C Maintenance and Health Monitoring System for Fission Surface Power

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation
9111 Cross Park Drive, Building A-100
Knoxville, TN 37923-4510
(865) 691-1756

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Hashem Hashemian
hash@ams-corp.com
9111 Cross Park Drive
Knoxville,  TN 37923-4510
(865) 691-1756

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There currently exists no end-to-end reactor/power conversion monitoring system that can provide both autonomous health monitoring, but also in-situ sensor calibration and response time testing without human interface. One of the key challenges facing space nuclear power systems is their extremely remote location and requirement for multi-year missions. The current benchmark system has a mission life of at least 8 years during which time there is no opportunity for repair, sensor calibrations, or any maintenance of any kind. By contrast, terrestrial-based nuclear power plants undergo periodic outages during which time sensor calibrations can be performed. Current technology relies heavily on real-time human interaction, monitoring and control. Due to the long communication times between the Earth and Moon, or Mars, real-time human control is not possible. Therefore, these emerging programs have a critical need to develop autonomous health monitoring and control technology. Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation proposes to develop a modular signal processing platform that will enable robust system monitoring. The proposed system, once fully developed, will be able to detect system anomalies, based on advanced analytical and empirical analysis and will enable autonomous reactor operation and corrective action.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application for the proposed technology will be with space nuclear reactors and the non-nuclear test systems that are being used for component and system level validation. However, the basic autonomous I&C and health monitoring technology developed could be applied to a wide range of applications including aircraft structural and system health monitoring, chemical propulsion systems and ground test facilities for liquid fuel rocket motor testing and development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An autonomous I&C Maintenance and Health Monitoring System using advanced modeling techniques could also expand beyond the scope of space nuclear and commercial nuclear power plant applications. Obtaining a group of inputs from a limited sensor set and modeling expected outputs could apply to many different industries. For example, a generic I&C monitoring tool that could be "trained" with sensor inputs could be applied to the aircraft industry for engine condition monitoring. AMS could partner with an aircraft sensor manufacturer and provide this maintenance and health monitoring tool to be integrated with those sensors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Human-Computer Interfaces
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X7.02-9116
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface Nuclear Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Speed Neutron and Gamma Flux Sensor for Monitoring Surface Nuclear Reactors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Sutie 400
Roanoke, VA 24016 - 4692
(540) 769-8400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Clark Boyd
submissions301@lunainnovations.com
3157 State Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060 - 6657
(540) 961-6731

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
NASA needs compact nuclear reactors to power future bases on the moon and Mars. These reactors require robust automatic control systems using low mass, rapid response, in-core reactor power monitoring sensors and radiation tolerant sensor interrogation systems that do not yet exist. Luna proposes to develop a new type of fiber optic miniature neutron flux and gamma flux sensor, which will have significantly faster response than recently developed fiber optic radiation sensors. The new sensors will maintain the advantages of current fiber optic reactor sensor technology, including small size for in-core sensor distributions, high temperature performance (above 600oC), and immunity to electrical noise in the presence of ionizing radiation.
During Phase I, Luna will demonstrate the feasibility of high-speed fiber optic gamma flux sensors in a nuclear reactor. Phase II will optimize the sensor design and the interrogation system for high temperature in-core monitoring of both gamma flux and neutron flux with internal thermal compensation and in-situ thermal calibration. At the end of Phase II, Luna will deliver a lightweight sensor interrogation system, utilizing experimentally verified radiation hardened components wherever possible, and including an analog output signal for interfacing with standard reactor control electronics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
While the sensor development will be focused on nuclear space power needs, the sensors can also be directly utilized for monitoring nuclear terrestrial power reactors as well.
Potential NASA applications include:
1. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for Mars manned missions
2. NTP for deep space probes
3. Lunar surface power reactors
4. Future long duration deep space probe power reactors
5. Future Space-station power reactors
6. Mars surface power reactors

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The sensors developed on this project will also contribute to the safe and economically competitive operation of commercial nuclear power plants. The high temperature and high speed performance of these sensors will be needed in future advanced reactor designs, where elevated temperature operation is being designed for higher electrical generation efficiency. Under these more severe conditions, reliable sensor operation becomes even more critical for continued safe operation.
Arrays of Luna's fiber optic radiation flux sensors can also be used to monitor spent fuel and nuclear waste storage facilities.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Control Instrumentation
Nuclear (Adv Fission, Fusion, Anti-Matter, Exotic Nuclear)
Nuclear Conversion
Particle and Fields
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X7.02-9282
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface Nuclear Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Two-Phase Cooling Loop for Fission Surface Power Waste Heat Transport

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-0071
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jay Rozzi
jcr@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-0071
(603) 643-3800

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current lunar-based Fission Surface Power (FSP) Systems that will support sustained surface outposts consist of a nuclear reactor with power converters, whose waste heat is transported to radiator panels to be rejected to the environment. The current approach is to transport waste heat using a heavy, pressurized water cooling loop. For each 20 kW of heat rejection, the current water cooling loop components weigh approximately 52 kg due to the large flow rate of water, the large pressure drop, and the pump and other components. Our innovation is a novel Waste Heat Transport System (WHTS) that combines Creare's lightweight radiator technology with a Lightweight Cooling Loop (LCL). Using our approach, we estimate that our LCL will reduce the cooling loop system mass by 60% compared to the current approach. Our approach will have a reduced system pressure, resulting in decreased plumbing size and weight, and eliminate the need for a mechanical pump, increasing system reliability. During the Phase I project, we will establish the feasibility of our innovative, Lightweight Cooling Loop (LCL) by fabricating a fully operational, subscale prototype and testing it under prototypical conditions. During the Phase II project, we will design, fabricate, and deliver to NASA a prototype LCL for integration with our ultra-light radiator.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main application of our innovative Lightweight Cooling Loop (LCL) is for lunar-based Fission Surface Power (FSP). Specifically, these systems will support In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) or Mars robotic and manned missions. Our innovation has significant technical and risk advantages over competing technologies. Thus, it represents the shortest path to an optimal Waste Heat Rejection System (WHTS). We envision integrating our LCL into the 3rd-Generation Radiation Demonstration Unit (RDU) to be sourced by NASA in late 2010. Other applications include long-duration interplanetary and planetary-based missions, mobile power systems, and satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the main applications for our innovation are space-based systems, our novel LCL can be applied to commercial thermal management systems that are severely weight constrained. Such systems can benefit from the lightweight, high-temperature capability of our unique innovation. These applications can include radar, aerospace, large scale power systems, and energy recovery applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
In-situ Resource Utilization
Nuclear Conversion
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X7.03-8742
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Conductive Water Removal Membrane (CWRM) for PEM Passive Fuel Cell Operation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ElectroChem, Inc.
400 West Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801-6519
(781) 938-5300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Pien
mpien@fuelcell.com
400 West Cummings Park
Woburn,  MA 01844-6243
(781) 938-5300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Too much water, resulting in flooding, or too little water, resulting in electrolyte dryout, have both had negative impact upon fuel cell performance. ElectroChem proposes an SBIR research project to develop a Conductive Water Removal Membrane (CWRM) for PEM fuel cells operating at higher current densities in a passive mode. The membrane will 1) be wettable; 2) allow water to penetrate easily; 3) not permit gas to leak through; 4) be electrically conductive. ElectroChem proposes two approaches for fabrication. (1) integrate a highly electrically conductive material with a polymer membrane which provides the desired water permeation and gas retardation properties and (2) a CWRM membrane will be made with nanostructure materials. At the end of Phase I we expect to document the analytical / experimental results validating the key parameters of CWRM. At the end of Phase II we expect to document the test performance of CWRM in a PEM fuel cell in agreement with the analytic predictions of Phase I. Success of the proposal to develop a Conductive Water Removal Membrane (CWRM) will enable PEM fuel cells to operate at very high current densities passively.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a Conductive Water Removal Membrane (CWRM) will enable PEM Fuel Cells to operate passively at high current densities. In the near term, this will enable NASA to meet its critical need for Lunar-type-Rovers (approximately 50-500W) over the next ten years. When the time comes, the PEM Fuel cells containing the CWRM will be ready to meet NASA's need for a replacement fuel cell power plant (approximately 15 kW) for the successor to the Shuttle. And after NASA returns to the Moon and establishes a permanent presence there, it will have a need for a power system (approximately 25kW) that can reliably meet the Moon's 14+ day-long and 14+ night-long unique requirements. The PEM Fuel Cell containing the CWRM has the potential of meeting this future critical NASA need via a Regenerative Fuel Cell.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The fact that the PEM fuel cells containing the conductive water removal membrane (CWRM) will significantly simplify PEMFC operation (and result in both higher and safer performance) makes it very attractive for a wide variety of non-NASA Commercial applications. In the near-term, its unique passive operation and exceptional stability makes it ideal for powering remote applications like monitors and sensors, which require very high reliability. Following scale-up and optimization, the CWRM with ElectroChem's IFF concept, applied to the regenerative fuel cell, will be able to meet the growing needs for reliable, non-polluting Uninterruptible Power Systems (in the range of 4-8 kW). And, following further development, the IFF will be able to replace conventional PEMFC systems in satisfying the special requirements of transportation applications, including passenger cars (50 kW and up). On a system level basis, the CWRM supports ElectroChem's ultimate objective to manufacture and market a PEM Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer power plant, ECcell, that performs well in a totally passive, non-flow-through mode.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Energy Storage
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X7.03-9598
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Oxygen Evolution Catalyst for Electrolyzer Energy Storage for Lunar Surface Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Cisar
alan.cisar@lynntech.com
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station,  TX 77840-4023
(979) 693-0017

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA lunar missions will require a high efficiency, lightweight, long life, maintenance-free water electrolyzer for energy storage. Anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the limiting step in water electrolysis to achieve high efficiency and durability for current electrolyzer technology. Current best candidates for OER catalysts comprising of iridium and ruthenium oxides still suffer from high activation overpotential and incur performance losses in the electrolyzer due to non-optimized microstructural properties. In the present proposal, Lynntech proposes an advancement of its proprietary OER catalyst technology through optimization in microstructure and composition of mixed oxides of iridium and ruthenium. Lynntech's optimized catalyst will exhibit lesser overpotentials due to enhanced uniform nanophase properties of electrical conductivity, hydrophilicity and high surface area. In addition, surface modification of the catalyst is proposed to improve the kinetics of the OER reaction at lower current densities and also to improve the stability of the catalyst towards high potential operation during anodic OER. With its present OER catalyst already achieving less than 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 at 90 ºC and stable operation even at 2.05 V electrolyzer potentials, Lynntech plans to achieve even lower potentials at 200 mA/cm2 with the proposed advancement of technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lynntech's advanced OER catalyst can be used for electrolyzer energy storage for NASA's future robotic and human exploration missions, particularly for stationary power for lunar surface bases. With a photovoltaic array for power generation, there needs to be an electrical energy storage system to supply power demand during the sun-eclipsed periods for space missions. This will be challenging for lunar missions where day/night cycle extends to >350 hrs. For such applications, Lynntech's advanced OER catalyst will provide lightweight electrolyzer energy storage due to improved performance and will also achieve long term stability of 10,000 hrs due to optimized composition and nanostructures. In addition to power generation and energy storage, lightweight PEM electrolyzers utilizing Lynntech's advanced catalyst will also provide H2 and O2 utilities for several important spacecraft operations including: (1) environmental control and life support; (2) propulsion; (3) extravehicular activity (EVA); (4) in-space manufacturing activities; and (5) in-space science activities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lynntech's OER catalyst can be utilized for PEM electrolyzers for hydrogen and oxygen generation for residential and stationary applications. High pressure PEM electrolyzers are potential candidate for stationary H2 generation applications and solar energy storage systems that require uninterrupted power. They are a good candidate for effective onsite hydrogen generation and refueling stations for hydrogen refueling in fuel cell vehicles. Other applications of PEM electrolyzer include O2 generation for medical applications such as hospitals, deployed field hospitals and portable O2 concentrators.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X7.03-9874
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cells for Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Water Management Membrane for Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cortney Mittelsteadt, Ph.D.
cmittelsteadt@ginerinc.com
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton,  MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0529

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of an improved water management membrane for a static vapor feed electrolyzer that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This improved membrane can increase the performance and especially the durability of static vapor feed electrolyzers. Static vapor feed electrolyzers greatly simplify electrolyzer systems as they eliminate the need for water/gas phase separation, which is particularly challenging in a zero gravity environment. Maintaining water in the vapor phase greatly reduces membrane swelling which should increase durability. Finally, by keeping water in the vapor phase the MEA is not exposed to ion and other contaminants that are carried by a liquid water stream, further increasing durability and simplifying the system by reducing the need for ultra-pure water. The primary goal of this Phase I program then is to demonstrate the enhanced performance and durability of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an improved water management membrane.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lunar and space stations, satellites, high altitude aircraft. Terrestrial water electrolyzers typically utilize an abundance of recirculated water to the electrolyzer, usually on the anode (oxygen) side, where it serves reactant, coolant, and as the "carrier" phase wherein the product oxygen is carried from the anode by the pumped water. Subsequent to leaving the electrolyzer the phases are separated by gravity in a receiving tank. In near-zero or low-gravity environments, this separation is difficult to achieve. Doing so results in additional system complexity and compromised process efficiency. As part of a regenerative fuel cell system, NASA has a need for highly-efficiency, but robust technologies capable of storing energy in the form of stored hydrogen and oxygen. The Static Water Vapor Feed (SWVF) Electrolyzer is an elegant solution to overcome and simplify the above problems. Thus NASA will be the first to utilize electrolyzers with this technology, possibly in the Constellation mission in the lunar-based and Martian energy storage systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Utilizing a water vapor feed is highly attractive for laboratory and small industrial scale electrolyzers. Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC. is the world's largest supplier of laboratory electrolyzer stack and stack parts. These electrolyzers have excellent proven durability, greatly exceeding five years. However, they require an extremely pure deionized water feed. The ability of a vapor-fed electrolyzer to operate on tap water would make this technology even more attractive for these applications. In a similar fashion to water permeation through an ionomeric membrane, alcohols such as methanol and ethanol can permeate membranes. Thus the static vapor feed technology may be useful in alcohol-air batteries such as those used for portable power. In all these applications, the management of the gases and liquids involved generates significant complexity that inevitably increases the cost and reduces reliability of such devices. As such, they will all benefit from static water vapor feed technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Liquid-Liquid Interfaces
Energy Storage
Renewable Energy


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X8.01-8314
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Transfer and Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microplate Heat Exchanger

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc.
7522 Slater Avenue, #122
Huntington Beach, CA 92647-7738
(714) 847-9945

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jack Fryer
jayfryer@microcoolingconcepts.com
7522 Slater Ave #122
Huntington Beach,  CA 92647-7738
(714) 847-9945

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling locations, and very low vibration cooling systems. Any DC cryogenic flow system such as turbo Brayton, Joule-Thomson (JT), or remote cooling applications require very high effectiveness heat exchangers to reduce input power. The parasitic loads from heat exchangers are a significant fraction of the overall load, and high effectiveness heat exchangers lead directly to improved system efficiencies across a broad range of cryogenic applications. Microplate heat exchangers have a demonstrated effectiveness over 98% (Marquardt, Cryocoolers 15). While performance is high, they will be difficult to use for larger cryogenic flow systems due to parasitic conduction losses inherent in the materials available for the manufacturing process. A material change will allow more compact heat exchangers with lower parasitic losses. Other limitations of the manufacturing process make yields low, and while it may be possible to push the effectiveness higher, it may be difficult to consistently produce high performing exchangers using the current approach. We propose a new bi-metal microplate heat exchanger which is unique in that it uses the manufacturing process to control critical heat exchanger dimensions that are inherently similar across all parts, allowing high effectiveness without the need for close inspection of every part and the low yield which results from hand inspection. We further include additional features within the flow channels that automatically balance the mass flows within the heat exchanger to push the effectiveness even higher. This is accomplished in the most compact cryogenic heat exchangers theoretically possible to build using parallel plate flow channels.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If the Microplate Heat Exchanger program is successful, not only will a revolutionary advancement be made to low temperature space cooling technology, but the path to further commercialization will be straight forward. The most obvious commercialization of the proposed technology development will be through incorporation into BATC's space cryocooler product line. BATC has been and is a leader is long life space cryocoolers, especially at low temperatures. BATC's current and previous low temperature space cooler programs include the NASA Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) Study and Demonstration Phases, the AFRL 10 K Engineering Model Cooler Program, and the NASA Explorer 4 K Cooler Program. BATC is also a leader in cryogenic systems (that use coolers) and cryogenic instruments (that use cryogenic systems). These include the HIRDLS cryogenic subsystem which includes a Stirling cryocooler operating in space for over 2 years on the EOS Aura spacecraft. In an attached Support Letter, BATC has already expressed an interest in incorporating the technology developments on the Compact 4 K Hybrid Cryocooler program into their commercial space cryocooler product line for NASA and DoD applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A successful Phase 2 effort could lead to a large number of applications. Micro Cooling Concepts is currently a small business supplier to Ball Aerospace for components in their cryocooler product line. The microplate heat exchangers would become part of Ball Aerospace's primary cooler product line for any application utilizing a JT, JT/Stirling hybrid, or remote cooling application. MC2 will also market the microplate heat exchangers for commercial ground based applications. Closed cycle refrigerators (CCR) for wireless network products the Pentagon's Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) contract for wireless radios could require cryocoolers if superconducting devices are used or for improved performance of the A/D converters. The JTRS program is an eight-year effort to initially build 180,000 common radios for use by the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines Corps. A critical component to the success of JTRS is the CCR, needed to cool the low temperature superconductor (LTS) analog-to-digital (A/D) converters and digital signal processors to 4.5 K. There is also a huge commercial market for wireless base stations, which could occur concurrently with the military deliveries if the technology can be demonstrated.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X8.01-8579
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Transfer and Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Aerogel-MLI Insulation System for Cryogenic Storage in Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road, Bldg. B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501
(508) 691-1161

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Redouane Begag
rbegag@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road, Bldg B
Northborough,  MA 01532-2501
(508) 466-3124

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The future of the NASA space program includes longer and more invasive missions into space, with a goal to return to the moon's surface by the year 2015. Long duration storage of large quantities of cryogenic fluids for propulsion, power, and life-support is an essential requirement for these missions. The behavior of active and passive cryogenic management is paramount to the thermal status of a spaceship and cryotanks storage. Efficient and reliable insulation materials are key to the success of long missions into space. Aspen Aerogels proposes to develop a durable and cost effective hybrid aerogel/MLI insulation system for cryogenic storage in space applications. The proposed hybrid insulation system will withstand micrometeoroids impacts and will outperform the MLI in cases of vacuum loss. During the Phase II Program, extensive work will be dedicated to the developing a system level solution for installation of the flexible hybrid insulation system onto cryotank surfaces to minimize seams, and thermal leaks. Development of the proposed novel cost effective insulation package will provide NASA with a long-term cryogenic propellant storage thermal control solution for applications in low earth orbit (LEO), and on the lunar surface.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development and optimization of Aspen's low cost and durable hybrid aerogel/MLI insulation system will be immediately useful for wide variety of cryogenic applications such as In-space cryogenic tanks, transportation (pipelines) of cryogens and propellant, Mars exploration, near earth orbit spacecraft. This material will be an excellent substitute for the expensive, heavy, and cumbersome vacuum jacketed MLI for cryogenic insulation onboard spacecraft as well as other applications where lightweight, durability and maintainability of insulation are important.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low cost aerogel insulation will be applicable and beneficial to industries ranging from aerospace to automotive, medicine, food processing, chemical processing and appliances. Some specific applications are as follows: • Medical: Energy efficient storage of cryogens for medical use is always of interest. • Food Processing: In poultry and seafood processing, use of LN2 is quite common for quick freezing and preservation. • Appliances: Refrigerators and freezers can use high performance aerogels insulation, either evacuated or unevacuated.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Thermal Insulating Materials
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X8.01-8628
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Transfer and Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aerogel-Filled Foam Core Insulation for Cryogenic Propellant Storage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Victor Arrieta
victor.arrieta@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current cryogenic insulation materials suffer from various drawbacks including high cost and weight, lack of structural or load-bearing capability, fabrication complexity, and property anisotropy. A need clearly exists for lightweight thermal insulation that is isotropic, structurally capable, and exhibits improved thermal performance relative to current materials and structures. Aerogels have been investigated as an insulation material for cryogenic tanks due to their ultralow thermal conductivity and density, but they suffer from poor structural integrity and require expensive processing. Open-cell foam structures have also been researched, but suffer from the requirement for high vacuum in order to perform adequately. In previous work for NASA and DoD involving lightweight structural insulation for high temperature engine and airframe applications, Ultramet developed and demonstrated lightweight open-cell foam insulators composed of a carbon or ceramic structural foam skeleton filled with a low-cost, nanoscale aerogel insulator. The potential exists to adapt and optimize aerogel-filled structural foam for the cryogenic insulation application, thereby taking advantage of the thermal and mechanical benefits of each component while also offering low cost and manufacturability in complex shapes. In this project, Ultramet will team with Alliant Techsystems (ATK), a leading aerospace firm, to demonstrate the initial feasibility of the innovative cryogenic insulation to meet NASA requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential application of this technology as a lightweight, ambient pressure structural insulator for cryogenic propellant tanks and lines may prove an enabling technology for future NASA lunar and planetary missions. Passive thermal control is required for zero-boiloff storage of cryogens for both long term (>200 days for liquid oxygen and hydrogen) on the lunar surface and short term (14 days) on orbit. The technology will also support current and future development of cryogenic oxygen/methane rocket engines at ATK. The proposed aerogel-filled structural foam cryogenic insulation will offer improved thermal performance over current materials, with the added benefits of reduced weight and fabrication and installation costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced cryogenic insulation will find extensive commercial application as cryogenic liquids (nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, and liquefied natural gas) must be stored, handled, and transferred in support of the food, transportation, energy, and medical industries. To minimize heat leaks into storage tanks and transfer lines, high-performance, economical materials are needed to provide high levels of thermal isolation and minimize evaporation losses.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Propellant Storage
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Spaceport Infrastructure and Safety
Thermal Insulating Materials
Tankage
Fluid Storage and Handling
Ceramics
Composites
Organics/Bio-Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X8.01-8727
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Transfer and Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Reliability Cryogenic Piezoelectric Valve Actuator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dynamic Structures and Materials, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064-1315
(615) 595-6665

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Paine
jpaine@dynamic-structures.com
205 Williamson Square
Franklin,  TN 37064-1315
(615) 595-6665

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Piezoelectric actuators constructed with the "smart material" PZT offer many potential advantages for use in NASA cryo-valve missions relative to conventional electromagnetic-driven mechanical actuators. In addition to their very high resolution (a benefit to nanopositioning applications for many years), they offer potential advantages for miniaturization and reduction of heat load as compared to electromagnetic actuators. While some notable successes have been achieved in adapting piezoelectric actuators to cryogenic applications, the technology needs further innovation, development, and validation in order to reach a readiness level that can realistically be considered for use in future missions. Variation in strain rate with temperature, CTE mismatch relative to structural materials, and problems with protective coatings make use of PZT in cryogenic environment difficult. Thorough characterization of existing PZT material and proposed improvements to coatings and structural materials used with PZT transducers offer the potential for higher performance and reliability. With these improvements, it will be practical to use piezoelectric actuators in applications such as high force cryo-valves that can not presently be considered.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DSM has received interest from NASA regarding piezoelectric actuators for cryogenic applications and for others that do not require low temperature capability. Many non-cryogenic uses require a wider temperature range than laboratory environment, so some of the proposed work related to CTE characterization and improved protective coating would be useful for these purposes, as well. Many inquiries are related to the regulation of fluid flow or pressure. Thruster valves used in highly miniaturized satellites have received significant attention. Flow and pressure control of cryogenic propellants such as LOX for propulsion is also an area of interest. A scientist at GRC has begun investigating whether this technology will be suitable for regulation of flow for a fuel cell application. As the technology is more fully developed, it will be practical to pursue applications requiring more force. Interest has been expressed in an actuator for a 2 inch cryo-isolation valve that will require over 150 pounds of output force. There are many cryo and non-cryo valve applications that can potentially be addressed by this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most direct applications outside NASA are other aerospace projects that require actuators to operate valves for cryogenic fluid handling. ESA and major US defense contractors have previously tested systems that used piezoelectric actuators from DSM. It is reasonable to assume that once the technology reaches a readiness level that is acceptable for NASA, other aerospace entities will have similar interest in using it for their programs. The US Air Force has expressed interest in very low temperature, high force piezoelectric actuators for use in their low Earth orbit simulation chambers at Arnold Engineering Development Center. More broadly, some commercial applications related to materials evaluation and inspection need positioning at very low temperature and could benefit from this research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Feed System Components
Fluid Storage and Handling
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X8.01-9482
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Transfer and Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Manufacture of Novel Cryogenic Thermal Protection Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Materials Technology, Inc.
9324 Mandrake Court
Tampa, FL 33647-3289
(813) 994-6360

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Akbar Ghaneh-Fard
advancedmaterialstech@gmail.com
9324 Mandrake Court
Tampa,  FL 33647-3289
(813) 994-6360

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Materials Technology, Inc (AMTI) responds to the NASA SBIR solicitation X8 "Space Cryogenic Systems" under subtopic X8.01, "Cryogenic Fluid Transfer and Handling". The proposed Phase I SBIR program is aimed at developing new cryogenic insulations for passive thermal control, resulting in zero boil-off storage of cryogens. The passive thermal control will serve to limit the heat leak into the cryogenic storage system. The proposed technology is expected to increase reliability, increase cryogenic system performance, and is capable of being made flight qualified for the flight systems and to meet Exploration Systems mission requirements. We propose to develop advanced closed cell organic/inorganic hybrid microfoams offering affordable cost, lightweight, high strength, low thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and easy processability which will result in improved efficiency and reliability of the cryogenic systems. The proposed approach will be environmentally friendly and will not emit any volatile organic compound (VOC). The closed cell structure of these novel foams will prevent the occurrence of cryopumping. Once the feasibility of fabrication of strong, lightweight cryogenic insulating materials by the proposed technology is demonstrated in Phase I, we shall scale-up this technology in a Phase II program to meet the NASA's requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability of the proposed hybrid microfoams to remain flexible and resilient at cryogenic temperatures makes them an ideal choice for lightweight insulation in space applications. Some examples of NASA applications include cryogenic insulation of storage tanks, vessels, pumps, and transfer lines on major rocket propulsion systems. Our materials will provide NASA with robust cryogenic solutions and, therefore, will significantly decrease space mission failures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovative technology proposed in this program will provide excellent thermal and electrical insulation capabilities. The technology is ideal for numerous applications. For instance, it can be used in military or commercial aircraft, and in the hulls of ships. In addition, these novel microfoams can be used as laminates for circuit boards or in other electronics. In automobiles, the foam can be used for the firewall behind the engine or in brake pads, trim, molded plastic parts, and other care elements. They also can be used in a variety of construction applications or in recreational equipment. Other attributes of these materials are their excellent chemical resistance, low outgassing, superior radiation resistance, and excellent wear performance. We anticipate that parts made from these materials will be excellent replacements for metals, ceramics, and other engineering polymers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Thermal Insulating Materials
Fluid Storage and Handling
Composites
Organics/Bio-Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X8.01-9535
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Fluid Transfer and Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Heat Switch for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120-4925
(408) 507-0906

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Maddocks
jmaddocks@atlasscientific.com
1415 Engineering Drive, Rm 1339A
madison,  WI 53706-1607
(608) 265-4246

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Various planned NASA missions require heat switches for active thermal control. As an example cryocoolers, including redundant coolers are incorporated on select missions. The redundant coolers operate when deteriorating or defunct coolers are deactivated. However, integration of redundant coolers may cause substantial parasitic heat loads unless the cold regions are thermally connected to the active cryocooler only. The overall system efficiency will depend in part on the efficacy of the intervening heat switches. We propose to develop a highly effective, innovative prototype heat switch that combines two recently developed technologies. First, it employs a highly conductive thermal contact at a low applied force. Secondly, the heat switch employs an innovative bi-stable actuator. The actuator requires little energy to switch between states and can achieve motion on the order of millimeters. This available motion exceeds the tens to hundreds of microns needed to engage the contact, enabling complete separation, and thus, excellent thermal isolation in the off state. Combining the inherently high on- and low off-conductance of the contacts with the bi-stable actuator positioning provides for a highly effective, innovative heat switch, potentially enabling significant performance enhancement of NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed heat switch is directed in particular at enabling cryocooler redundancy in space. NASA exploration missions that use cryocoolers for propulsion preservation or ISRU, and lunar missions that need active thermal control can all benefit from the application of the heat switch. NASA missions that require cryocoolers such as astronomical missions that need cooling of detectors and optics to cryogenic temperatures will benefit from this technology as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The heat switch, as well as the underlying novel contact technology, is believed to be applicable to many uses in cryogenics and beyond as well. Heat switches are routinely used in magnetic refrigerators, an application area where the proposed switch would be highly suitable. For each use in which components serve only a temporary function the switch could be used to disconnect unnecessary heat loads once the need for their operation has vanished. For instance, the thermal efficiency of many applications that use thermal bus bars could be greatly improved by thermally disconnecting these items once they no longer serve a purpose, thereby, ending the otherwise persisting heat leak. Being thermally conductive the novel therrmal interface material may be used to attach thermometry, heaters etc. Being electrically conductive, it could also be used to form electrical connections. Thus, the switch could very well be reconfigured as a thermally conductive electrical switch. Further, the thermal interface material could be used to quickly attach items without the use of adhesives and to attach items in locations that might otherwise be difficult or impossible to achieve. Avoiding adhesives also eliminates the outgassing of various vapors over time.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Control Instrumentation
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Production


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X8.02-8598
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Instrumentation for Ground and Flight Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Hydrogen and Methane Sensors for Wireless Leak Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Sensor Research & Development Corporation
1195 Baltimore-Annapolis Blvd., Unit #2
Arnold, MD 21012-1815
(410) 544-4664

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jacqueline Hines
jhines@asrdcorp.com
1195 Baltimore-Annapolis Blvd., Unit #2
Arnold,  MD 21012-1815
(410) 544-4664

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Under NASA STTR NNK07EA39C, ASR&D developed passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hydrogen sensors that utilize Pd nanocluster films on self-assembled siloxane monolayers to provide rapid, reversible room temperature responses to hydrogen exposure. Under NASA SBIR NNX09CE49P ASR&D demonstrated wireless interrogation of SAW RFID sensor-tags. In this project, we propose to combine the results of these two technology development programs to produce wireless, uniquely identifiable SAW-based hydrogen sensors, and to evaluate the sensor response time to low levels of hydrogen exposure (down to 1 ppm). ASR&D will also implement a SAW-based in-situ Pd deposition monitor for enhanced film reproducibility. ASR&D's previous hydrogen work was based on Argonne National Labs work with similar films that demonstrated hydrogen sensing from 25 ppm to over 2% hydrogen, with response times of milliseconds, complete reversibility, and no baseline drift at room temperature. ASR&D demonstrated the ability to measure changes in such films using a SAW sensor, however our ability to test at low hydrogen concentrations and at rates exceeding 1 sample/sec were limited by our experimental test equipment. In the proposed effort, we will utilize an Environics gas dilution system to generate calibrated gas concentrations (for hydrogen and methane) down to 1 ppm, and we will utilize the electronic interrogation system being developed for our RFID work to measure the sensors. This system is capable of measuring sensor responses with a good S/N in 1 msec (or less), overcoming the prior limitations of our testbench equipment. In addition to the hydrogen sensor work, working with Temple University, we propose to evaluate the technical feasibility of producing SAW-based methane sensors using a similar SAW sensor device, but incorporating methane selective supramolecular cryptophane films. Hydrogen sensors will be TRL4 at completion of the proposed effort, and methane sensors will be TRL 3.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for the proposed sensors would be in a wireless multisensor system for real-time leak detection in areas surrounding hydrogen and methane storage. The potential ability of these sensors to respond in msec with quantitative measurements of hydrogen and methane at ppm concentration levels, combined with the demonstrated ability to uniquely identify each sensor and read the sensors wirelessly, should enable implementation of a wireless distributed real-time leak monitoring system. The ability of the sensors to operate without batteries will allow deployment on long-term missions and minimize maintenance requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are two potential commercial applications for the proposed rapid, high sensitivity hydrogen sensors. The first is quantitative determination of hydrogen concentration in human breath, used as a diagnostic tool for health conditions such as lactose intolerance. Bacteria in the human digestive system produce low levels of hydrogen in exhaled breath (typically 7±5ppm), and analysis of the hydrogen concentration is part of the diagnostic process for several conditions. Tests involve having the patient eat or drink something that will cause the bacteria to produce increased levels of hydrogen, and then monitoring breath for the resulting gas concentration. The second application relates to hydrogen generation, delivery, and storage leak detection and monitoring. The high sensitivity, fast response times, reversibility, wide range of hydrogen concentration sensed, low cost, and small size would make the proposed sensors applicable to these emerging market segments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Instrumentation
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X8.02-8865
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Instrumentation for Ground and Flight Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Temperature Sensing Solution for Cryogenic Space Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroXact, Inc.
80 Massie Drive
Christiansburg, VA 24073-1071
(540) 392-6917

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Hines
phines@microxact.com
80 Massie Drive
Christiansburg,  VA 24073-1071
(540) 392-6917

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cryogenic systems, heavily used in rocket ground testing, space station operations, shuttle launch systems, etc, require a large number of temperature sensors for system management and control. Currently available temperature sensors cannot offer simultaneously sufficient reliability in highly corrosive environments of LOx and LH2 flows and sufficient temperature resolution. Development of new type of cryogenic temperature sensing solutions is needed to meet reliability and sensitivity requirements simultaneously and thus to provide NASA with more efficient, reliable solution for ground testing and flight missions. MicroXact Inc. proposes to develop highly sensitive, reliable sensing solution to address NASA needs that will offer ease of calibration and installation. In Phase I the feasibility of the solution will be experimentally demonstrated. In Phase II, sensors and system will continue to be refined and will undergo extensive testing and validation. By the end of Phase II, the proposed sensing solution will reach TRL 5. In Phase III, Luna will commercialize the developed sensors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed solution when properly developed will find applications in NASA test facilities as well as potentially in space missions utilizing cryogenic space engines. Applications include but not limited to LOx and LN2 pipeline temperature monitoring, and LOx and LN2 liquid level sensing in cryogenic tanks. Not only it promises the improvement of reliability and useful lifetime of temperature sensors, but it also promises significant cost savings due to multiplexibility and low weight of the solution. This, in turn, will cause a significant impact on the cost, safety and reliability of future NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications the proposed solution will find applications in such applications as temperature mapping in superconducting RF cavities (used in accelerators), temperature mapping of superconducting magnets (for MRI imaging as general research), temperature mapping of superconducting power lines and many more.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Control Instrumentation
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X8.02-9544
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Instrumentation for Ground and Flight Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cryogenic Clamp-on Ultrasonic Flowmeters using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Transducers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRS Ceramics, Inc.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801-7548
(814) 238-7485

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaoning Jiang
xiaoning@trstechnologies.com
2820 East College Avenue
State College,  PA 16801-7548
(814) 238-7485

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Clamp-on ultrasound cryogenic flowmeters using single crystal piezoelectric transducers are proposed to enable reliable, accurate cryogenic instrumentation needs in support of NASA Lunar Lander, Ground Operations, Altair, Ares, and Lunar Surface Systems programs. In-space, on the lunar surface, and on the Earth Exploration Systems architecture presents cryogenic storage, distribution, and fluid handling challenges that require new technologies to be developed. Clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeters are proposed because of their advantages such as high turn-down ratio, non-intrusive, no pressure drop, bi-directional measurement, no moving parts and fast response. Single crystal piezoelectrics are attractive because they exhibit 3 to 5 times the strain as conventional piezoelectric ceramics, and retain excellent piezoelectric performance at cryogenic temperatures (< 20 K). Cryogenic piezoelectric transducers with broad bandwidth and high sensitivity will be designed, fabricated and characterized, and cryogenic gas flow rate measurements will be performed using the developed cryogenic transducers. It is expected to have 10-20 dB sensitivity gain (combining transmitting and receiving) for clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeters by using novel single crystal piezoelectric transducers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cryogenic fluid instrumentation for cryogenic fluid transfer and handling systems to support NASA Lunar Lander, Ground Operations, Ares, and Lunar Surface Systems programs. Ultrasound NDE for large telescope components such as SiC mirrors, X-Ray telescopes, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ultrasonic flowmeters for industry process control such as natural gas custody transfer applications, emissions monitoring (flare gas and stack gas flowmetering), steam flow, oil flow, water flow, liquid level, temperature, density, gas molecular weight, etc. Apart from the fluid instrumentation, broadband, highly sensitive single crystal piezoelectric transducers are also good candidates for medical ultrasound, navy sonar and ultrasound NDE applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X9.01-8100
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Recovery of In-Space Cubesat Experiments (RICE)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ELORET Corp.
465 S Mathilda Avenue, Suite 103
Sunnyvale, CA 94086-7606
(408) 732-3028

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dinesh Prabhu
dprabhu@eloret.com
465 S Mathilda Ave., Suite 103
Sunnyvale,  CA 94086-7606
(408) 732-3028

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ELORET Corporation, in collaboration with the Space Systems Design Laboratory of Georgia Institute of Technology, proposes developing and demonstrating a capability/technology to de-orbit small payloads (approximately 1 kg) from Low-Earth Orbit and returning them to Earth safely. To achieve this goal, the current proposal has five objectives and associated tasks: 1. Surveying the Bio-science communities to define requirements for the first generation mission architecture. 2. Understanding the launch interface requirements such as mass, volume, vibro-acoustic loads, electromagnetic interference (EMI), etc. 3. Designing and developing the first generation of mission architectures including the key aspects of launch, in-space operation, entry trajectory analysis (EDL sequence), and landing/recovery. 4. Understanding and quantifying small spacecraft requirements for power, thermal control, communications, propulsion, etc., and developing the preliminary design of the spacecraft system using off the shelf technologies whenever possible. 5. Designing and developing a passive (i.e., without any chemical or aerodynamic deceleration devices), single-stage ballistic entry system (including the aeroshell). 6. Designing and developing the impact energy absorption system and thermal control system required for payload thermal management and survivability upon landing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are three potential NASA applications: 1. Launch and recovery of small payloads (science experiments performed in microgravity environments in Low Earth Orbits) 2. Instrumented flight test bed for novel Thermal Protection System materials/concepts 3. Materials research in space environments

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA applications is: 1. Low-cost, customizable, launch-to-recovery flight platforms for Life-/Bio-science experiments

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Cooling
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X9.01-8952
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) Gap Filler for Heat Shield Assemblies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fiber Materials, Inc.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005-4497
(207) 282-5911

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Steven Violette
sviolette@fibermaterialsinc.com
5 Morin Street
Biddeford,  ME 04005-4497
(207) 282-5911

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 7

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During this program Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI<SUP>REG</SUP>) will develop practical methods for preparing Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) materials for joining thermal protection system (TPS) segments and penetrations of the heat shield assembly. Current and future mission flight environments and designs, such as those for Mars Science Laboratory Aeroshell (MSLA) and anticipated for New Frontiers and Mars EDL missions, will be assessed. Capability of developed solutions will address mechanical and thermal robustness, and surface recession under mission defined conditions. The Phase 1 program will evaluate joining and gap-fill materials, assess joining designs that can be cost effectively manufactured and assembled, define assembly methods and test joining material performance. The joining design and material approaches, test results, assembly methodology, and Phase 2 work plan will be delivered at the conclusion of the Phase I program. During the Phase 2 program, a mission scale PICA sub-assembly utilizing the developed joining system will be demonstrated, and representative assembly coupons will be tested under flight conditions. The proposed materials, designs and methods are TRL ¡Ü 3. It is anticipated that TRL ¡Ý 7 will be achieved at the conclusion of a successful Phase 1 and Phase 2 programs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Stardust Sample Return Capsule completed its objective with earth reentry in January 2006. Mars Science Laboratory Aeroshell heat shield has been completed and delivery of the Curiosity rover to Mars is scheduled for 2015. With the successful fabrication of these PICA TPS heat shields in support NASA flight missions, FMI has quoted and is prepared to continue supporting PICA heat shield missions. The program proposed will assist FMI in support of future NASA missions including New Frontiers and Mars EDL development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
PICA coupled with the joining and gap-fill solutions developed under this program would support commercial space operations including Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS). During 2008, NASA entered into contracts with Orbital Sciences and SpaceX to utilize their COTS cargo vehicles, Cygnus and Dragon respectively, for cargo delivery to the International Space Station (ISS). PICA is an enabling technology for this effort.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X9.01-9440
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computational Tool for Coupled Simulation of Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Flows with Ablation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sarma Rani
slr@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4850

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this SBIR project is to develop a computational tool with unique predictive capabilities for the aerothermodynamic environment around ablation-cooled hypersonic re-entry vehicles. The framework for this tool will be developed such that all relevant models can be coupled to the LeMANS code for nonequilibrium hypersonic flows and the MOPAR code for ablation material response, both developed by the University of Michigan. In the proposed effort, the existing LeMANS-MOPAR framework will be enhanced by including innovative models for: (1) Non-equilibrium surface thermochemistry; (2) Non-equilibrium pyrolysis chemistry; (3) Radiation transfer in media with orders of magnitude variation in optical thickness; and (4) Spallation. The proposed tool is comprehensive and unique because all important phenomena will be modeled, with the software framework enabling coupling between the various components. The Phase I focus will be to: (1) Develop a module for the Modified Differential Approximation (MDA) to solve the radiative transfer equation; (2) Develop a framework for coupling the MDA module to LeMANS-MOPAR; and (3) Demonstrate the coupled framework for cases such as the Stardust re-entry. In Phase II, the tool will be made comprehensive by implementing important models identified above, including advanced non-equilibrium, non-gray radiation model. The tool will be validated and applied to re-entry ablation flows relevant to NASA. We will team with an ablative material OEM and a CFD software vendor to transition the technology to industry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future NASA missions will be more demanding and will require better performing ablative TPS than currently available. The proposed SBIR project will result in a computational tool with unique and accurate predictive capabilities for non-equilibrium re-entry flows with ablation cooling. The tool will find direct application in numerous NASA technology development programs under the Project Constellation, the New Millennium Program, and the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program. The tool can also be used as a design tool for the development of new generation re-entry vehicles (such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle, Mars Aerocapture and Mars Sample Return spacecraft) and components of future hypersonic vehicles. The various models comprising the tool will be implemented in an extensible and modular framework that can be ported to other NASA codes with relative ease.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Technology applications beyond NASA include Theater and National Missile Defense vehicles performing exo-atmospheric missile intercepts, and missile warhead re-entry applications. The computational tool will also be relevant to the joint DOD/NASA effort called the National Aerospace Initiative (NAI) that involves, among other things, the development of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles. The module will have wide appeal to rocket engine manufacturers (e.g., ATK, Pratt & Whitney, and Aerojet) and to universities developing rocket engine technology (e.g. Purdue, Penn State, and University of Alabama in Huntsville). OEMs will also find the tool useful in exploring and designing newer and more robust ablative TPS materials and heat shield systems. The models developed in this SBIR project can also be ported to commercial CFD software such as CFD-ACE+ and CFD-FASTRAN (owned by ESI Inc. Huntsville).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Control Instrumentation
Cooling
Reuseable
Thermal Insulating Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X9.01-9875
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ablative Thermal Protection Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aromatic Thermosetting Copolyesters for Ablative TPS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
CU Aerospace, LLC
2100 South Oak Street, Suite 206
Champaign, IL 61820 - 0910
(217) 333-8272

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Chris Mangun
cmangun@cuaerospace.com
2100 South Oak Street, Suite 206
Champaign, IL 61820 - 0910
(217) 333-8279

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Better performing ablative thermal protection systems than currently available are needed to satisfy requirements of the most severe crew exploration vehicles, such as the Mars Sample Return with 12-15 km/s Earth entry. The primary objective of CU Aerospace's Phase I work will be to fabricate and test aromatic thermosetting copolyesters (ATSP) composites for use as ablatives in next generation spacecraft missions. The synthetic development of novel aromatic thermosetting copolyesters was a major innovation in the field of polymer science. Previous testing of their capabilities showed excellent performance as adhesives, rigid foams, matrices for composites, and dielectrics for microelectronics. Only recently has this material been considered as a viable ablative due to its high temperature stability and excellent composite mechanical properties especially due to the liquid crystalline nature of the polymer, which allows a matching of CTE between fiber and matrix. Our team partner the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will assist CU Aerospace to perform basic research and provide technical support to accelerate the transition of ATSP polymers into ablative composites. If successful CU Aerospace envisions the ATSP to be utilized in a wide variety of applications in both civilian and military spacecraft, either as a retrofit or as a next-generation design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Application as ablative materials for reentry vehicles, missile nose cones, rocket nozzles, etc. In addition, the commercialization of the ATSP could lead to additional markets such as high temperature adhesives and rigid structural foams.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The impact of this new polymer could extend into areas such as structural composites in commercial aircraft and automobiles, low dielectric constant circuit boards for microelectronics, and even coatings. An attractive feature of this technology is the potential for recycling, which is very unique for a thermosetting polymer matrix.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Composites
Launch and Flight Vehicle


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X9.02-8827
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Integrated Hypersonic Entry Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Layered Integrated Airframe System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fiber Materials, Inc.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005-4497
(207) 282-5911

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Benjamin Dwyer
bdwyer@fibermaterialsinc.com
5 Morin Street
Biddeford,  ME 04005-4497
(207) 282-5911

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has a need to develop higher performance ablative thermal protection systems (TPS) than is currently available for future exploration of our solar system's inner and outer planets. Potential missions for these new and/or improved TPS materials include Mars Entry, Descent & Landing, and Mars Sample Return, but the general desire is that these new technologies be capable of cross-cutting mission applications. In addition to improved TPS performance, NASA also has a need for TPS integrated with the sub-structure that will improve thermal efficiency, insulation performance, system thermal-structural performance, and system integrity with the goal of achieving increased system reliability, reduced areal mass, and/or decreased costs over the current state-of-the-art (SOTA). This program will address NASA's need to: 1) Develop higher performing TPS materials to meet the demands of severe mission trajectories such as Mars Sample Return; and 2) Integrate TPS materials with the sub-structure to improve overall robustness and decrease mass. This program's goal is to extend Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA, TRL=9) and Integrated Composite Structure (ICS, TRL=5) TPS materials to a broader range of flight heat fluxes and performance to address future missions and heatshield designs. The current TRL for the multi-layered TPS system is 3, with an envisioned TRL of 6 at the completion of a successful Phase II program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Stardust Sample Return Capsule completed its objective with earth reentry in January 2006. Mars Science Laboratory Aeroshell heat shield has been completed and delivery of the Curiosity rover to Mars is scheduled for 2015. With the successful fabrication of these PICA TPS heat shields in support of NASA flight missions, FMI has quoted and is prepared to continue supporting PICA heatshield missions. Potential missions for these new and/or improved TPS materials include Mars Entry, Descent & Landing, and Mars Sample Return, but the general desire is that these new technologies be capable of cross-cutting mission applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed multi-layered integrated airframe concept will be applicable to commercial space vehicles, as well as NASA. Advances in the individual PICA and ICS technologies will be advantageous for Missile Defense interceptors and aeroshell/insulation systems for Air Force and AMRDEC extended-flight vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Airframe
Thermal Insulating Materials
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X9.02-9443
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Integrated Hypersonic Entry Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Inflatable Ballute for Planetary Entry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Essam Sheta
efs@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Drive, 5th Floor
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1944
(256) 726-4869

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CFDRC and TRLA are proposing to develop, design, and test a mass-optimized isotensoid inflatable structure that makes maximum utilization of materials in providing tailored stiffness and rigidity for hypersonic entry vehicles. The proposed inflatable structure is a hybrid isotensoid pressure restraint employing an impervious cloth-reinforced barrier structure enveloped by an integrated array of high-tenacity tendons. The segregation of material functions provides greater design flexibility to meet stiffness and thermal protection requirements, while the external grid of cordage tendons provides mass- and load pathway-optimized containment of the structure's global pressure loads. The focus of the Phase I effort is to develop and demonstrate the isotensoid inflatable structure, complete with thermal protection hardware and load bearing attachment fittings for guidance and control hardware. The tendon materials will be evaluated for their strength at high temperatures while cloth structural materials will be evaluated for their stiffness and thermal insulation properties to produce a truly multifunctional structural enclosure. Integrated fluid-structure-thermal simulations will be conducted with CFDRC's validated tools to provide insight into the aerodynamic, material stress and localized heating effects on the model and to verify/optimize the proposed design. Phase II activities will focus on fabricating and testing a prototype of the proposed inflatable structure to validate the design robustness and capability for larger payload masses. Pre and post testing multidisciplinary simulations will be conducted to verify and optimize the design. Additional simulations will be conducted for verification under exact flight conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed integrated hypersonic inflatable entry system will have an immediate application in delivering large payload masses to the surface of Mars. This will reduce the number of launches required for the mission completion and total mission costs. The proposed technology will find direct applications with present and future NASA and industry inflatable structures programs, such as those seeking to provide deceleration and precision landing capability for large scale mass return from Earth orbit to Earth surface, or for missions to many of the potential atmosphere-endowed solar system destinations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Additional application areas include analysis of space-based inflatable structures such as telescopes and mirrors, satellite solar panels and military reentry vehicles (inflatable decoys, etc) exposed to the atmosphere. The aeroelastic analysis of parachutes and parafoils and the analysis of high-altitude endurance airplanes with flexible wings will be improved. Further military applications include stabilization and deceleration of ordnance with attached inflatable decelerators.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Structural Modeling and Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X10.01-8165
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: DURACON - Variable Emissivity Broadband Coatings for Liquid Propellant Rocket Nozzles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Technologies Corporation
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe, CT 06468-3209
(203) 874-3100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yogesh Mehrotra
YMehrotra@AboutMTC.com
57 Maryanne Drive
Monroe,  CT 06468-3209
(203) 874-3100

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The need exists for a fast drying, robust, low gloss, black, high emissivity coating that can be applied easily on aircraft rocket nozzles and nozzle extensions. Based on their 40+ years of experience with loaded polymers, particle dispersion and surface gloss control, scientists at Materials Technologies Corporation recently developed DURACON&#61652;, a high emissivity, high thermal diffusivity, low-gloss infrared black coating. We now propose an innovative process for the deposition of a current DURACON formulation to enhance its emmittance mass index, ruggedness, uniformity, as well as adhesion to the substrate at extremely high temperatures to the levels desired by the NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential usefulness of a robust, high emissivity IR black coating which can be applied easily (brush-on or air-sprayed) to a wide range of metallic, ceramic, or plastic surfaces goes well beyond the immediate need stated by the NASA. Commercial and military applications of such a coating exist in radiation shielding inside IR optical instruments, in quantitative thermography, in IR-visible nighttime signage on military vehicles (made easily visible by a small voltage applied to the coating), etc. Such a coating would also be a natural addition to the present line of DURACON formulations. Hypersonic flights, ARES V: Thermal control coatings for rocket nozzle extensions. SCLP and PATH survey missions: Sensor Coatings Lunar Missions: Thermal control loops and EVA thermal control system equipment

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
IR sensors in high precision optics and avionics; Heat shield and sinks; Biomedical devices;

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Reuseable
Thermal Insulating Materials
Optical & Photonic Materials
Radiation Shielding Materials
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X10.01-8636
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost, High-Performance Combustion Chamber for LOX/CH4 Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arthur Fortini
art.fortini@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210
(818) 899-0236

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ultramet will design and fabricate a lightweight, high temperature 5-lbf combustion chamber for use with cryogenic liquid oxygen/methane (LOX/CH4) propellant that will deliver a specific impulse of ~355 seconds, an increase over the current 320-sec baseline that will result in a propellant mass decrease of 55 lbm. The material system will be based on Ultramet's proven oxide-iridium/rhenium architecture, which has been successfully hot-fire tested with stoichiometric oxygen/hydrogen for hours. Instead of rhenium, however, the structural material will be a niobium alloy that has excellent high temperature yield strength. With a yield strength-to-weight ratio over 33% greater than that of rhenium at elevated temperature, this niobium alloy will significantly reduce chamber weight. The starting materials are two orders of magnitude less expensive than rhenium and are less expensive than the C103 alloy commonly used in low-performance engines. Aerojet will design the chamber in Phase I and will perform hot-fire testing in Phase II. Phase II will include scaleup of the process and testing of a chamber in the 25- to 500-lbf thrust class, which would be suitable for a reaction control system engine on a lunar ascent/descent vehicle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For cryogenic LOX/CH4 engines in the 25- to 500-lbf thrust class, potential NASA applications include reaction control system engines for lunar or Martian ascent/descent vehicles, lunar or Martian sample return vehicles, and main engines for interplanetary spacecraft and spacecraft being placed into geostationary orbit. In addition to spacecraft applications, the technology can also be applied to launch vehicles for pitch and roll control. Smaller versions of the engine can be used for attitude control applications on any of these vehicles. The material technology can also be used with Earth-storable propellants such as NTO/MMH.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include apogee topping motors for commercial satellites as well as pitch and roll control motors for launch vehicles. Military applications include both primary propulsion and divert and attitude control system functions for missiles and missile defense. Because the proposed chambers can be used with storable propellants such as NTO/MMH, they can be used as drop-in replacements for iridium/rhenium engines being manufactured and flown.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X10.01-8831
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbon-Carbon High Melt Coating for Nozzle and Nozzle Extensions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies, Inc.
4704 Eden Road
Kennedale, TX 76060-6800
(817) 985-2500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Thompson
jthompson@c-cat.net
4704 Eden Road
Kennedale,  TX 76060-6800
(817) 985-2500

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
C-CAT, which has proven carbon-carbon fabrication capabilities, will investigate use of ACC-6 High Melt oxidation protective system on carbon-carbon for use on the Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engine nozzle and nozzle extensions. ACC-6 High Melt is a carbon-carbon coating application that embeds HfC,ZrB2 in the outer layers. This material system has been tested in Arc Jet environment at over 3000 degrees F, for more than 24 minutes with little to no erosion. ACC-6 High Melt has shown to be the best performing high temperature material system, and still retains the ease of manufacturing associated with carbon-carbon. ACC-6 High Melt has been manufactured in small scale leading edge experiments, but has yet to be demonstrated in large components. Manufacturability of large scale components remains as the main question to be answered for this material system. For Phase I, C-CAT proposes to build subsections of a nozzle extension representing the attach flange and the exit diameter of approximately 40" diameter. Success will be achieved by manufacturing the aforementioned subsection using ACC-6 High Melt with no voids or spalling of coating. This successful demonstration will provide the path for scale-up to a full size prototype nozzle extension for Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the Phase I manufacturing demonstrations will demonstrate the manufacturing techniques required to manufacture a full scale nozzle extension of the Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engine. At the completion of Phase I, C-CAT proposes to team with an engine designer and manufacturer to fully develop ACC-6 High Melt into the material system that is used in conjunction with the appropriate design to produce the nozzle extensions for future NASA spacecraft. Additionally, ACC-6 High Melt is a material system that can be used a structural, re-usable TPS system for future spacecraft. The continued development of this material for nozzle extensions will lead to a more in depth understanding of the manufacturability and structural properties that can be applied to the TPS designs of future spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ACC-6 High Melt has shown to be the best performing material system in a high temperature cycling re-entry environment. The demonstration of scale-up will provide the catalyst for design of structural TPS applications for hypersonic flight vehicles currently being investigated by the military. In addition, the material system is a candidate for hypersonic scram engines and can provide the means by which a re-usable scram engine can be manufactured.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Reuseable
Ceramics
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X10.01-8884
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Refractory Composites for Propulsion Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Technology Assessment & Transfer, Inc.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401-8907
(410) 224-3710

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Seghi
steve@techassess.com
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis,  MD 21401-8907
(410) 987-3435

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This phase I research proposes an efficient approach to develop a reliable chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for HfB2-HfC-SiC matrices for carbon fiber composites and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes for depositing coatings for the same compositions, and; second, to design, fabricate, and evaluate ultra-refractory CMCs consisting of a carbon fiber reinforcement reinforcing a functionally graded matrix of HfB2-HfC-SiC graded to SiC. These advanced, lightweight materials are likely enabling for future propulsion goals. The HfB2-HfC-SiC monolithic material has been shown to exhibit high temperature performance superior to all other materials tested under reentry conditions. The oxidation layer formed on these monolithic compositions was extremely tenacious, displaying no spallation after cooling from 2200ºC. It is thought that if deposited as the matrix of a carbon fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite, the oxide layer will prevent the ingress of species that will degrade the interfacial debond layer and the carbon fiber, allowing for the retention of mechanical properties under extreme temperatures and oxidizing environments. Thermodynamic modeling will allow for efficient optimization of the deposition conditions; High temperature oxidation testing of the fabricated composites at 4500ºF will provide needed feedback to improve the design for the Phase II work.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology could be applicable to a vast range of bipropellant thrusters, ranging from very small to several hundred pound thrust. The oxidation and ablation information on the proposed material could allow for in situ propellants such as CO/O2 and CH4/O2 to be utilized on return missions from Mars. In addition this material could be used as uncooled chamber, throat and nozzle materials for both solid and liquid DACS, Apogee thrusters, and thrust cells for reusable launch vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential uses of the proposed high strength, ultra-refractory composites include both liquid and solid DACS, spacecraft heat shielding, hypersonic leading edge materials and flowpath components, advanced turbine and rotor components, and reentry/reusable vehicles. The tenacious oxide layer formed could allow the CMCs to display significantly increased life over current high temperature CMCs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Monopropellants
Reuseable
Ceramics
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X10.01-9015
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regeneratively-Cooled, Turbopump-Fed, LOX/Methane Lunar Ascent Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ventions, LLC
1142 Howard Street
San Francisco, CA 94103-3914
(415) 543-2800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adam London
adam.london@ventions.com
1142 Howard Street
San Francisco,  CA 94103-3914
(415) 543-2800

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To-date, the realization of small-scale, high-performance liquid bipropellant rocket engines for lunar and other planetary ascent vehicles has largely been limited by the inability to operate at high chamber pressures in a regeneratively-cooled environment using on-board pumps for pressurization of the propellants. Ventions seeks to fulfill this critical need by using a novel fabrication scheme to realize small-scale thrusters and turbopumps, and proposes to extend its previously-demonstrated technologies (under DARPA and NASA sponsored efforts) to develop a micro-scale turbopump for cryogenic propellants in a lunar ascent vehicle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed pump concept overcomes a key challenge of providing on-board pressurization for high-performance rocket engines, especially in the micro-scale. Hence, upon eventual integration with complete propulsion systems (thrust chamber, valves / tanks, etc.), it serves as critically-enabling technology for a new generation liquid bipropellant rocket engines in the 1,000-5,000lbf thrust class, with T/W ratios of 150-200, and an Isp of ~355 sec. These engines may be batch-fabricated in a cost-effective manner and modularly stacked to cover a wide range of NASA applications, including lunar ascent / descent missions (precursor rovers, cargo, etc.), Mars sample return missions, nanosat launch vehicles, and Near-Earth-Object missions (sample return, drill reaction for sample implantation, etc.).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications for high-performance micro-rocket engines enabled by the proposed pump technology are likely to include commercial / military launch vehicles for low-cost and on-demand access to space for a variety of micro / small satellite payloads, upper stage propulsion for orbit insertion of commercial satellites, and apogee kick motors for orbit circularization of commercial satellites, etc. Additionally, the pump itself is expected to have non-aerospace applications in industrial pumping settings, and as a replacement for other high-pressure liquid pumps.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Feed System Components


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X10.01-9134
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Rocket Engine Igniter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Engineering Solutions
26200 Adams Avenue
Murrieta, CA 92562-7060
(951) 304-7600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Wollen
mwollen@iesnet.com
340 Vernon Way
El Cajon,  CA 92020-1950
(619) 593-7750

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spark ignition of a bi-propellant rocket engine is a classic, proven, and generally reliable process. However, timing can be critical, and the control logic, additional electronic components and wiring adds complexity, cost and weight. These factors can be especially undesirable for small attitude or reaction control engines. The proposed innovation uses a novel method to excite a piezo-ceramic crystal using the initiation of propellant flow to the engine. When the propellant valves are opened, the precise timing of the spark relative to propellant flow, as well as the flow start transient, are governed by the geometry of the device. Hence, precise, repeatable start conditions should be achieved with no additional control logic or complexity. Furthermore, the piezo-ceramic crystal is integral to (and embedded in) the igniter body, thereby completely eliminating external wiring and associated complexity. A bench-top demonstration of one manifestation of the device (incorporating only one very simple moving part) has already demonstrated basic feasibility. Other manifestations with no moving parts what-so-ever (at the macroscopic scale) may also be viable, and will be investigated. Phase 1 TLR advancement goal is from 3 to 5, with Phase 2 goal of 7.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Reliable and simplified ignition sources are critical for virtually all bi-propellant rocket engines. The proposed innovation has the potential to provide a reliable, properly timed ignition source for new rocket engines, as well as being a potential retrofit option to replace costly or complex igniters on currently operational engines. The technology is applicable to virtually any size engine, from attitude control to main booster engine scale. For small RCS engines, it is particularly suitable due to its simplicity, potentially very small size, and ability to repetitively generate a reliable, well timed ignition source.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The igniter proposed is applicable to virtually any non-NASA rocket engine application, as well as having application as an ignition source for commercial or military gas turbine engines, or anywhere that an ignition source is required to coincide with the initiation of fuel flow (e.g. flame throwers, flare stacks, industrial gas heaters).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Micro Thrusters
Monopropellants
Propellant Storage
Control Instrumentation
Cooling
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X10.01-9473
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Toxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608) 827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Millicent Coil
coilm@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53717-1961
(608) 229-2812

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Challenges arise in the propulsion systems for the new exploration architecture. The currently operational and proven storable hypergolic systems raise toxicity concerns. Because MMH is a carcinogen, measures must be taken to prevent exposure of personnel to the fuel from the time of its synthesis to the time of it neutralization. This extra care translates into increased expense for the mission. Replacing the MMH in the propulsion systems with an equally energetic, sasfer fuel would considerably reduce risk and cost on exploration missions. Ionic liquids offer promising candidates for dense, energetic, and safe rocket fuels. In the proposed work ORBITEC will demonstrate the feasibility of developing hypergolic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion systems used in the Exploration architecture. We will develop one set hypergolic with a storable oxidizer, nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and one set hypergolic with a cryogenic oxidizer, liquid oxygen (LOX). We will test the hypergolicity and the material properties. The resulting sets of propellants will be ready for performance testing early in the Phase II work to enable achieving a technical readiness level (TRL) of 5 by the end of the Phase II work.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ionic liquid fuels developed under this program will have application in a number of NASA's propulsion systems. They are being developed for the Altair and Orion vehicles for exploration, but they will be useful in other engines, both for boost and RCS control. Hypergolic fuels that exhibit improved performance and safety will be popular choices in many propulsion systems to come.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The end result of this research program will be a set of fuels that are simultaneously high performance and non-toxic. These fuels will have application in a range of military aerial warfare and tactical surface systems, missile defense, and commercial launch systems. Once it is demonstrated that the new propellants are superior in both performance and safety to existing propellant systems, both the government and its prime contractors will find the propellant technology very attractive. Near-term military applications include high-performance tactical missiles, divert and attitude control systems for strategic, target drones, cruise missiles, and missile defense missions. Other applications are foreseen that include the kill vehicles for such programs as Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), NMD, Navy Upper Tier Theater Missile Defense (TMD) System, and the MEADS Air Defense System.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X10.01-9575
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Magnetically Actuated Seal

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc.
1701 Military Trail, Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458-7887
(561) 427-6400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Pinera
APinera@FTTINC.COM
1701 Military Trail Suite 110
Jupiter,  FL 33458-7887
(561) 427-6277

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
FTT proposes development of a magnetically actuated dynamic seal. Dynamic seals are used throughout the turbopump in high-performance, pump-fed, liquid rocket engines for a variety of purposes. The most common applications are in the lift-off seal (LOS), inter-propellant seal (IPS), and balance piston seals – high-pressure orifice (HPO), low-pressure orifice (LPO), and inner diameter impeller shroud seal (eye seal). The system solution for conventional seals represents a compromise between the turbopump mechanical design, primarily flowpath, and secondary flowpath design that results in increased leakage, increased seal wear, and reduced balance piston load capacity that reduces performance, throttle-ability, thrust-to-weight, reliability, and operability. The magnetically actuated seal eliminates this compromise and provides significant improvement in performance, throttle-ability, thrust-to-weight, reliability, and operability. Phase 1 will advance the technology from TRL 2 to 3. Phase 2 will advance the technology from TRL 3 to 6. The technology is applicable to booster engines, in-space engines, and lunar engines.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The anticipated benefits from this technology include reduced seal leakage (for improved efficiency, and reduced turbine inlet temperature, which improves reliability), reduced seal wear (which increases life and reliability), reduced or eliminated purge (which improves operability and reduces weight), eliminates primary and secondary seal drains and associated plumbing and valves (which improves reliability and reduces weight), and improves design point and off-design balance piston performance (which increases the throttle range). This technology is directly applicable to booster engines, in-space engines, and lunar engines planned for NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting technology is directly applicable to dynamic seals in FTT's family of small UAV turbofan engines as well as for active clearance control systems in industrial gas turbine engines. These product lines have the potential demand for more than 10,000 units annually.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Feed System Components


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X10.01-9928
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic and Non-Toxic Storable Propellant Space Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: UCDS Based Stable Injector Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories, LLC
2212 Harton Blvd.
Tullahoma, TN 37388-5583
(931) 393-5108

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Gloyer
paul.gloyer@gtlcompany.com
2212 Harton Blvd
Tullahoma,  TN 37388-5583
(931) 393-5108

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Universal Combustion Device Stability (UCDS) Process is the culmination of more than 40 years of research and provides the means to understand the complex dynamics and processes inside any chemical propulsion system, including liquid rockets, solid rockets, hybrid rockets, turbojet combustors and augmentors, and even scramjets. In addition to predicting whether a combustion chamber will oscillate and how large the amplitude of the oscillation will be, UCDS provides insight into WHY a device oscillates. With this type understanding, it is possible to design for stability in any chemical rocket, turbojet or scramjet. GTL proposes to apply the UCDS<SUP>TM</SUP> Process to create a clean-sheet design for a new stable liquid rocket engine that is suitable to use as an Ascent Engine for Altair. Rather than starting with preconceived notions or heritage constraints, GTL shall exercise the UCDS tools to establish detailed injector design guidelines that will ensure stable operation. This will include definition of functions that define mass injection distribution, vaporization/atomization profile, heat release characteristics, feed system response and many other parameters. By following these requirements in an injector design, the mechanisms that drive oscillations will be minimized, while the damping mechanisms are maximized, thereby maximizing stability margin.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The UCDS process can be used to aid in the development of NASA rockets (solid, liquid or hybrid), turbojets or scramjets. The specific design guidelines for stability that are being developed in the proposed effort can be applied to support the development of the lunar ascent engine for Altair. The results may also explain why the CECE engine behaves the way it does and why the selected oscillation mitigation technique is effective.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The UCDS process can be used to reduce development cost of practically any chemical propulsion system. This capability could be used to support a wide variety of DoD propulsion development efforts, including rockets, turbojet augmentors or scramjets. UCDS can also be applied to support commercial engine development.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Monopropellants
Simulation Modeling Environment
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X11.02-9753
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Suit Simulator
PROPOSAL TITLE: Suit Simulator (S3) for Partial Gravity EVA Experimentation and Training

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110-2702
(703) 369-3633

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Jessica Edmonds
jduda@aurora.aero
1 Broadway, 12th Floor
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1189
(617) 500-0552

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aurora Flight Sciences, along with MIT consultants Professor Dava Newman and Professor Jeffrey Hoffman, propose to develop an EVA space suit simulator for use in partial gravity training and experimentation. Our space suit simulator will provide a lightweight, low form-factor solution to microgravity and partial gravity EVA experimentation and training. We will utilize magnetorheological (MR) fluids as our damping device in order to minimize weight and space, and will careful select supplementary stiffness devices to best emulate the mechanical properties of the EMU. We propose to develop this simulator by first characterizing the joint torque requirements using MIT's unique database of joint torques obtained from 1990 to present with the Robotic Space Suit Tester (RSST). After conducting this literature survey, we will obtain test samples of MR fluids and stiffness components, in order to recognize the best method of simulating the mechanical characteristics of a pressurized EMU. These stiffness and damping components will be tested on MIT's RSST in a simplified configuration (single-axis joint) to verify consistent emulation of the EMU joint. Identification of the stiffness and damping technologies will allow us to provide a top-level conceptual design of a full space suit simulator, including all joints as well as the garment in its entirety.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This EVA space suit simulator will provide an accessible, inexpensive method for experimentation and training activities that require the subject to wear a space suit. For example, development of surface operations activities on the moon or Mars will benefit from the support of human testing; e.g. what is the metabolic cost of performing specific tasks in partial gravity while wearing a space suit? Note that this activity would also require the space suit simulator to be conducive to partial gravity simulations. Additionally, development of the future moon/Mars EVA space suit will require human testing; our adjustable space suit simulator joint torques will allow for characterization of various suit configurations in order to optimize the future suit design.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA, potential customers of the technologies used in this space suit research include companies involved in medical technologies, and the Department of Defense. Joint torque devices are useful in medical technologies as orthopedic devices: either restricting motion in order to prevent injury, or providing resistance to motion in order to improve muscle function or promote bone growth. Military applications are generally limited to the potential use of MR fluids. Further development of MR fluid use will help to establish MR fluid as a possible technology for use in impact or bullet-proof garments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Suits


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X12.01-8577
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Autonomy Assessment for Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Crew Autonomy Measures and Models (CAMM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SA Technologies, Inc.
3750 Palladian Village Drive, Building 600
Marietta, GA 30066-8206
(770) 565-9859

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jennifer Riley
jennifer@satechnologies.com
304 Renee's Way
Madison,  MS 39110-7014
(601) 898-0006

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SA Technologies will employ a two-part solution including measures and models for evaluating crew autonomy in exploratory space missions. An integrated measurement and modeling approach will support NASA scientists in determining the optimal levels of crew autonomy under various mission conditions and constraints. Research results will produce a measurement application that provides multiple standard and custom tools for direct assessment of team autonomy and related constructs like team processes, social and performance outcomes, workload and situation awareness. The computer-based measurement application will support data collection, review, and high-level analysis of results. The models of crew autonomy will be theoretical and computer-based. Prescriptive, theoretical models support understanding the interrelationships among the key factors associated with performance and crew autonomy. Computer models will include important mission parameters and operationally-defined levels of crew autonomy to enhance capability for predicting outcomes associated with various crew autonomy levels. Phase I research will focus on defining factors associated with mission outcomes and crew autonomy levels, along with development concepts for the measurement application and modeling tool. Phase II will involve development of a functional prototype of the Crew Autonomy Measures and Models (CAMM).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Concepts and products that result from this research have application within several NASA programs and directorates, including: NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations, NASA Constellation Program, and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. These NASA research and development programs are engaged in the study of operational conditions that impact crew cognitive and behavioral performance and crew well being. They study teams and mission concepts that involve variable levels of crew autonomy. The tasks and operations within these contexts will have similar characteristics and indications for autonomy. The Crew Autonomy Measures and Models (CAMM) research program will result in valuable research toward understanding levels of autonomy and autonomy behaviors of crews; and it will result in both measures and models which extend NASA's capabilities for developing effective strategies to support remote and autonomous teams.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications involve ongoing research and training in extreme environments, including work conducted at the Amundsen-Scott Antarctic Research Facility and Naval Undersea Warfare. These contexts too have need for effective and comprehensive assessments of human performance under different levels of team autonomy. Models for these contexts can be extended to include parameters that predict logistical requirements (e.g., schedules for supplies, food, etc.) and can simulate crew outcomes under emergency situations during periods of extreme isolation. The modeling research and results will also be applicable to emerging research in the area of cyber-infrastructure security. Similar concepts apply to this context and operations of emergency responders, homeland security and intelligence analysts, as well as corporate entities that want to ensure supply chain information alignment. These domains are interested in issues of situation awareness, information access and assurance, and autonomy of teams.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X12.01-9064
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Autonomy Assessment for Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Autonomy Assessment System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cybernet Systems Corporation
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2567

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marcus Huber
proposals@cybernet.com
727 Airport Blvd
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-1639
(734) 668-2537

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has expressed the need to assess crew autonomy relative to performance and evaluate an optimal level of autonomy that maximizes individual and team performance. For this project, we propose to leverage our Automated Behavior and Cohesion Assessment Tools (ABCAT) system, which we designed for NASA for a recent project. The ABCAT system was designed in part to assess crew performance, which we will need for this project as well, and our approach will be to add autonomy modeling and assessment to the design. One of the key results of this Phase I project will be the identification of the most significant aspects of the environment and the behavior of the astronaut's engaged in space flight operations that can be used to identify their actual autonomy and performance level as they perform their tasks. The second will be the design of the data acquisition and processing components and framework that work together to observe and interpret those aspects and provide an assessment of the crew's exhibited level of autonomy and performance characteristics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology could be applied to all current and future NASA missions. While it is being developed for application to intermediate to long duration space flight operations, the techniques are amenable to application in shorter duration flight operations as well, such as related to the International Space Station and Space Shuttle, where autonomy level can be varied to achieve improvement in productivity. This technology could also be applied to NASA's Aerospace activities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The military presents a number of application opportunities, where teams of individuals performing standard tasks. Examples include submarine and aircraft carrier crews, most particularly those working in the command center and the engine room. We expect this same technology to transfer to these military situations, where the performance of individual crew could be assessed relative to varying autonomy levels to identify an optimal setting for each crew or combination of crew. A variety of commercial activities also have similar characteristics such as operators of nuclear power plants, oil refineries, and other such large industries. They often perform standard operating procedures and need to be monitored closely for degraded performance. Even in situations in which lives or property are not at risk, monitoring individual and team performance and adjusting their autonomy is useful for managers interested in achieving peak performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Expert Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X12.02-9125
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Behavioral Health Monitoring Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pulsar Informatics, Inc.
3624 Market Street, Suite 5E
Philadelphia, PA 19104-2685
(215) 520-2630

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Mollicone
Daniel@PulsarInformatics.com
3624 Market Street, Suite 5E
Philadelphia,  PA 19104-2685
(215) 520-2630

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Given the extended duration of future missions and the isolated, extreme and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavioral conditions and mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) will develop. The overarching goal of this project is to deliver an Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool that unobtrusively integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to provide a dashboard of behavioral health indicators. These indicators will be placed within the context of quantitatively-tracked mission stressors to provide meaningful feedback to astronauts, and possibly the Operational Psychology Group and Flight Surgeons responsible for behavioral health support. The result of this project through Phase II will be a system prototype that can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimately deployed on ISS and lunar missions. The critical need for an Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool has been identified as a priority outlined in the BHP Integrated Research Plan (July 2009) gap BMED3. During Phase I, we will perform an assessment of behavioral health monitoring technologies and develop an engineering requirements document and detailed technical plans to implement during Phase II (Phase I TRL of 3).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool will meet the specific requirements of long duration exploration missions and provide feedback to astronauts, Op Psy Personnel and Flight Surgeons about behavioral health status as well as aid in the selection of countermeasures. It will be designed to be unobtrusive and require minimal crew time or effort to train and utilize. The resulting product will be primarily relevant to NASA's Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) research gaps (as of July 2009): BMED 3 (What are the optimal methods to detect and assess decrements in behavioral health during exploration missions?) but will also be relevant to gaps BMED1, BMED2, BMED6, BMED7, and BMED8. When validated, the Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool will be deployed in the constellation program and lunar missions to support crew behavioral health efforts during training, mission and return to Earth.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool can be adapted to meet an articulated need to track behavioral health in occupations associated with high stress, high workload and high danger factor such as military applications and law enforcement. A tool that enables the systematic and efficient tracking of individual behavioral health status in these occupational settings can provide a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. Taking military operations as an example, there is evidence that behavioral disorders and mental conditions such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury have a high prevalence among soldiers. There is a present market opportunity to deliver an Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool to track changes in behavioral health status in soldiers during training, deployment, and post-deployment. The Army currently has 238,000 soldiers deployed overseas in 120 countries (source: US Army, 2006).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Pilot Support Systems
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Instrumentation
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Tools
Mission Training


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X13.01-8879
SUBTOPIC TITLE: An Automated Tool for Human Factors Evaluations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Human Factors Evaluation Mentor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Monterey Technologies, Inc.
24600 Silver Cloud Court, Suite 103
Monterey, CA 93940-6555
(831) 648-3360

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Sharkey
tsharkey@montereytechnologies.com
P.O. Box 1209
Conifer,  CO 80433-1209
(303) 697-7930

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To obtain valid and reliable data, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluations are currently conducted by people with specialized training and experience in HF. HFE evaluations designed and conducted by engineers without the necessary HF expertise run the risk of producing useless or misleading results. Alternatively, the HFE is simply not conducted. To ameliorate these problems, MTI proposes to develop the Human Factors Evaluation Mentor (HFEM) to guide non-HF experts in the design and conduct of HFE. The HFEM will use an innovative combination of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Rule-Based Systems (RBS) to develop prescriptive designs for a set of routine HF evaluation methods. This powerful combination has not been used previously in advisory systems. The cases and rules used to develop the evaluation prescription will be drawn from a team of highly experienced HFE professionals. A characteristic of CBR is that successful applications add to the case data base and thereby continuously improve the HFEM. In Phase I MTI will develop and demonstrate a limited number of evaluation methods. Phase 2 work will expand the scope of evaluation types included in the HFEM incorporating HFE methods that best meet NASA's needs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Human Factors Evaluation (HFE) is a recognized,important element in the systems design and development process. The new edition of NASA's Systems Engineering Handbook explicitly addresses the requirement for HFE for the first time. The Human Factors Evaluation Mentor (HFEM) will both expand the use of HFE in NASA's engineering design process and improve, if not completely assure, the quality of the results. Moreover, the use of the HFEM should add to the overall efficiency of the system design and development process by integrating HFE in the design stream with other engineering evaluations. The HFEM will benefit NASA's programs in information sciences, as its space and aviation programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Human Factors Evaluation Mentor (HFEM) will have broad utility in other government and commercial applications where formal, systems engineering design procedures are used and where human - systems integration (HSI) is a salient requirement. Additionally, the HFEM will benefit smaller enterprises that do not have Human Factors Engineers on staff. Exemplar applications for the HFEM of some criticality are easily stated. Within government, these include DoD warfighter's equipment and vehicles, the FAA's evolving systems for air traffic management in the NEXGEN environment and its certification of cockpit avionics developed by third-parties. In the commercial realm, the HFEM can be a contributor to the development of medical equipment of all sorts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Manned-Maneuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X13.01-9342
SUBTOPIC TITLE: An Automated Tool for Human Factors Evaluations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Human Factors Evaluation Automated Tool (HFE-AT)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TiER1 Performance Solutions
6 E. 5th Street, Suite 400
Covington, KY 41011-1512
(859) 663-2114

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Terence Andre
t.andre@tier1performance.com
6 E 5th Street, Suite 400
Covington,  KY 41011-1512
(859) 663-2114

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposal, TiER1 Performance Solutions and Alion Science and Technology offer to identify requirements and specifications, and implement a proof-of-concept prototype tool to support human factors evaluations. This prototype, called the Human Factors Evaluation Automated Tool (HFE-AT), will provide guidance, for non-human factors personnel, to address human factors-related aspects of the engineering design process. It will identify requirements for coordination across engineering teams to help ensure that potential human factors integration issues are identified and resolved early in the design process. HFE-AT also will indicate when more detailed human factors analyses are needed, and provide step-by-step guidance to walk users through the process of performing certain human factors analyses. It will provide a repository for the results and allow users to produce reports that help them interpret and summarize the results. In Phase I, we propose to identify the requirements for such a tool, create a plan for developing the tool, and develop a proof-of-concept prototype to demonstrate the potential for such a tool. In Phase II, we will continue the development of this tool, adding functionality and expanding the scope. We also will perform validation studies, to ensure that the tool is providing meaningful results. We will conduct usability studies, and modify the tool so that it provides an easy-to-use interface, understandable feedback, and useful results. In Phase III, we will prepare this tool for commercialization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
HFE-AT will be designed to provide a knowledge management backbone for creating a comprehensive tool to support human factors evaluations. HFE-AT will include a knowledge warehouse and an associated infrastructure, and will include guidelines and standards to support human factors evaluations. We envision that this framework could provide a foundation for a variety of other applications at NASA. Once the appropriate documentation has been identified, HFE-AT could be extended to support other NASA-relevant domains such as aerospace applications and maintenance and reliability assessments. For example, HFE-AT could be used to identify the appropriate human factors analyses and support human factors evaluations of NextGen flight deck interface design concepts or air traffic management concepts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
HFE-AT, with modifications to the supporting documentation (e.g., including relevant guidelines specifically developed for the domain of interest), can provide a tool to support human factors and human-system integration evaluations. Through the use of meta tags, content templates, and some customization, the supporting documentation could be changed so that domain-relevant recommendations and guidance are provided to perform human factors evaluations at the appropriate design stage. HFE-AT could be used by Department of Defense, both in acquisition and systems engineering applications. Here, the NASA guidelines would be replaced by, e.g., MIL-STD-1472, Human Engineering, and MIL-HDBK-46855, Human Engineering Program Process and Procedures. Similarly, the Federal Aviation Administration could use the tool to evaluate potential NextGen concepts. The FAA Human Factors Design Guide would provide one key source of relevant documentation. Federal prime contractors could also use this tool to help guide them in the human factors aspects of their large system integration design projects.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X13.02-9273
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Situational Awareness for Multi-Agent Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Software Agents for Group Awareness and Inter-agent Conflict Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRACLabs, Inc.
100 N.E. Loop 410 Suite, 520
San Antonio, TX 78216-4727
(210) 822-2310

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Debra Schreckenghost
schreck@traclabs.com
8610 N. New Braunfels, Suite 110
San Antonio,  TX 78217-6370
(281) 461-7884

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is investigating robots for a variety of tasks in space, including astronaut transport, habitat construction, site survey, and robotic reconnaissance. These robots may be supervised locally by astronauts or remotely by Earth-based controllers. Thus surface operations are expected to be multi-agent, with heterogeneous robots operating concurrently and supervised from remote locations subject to different communication delays. Technologies are needed to help humans understand how multi-agent operations are proceeding and to detect inter-agent conflicts before they impact operations significantly. TRACLabs will develop assistive software agents that monitor human-robot interaction and communication during multi-agent operations (1) to construct an integrated view of agent operations in the presence of significant time delay and (2) to detect inter-agent conflicts that may affect the ability to complete operations. To assess the effectiveness of these assistive agents, Omnisen will develop evaluator software agents that model work practice during multi-agent operations. These evaluator agents will stand in for humans using the assistive agents in representative scenarios to assess the effectiveness of the assistive agents and identify best work practice when using them. The extensive experience of this team in software agents, remote supervision of robots, and human-computer interaction enables the successful development of the proposed technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA conducts analog robotic field tests to evaluate new robotic technology and to simulate remote robotic operations. The Exploration Program typically conducts annual field tests, such as the recent tests at Black Point Lava Flow, AZ, in 2009. The proposed assistive agent technology would have direct application to such field tests, including the algorithms for situation awareness in the presence of communication delay. The results of investigating the detection of plan and safety threats are needed for remote ground control. The integration of assistive agents with evaluator agents will support assessing planned work practice for these field tests (in the form of operations protocols) as well as evaluating observed work practice during the field test. At the end of Phase II the integrated agent architecture would provide a testbed for studying future multi-agent operations at NASA as well as a prototype of situation awareness technology for such operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The United States Department of Defense (DOD) is making significant investment in military robotics, including unmanned air vehicles (UAV) and ground vehicles (UAG). This includes both improved robotic hardware and instrumentation, and software for supervising robotic operations. Similar to NASA, military robotic operations often are remote and, though not subject to the significant communication delays encountered in space, they are affected by communication quality and availability issues. Thus remote supervision of military robots should benefit from the proposed technology for improved group awareness of multiple robots and detection of conflicts among concurrent robotic operations. Additionally the proposed approach integrating assistive agents with evaluator agents has potential as a testbed for simulating hybrid multi-agent operations for the military.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X13.03-9519
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Food Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Cookware and Techniques for Food Preparation at Reduced Pressure and Gravity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Makel Engineering, Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530) 895-2770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Susana Carranza
scarranza@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico,  CA 95973-9064
(512) 589-0718

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop detailed design requirements for adapting COTS cooking appliances for meal preparation under Lunar 8 psia ambient conditions, and to produce one or more prototype devices required for a Lunar galley by modifying commercial off the shelf consumer kitchen appliances to hold Earth ambient pressure safely in an oxygen-enriched, 8 psi space habitat. The modified devices will be use-tested to determine labor requirements for selected food preparation tasks in modified vs. unmodified equipment. Finally, foods prepared at earth ambient pressure and 8 psi ambient pressure in the same equipment will be sensory tested to elucidate differences in flavor, texture, and overall acceptability. The proof-of-concept prototypes produced in this project will be suitable for testing food preparation in lunar habitat analogues. They will be designed for use under positive, zero or negative pressure to serve multiple research purposes, including preparation of foods under 8 psi ambient pressure, and fire safety testing in the habitat atmosphere.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The devices produced during this project will be useful to the Exploration Systems program in developing foods and food preparation techniques for planetary habitats using a food system based on bulk packaged ingredients and/or crops produced on-station. The detailed design requirements and drawings will facilitate the building of additional prototypes of the same or different equipment, and the choice of operating under positive or negative pressure increases the versatiliy of the device. The prototypes may be provided to subjects living in planetary analog sites and testbeds, or used in outreach activities to inform the public about living in space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications may be found in high-altitude and undersea explorations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X14.01-9159
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Charged Particle and Neutron Radiation Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Neutron Dosimeter for the Space Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699
(617) 668-6801

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Christian, Ph.D.
JChristian@RMDInc.com
44 Hunt Street
Watertown,  MA 02472-4699
(617) 668-6801

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Secondary neutrons make a significant contribution to the total absorbed dose received by space crews during long duration space missions However, only a limited number of measurements of the dose contribution from secondary neutrons have been made. In part this is due to an inability to easily discriminate between the fraction of dose which results from secondary neutrons and that which results from exposure to energetic charged particles. The energy of the secondary neutrons range from 1 to >100 MeV. Scintillation materials provide the optimum volume to payload performance, but their use has been limited by the need for PMTs. A compact, lightweight, low-voltage, sensitive photodetector, such as CMOS SSPMs are an ideal candidate for this application. In this work, we propose to develop a compact, lightweight, energy-efficient dosimeter for secondary neutrons from space radiation using state-of-the-art scintillation materials with a charged particle shield coupled to a high-gain, solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM), which is a high-density array of Geiger photodiodes, fabricated with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology. Such a dosimeter would overcome many of the limitations in the current generation of neutron dosimeters and meet the dosimetry needs for future human-space-exploration missions to the moon and Mars.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary target market for the fast-neutron dosimeter is NASA missions. Key missions are NASA missions that involve extended space-time such as possible Moon and Mars missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Governmental and private sector space agencies across the globe will have similar needs for dosimeter devices. International airlines, especially those investigating space tourism, such as Virgin Galactic. The commercial satellite market is a large and growing market that will be interested in monitoring space radiation. Earth bound or terrestrial markets, including hospitals, national laboratories and industrial research is the largest potential segment. This market does require some changes in the product design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Highly-Reconfigurable
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X14.01-9315
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Charged Particle and Neutron Radiation Measurement Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanorod Array Solid State Neutron Detectors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Synkera Technologies, Inc.
2021 Miller Drive, Suite B
Longmont, CO 80501-6788
(720) 494-8401

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rikard Wind
rwind@synkera.com
2021 Miller Drive, Suite B
Longmont,  CO 80501-6788
(720) 494-8401

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase I SBIR project, Synkera proposes to develop and commercialize solid-state neutron detectors of a unique architecture that will enable sensor modules for a variety of operating environment. The neutron detectors are based around nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide, and will be fabricated using a combination of gas-phase and solution-based deposition methods. The detectors will incorporate a schottky junction surrounding a neutron-conversion material. As part of this development effort we will develop the deposition methods required for the various components of the detector and use modeling to evaluate the feasibility of the design. Our solid-state neutron detectors are expected to have much larger neutron sensitivity toward fast neutrons than conventional detectors at a lower weight and much lower power requirements. These features will enable solid state neutron spectrometers meeting all the NASA requirements on weight, volume, and power. We anticipate that large detector areas can be manufactured at costs below those of conventional neutron detectors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for the proposed technology is the measurement of the neutron component of radiation dose in real time. A compact detector as proposed by Synkera will allow better monitoring of astronaut radiation exposure, increasing safety and reducing risks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications, fast neutron detectors have great potential to be used for homeland security applications. The anticipated benefits will enable wide-spread use of low-cost, large scale arrays of neutron detectors for container monitoring, port-of-entry monitoring, and other screening for the presence of illicit materials and nuclear threats.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 X15.01-9505
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Alternative Methods for Ambient Preservation of Human Biological Samples during Spaceflight and Lunar Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Fluid Preservation System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ChromoLogic, LLC
133 N. Altadena Drive, Suite 307
Pasadena, CA 91107-7328
(626) 381-9974

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nicholas Booth
nmenon@chromologic.com
133 N. Altadena Dr, Ste 307
Pasadena,  CA 91107-7328
(626) 381-9974

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid Preservation System (FPS). FPS is based on collecting and sealing fluids in a sterile, hermetically sealed volume, with automatic separation of supernatant fluid where necessary. The unique microfluidic and medical expertise of CL scientists will result in an innovative and lightweight fluid storage system that utilizes compact and rugged sterile microfluidic chips. FPS chips will be able to collect and effectively store blood and urine for time spans of years if necessary. In Phase I CL will demonstrate the feasibility of the FPS technology by building prototype chips and demonstrating the proof of concept of pumping, separation, storage and preservation. In Phase II CL will develop a fully functional system including compact processing devices and miniaturization of the chips

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As part of its ongoing effort to understand the impact of space flight on humans, especially in preparation for future manned missions to Mars, NASA needs to collect and store body fluid samples of its astronauts during missions in order to quantify, among other things, the impact of radiation and microgravity on humans. Commercially available methods include either freezing the collected body fluids or using chemical preservation kits. While launching freezers results in significant payload costs, they alos restrict the amount of samples that can be stored. Chemical kits are known to produce contaminants that could foul the biomarkers that NASA is interested in. The proposed FPS can preserve body fluids without the need for any refrigeration or chemical kits enabling a lower cost and more accurate solution to sample preservation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Significant non-NASA commercial applications of the FPS are expected. Its ability to preserve any organic fluid at room temperature would enable forensic criminal investigators, relief personnel working in remote locations of epidemic/pandemic diseases, military personnel and environmental researches to safely collect and preserve samples in their native form without the need for bulky and power hungry freezers or potentially sample damaging chemical kits.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 S1.01-8049
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact Self-Switching/Modulation 2micron Ceramic Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Boston Applied Technologies, Inc.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801 - 1721
(781) 935-2800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Run Zhang
rzhang@bostonati.com
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801 - 1721
(781) 935-2800 Extension :225

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
For remote sensing of laser/lidar technology and global environment monitoring applications, the pulsed coherent Doppler lidars are of considerable contemporary interest as an effective tool. At present, the coherent 2-ƒÝm laser radar has been used to replaced CO2 gas laser (10.6-ƒÝm) for its higher spatial and velocity resolution. Considering the commercial 2 micron laser systems are complex and expensive, Boston Applied Technologies proposes a new laser gain medium by a revolutionary ceramic laser material technology where the host ceramic is highly transparent, active and possess electro-optic character itself. By doping with specified rare earth ions, it is easily to reach the 2-ƒÝm emission. The resultant laser transmitter will be an all solid-state, diode-pumped, room-temperature operation, 2 micron laser system producing laser pulses of 2 to 200 mJ at 10 to 200 Hz repetition rate. This all diode-pumped laser will be compact, reliable, cost-effective and also capable of operating in aircraft and planetary environmental extremes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
This compact solid-state 2-ƒÝm ceramic laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. It can also be used in a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Development of a high energy, high efficiency, high beam quality, single frequency, compact and reliable solid state 2 micron laser is critically needed for such lidar systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
This eye-safe 2 micron tunable solid ¡Vstate laser has wide applications. For microsurgery there exists a need for high-power laser radiation at near 2-ƒÝm because the strong water absorption that is present in this spectral region leads to short penetration depths into bodily tissues and hemostasis. Indeed, other application such as spectroscopy would also benefit from an efficient and compact high power 2 micron laser source.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 S1.01-8088
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Precision Locking and Control of CW Lasers in Support of ASCENDS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
VESCENT PHOTONICS, INC.
4865 E. 41st Ave
Denver, CO 80216 - 4401
(303) 296-6766

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mike H Anderson
anderson@vescentphotonics.com
4865 E. 41st Ave
Denver, CO 80216 - 4401
(303) 296-6766

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 4
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Vescent Photonics proposes to design and build significantly improved laser frequency locking and control systems that will be suitable for ASCENDS and other NASA sensing needs. Precision laser frequency control (absolute frequency to better than 1 MHz with rapid tuning over 10's to 100's of GHz) for lasers in both the 1.57 CO2 overtone region for direct CO2 detection and around 1.53 m, which may be doubled to reach the O2 A-band spectral-trough feature at 764.7 nm, will be developed and provided. The laser locking and control will employ either calibrated sweep techniques or high-speed frequency offset phase locking. Absolute wavelength references will be maintained to better than 2 MHz via either direct locking to a CO2 line or locking to the HCN R(22) line at 1529.38 nm, which when doubled is directly at the 764.7 nm O2 spectral trough feature. Prototype locking and control systems will be delivered at the end of phase I (TRL will transition from 4 to 5 during phase I) and a complete, ready to use laser system will be delivered at the end of phase II (TRL 6 or 7 at end of phase II).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
NASA has a long history using spectroscopic probes, for both Earth science and extraterrestrial missions. The majority of these past missions have not been tunable laser based. This is in part because the tunable laser locking and control technology has been immature. This project will significantly increase the maturity and availability of precision laser frequency locking and control systems, which will lower the barrier for using this technology in a wide array or future NASA missions. In addition to ASCENDS, these include Venture Class UAV missions, planetary rovers, free space optical communications, and many more.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Rugged and stable laser frequency locking and control systems have a wide variety of commercial and scientific applications. These include interferometric based distance measurements, atomic time standards, cw Doppler ladar, THz frequency generation, optical coherence tomography, and many more. The control system developed here will be generic and may be applied to all of these markets.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Photonics


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.01-8159
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Calibrating High Resolution Tunable Filter for Remote Gas Sensing Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brimrose Corporation of America
19 Loveton Circle, Hunt Valley Loveton Center
Sparks, MD 21152-9201
(410) 472-7070

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Pranay Sinha
psinha@brimrose.com
19 Loveton Circle
Sparks,  MD 21152-9201
(410) 472-7070

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a compact, robust, optically-based sensor for local and remote sensing of oxygen (O2) at 1.26 m, carbon dioxide (CO2) at 1.56 m and other species in spectral region of up to 2m with accuracy of the order of 0.5 1 ppm, allowing a very high out-of-band rejection of spurious solar background radiation. This sensor will utilize a widely tunable narrowband optical filter in conjunction with a wideband optical source (sun light or a commercially available broadband source) in combination with built-in calibration laser diode to make absorption measurements as well as evaluate atmospheric parameters such as pressure, temperature and density. Proposed instrumentation can be valuable for NASAs ASCENDS program with broad scope applications in the measurement of atmospheric parameters and multi-species concentration measurement including CO2. Instrumentation will be environmentally rugged and compact and will possess auto-calibration capabilities, fast response time (microseconds to milliseconds range) and low-power consumption. Phase I work will involve building and characterizing a complete laboratory scale system so that a final system can be constructed in Phase II. TRL range at onset of Phase I is 2 at end 3-4; Phase 2 at onset 4 at end 5-6.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many commercial and military applications for an accurate and rugged laser absorption system capable of acting as a pressure, temperature and/or concentration sensor. The sensor could be used in both new and retrofit commercial aircraft as a control sensor for propulsion systems, in industry and environmental monitoring as sensitive gas leak sensor, as concentration mapping sensor both for local and remote sensing applications, including on mobile platforms. Furthermore, due to the wide filter tuneability, the built-in calibration and the variety of possible wideband light sources; this sensor could replace Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) sensors in a number of applications as there is a demonstrable advantage in system cost, complexity, and operation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This type of sensor can also be used to monitor the combustion efficiency in terrestrial gas turbine and high-pressure combustion systems where a rugged sensor with long operating life characteristics is needed. Also it is possible to use this sensor for real-time biological measurements as the system can also be used as a Fraunhofer Line Discriminator Spectrometer for sub-angstrom remote sensing of fluorescence emission in the Fraunhofer line wavelengths. Finally, large and complex molecules that have extremely broad absorption signatures could be fully resolved with this sensor, with application to national security sensing of weapons and explosives.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.01-8384
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Monolithic Rare Earth Doped PTR Glass Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
OptiGrate Corporation
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826-3230
(407) 381-4115

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vadim Smirnov
vsmirnov@optigrate.com
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando,  FL 32826-3230
(407) 381-4115

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of airborne and spaceborne laser systems dictates a number of extremely challenging requirements for such fine optical devices. These requirements include minimizing weight and volume, increasing of power and brightness, high tolerance to mechanical and acoustic vibrations and ionizing radiation. Solid state lasers provide the best parameters which are necessary for free space optical communications, remote sensing, etc. However, all such lasers require fine alignment and, therefore, are very sensitive to vibrations, thermal gradients, etc. The ideal situation would be if all elements of a laser would be incorporated in the volume of a gain medium. We propose a completely new approach to the problem. Researchers at CREOL have demonstrated that it is possible to produce co-doping of a photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass with Nd. It was found that absorption and luminescence properties of Nd in PTR glass are the same as for all silicate glasses. It is important that this type of silicate glass can be successfully doped with all rare earth ions, e.g. with Nd, Yb, Er, Tm, etc. At the same time, it was shown that PTR glass keeps it photosensitivity. This means that it is possible to record volume holograms in this material. A combination of good lasing properties and phase photosensitivity enables a new approach to all-solid-state laser. It became possible to record volume Bragg gratings in the volume of laser glass. In this case, all alignment will be done in the process of recording and no misalignment is possible in any conditions of exploitation. Thus, the proposed approach enables creation of a monolithic solid state laser. We expect to study luminescence properties and develop a technology of recording Bragg mirrors in the volume of gain medium and demonstrate diode pumped lasing in Phase I project. In the case of success, we expect to study semiconductor crystals precipitation in PTR glass and demonstrate a monolithic pulsed laser in Phase II project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Practical implementation of our innovation should decrease size of solid state lasers dramatically improve tolerance of these lasers to vibrations, shocks and other mechanical effects. At the same time monolithic lasers with internal volume Bragg resonators will be distinguished by unprecedented opportunity for fine mode selection in both spectral and angular domains. This feature will be extremely important for long-term stability of a laser system, which for space applications should work a lot of years without re-alignment. This feature can be used for traditional laser applications for LADARs and remote sensing. Moreover this new approach enables such applications as optical pyrocartridges and other different applications for harsh conditions of exploitation. Potential NASA commercial applications of high efficiency diffractive optical elements in PTR glass are in the fields of high-resolution spectroscopy, narrow-band filtering for detection of different chemical agents, spectral scanning with sub-Angstrom resolution, remote sensing and targeting, range finding, spectral sensing and other NASA applications where diffractive optical components are the key elements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the proposed project is directed to the particular NASA application, monolithic lasers in PTR glass have a lot of various applications in science and high technology. They will be widely used in industrial environment because their robustness would significantly higher in comparison with any other solid state lasers. The main markets will be laser marking and micromachining, spectroscopy, remote sensing, etc. It is clear that such type of laser will find a lot of military applications. The most obvious application is the use such portable extremely robust lasers for targeting and target designation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.01-8403
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Power Narrow Linewidth 1.26 Micron Ho-Doped Fiber Amplifier

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NP Photonics, Inc.
9030 S. Rita Road
Tucson, AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jianfeng Wu
jfwu@npphotonics.com
9030 S. Rita Road Ste 120
Tucson,  AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7498

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is for the development of an innovative, high power, and extremely reliable 1.26-micron Ho-doped fluoride fiber amplifier. The proposed fiber amplifier consists of a Ho-doped fluoride fiber pre-amplifier and power amplifier. Laser at 1187 nm will be used as a resonant pump laser source for Ho3+-doped fiber laser. High gain per unit length at 1.26 micron can be achieved in Ho-doped fluoride glass fiber due to the strong pump absorption at 1187 nm and strong emission at 1.2 micron transition. The proposed Ho-doped fiber amplifier will be implemented into a MOPA system with a 1.26 micron single frequency Ho-doped fiber laser. This type of fiber based seed laser is needed for remote sensing of O and O -N for measuring atmospheric pressure. Concurrent on-board O2 measurements using lines at 1.26 m to allow for the best relative compensation for aerosol scattering along the line-of-sight of the CO2 and O2 measurements. The particular O2 band was chosen so that the surface and atmospheric scattering characteristics from aerosols and thin clouds would be nearly the same as for the measurement of CO2 at 1.57 m. It's part of program to provide space-based active measurements of CO2 for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) Mission.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's investigation of large-scale environmental processes requires highly accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters from ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne platforms. Coherent Doppler Lidars and Differential Absorption Lidars (DIALs), working with 1.26-micron lasers, enable the measurement of oxygen in the atmosphere. The proposed compact all-fiber based single frequency 1.26-micron fiber laser offers a commercial solution to such applications. Its anti-vibration package and all-fiber cavity design allow a compact, reliable and efficient package for the LIDAR application in ground, airborne and space-borne platform. Most components in the fiber laser and the seed laser have been used for space applications, which means both the fiber laser and seed laser can be qualified for space application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of non-NASA commercial applications for the proposed 1.26-micron single frequency fiber laser. Its narrow linewidth, stable laser output at oxygen absorption wavelength makes it a favorable source for lots of other practical applications, which needs to monitor the gas, especially oxygen

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.01-8410
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electro-Optic Laser Scanners for Space-Based Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vescent Photonics, Inc.
4865 E. 41st Avenue
Denver, CO 80216-4401
(303) 296-6766

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Davis
davis@vescentphotonics.com
4865 E. 41st Ave
Denver,  CO 80216-4401
(303) 296-6766

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Vescent Photonics propose to design and build revolutionary non-mechanical, electro-optic (EO) laser scanners that will be suitable for space based laser ranging, with a specific focus on the upcoming Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission. The success of past and current space based lidar missions (e.g., ICESat, CALIPSO, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER) has demonstrated the utility of lidar. LIST, which will provide a high-resolution (5 meters horizontal and 10 centimeters vertical) topographic map of the Earth, will enable a vast array of important research including: detection of active faults, global shifts in vegetation patterns, coastal erosion, assessment of wildfire risk, and many more. To realize this (with the preferred scanned approach) new scanner technology is required. The scanner must provide 1000 resolvable spots at a rep rate of 10 kHz and must survive launch and maintain calibrated operation throughout the multiyear mission lifetime. Mechanical scanners are too slow and fragile, and current EO scanners provide insufficient resolution. The goal of this SBIR is to develop (from a current TRL 3 to 4 at end of phase I and 6 and end of phase II) and provide new EO scanners that will be suitable for LIST and other NASA lidar needs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low cost, rugged, wide-angle EO laser scanning is a basic component that will find utility across a wide variety of NASA missions. When combined with laser ranging (ladar) this will enable autonomous rover navigation, auto-docking devices, space based laser altimeters for terrain mapping, and many more. EO scanners can also be used for very high bandwidth free-space-optical communications between vehicles, satellites, planes, and/or remote platforms. Finally, the unprecedented small size, weight, and power will enable deployment on previously inaccessible platforms such as miniature UAVs, balloons, buoys, and more.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rugged, low cost, wide-angle EO laser scanners, which have been elusive goal for many years, have a large variety of applications. These include: free space optical (FSO), micro-ladar for security and robotic vision, laser profilometers, environmental monitors (when combined with tunable lasers), and many more. Our technology will provide an increase of several orders of magnitude in the angular stroke of traditional electro-optic beamsteering approaches leading to electro-optic replacement of mechanical beamsteerers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.01-8433
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Tunable Narrow Linewidth, Low Noise 2.05 Micron Single Frequency Seeder Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NP Photonics, Inc.
9030 S. Rita Road
Tucson, AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jianfeng Wu
jfwu@npphotonics.com
9030 S. Rita Road Ste120
Tucson,  AZ 85747-9102
(520) 799-7498

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose an all-fiber based 2.05-micron single frequency, narrow linewidth seeder laser with 10 nm tuning range and 5GHz frequency modulation for next generation LIDAR system. Highly Tm-doped fiber laser is used as a resonant pump source in order to reduce the phase noise and laser linewidth. An environment insensitive package will be used to minimize the laser phase noise and linewidth. Ho3+-doped fiber is used for seed laser generation, due to its strong emission at 2.05 micron. A Piezo attached to Ho-doped fiber is used to modulate the frequency to 5 GHz with speed up to 10KHz. The single frequency 2.05-micron fiber laser can be used to build coherent laser radars and Differential Absorption Lidars (DIALs) to perform instant measurement of velocity and concentration of CO2 and other gases , aerosols, clouds. The high-speed frequency modulation (5 GHz) of single frequency fiber laser used as local oscillator covers tuning over a selected CO2 absorption line. The large wavelength tuning range (10 nm) also enable scientists and engineers to explore the feasibility of using such laser for other remote sensing applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's investigation of large-scale environmental processes requires highly accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters from ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne platforms. Coherent Doppler Lidars and Differential Absorption Lidars (DIALs), working with 2-micron pulsed lasers, enable the measurement of CO2. The proposed low noise, narrow linewidth, single frequency 2.05 micron seeder laser with fast frequency modulation and wide tuning range offers a commercial solution to such applications. Its anti-vibration package and all-fiber cavity design allow a compact, reliable and efficient package for the LIDAR application in ground, airborne and space-borne platform. Most components in the fiber laser and the seed laser have been used for space applications, which means both the fiber laser and seed laser can be qualified for space application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The narrow linewindth and fast frequency modulation capability make it an ideal laser source used for commercial LIDAR for wind measurement. It also can be used to monitoring the green house gases. It can be a very important part for NOAA to build the CO2 gas monitor network. This type of all-fiber laser can be used for in situ measuring the 13C/12C and 18O/16O isotope ratios in atmospheric CO2 by laser absorption spectrometry. In ecosystem research, isotope ratios of molecules such as CO2 are of interest as they may improve our understanding of the sources and sinks of this important greenhouse gas. Long-term, real time, continuous in situ measurement at ambient concentrations would provide valuable information for atmospheric and environmental research. Laser absorption spectroscopy is one of the most promising tools due to its high sensitivity, species selectivity and spectral resolution. Based on the molecule's spectral fingerprint, laser absorption spectroscopy measurement can be performed on a gaseous sample, without need for pre-sampling and pre-treatment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.01-8552
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: HIgh Efficiency Laser for Aircraft/UAV and Space Lidar Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170-5225
(703) 471-7671

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Floyd Hovis
fhovis@fibertek.com
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon,  VA 20170-5225
(703) 471-7671

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR will develop advanced, high-efficiency, high beam-quality solid-state laser technology and non-linear wavelength conversion technology suitable for Ozone, Aerosol, Wind, CO2, Water Vapor Lidar. We propose to increase the wall-plug efficiency of 1um lasers from 6-8% into the 12-16% range drastically reducing the electrical power needed for satellite missions. For the same satellite bus this means that power will be available to support another lidar system, radar or other instruments greatly increasing the science mission value. The proposed non-linear wavelength conversion technology can enable direct range-resolved ozone, CO2 measurement and/or oxygen lidars that support CO2 pressure and density determinations. The technology developed could also enable sub-orbital flight missions for ozone and water vapor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The advanced laser transmitter technology proposed directly supports NASA Earth Science Decadal Study programs for aerosols (ACE), global wind (3D-Winds, UV Lidar) and advanced multi-beam altimetry missions (DESDynl, LIST). In addition the laser transmitter improvements proposed here would enable a number of airborne/UAV based missions including ozone, oxygen, carbon dioxide and high spectral resolution aerosol lidar.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Higher efficiency lasers with flexible wavelength conversion support Department of Defense programs including small aircraft and UAV based eyesafe laser rangefinding, target marking and designation. In addition commercial terrain profiling, altimetry and surveying systems require more capable laser sources to increase coverage rate and reduce operating cost. Military space-based sensors including rendezvous, docking and precision tracking lidars require a new generation of space qualifiable efficient laser transmitter.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.01-8601
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact 2050 nm Semiconductor Diode Laser Master Oscillator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EM4, Inc.
7 Oak Park Drive
Bedford, MA 01730-1413
(781) 275-7501

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Rosiewicz
arosiewicz@em4inc.com
7 Oak Park Drive
Bedford,  MA 01730-1413
(781) 275-7501

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I effort seeks to develop DFB laser master oscillators at the novel wavelength of 12050 nm. Two prototypes will be built, tested, and delivered . Currently, DFB laser chips are not available COTS at this wavelength. However, EM4 has identified a stock of devices that may be used for initial proof-of-concept testing. Due to the very large size of optical isolators at this wavelength, an isolator will not be included in the package.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
high reliability master oscillators to be used with LIDAR systems

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
commercial and defense LIDAR systems, atmospheric monitoring, and infrared countermeasures

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors
Laser
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.01-9175
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber Coupled Pulse Shaper for Sub-Nanosecond Pulse Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1
Bozeman, MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gregg Switzer
switzer@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I effort will investigate the feasibility of using electro-optic (EO) beam scanning element to control coupling into a fiber as a fiber coupled pulse shaper. The goal of the pulse shaper is to reduce a 4-6ns pulse to 0.4-0.6ns pulse at 1064nm and/or 532nm at input powers at the 2mJ level. The highest utility of the proposed pulse shaper is its programability allowing it to deliver different pulse widths and different pulse shapes. Although this approach to pulse shaping inherently truncates the power of the input pulse, the shaper will find its greatest value in investigating the optimal pulse shape and parameters in a given optical system. As an added benefit, this technology can be directly morphed into a new type of Q-switch for solid state lasers requiring fewer optics, lower drive voltage and high damage threshold. The proposed effort is broken down into 3 primary tasks: 1) fabricate EO scanning elements, 2) assemble a benchtop pulse shaper for characterization and 3) Investigate drive electronics with sub ns rise times and moderately high voltage.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
During the Phase I, AdvR staff will discuss with NASA personnel the potential NASA applications in the area of high resolution lidar imaging with sub-ns pulses and long range optical telecommunications (laser transmitters) for the proposed product. In particular, NASA/GSFC has found AdvR's narrow linewidth, gain-switched laser to be the only commercially available laser that will meet their specifications. This laser would be substituted by the proposed pulse shaper device for exceptional, programmable control of investigative studies centered around narrow pulsed lasers emission. Several future NASA applications identified as part of the Decadal Survey Missions that are likely to benefit from utilizing AdvR's pulse shaper including LISA (NASA/GSFC EUD: Code 661 Gravitational Astrophysics Lab), LIST (Lidar for Surface Topography, NASA/GSFC, and ICESat (GSFC Laser Remote Sensing Branch, Code 924).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The competitive advantage of the proposed approach is programmable, picosecond pulse generation with high optical powers with narrow linewidth. For high resolution lidar and laser communication systems, the narrow linewidth provides improved signal-to-noise ratio by filtering out background radiation using narrowband (~1 nm) interference filters. Short pulse and high power laser emission is the key source for time resolved laser induced fluorescent spectroscopy. Time resolved fluorescence provides temporal information about the molecular environment of the fluorophore over steady state fluorescent measurements. Fluorescent emission occurs over nanosecond time frames and therefore requires sub-ns pulses to trigger the fluorescence. AdvR recognizes that a significantly larger portion of the market ($10M-$15M vs $1.5M) requires at least 8 mW average output power. Thus AdvR has set its goal for > 10 mW and is highly motivated to demonstrate this goal through this Phase I effort.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.01-9201
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Very High Gain and Low Noise Near Infrared Single Photon Counting Detectors and Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amplification Technologies, Inc.
1400 Coney Island Avenue
Brooklyn, NY 11230-4120
(718) 951-8021

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yuriy Yevtukhov
yevtukhov@amplificationtechnologies.com
1400 Coney Island Avenue
Brooklyn,  NY 11230-4120
(718) 951-8021

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Amplification Technologies Inc ("ATI") proposes to develop the enabling material and device technology for the design of ultra low noise, high gain and low cross-talk & after pulsing near-infrared single photon counting photodetectors and photodetector arrays sensitive in the eyesafe wavelengths of 1550 nm and 1800 nm spectral region for remote and atmospheric sensing applications, based on the already proven mechanism of internal discrete amplification technology. We plan to achieve this by integrating the internal discrete amplification device design that gave promising results and proved the concept of internal discrete amplification mechanism in the InP material system. The primary accomplishments from the Phase I effort would be the development of ultra low noise, high gain, low noise and low cross-talk & after pulsing near-infrared photodetectors and photodetector arrays sensitive in the 1550 nm and 1800 nm spectral region. The technology of internal discrete amplification enables the combination of high speed, very high gain and ultra low noise. This is possible because the internal discrete amplification nullifies the effect of impact ionization coefficients and prevents the edge break down, with high quantum efficiency and high speed of operation. These photodetectors can be used in eye-safe Lidar/Ladar, atmospheric sensing, 3D imaging, missile seekers, battlefield target identification and recognition system. Potential civilian applications include fiber-optic telecommunications, remote sensing and laser spectroscopy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is working on the development of Lidar systems for wind direction measurement, surface topography as well as atmospheric sensing, and optical communication technologies for such applications as deep space to ground communication links, intersatellite links, Earth orbiting to ground, networking formation flying spacecraft, and others

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to Lidar systems and atmospheric sensing, the detectors could potentially be modified for use in traditional fiber optical communications at 1.55 m. Because of better performance parameters, they could, for example, replace such current solutions as InGaAs avalanche photodiodes used in fiber optical telecommunications. This represents a very significant commercial market. Military applications could also make use of high speed, sensitive photodetectors operating at 1.55 m to 1.80 m wavelengths

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Laser
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.01-9210
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pulsed, Single-Frequency, 2-um Seed Source for Coherent LIDAR Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Q-Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730-2307
(781) 275-9535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alex Dergachev
dergachev@qpeak.com
135 South Road
Bedford,  MA 01730-2307
(781) 275-9535

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary objective of the proposed Phase I effort is to develop and demonstrate a low-average power, pulsed, single-frequency, 2-um Ho-laser source for application as a front end in coherent LIDAR systems. Development of such pulsed seed sources is critical for the design of compact, rugged, reliable and efficient LIDAR transmitters based on all-amplifier architecture. Pulsed operation of the Ho-oscillator is achieved via passive Q-switching using robust Cr2+-doped saturable absorbers. Such seed oscillators allow generation of ns-width pulse trains at kHz repetition rates. Direct diode-pumping using the latest 1.9-um diode laser technology provides improved oscillator reliability and compactness. The choice of a 2-um Ho-laser material (as opposed to 1.5-um Er-lasers) enables efficient power/energy scaling of the pulsed seed oscillator output in high-gain Ho-amplifiers. This approach decreases the number of amplifying stages, simplifies the overall design and packaging, and improves the electrical efficiency of the complete laser system as compared to the current technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work has direct application to NASA coherent, wind-sensing lidar programs based on the use of pulsed, eyesafe, 2-um region lasers, as well as CO2 DIAL applications. The proposed seed oscillator concept provides compact design, enhanced ruggedness and aids the overall laser system efficiency. Other use is as a front end of an all-amplifier-system to pump mid-IR parametric oscillators for application to DIAL sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial uses are for ground- and aircraft-based wind sensors in commercial aviation for wind shear and turbulence detection , as well as monitoring of CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The low-power, pulsed 2-um oscillator can be also be offered as a stand-alone component.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.01-9529
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Planar Lightwave Circuits for UV Generation and Phase Modulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2310 University Way, Building 1
Bozeman, MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shirley McNeil
mcneil@advr-inc.com
2310 University Way, Building #1-1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6504
(406) 522-0388

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I effort proposes to establish the feasibility of developing a UV Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC); a compact, highly efficient, waveguide-based frequency conversion module for the generation of phase modulated UV radiation for use in multi-wavelength lidar applications such as NASA LaRC's HSRL program. The proposed module will provide phase modulated 355 nm radiation for calibration and stabilization of HSRL's UV interferometric filter, a component required for the accurate measurement of critical aerosol microphysical properties. The goal of the Phase II effort will be the optimization and integration of a compact, monolithic, fiber coupled UV PLC into the next generation HSLR seed laser system. The PLC concept advances NASA's state-of-the-art lidar systems due to its compact, efficient, and reliable design, thus enabling use on small aircraft and space based platforms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary customer is NASA Langley's High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) program for aerosol and cloud characterization. HSRL is targeted for the ACE Mission by NASA's ACE Science Working Group because of the higher information content it provides over backscatter lidar on key aerosol optical and microphysical properties. The proposed UV technology will find uses in other NASA lidar remote sensing programs, such as UV DIAL lidar and Doppler lidar for 3D Winds where compact, low cost, UV stabilized sources are required. This technology also has potential application as a calibration source for visible to UV spectrometers (such as MODIS), as well as for multi-wavelength imaging for atmospheric correction.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA's use in various lidar systems, the PLC technology, in general, will find use in fiber and free-space communications where rapid, moderate power phase modulation is required. This technology can also be applied for systems used for environmental and pollution monitoring, spectroscopic measurement techniques, visible display applications, and for stabilizing laser sources and interferometric filters.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Laser
RF
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 S1.01-9431
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Narrow Wavelength, Frequency Modulated Source at 1.5µ Wavelength

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Princeton Optronics, Inc.
1 Electronics Dr
Mercerville, NJ 08619 - 2054
(609) 584-9696

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Laurence Watkins
lwatkins@princetonoptronics.com
1 Electronics Dr
Mercerville, NJ 08619 - 2054
(609) 584-9696 Extension :112

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
NASA needs narrow linewidth lasers in the 1.5 or 2 micron wavelength regime for Lidar applications. The laser should be tunable by several nm and frequency modulated by 5GHz. Princeton Optronics has developed ultra-stable narrow linewidth diode pumped solid state lasers and developed high power Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) devices for fiber laser pumps as well as VCSEL pumped CW fiber lasers. In this SBIR, we propose to develop a fiber amplifier with a narrow line width seed laser for narrow wavelength output and the seed laser would be tunable and frequency modulated to a speed of 5GHz. By the end of the SBIR program we plan to deliver 10W level CW power fiber amplifiers with 10kHz linewidth in a small package. The package with the device would be space qualified and commercialized after development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
High stability, narrow linewidth lasers has applications for LIDARs by NASA. The fiber amplifiers can be used for many other NASA applications including ranging, wavefront analysis, wind speed measurement, surface topography, atmospheric composition analysis and communications. They can be used for remote sensing for entry descent and landing of spacecrafts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
A narrow line width fiber amplifier source will have a significant market for LIDAR, RF Photonics and sensor applications. The users will be military, NASA, homeland security, cable television distribution and oil exploration industry. The total market for narrow line width ultrastable lasers is currently at tens of millions of dollars. Princeton Optronics will commercialize the product very soon after development.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials
Photonics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors



 

PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.01-9879
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar and Laser System Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Frequency Up-Conversion Detection System with Single Photon Sensitivity within 1-1.8 m and 3-4 m for ASCENDS Mission: A Novel Approach to Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ArkLight
3210 N. Bay Hill Drive
Center Valley, PA 18034-8452
(484) 547-5375

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yuliya Zotova
yzotova@hotmail.com
3210 N. Bay Hill Drive
Center Valley,  PA 18034-8452
(484) 547-5375

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
PI at ArkLight proposes a novel approach to photon counting detectors at near-IR (1-1.8 m) and mid-IR (3-4 m) with single photon sensitivity, representing an innovative Lidar technology for ASCENDS mission. She will convert the input signals at 1.27 m and 1.57 m to those at 579 nm and 634 nm, respectively, within a periodically-poled LiNbO3 wafer, pumped by a Nd:YAG laser at 1.064 m or a 200-mW InGaAs laser at 980 nm. The anticipated results for Phase 1 include demonstrations of efficient frequency up-conversion from 1.27 m and 1.57 m to 579 nm and 634 nm, determination of fundamental limits to noise equivalent powers, performance of the proposed detection system after optimizations, a final design of an ultra-compact detection system after considering e.g. an intracavity configuration, and reports. Beginning/end (Phase 1): TRL 1/3. The anticipated results for Phase 2 include implementation and testing of the ultra-compact detection system, measurement and analysis of noise equivalent powers and photon sensitivities, expansion of detection wavelengths to 1-1.8 m and 3-4 m, feasibility analysis of single-photon sensitivity, design, implementation, and testing of a battery-powered, cell-phone-sized, and integrable detection system with single photon sensitivity being achieved, to be tested in space-based platforms, and reports.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Active sensing of O2 and CO2 levels (ASCENDS mission); Diagnosis of infrared luminous galaxies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Medical diagnostics; Molecular spectroscopy; Missile countermeasure; Detections of explosives.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Biomolecular Sensors
Laser
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Biochemical
Optical
Mission Training
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.02-8751
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reconfigurable, Wideband Radar Transceiver and Antenna for P-band Stretch Processing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5221

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arvind Bhat
abhat@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2737
(301) 294-5254

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 5 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
IAI proposes to develop a Reconfigurable Wideband Radar Transceiver, with direct digital synthesis of P-band radar frequencies, novel high bandwidth P-band antenna design with high contrast ceramic material and digital implementation of receiver stretch processing, to achieve the solicitation objectives. Our innovation focuses on implementing maximum radar transceiver functionalities on high-speed digital reconfigurable platforms (FPGAs), and minimizing the number of analog components. Our Software-Defined Radar designs are based on COTS components and are modular in nature. This makes it easier to upgrade smaller units of the design with development in state-of-the-art, instead of re-designing the entire SDR. The stringent payload constraints of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) require tight integration of all radar functionalities, including signal generation, acquisition, processing, and down-link. The proposed platform can be an enabler for low form factor radar systems to support on-going UAS based NASA missions for Biomass/ecosystems imaging in P-band. A summary of our proposed innovation are: 1. Reconfigurable digital waveform synthesizer with 600 MHz bandwidth capability. 2. Compact P-band antenna design using high-contrast ceramic materials to cover 200 MHz bandwidth. 3. Digital implementation of receiver stretch processing. 4. Low size, weight and power specifications making the radar design suitable for UAS applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is built upon the radar design expertise of IAI, developed over several SBIR and non-SBIR contracts. Our proposed technique can be used for a wide range of remote sensing applications for NASA including: Airborne SAR applications Miniaturized, reconfigurable radar systems for UAS Weather surveillance radar for aircrafts Earth science measurements like Biomass/ecosystems, surface deformation, topography and soil moisture measurements

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most promising commercial applications outside of NASA are: Arbitrary wideband waveform synthesizer High-speed digital processors Reconfigurable radar transceiver with multi-mode capabilities

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Microwave/Submillimeter
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.02-8761
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Space Borne MMIC Interface

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Road
Radford, VA 24141-8846
(800) 341-2333

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jean-Marc Rollin
jmrollin@nuvotronics.com
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Road
Radford VA ,  VA 24141-8846
(800) 341-2333

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We are proposing to develop high power, high efficiency Ka-band and W-band amplifiers for future NASA missions. The significance of the innovation primarily lies in two areas: better interconnections to available MMIC and extremely low loss power combiner. The approach uses Nuvotronics unique metal micromachining PolyStrataTM process, used to create suspended recta-coax lines, MMIC sockets, and millimeter-wave (MMW) interconnection circuits with low loss, small size/high density, and durability. During this Phase I project, we wil design two circuits at Ka and W-band using commercial of the shelf power amplifer MMICs to achieve the goal of 10 Watts (Ka) and 2 watts (W) output power with 20% efficiency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our primary goal in this project is to provide NASA with higher power and more efficent Ka-band and W-band amplifiers. The initial application is MMW radars in advanced cloud and precipitation measurements for the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACE) Mission. Seconday NASA missions are future landers for the Mars Exploration Program as well as future terrestrial lunar communication systems (Constellation Program) which require miniaturized, low weight, reliable components at Ka band frequencies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We anticipate high volume product opportunities within the DOD and non-Government commercial markets. Within DOD, applications in communications and radar systems exist for advanced microwave components. Programs within the DOD such as the Army's WIN-T (Warfighter Information Network - Tactical) require high power Ka band amplifiers to meet requirements of satellite communications while on-the-move. Other key market opportunities driving future growth exist in the mobile backhaul, wireless enterprise bridge, wireless fiber lateral emulation, government and public safety networks, WirelessHD, and WiMax.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Architectures and Networks
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 S1.02-8927
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D High Density mmWave Interconnects

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Nuvotronics, LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Road
Radford, VA 24141 - 8846
(800) 341-2333

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jean-Marc Rollin
jmrollin@nuvotronics.com
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Road
Radford, VA 24141 - 8846
(540) 230-4611

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 1
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Nuvotronics has developed and optimized the PolyStrataTM process for the fabrication of intricate microwave and millimeter-wave devices. These devices have primarily been rectangular coaxial transmission lines, although rectangular waveguide and other structures have also been demonstrated. Intricate devices have been demonstrated with insertion loss 5 to 10 times lower than traditional planar circuits; isolation better than 60dB for lines that share separating walls; multiple levels of densely-packed coaxial circuits; and low-parasitic attachment to active devices and traditional circuit boards. In this Phase I project, Nuvotronics is proposing to develop high density low-loss millimeter backplane circuits to package and interconnect components of future NASA millimeter wave (MMW) radars. The significance of the innovation primarily lies in three areas: reduction of system size, weight and loss in MMW radars. The PolyStrata technology is a batch manufacturing process, providing economies of scale and cost reduction for higher volumes, in addition to flexibility in design for various frequencies of interest. Nuvotronics will design and test select Polystrata interconnects at MMW frequencies of interest, with particular attention to performance over temperature and survivability to launch conditions. The result of the Phase I research will prove the feasibilty of utlizing the Polystrata MMW backplane technology in future NASA missions, and provide the foundation for full scale development, testing, and prototype delivery during the Phase II project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Our primary goal in this project is to provide NASA with robust space-capable MMW interconnection technology that is lower cost, lower weight, and has improved performance over current technology. The initial application is MMW radars for advanced cloud and precipitation measurements and for Mars landing sensors. Candidate NASA missions are future landers for the Mars Exploration Program and the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACE) Mission. Reducing size and weight of radar instruments will allow more mission capability on each platform, increasing NASA return on investment in these missions. Instrument constraints on size and weight in NASA unmanned aerial vehicles could also benefit from the PolyStrata RF backplane technology as well as future terrestrial lunar communication systems (Constellation Program) which require miniaturized, low weight, reliable components at Ka band frequencies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
We anticipate high volume product opportunities within the DOD and non-Government commercial markets. Within DOD, applications in communications and radar systems exist for advanced microwave components. For military communications, the benefits are higher bandwidth, multipoint links, and low payload weight for planes, missiles, and tanks. Programs within the DOD such as the Army's WIN-T (Warfighter Information Network - Tactical) require advanced microwave components in order to meet the demanding applications of satellite communications while on-the-move. Other key market opportunities driving future growth exist in the mobile backhaul, wireless enterprise bridge, wireless fiber lateral emulation, government and public safety networks, WirelessHD, and WiMax.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architectures and Networks
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Instrumentation
Microwave/Submillimeter
RF
Ultra-High Density/Low Power


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 S1.02-9822
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High performance miniature bandpass filters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
LW Microsystem, Inc
801 Mahler Rd., Ste. 208
Burlingame, CA 94010 - 1611
(510) 209-7469

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Yin Liu
yinliu@lwmicrosystems.com
801 Mahler Rd., Ste. 208
Burlingame, CA 94010 - 1611
(510) 209-7469

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
This proposal is submitted for developing low impedance, miniature bandpass RF frequency filter via MEMS technique, in applications of SMAP, Aquarius follow-on, DESDynI, or Advanced L-band SAR and interferometers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The proposed low impedance, miniature bandpass RF frequency filters can be used in applications of SMAP, Aquarius follow-on, DESDynI, or Advanced L-band SAR and interferometers, as well as other communication, signal process in aerospace and ground application in NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The proposed innovative, small size, low impedance, bandpass RF frequency filters are ideal candidates for next generation cell phone applications. The current bandpass filter products in cell phone applications (mostly made of FBAR techniques) are bulky and can not meet the future cell phone development requirements. The development tendency requires the next generation cell phone to be multifunctional so it can accept multiple services for multiple applications, with no larger than current dimensions. The potential market size for compact bandpass RF filters is huge, from $176 millions in the US to $2.6 billions worldwide each year.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter
RF


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.02-9859
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solid State KA-Band, Solid State W-Band and TWT Amplifiers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pulse Systems, Inc.
222 Bolivar Street
Canton, MA 02021-3199
(781) 828-1142

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
JOHN LAGADINOS
JLAGADINOS@PULSESYSTEM.COM
222 BOLIVAR STREET
CANTON,  MA 02021-3199
(781) 828-1142

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phase I of the proposal describes plans to develop a state of the art transmitter for the W-Band and KA -Band Cloud Radar system. Our focus will be concentrated in the design of a dry high voltage assembly including both the power supply and modulator part of the system, thus eliminating the oil, which adds weight and presents complicated sealing problems during environmental conditions during system operatation. The system will be suitable for operatation at ground and aircraft environments and during extreme temperature ranges from -40 degrees centigrade to + 85 degrees centigrade. The simulation will represent actual testing conditions under EIK loading. The second part of our effort will be directed to develop an FR high power amplifier and a sophisticated combiner to direct the output energy to the antenna. The success of this part of our effort will result in the replacement of the EIK tube which is the most expensive part of our system with an RF power amplifier system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Goddard is seeking a high power and high efficiency dual frequency radar KA-Band and W-Band Solid State Amplifier with the potential use in a satellite mission for Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACE).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-Nasa Commerial applications that could benefit from this technology include, but are not limited to, early warning systems for tornadoes and hurricanes, Universities for investigating cloud effects and satellite communication systems and additional satellite communications orbital outlets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF
Instrumentation
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Energy Storage
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.02-9911
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Speed, Low-Power ADC for Digital Beam Forming (DBF) Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ridgetop Group, Inc.
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson, AZ 85704-5645
(520) 742-3300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Justin Judkins
justin.judkins@ridgetopgroup.com
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson,  AZ 85704-5645
(520) 742-3300

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ridgetop Group will design a high-speed, low-power silicon germanium (SiGe)-based, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to be a key element for digital beam forming (DBF) systems that are used in NASA's future radar missions. The ADC will employ a novel combination of time interleaving, high-speed bipolar technology and low-power techniques, such as the double-sampling technique, providing exceptional sampling speed of 500 MSPS,12 bits of resolution and very low, 100mW power dissipation. Ordinarily, ADC design requires large trade-offs in speed, resolution, and power consumption. The significance of this innovation is that it simultaneously provides a high-speed, high-resolution, and low-power ADC that is well ahead of the state-of-the-art. These three characteristics are needed for DBF systems that contain large ADC arrays. The power consumption of existing ADC chips prohibits implementation of large DBF arrays in space. Ridgetop's innovative design leverages newer semiconductor process technologies that combine silicon and germanium into a compound semiconductor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include radar, imaging, detectors, space radio astronomy, and communications circuits. Space radar systems stand to benefit from the combination of high resolution and low power of the proposed ADC. The technology is ideal for NASA JPL's radar research program, UAVSAR program, and many other critical communication circuits.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include: Phased arrays for ballistic missile defense (BMD), (The DBF technology is commonly quoted as a "huge leap" for radar-based missile defense systems), Space-based radar for military/intelligence targets or earthquake detection, Space navigation systems Conformal arrays for UAVs, Telecommunications, Medical device manufacturers, Computer networks, hard disk readout circuits, digital oscilloscopes, etc. (these applications require 500MSPS sampling speeds and the contemporary converters used are generally <10-bit.) Power-limited applications, such as laptops, wireless devices and PDAs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.03-8926
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microfabricated Low-Loss Microwave Switch Integration Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nuvotronics, LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Road
Radford, VA 24141-8846
(800) 341-2333

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ken Vanhille
kvanhille@nuvotronics.com
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford,  VA 24141-8846
(540) 552-4610

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 0 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nuvotronics has developed and optimized the PolyStrata<SUP>TM</SUP> process for the fabrication of intricate microwave and millimeter-wave devices. These devices have primarily been rectangular coaxial transmission lines, although rectangular waveguide and other structures have also been demonstrated. Intricate devices have been demonstrated with insertion loss 5 to 10 times lower than traditional planar circuits; isolation better than 60dB for lines that share separating walls; multiple levels of densely-packed coaxial circuits; and low-parasitic attachment to active devices and traditional circuit boards. In this Phase I project, Nuvotronics will deseign microfabricated MEMs-based switches on the Polystrata platform. Nuvotronics will explore whether piezoelectric-based or magnetic-based actuation provides the best performance for millimeter-wave radiometry applications. The devices will have size and cost advantages, higher power handling capability, and lower loss than achievable with the commonly available wafer-based switches of today.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial application is for the Beyond Einstein Inflation Probe as part of the Physics of the Cosmos Program, but has additional applications in other future NASA decadal survey missions including Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE), Snow and Cold Land Processes (SCLP), and Precipitation and All-Weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH). NASA satellite communications systems could also benefit from this technology in microwave switch matrix modules for efficiently multiplexing high data rate uplinks and downlinks such as in the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The MEMS switch integration technology will provide NASA additional capabilities at higher signal frequencies, allowing more effective use of RF hardware on board mission satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We anticipate high volume product opportunities for the MEMS switch integration technology within the DOD and non-Government commercial markets. For military communications, the benefits are higher bandwidth, multipoint links, and low payload weight for planes, missiles, tanks, and soldiers. Microwave Switch Matrix (MSM) applications exist in automated test equipment and instrumentation. MSMs are widely used in microwave test setups and satellite communications systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Architectures and Networks
RF
Instrumentation
Microwave/Submillimeter
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.03-9002
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Power 1-Bit ADC Array with Serial Output

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pacific Microchip Corp.
11949 Jefferson Blvd., #105
Los Angeles, CA 90230-6336
(310) 683-2628

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dalius Baranauskas
dalius@pacificmicrochip.com
11949 Jefferson Blvd. #105
Los Angeles,  CA 90230-6336
(310) 940-3083

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Microwave interferometers for NASA missions such as PATH and SCLP consist of up to 900 receivers. Each receiver requires I and Q ADCs (analog-to-digital converters) for signal digitizing at >200MHz before further digital processing in the cross-correlators. Power dissipation as well as instrument volume and weight are the most important parameters in space born instruments. Pacific Microchip proposes designing a monolithic array consisting of 20x1-bit ADCs. A serializer will be integrated to reduce the number of outputs from 20 to 1. This will reduce the power per ADC and resolve the problem of wiring congestion where the cross-correlators interface. For further power reduction, Pacific Microchip proposes integrating a novel metastability programming feature into the ADC latches. The clock distribution will also be dramatically simplified. The 2-wire serial IC (Inter-Integrated Circuit) interface will allow all 1800 ADCs to be calibrated and optimized. Phase I work will provide a complete definition, in silico validation of the product, and a hardware proof of concept. The Phase II program will produce a fieldable product. In order to facilitate the commercialization efforts in Phase III, a low cost commercial radiation-tolerant SiGe HTB technology will be used to fabricate the product.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The extra low power ADC arrays with serial outputs featuring power optimization capability depending on the required BER, high quantization frequencies, and convenient control through a two wire interface can be used in many radiometer and interferometer instruments applying passive and active microwave technologies that are under development by NASA in its mission to provide inexpensive data for science, agriculture, geology, weather forecast, climatology, and civil aviation. The potential application of the ADC arrays in space based wireless communication systems promise to lower the cost of exploration data delivery to the users.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The unique characteristics of the proposed ADC array makes it ideal for parallel digitizing applications that require extra low power at a relatively high quantization rate. Oversampling can be used in those cases when a higher resolution of more than one effective number of bits is required. Such ADCs are critical components in multichannel wireless communication systems. Advanced medical electronics require low power ADC arrays for their neural implants. ADC arrays are also required in image sensors and sensor networks still in their design phase. That the ADC array can be implemented using commercial SiGe technology makes it a particularly cost efficient solution. Since we plan to offer the block as an IP, it will fit for integration together with other blocks (both analog and digital) in the system, making the ADC array a cost efficient choice for SoCs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
RF
Data Input/Output Devices
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.04-8479
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Power Room Temperature Terahertz Local Oscillator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Desert Beam Technologies, LLC
3542 N. Geronimo Ave.
Tucson, AZ 85705-3614
(520) 888-5900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
JOE MICHAEL YARBOROUGH
m.yarborough@desert-beam.com
3542 N GERONIMO AVE
TUCSON,  AZ 85705-3614
(520) 888-5900

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to build a high-power, room temperature compact continuous wave terahertz local oscillator for driving heterodyne receivers in the 1-5 THz frequency window. The local oscillator is based on the recently discovered terahertz emission of a high-power infra-red vertical external-cavity optically-pumped surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) when operated under dual-wavelength emission. The dual IR wavelength separation can be easily controlled by placing a thin etalon in the VECSEL cavity and the THz signal (corresponding to the beat frequency) is generated via a nonlinear periodically-poled lithium niobate crystal placed in the cavity. The VECSEL semiconductor gain element is designed and optimized to generate on the order of kilowatt internal circulating infra-red fields in the VECSEL cavity thereby generating tunable THz power in the milliwatt ranage. It is anticipated that this source will have wide applications within NASA and the broader commercial community.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The VECSEL THz device can be used both as a narrow band frquency stable source for driving heterodyne receivers at key frequencies between 1 and 5 THz (1.4, 1.9, 2.7, 4.7, etc.) or for laboratory sources to characterize THz components, including MMIC's or possibly for active spectrometers in an in-situ environment. Additionally, the proposed source would enable the development of THz array receivers for use in space and suborbital missions, or for atmospheric sounders and planetary landers. For example, the VECSEL THz source could potentially find immediate use on the Stratosphere THz Observstory, SOFIA, and several SMEX/MIDEX mission concepts (eg. STIM, GTO).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The VECSEL THz source has the promise to deliver mW to Watt-level power at frequencies within and beyond the THz gap. While electronic THz sources tend to drop off in power as one enters this gap on the low frequency side, the current VECSEL THz power scales up between linearly and quadratically with increasing frequency. A room temperature mW power laboratory demonstration at 0.765 THz far exceeds the widely published nW-level power demonstrated with room temperature quantum cascade lasers. The VECSEL THz source would have a shoebox size footprint and is both cost and performance competitive with all existing commercial THz technologies. A specific technology currently under investigation with this source is the detection of and countermeasures to Improvised Explosive Devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.04-8553
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, OH 43082-8699
(614) 891-2243

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philip Swinehart
pswinehart@lakeshore.com
575 McCorkle Blvd
Westerville,  OH 43082-8699
(614) 891-2243

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a method of fabrication of far IR and THZ range multilayer metal-mesh filters. This type of filter consists of alternative layers of polymer material and structured thin metal films. The proposed filters are radiation hard and lightweight. The fabrication process proposed will increase the availability of such filters and expand the market while reducing the cost and delivery time. In Phase I, it is proposed to develop a process for incorporating the dielectric film in between the metal mesh and to maintain the mechanical integrity over the wide temperature range (from below 4K to 300K). In Phase II, optimized filters will be fabricated and their properties compared with design predictions. Phase III will involve product design, fabricating filter structures to meet customers' physical as well as optical needs, and marketing and sales investments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications of far IR and submillimeter wave filters include upper atmosphere studies and observations, study and observations of astronomical objects (our galaxy and beyond). Far IR and submillimeter wavelengths are particularly important for investigation of the statistics and physics of galaxy and structure formation at high red-shift and the study of the earliest stages of star formation, when the protostar is still coupled to the interstellar medium. Galaxies emit a large portion (from 30% to nearly 100%) of their total energy output in the far IR due to re-processing of stellar UV radiation by interstellar dust grains.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Narrow band pass, band pass and band blocking filters for THz frequency range filters are expected to find market in THz imaging, a technique that is targeting many applications spanning from defense and security applications (seeing through dust, camouflage, barriers) to medical applications (replacement of X-rays). Potential customers include manufacturers of THz imaging and THz sensing systems. Lake Shore proposes to utilize the materials, which while providing sufficiently low losses at THz region, could be used in large-scale fabrication compatible processes, thus permitting the reduction of the cost of filters and making them more attractive to aforementioned market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.04-9040
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Power Wideband Digital Spectrometer for Planetary Science

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HYPRES, Inc.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523-1109
(914) 592-1190

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Kaplan
kaplan@hypres.com
175 Clearbrook Rd
Elmsford,  NY 10523-1109
(914) 592-1190

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 2

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of this project is to develop a wideband digital spectrometer to support space-born measurements of planetary atmospheric composition. The spectrometer is based on a superconducting digitizer and a digital autocorrelator. The digitizer will be able to handle the entire 6 -18 GHz band by operating above the Nyquist frequency (target: 30 GSamples/s). The superconducting circuits will be based on Niobium-based Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology. They will be implemented without substantially impacting the cryogenic sensor package. The data from the superconducting digitizer will be processed by a 128-lag autocorrelator. During the Phase I performance period, we will determine whether the autocorrelator is best implemented using the RSFQ autocorrelator circuits we developed for the National Science Foundation, or the polyphase implementation we recently produced using fast FPGAs. The criteria for downselecting the best design will be the projected Signal-to-Noise ratios and the relative added terms to the system noise temperature. Our choice of Niobium superconductor technology will enable one single technology to implement the TerraHertz mixer, the digitizer, and the fast manipulation of digital data on a low-power low-temperature platform.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project will simplify wideband spectrometers in space, on aircraft or on earth by simultaneously utilizing low-power broad-bandwidth digitizers and ultra-fast autocorrelators, along with high-resolution digitization. The spectra of planetary atmospheric gases, intergalactic dust, or red-shifted remnants of the big bang in the far universe will not require using second intermediate frequencies, additional analog circuits, or stitching together several spectra. Targeted applications are: Global climate change and global circulation effects Effect of chloro-fluoro-carbons on the high atmosphere Atmospheric ozone chemistry Global air pollution Wideband studies of the early universe This technology can substantially improve the present electronics used for the Global Atmospheric Composition Mission and specifically the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder. It can also be used on earth-based platforms such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. As a cross-correlator, this instrument can improve the resolution and overall performance of optical- and radio-telescope arrays.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most commercially viable non-NASA applications pertain to homeland security and atmospheric monitoring, along with digital-RF communications Detection of nitrogen-based compounds used in explosives Detection of biohazards Land-based or airborne air quality monitoring RF Spectrum monitoring for present and future wideband communications

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Biomolecular Sensors
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Biochemical
Microwave/Submillimeter
Superconductors and Magnetic


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.04-9163
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: SHIMS -- A Spatial Heterodyne Interferometer for Methane Sounding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Solutions, Inc.
55 Middlesex Street
North Chelmsford, MA 01863-1561
(978) 251-4554

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Watchorn
steve@sci-sol.com
55 Middlesex street
North Chelmsford,  MA 01863-1561
(978) 251-4554

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project develops the Spatial Heterodyne Interferometer for Methane Sounding (SHIMS), a lightweight, compact, robust spectrometer system for remote sensing of methane (CH4) via a series of absorption lines in the ~tetradecad~, over the range 1.6 to 1.7 microns. This instrument will be incorporated into a satellite package, and is capable of being scaled into a 2- to 3-U CubeSat payload size. The end result of this project will be: (1) a full nadir-viewing near IR spectrometer system, featuring the first-ever high-resolution monolithic Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer for the near IR range; and, (2) a separate prototype of the first-ever SHS monolith with dedicated, built-in output optics which attach directly to the SHS monolith and to a detector via a standard c-mount adapter. This innovation will circumvent the need for the user to incorporate separate optics outside the monolith, making the unit even more end-user-ready.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SHS is far more robust than conventional interferometers, making it the ideal interferometer for space-based applications, where it is better able to survive the vibrations and stresses of launch. Its compactness and high throughput at a given resolving power are great advantages over slit spectrometers (such as grating spectrometers) designed for space missions. It thus combines the best of both instrument types, making it extremely well suited to space-based missions to observe space weather on Earth -- particularly important in this age of pervasive GPS applications and satellite communications. In addition to the methane sounding for which it is designed in this project, the SHIMS is very applicable to NASA's miniaturization initiatives, especially the use of CubeSat platforms. SHIMS has particular utility to a number of NASA's Earth Science Decadal Survery Studies. SHIMS is poised to serve a number of 2013-2016 missions including HyspIRI, ASCENDS, GEO-CAPE, and ACE, which collect the kind of spectrometric data for which a high-throughput, high-resolution, robust interferometer is ideal.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SHS is perfectly suited to applications in battlefield chemical detection and sensing, and especially (with its robustness) orbital remote sensing. Activities associated with tactical observing and monitoring have assumed more significance than ever, as demonstrated by Warfighter-1, NEMO, and OrbView-4. The monolithic SHS is also potentially a competitor to the FTIR or echelle-class spectrometers now used for environmental chemical detection and sensing. In addition, it can bring the advantages of interferometry (in terms of improved throughput and compactness) to realms such as computer-card-based spectroscopy, where grating spectrometers are now used. These computer cards, featuring miniature spectrometers built directly onto their surface, are used in tasks ranging from diagnostic testing to portable spectroscopy to educational demonstrations and labs. A small monolithic SHS would make this device even faster and more efficient.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.04-9311
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polarization Maintaining Coherent Fiber Bundle Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AdValue Photonics, Inc.
4585 S. Palo Verde Road, Suite 405
Tucson, AZ 85714-1962
(520) 790-5468

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shibin Jiang
sjiang@advaluephotonics.com
4585 S. Palo Verde Road, Suite 405
Tucson,  AZ 85714-1962
(520) 790-5468

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA flight missions are considering passive wavefront and amplitude control in astronomical applications such as the search for exo-planets. NASA's Discovery mission proposal called out the need for a coherent 2-dimensional array of fiber bundles for this application. In this SBIR proposal we propose to develop monolithic polarization maintaining (PM) coherent fiber bundle arrays consisting of 1,600 fibers with core-to-core spacing of 80 micron with placement accuracy of < 2 micron. In Phase I we will design and develop specialty glasses and fibers and demonstrate a 2D array with 16 cores to prove the feasibility of this proposal.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future NASA flight missions are considering passive wavefront and amplitude control (spatial filtering) in astronomical applications such as the search for exo-planets. NASA's Discovery mission proposal called out the need for a coherent 2-dimensional array of fiber bundles for this application. Polarization maintaining single mode fiber coherent bundle acts as an array of both amplitude and wavefront spatial filters for both astronomical and Earth sciences applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial applications for polarization maintaining coherent fiber bundle. This monolithic fiber bundle can be used for imaging especially integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor, for high resolution two-photon microscope, for volumetric endoscopic coherence microscopy, for fiber laser array, for fiber amplifier array, and for other research and development.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.04-9317
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Implant-Passivated Blocked Impurity Band Germanium Detector for the Far Infrared

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TechnoScience Corporation
P.O. Box 60658
Palo Alto, CA 94306-0658
(650) 838-9833

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jam Farhoomand
jam.farhoomand@nasa.gov
P.O. Box 60658
Palo Alto,  CA 94306-0658
(650) 838-9833

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to investigate the feasibility of fabricating a germanium blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detector using a novel process which will enable us to: 1- fabricate a suitably-doped active layer using the well-established bulk crystal-growth process, which guarantees excellent dopant control and extremely low compensating impurities, and 2- grow the blocking layer using an implant-passivation technique which will produce the required high purity and a very sharp transition from the active to blocking layer. These features are key in design and optimization of multi-layered structure of BIBs, and their implementation and quality are crucial in optimum operation of these detectors. The proposed process is a drastic departure from conventional epitaxial methods, such as chemical vapor deposition and liquid phase epitaxy, which have yet to produce far IR BIBs suitable for astronomical instruments. Germanium BIBs will offer extended wavelength response to at least 200m, high quantum efficiency, high immunity to ionizing radiation, and elimination of long-term transient and memory effects. Coupled with their compatibility with Si cryo-CMOS readout multiplexers and the planar, bump-bond hybridization process, these detectors will make possible the construction of large format, high sensitivity FPAs for far IR astronomy and will replace the current unstressed and stressed germanium detectors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Far-infrared astronomical instruments on board SOFIA, balloon experiments, and any follow-on missions to Spitzer and Herschel such as SAFIR/CALISTO.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Far-infrared astronomical instruments on board SPICA, a japanese-led, JAXA-ESA joint mission scheduled to launch in 2017.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter
Photonics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 S1.04-9357
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Passively-cooled hyperspectral infrared detectors and arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
EPIR Technologies, Inc.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440 - 4881
(630) 771-0201

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Silviu Velicu
svelicu@epir.com
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440 - 4881
(630) 771-0203

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
A constant demand exists to improve the sensitivity of trace chemical species measurement systems, which is often limited by the performance of the infrared photon detector components. The significant cooling required to reduce dark currents and increase detectivities is a practical concern associated with these infrared detectors. For geostationary and low-Earth orbital platforms, passive cooling systems have been developed to provide a suitable means of incorporating such high-performance infrared detectors. The passive cooling system for the Crosstrack Infrared Sounder has provided a means to achieve a set point of 81 K for long-wavelength infrared detector operation. We will develop in this proposed effort the technology for high-performance, passively-cooled infrared (6-14 microns spectral range) detectors with integrated capabilites for Fabry-Perot spectroscopy. The proposed sensors will be based on HgCdTe material for high detectivities and use an Auger-suppression technique to reduce cooling requirements. HgCdTe detectors capable of operating under passive cooling conditions will be designed, fabricated and tested. In parallel, Fabry-Perot cavities suitable for future integration with the HgCdTe infrared detectors will be designed, fabricated and tested. The infrared detector arrays and tunable Fabry Perot cavities will be integrated in later phases of the proposed project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The provision of additional functionalities to infrared detectors will provide new capabilities for associated spectroscopy systems along with the potential to improve system size, weight and performance. In particular, infrared detector imaging arrays will provide an effective means for spatial discrimination and imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral imaging), such as used in the NASA Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) system. Infrared spectroscopy systems, and particularly imaging spectroscopy systems, may be enhanced or simplified by direct spectral discrimination at the infrared detector. The developed detector arrays could be deployed in a National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and other space-based NASA systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
New and emerging applications require the detection of narrow infrared spectral lines in order to allow clear material/object detection, chemical analysis and accurate temperature measurements. The high performance hyperspectral sensors to be developed as part of this proposed effort will possess many military and commercial applications, including night vision and poor weather imaging for military operations and aircraft landing, ship navigation and search and rescue; target identification; surveillance; fire rescue in smoke-filled environments; industrial applications such as process control, large area temperature monitoring and preventative maintenance; environmental monitoring for pipe leaks, hazardous material spills, automobile exhaust emissions, and the status of high power electrical systems; and non-invasive medical measurements of temperature for detecting tumors and measuring blood flow.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 S1.04-9508
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for Visible, IR, Far IR and Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved trace gas spectrometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505 - 3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Steven M Massick
smassick@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505 - 3993
(505) 984-1322

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
Southwest Sciences proposes development of gas filter correlation (GFC) spectroscopy using non-periodic gratings for spaceborne and airborne deployment. Our proposed technology will result in smaller, lighter weight, lower power, and more rugged instrumentation than is possible using established GFC spectrometers. The approach is based on the development of non-periodic diffraction gratings that replace the reference gas cells used in GFC spectrometers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Our technology will fill a need for satellite-based atmospheric measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations with 1 part per million precision. These measurements are needed to monitor changes that can affect global warming and for validating climate change models. Satellite-based remote sensing allows global coverage with relatively short periods. The technology can also be adapted to remote sensing of other atmospheric components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
We target the newly emerging market for low-cost precision carbon dioxide sensors that will need to be deployed in large numbers for monitoring cap and trade agreements and greenhouse gas reduction treaties. Cost benefits of high volume production should make practical a worldwide network of reliable, automated sensors.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


 

 

PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.05-9730
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Functionalized Nano-Film Microchannel Plate: A Single High Aspect Ratio Device for High Resolution, Low Noise Astronomical Imaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arradiance, Inc.
142 North Road
Sudbury, MA 01776-1122
(978) 369-8291

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Neal Sullivan
nsullivan@arradiance.com
142 North Road
Sudbury,  MA 01776-1122
(800) 659-2970

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is to apply proven nano-film technology to enable Microchannel plate (MCP) devices to be manufactured on a range of insulating substrates and devices which possess sufficiently high gain and low ion feedback to replace chevron stacks in current NASA detector technologies. Commercial MCP devices have many desirable properties, such as sensitivity to small amounts of light and excellent position and timing resolution. MCP production is a mature technology, based largely on techniques and materials developed in the 1970's, and is limited to small area devices. Limitations due to the bulk glass manufacturing technology adversely impact many applications and impair manufacturability. For example, heavy metal impurities contained within the bulk glass of the MCP limit the achievable dark noise in low signal detection. In MCP manufacturing, the requisite batch processing restricts flexibility to tailor individual device or small batch performance to specific applications and can often result in poor MCP yield due to variations in composition and poor process control. In this proposal, we will utilize atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nanometer thin films which has been proven to replicate and improve the component functions of secondary electron emission (SEE) and conductivity on non-traditional glass substrates, to investigate the high gain and low ion feedback capabilities of this technology. We estimate that the technology stands at TRL 2 at the and expect to be at 4 at end of the Phase 1 contract.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential impacts for MCP technology include: substrate independence, ability to manufacture large area detectors, single event detection in a single MCP (no chevron required), greatly improved resolution and direct deposition of opaque photocathodes onto high temperature substrates. The ability of this technology to directly impact NASA missions is enormous. These innovations will contribute significantly to an improvement in resolution, a simplification of the optics required and provide the potential to expand the size of the detector. By significantly improving the functionality and capability of MCPs, it will be possible to deploy a single plate configuration capable of low noise, high resolution counting and imaging that could surpass existing detector performance benchmarks. With Arradiance's functional nano-film MCP technology, it will be possible to significantly reduce the size, mass, power and cost of detection so that instruments can be flown on smaller, more affordable spacecraft with potential benefits for science measurement capabilities so that NASA development programs can meet multiple mission needs and make the best use of limited resources.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Major market opportunities for thin-film functionalized, alternative substrate MCPs include Special Nuclear Material detection at ports and shipboard, large area photon and particle detection, enhancements over traditional MCPs, Channel Electron Multipliers, and Photomultiplier tubes in analytical applications and military and commercial Night Vision. Other commercial applications include Mass spectrometry, Photoionization, Electron microscopy, Surface physics, UV and VUV imaging, Astronomy, Space telescopes, Fusion research, Synchrotron Radiation, Nuclear physics, Field ion microscopy, Low temperature physics, Neutron Detectors, Neutron Radiography and Tomography, Scanning Near field Microscopy, Accelerators , Plasma Physics, Cluster research, Fluorescent detection and Trace analysis. Large government contractors such as SAIC and Rapiscan have expressed support for the development of MCP-based direct fast neutron detectors and large area MCP-PMTs for advanced radiation detectors, X-ray and gamma ray imaging systems, and low light level imaging systems. In addition, government national laboratories, such as Argonne National Labs, are supporting alternatives to the photomultiplier tube for photon detection in large astroparticle experiments such as gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy and direct dark matter detectors to improve performance and reduce cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Particle and Fields
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
High-Energy
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.05-9827
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detector Technologies for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Noise, UV-to-SWIR Broadband Photodiodes for Large-Format Focal Plane Array Sensors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Discovery Semiconductors, Inc.
119 Silvia Street
Ewing, NJ 08628-3200
(609) 434-1311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Abhay Joshi
abhay@chipsat.com
119 Silvia Street
Ewing,  NJ 08628-3200
(609) 434-1311

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Broadband focal plane arrays, operating in UV-to-SWIR wavelength range, are required for atmospheric monitoring of greenhouse gases. Currently, separate image sensors are used for different spectral sub-bands: GaN for UV, Si for visible, and InGaAs for SWIR, requiring expensive component-level integration for hyper-spectral imaging. Also, the size of the InGaAs focal plane arrays is currently limited by the InP substrate area. We propose a GaAs/InGaP/InGaAs based photodiode on standard GaAs substrates for large-format (4096 x 4096) focal plane arrays with the following characteristics: (1) Wavelength = 0.25 to 2.5 micron; (2) Quantum Eficiency > 30% in UV (0.25 to 0.4 micron), > 80% in Visible (0.4 to 0.9 micron), and > 70% in IR (0.9 to 2.5 micron) subbands; (3) Photodiode Area (single element) = 15 x 15, 25 x 25, and 50 x 50 micron square; (4) RoA > 35 Ohm-cm^2 at 300K; and (5) Bandwidth > 1 GHz. Additionally, feasibility of UV-to-SWIR graded optical filters will be investigated. Based on P.I.'s experience on SCIAMACHY, this project will enable one image sensor for 8 spectroscopic channels currently orbiting on European Space Agency's ENVISAT. Also, feasibility of large-format image sensors on GaAs substrates will be demonstrated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications for large-format folcal plane arrays utilizing UV-to-SWIR broadband photodiodes are: 1. Space-based atmospheric monitoring of ozone and greenhouse gases 2. Weather observation 3. Hyper-spectral sensors for planetary missions

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA commercial applications for large-format folcal plane arrays utilizing UV-to-SWIR broadband photodiodes are: 1. Pollution monitoring for automobiles, refineries, etc. 2. Bio-medical imaging and spectroscopy 3. Jet engine development 4. Industrial process control in pharmaceutical, food-processing, and petrochemical industries 5. Crop monitoring 6. Mineral detection

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Biomolecular Sensors
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.06-8420
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Laser Magnetometer (MLM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Polatomic, Inc.
1810 N. Glenville Dr., #116
Richardson, TX 75081-1954
(972) 690-0099

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Slocum
bob_slocum@polatomic.com
1810 N. Glenville Dr., #116
Richardson,  TX 75080-1954
(972) 690-0099

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This 2009 NASA SBIR Phase 1 proposal for an innovative Miniature Laser Magnetometer (MLM) is a response to subtopic S1.06 Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies. The MLM instrument will incorporate a number of technical innovations to achieve high-sensitivity and high-stability performance while significantly reducing the size of the laser-pumped helium magnetometer for use on very small satellites and UAVs. The MLM design approach will trade sensitivity for miniaturization of critical components while still meeting the performance requirements for geomagnetic and space science experiments. Reduction in instrument mass, volume and power will be accomplished through innovations including miniaturized components, laser spectroscopy techniques for resonance detection, compact integrated optical designs and miniaturized electronics packaging. The MLM will have a dynamic range up to 75,000 nT and a 860 Hz sample rate. The scalar sensitivity will be 1 pT/rtHz with an accuracy of 0.1 nT. The vector sensitivity will be 1 pT/rtHz with an accuracy of 0.5 nT. Trade studies will select the innovations for inclusion in the MLM conceptual design that will demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and demonstrating a brass-board in Phase 2. The TRL is expected to be 4 at the end of the Phase 1 contract.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this SBIR project will find applications in advanced MLM instruments for airborne, satellite, and surface measurements of magnetic fields on Earth and for other bodies in the Solar System. Laser magnetometers are under consideration for volcanic eruption predictions and geo-potential changes in the Earth's crust associated with earthquakes and subduction zones. Laser-pumped space magnetometers are also under development for missions including an Earth-field orbiting magnetometer/gradiometer mapping mission, a solar orbiter mission with JPL and UCLA, future Jupiter missions with GSFC, and a Mars Observer mission with JPL. The compact size will enable the MLM to be used on small UAV's and satellites. The outstanding accuracy and sensitivity will allow the measurement of gradients at short and long distances. The MLM will can also be configures as a portable instrument for use in magnetic calibration facilities and for ground-based magnetic testing of spacecraft and aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high-sensitivity laser-pumped helium magnetometer technology is currently being developed for military applications in UAVs and UUVs used for Mine Countermeasures and Anti-Submarine Warfare. Polatomic is pursuing opportunities in magnetic detection of tunnels for border security and monitoring and airborne detection of underground facilities. The MLM will be used for surface, marine, and airborne magnetic prospecting in small UAVs. Polatomic is jointly pursuing use of the laser magnetometers for mineral and petroleum exploration with Southern Methodist University. The MLM permits high-resolution magnetometer and gradiometer mapping of mineral deposits that form in ridges, narrow intrusions, geologic up-thrusts, and deep-lying ore deposits. In conventional airborne surveys, the high sampling rate and high resolution may increase the daily productivity per aircraft by as much as a factor of ten. In addition, underwater magnetic surveys will benefit from the order-of-magnitude gradiometer resolution improvement realized by towing the MLM in a magnetically clean underwater vehicle.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.06-8554
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument Enabling Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Deployable Space Systems
955 Nysted Drive
Solvang, CA 93463-2247
(805) 693-1319

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Spence
Brian.Spence@DeployableSpaceSystems.com
955 Nysted Drive
Solvang,  CA 93463-2247
(805) 693-1319

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
DSS's innovative Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom will provide revolutionary performance when compared to conventional state-of-the-art technologies, and will significantly enhance operations and capability for future NASA missions. The proposed Roll-Out Boom is strong, stiff, lightweight, thin, scalable, compactly-stowed, and fabricated from ultra-lightweight composite materials. The Roll-Out Boom can be used as a self-deploying antenna, electric field antenna, linear actuator, grapple arm, gravity gradient boom, camera support, inspection aid, or as an actuator/structure for deploying payloads, antennas, solar arrays, instrument benches, solar sails, and sunshades. The Roll-Out boom is a very simple concept that integrates an innovative deployment synchronization system to provide controlled, reliable and repeatable deployments, to produce deployments always in a predictable/known direction. The Roll-Out Boom provides exceptional structural performance in a small lightweight package, and is a direct replacement to current state-of-the-art systems. Boom sizes envisioned can be from 0.5-inch to 12-inches in diameter (or greater), with lengths from 1-m to 50-m long (or longer). The significance of the proposed technology and program will enable future NASA and non-NASA missions by providing a revolutionary and positive performance impact to the end-user, and allow for the rapid insertion of this mission-enabling technology for future applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed DSS Roll-Out Boom is widely applicable to future NASA missions as a direct replacement for existing technologies, and will provide the end-user with an enabling technology that reliable deploys and is strong, stiff, lightweight, thin, compactly-stowed, and fabricated from ultra-lightweight composite materials. The Roll-Out Boom can be used as a self-deploying antenna, electric field antenna, linear actuator, grapple arm, gravity gradient boom, camera support, inspection aid, or as an actuator/structure for deploying payloads, antennas, solar arrays, instrument benches, solar sails, and sunshades. The technology is ideal for making large antennas and arrays such as dipoles, monopoles, and Yagi antenna shapes. Boom sizes envisioned can be from 0.5-inch to 12-inches in diameter (or greater), with lengths from 1-m to 50-m long (or longer). DSS has received strong industry advocacy for the proposed SBIR effort and has received letters of advocacy and support to provide a conduit for commercial technology infusion.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Roll-Out Boom is also widely applicable to non-NASA missions, including DoD and commercial missions, as a direct replacement for current state-of-the-art. The Roll-Out Boom can be used as a self-deploying antenna, electric field antenna, linear actuator, grapple arm, gravity gradient boom, camera support, inspection aid, or as an actuator/structure for deploying payloads, antennas, solar arrays, instrument benches, solar sails, and sunshades. The technology is ideal for making large antennas and arrays such as dipoles, monopoles, and Yagi antenna shapes. Applicable missions include: LEO DoD surveillance, reconnaissance, communications and other critical payload/equipment satellites, LEO commercial mapping and critical payload/equipment satellites, MEO DoD satellites, GEO commercial communications and critical payload/equipment satellites, and GEO DoD communications and payload/equipment satellites. Non-space applications include fixed and mobile ground deployable structures for antennas and other payloads.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Kinematic-Deployable
Particle and Fields
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.07-8699
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Application of Reinforced HTS 2212 Wires in ADR Magnets Operating at 30K-40K

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Superconducting Systems, Inc.
5 Fortune Drive
Billerica, MA 01821-3923
(978) 330-3021

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shahin Pourrahimi
pourrahimi@superconductingsystems.com
5 Fortune Drive
Billerica,  MA 01821-3923
(978) 330-3021

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) are considered for operations in many space missions. At the heart of an ADR is a magnet that produces the background field necessary for demagnetization of a paramagnetic material. To achieve very low temperatures, all sources of heat need to be eliminated or minimized, making superconducting magnets an obvious choice. The size and power requirement of current cryocoolers that cool such superconducting magnets to about 4K make them unrealistic for space missions. ADR magnets that can operate at 30K-40K require simpler cooling systems and are more suited to space applications. This requires the coils to be fabricated from HTS wires. Phase I of this work aims to manufacture 0.2mm diameter Bi2212/Ag wires and fabricate a 1T 30mm dia. x 62mm long superconducting coil that can operate at 30-40K. Since 2002 our company has been the beneficiary of SBIR awards in the area of developing light-weight low-current ADR magnets operating at 10K by using Nb3Sn superconducting wires in manufacturing of ADR magnets, and successfully fabricated demonstration magnets that were provided to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. All the developed techniques, procedures and the equipment will directly be applied to the aims of this proposal.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) are considered for operations in many space missions. At the heart of an ADR is a magnet that produces the background field necessary for demagnetization of a paramagnetic material, often a salt-pill. To achieve very low temperatures, all sources of heat need to be eliminated or minimized, making superconducting magnets an obvious choice. The size and power requirement of current cryocoolers that cool such superconducting magnets, that can achieve 3.5-10K, make them unrealistic for space missions. Operations at 30-40K would be greatly beneficial. This requires the coils to be fabricated from HTS wires. This may enable a space relevant ADR magnet to use a small and efficient mechanical cryocooler. In addition to ADR systems, other NASA applications that can benefit from this work include efficient motors and generators, MHD propulsion, high precision sensors and actuators, electromagnetic launch, and magnetic resonance imaging in space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Larger efficient motors and generators fabricated from HTS wires operating at 30-40K may have applications in the power generation, and transmission industries. Advances may be implemented in the magnetic resonance imaging industry since the cooling requirement of HTS wires are orders of magnitude less than LTS such as NbTi and Nb3Sn devices currently used. Applications in vehicle and appliance industries can be envisioned as this technology advances towards more powerful wires/cables that can operate with simple/lighter single stage cryocooler operating at up to 40K.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
MHD
Instrumentation
MHD and Related Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.07-8870
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Magnetic Thermometer for High-Resolution 10 mK Scale Thermometry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
STAR Cryoelectronics, LLC
25-A Bisbee Court
Santa Fe, NM 87508-1338
(505) 424-6454

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robin Cantor
rcantor@starcryo.com
25-A Bisbee Court
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-1338
(505) 424-6454

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An innovative thin-film magnetic thermometer with integrated superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout is described for fast, precision temperature measurements in the 10 mK range. The compact thermometer consists of a miniature DC SQUID susceptometer with a dilute paramagnetic alloy deposited in one of the two series-configured gradiometric SQUID pickup loops that form the SQUID inductance. Directly sensing the magnetic signal with the SQUID eliminates losses that would otherwise occur by transformer-coupling the signal to a remotely located SQUID, usually operating at a higher temperature and consequently with a higher noise floor. In addition, a novel superconducting flux concentrator deposited on top of the paramagnetic alloy homogenizes and concentrates the magnetic flux density in the paramagnet and reduces the inductance of the pickup coil, both of which improve the sensitivity and signal to noise ratio as compared with previous miniature susceptometer designs. The innovative magnetic thermometer design is expected to achive a temperature resolution well below 1 K/Hz.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several potential NASA missions stand to benefit from the proposed magnetic thermometer development effort, in particular missions that include instrumentation with arrays of cryogenic detectors requiring precision temperature control for a variety of spectroscopy applications. Potential missions include the measurement of the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMBPol), Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory (SAFIR), International X-ray Observatory (IXO), and the space-based interferometer Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS). The innovative magnetic thermometer with integrated SQUID readout described in this proposal is easy to use, features a compact design to simplify integration, and will meet targeted needs for fast, high-resolution (better than 1 K/Hz) temperature control for these missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cryogenic detectors based on transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters, magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs), and superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are becoming increasingly attractive for several commercial applications including x-ray, gamma-ray and alpha particle spectroscopy for x-ray microanalysis, x-ray fluorescence, and nuclear forensics and non-proliferation. All of these detector applications require precision temperature control for proper operation of the detector arrays. Monitoring the temperature at the end of a cold finger or snout where the detector arrays typically are located is very difficult using a conventional resistive thermometer, which also can produce erroneously high readings due to self-heating effects. Noise thermometers are superior in this regard, but their slow response time (~10 s) and limited resolution (~1%) make these thermometers less attractive for precision temperature measurements. The precision thin-film magnetic thermometer described in this proposal will offer an attractive solution for precision temperature control for all of these commercial detector applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Control Instrumentation
Instrumentation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.07-9643
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micromachined Active Magnetic Regenerator for Low Temperature Magnetic Coolers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-0071
(603) 643-3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Weibo Chen
wbc@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-0071
(603) 643-3800

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's future science missions to investigate the structure and evolution of the universe require highly efficient, very low temperature coolers for low noise detector systems. We propose to develop a highly efficient, lightweight Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigeration (AMRR) system that can continuously provide remote/distributed cooling at temperatures in the range of 2 K with a heat sink at about 15 K. The AMRR system uses a vibration-free, reversible cryogenic circulator and innovative Micromachined Active Magnetic Regenerators (MAMRs) to achieve a large cooling capacity and very high thermal efficiency. The MAMRs use an innovative flow channel configuration and novel micromachining technologies to achieve very high thermal and flow performance. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of our approach by demonstrating critical fabrication methods for the micromachined regenerator and its thermal and flow performance through detailed analysis. In Phase II we will build and demonstrate a full-scale micromachined regenerator for a prototype AMRR system that can provide 50 mW of cooling near 2 K. In Phase III we will demonstrate a complete AMRR system incorporating the MAMRs and Creare's innovative reversible cryogenic circulator.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed AMRR system will enable NASA to carry out future science missions that use cryogenic infrared, gamma ray, and X-ray detectors. Potential missions include the International X-ray Observatory (IOX) and the Single Aperture Far-Infrared observatory (SAFIR). These detectors need to operate at temperatures in the range of 4 K to below 1 K to reduce the thermal emission of the detectors themselves and to achieve high sensitivity and resolution. The vibration-free, lightweight AMRR can provide efficient cooling for these missions at the required temperature ranges. The fabrication technologies developed for the magnetic regenerator can also be applied to the fabrication of advanced regenerators for mechanical cryocoolers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The military applications for the proposed magnetic cooler include cooling systems on space-based surveillance, missile detection, and missile tracking systems. Scientific applications include cooling systems for material microanalysis using X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometers, cryogenic particle detectors, and biomolecule mass spectrometry using superconducting tunnel junction detectors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.08-8096
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fieldable, Real-Time NO2 Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Novawave Technologies
900 Island Drive, Suite 101
Redwood City, CA 94065-5176
(650) 610-0956

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joshua Paul
hjjost@gmail.com
900 Island Drive, Suite 101
Redwood City,  CA 94065-5176
(650) 610-0956

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a compact, autonomous NO2 sensor for air monitoring applications based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A key component in the proposed system is new laser technology developed at NovaWave. The Phase I research will directly demonstrate the utility of this new light source by performing LIF measurements on NO2 samples in a laboratory setting. The Phase II system will fully integrate the laser with an autonomous spectrometer and air sampling system to comprise a complete sensor package. Phase III will result in the development of fieldable commercial systems that will be manufactured and distributed to the regional end users.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications for the proposed technology include the study of the Earth's atmosphere, and the atmospheres of other celestial bodies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential commercial applications based on the sensor technology described in this proposal are quite large. NO2 monitoring by a network of urban air quality monitoring stations is a critical component to understanding the chemistry of air pollution and ozone depletion, and has recently been mandated by the EPA. This need creates a significant market opportunity.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.08-8286
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: A UAV-Based Volcanic Aerosol Size and Charge Analyzer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Novawave Technologies
900 Island Drive, Suite 101
Redwood City, CA 94065-5176
(650) 610-0956

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Fuerstenau
sfuerstenau@novawavetech.com
900 Island Drive, Suite 101
Redwood City,  CA 94065-5176
(650) 610-0956

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NovaWave Technologies proposes the development of a novel aerodynamic particle sizing instrument based on a non-optical, charge sensing method. The instrument will be able to determine the aerodynamic diameter of particles larger than one micrometer. In addition it will measure the electric charge on particles carrying more than 250 unit charges. The initial effort will be focused on developing methods, including corona discharge and tribo-charging, for electrifying neutral particles to levels sufficient for detection. The envisioned instrument will weigh less than 2 kg and will require just 2000 cc of volume. It is intended for deployment on a UAV deployed for in-situ characterization of volcanic ash plumes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrument could be used in a variety of NASA applications including: Air quality and particulate monitoring devices Lunar habitat cabin air monitor Martian surface dust characterization Airborne platforms for Volcano and Thunderstorm electrification study

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include the assessment of charge on agricultural and industrial powders, drug delivery and pharmaceuticals, and the detection of bio-warfare agents.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electrostatic Thrusters
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Organics/Bio-Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.08-8691
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, Airborne Multispecies Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Novawave Technologies
900 Island Drive, Suite 101
Redwood City, CA 94065-5176
(650) 610-0956

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hans-Jurg "H.-J." Jost
hjjost@novawavetech.com
900 Island Drive, Suite 101
Redwood City,  CA 94065-5176
(650) 610-0956

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a compact mid-infrared laser spectrometer to benefit Earth science research activities. To capitalize on emerging aerial platforms, a miniaturized and ruggedized mid-infrared laser spectrometer using novel, fiber-coupled, solid state lasers will be designed to improve performance over traditional tunable diode laser systems requiring cryogenic cooling. It will measure priority gases specifically listed in the subtopic.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications for the instrument described in this proposal include the interrogation of Earth atmosphere for trace species for pollution monitoring and greenhouse gas research. The described instrument will have applications in atmospheric chemistry and satellite validation performed on uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAV) and other emerging platforms as well as spacecraft environment monitoring and terrestrial applications such as combustion diagnostics, hazard assessment, and industrial process control

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The worldwide market for gas sensors with the capabilities of the proposed system is quite large. Numerous potential applications can be found in trace gas monitoring, pollution monitoring, industrial process control, and medical diagnostics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.08-8772
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hyperspectral Image Projector with Polarization Capability

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette, CO 80026-8878
(303) 604-0077

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TERESA EWING
TEWING@BNONLINEAR.COM
450 COURTNEY WAY
LAFAYETTE,  CO 80026-8878
(303) 604-0077

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 1 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal outlines the development of a novel instrument for calibrating satellite based imaging sensors the Polarization Hyperspectral Image Projector (PHIP). The PHIP instrument is capable of producing realistic, standards-based satellite imagery, simultaneously projecting spectral, spatial and polarization scenes. In this proposal, we offer to extend our current collaboration with NIST and add polarization capability to the HIP instrument, anticipating the need to calibrate emerging polarization-based sensors in NASA's climate monitoring satellites.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Polarization based sensors have shown great promise for climate monitoring: tracking hurricanes, detecting forest fires, quantifying atmospheric aerosols, measuring sea surface temperature and ocean color. The addition of polarization sensing capability to sensors, however, requires a complementary capability in polarization simulation for calibration. Pre-launch calibration of these instruments is vital, particularly in view of strict polarization requirements necessary to produce useful climate data. Current calibration methods are similar to those used for spectral characterization, using uniform monochromatic, simple polarization states. The proposed instrument will provided arbitrary polarization on a pixel by pixel basis, at multiple wavebands and with crucial spatial content.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications beyond calibration of remote sensing instruments include: "digital tissue phantoms" projection of complex, realistic, calibrated medically relevant images, calibration of digital cameras and other consumer electronics, quality control of medical film products, and machine vision simulations. In addition, the individual spectral, spatial and polarization engines can be offered as stand-alone products to the scientific community.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 S1.08-8793
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Photoacoustic Multicomponent Analyzer for Atmospheric Compounds

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Masstech, inc.
6992 columbia gateway drive ste 200
columbia, MD 21046 - 2985
(443) 539-1739

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Guangkun Li
homer@sesi-md.com
6992 columbia gateway drive ste 200
columbia, MD 21046 - 2985
(443) 539-3111

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
We propose to build a compact, rugged field-deployable laser photoacoustic spectrometric (LPAS) sensor for continuous, real-time measurements of multiple chemical components, and perform field tests to qualify it for dynamic monitoring of Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide (12CO2 and 13CO2), Carbon Monoxide, Methane, Ozone, Reactive and Trace Gases.

Our sensor will be based on our laboratory LPAS instrument (at technology readiness level TRL-4)that has already demonstrated successful alcohol detection in presence of water vapor. It utilizes a tunable infrared laser (interband cascade or quantum cascade), a high sensitivity photoacoustic cell with an air sampler and an efficient algorithm to rapidly complete high sensitivity, selective multi-component measurements in under a minute. In Phase I we will carry out extensive laboratory tests of LPAS with standard samples, and a comprehensive analysis of the sensor performance using a model to determine the limit of detection (LOD) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the sensor and establish its feasibility. A rugged and portable prototype sensor (TRL-5) will be built in Phase II. It will be field tested in open environment with artificially loaded target gases (TRL-6) and characterize the sensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
NASA Applications for this instrument include the global atmospheric monitoring of trace species. Being insensitive to varying background conditions, LPAS sensors are well suited for water vapor measurement, sensing troposphere and lower stratosphere gases such as CO2, CO2 isotopes, CO, CH4, O3, NO2, NOx and N2O, etc. This compact, low-cost, accurate, and highly reliable trace gas sensor could be configured for ground or aircraft. LPAS sensor will be capable of not only accurately measuring ambient levels but will be capable of detecting specific sources in the indoor environment.

Candidate NASA missions include MOPITT (Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere), ASCENDS, (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons), GACM (Global Atmospheric Composition Mission), and Geo-CAPE (Geostationary Coastal Air Pollution Events), etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The commercial applications of the proposed sensor include greenhouse gas monitoring for geophysical research and emissions compliance, hydrocarbon leak detection, and a variety of industrial process control venues. The proposed LPAS system can be applied for many other trace gas measurements and environmental monitoring and will have numerous markets. Besides the environmental and industrial application, many other military applications including detection of Chemical warfare Agent (CWA), explosives, TICs, can make use of the devices developed in this project. Potential customers are the NOAA or EPA for environmental monitoring, DoD for detection of IED (JIEDDO), the DHS for detection of explosives and scanning of luggage (TSA), etc.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Simulation Modeling Environment


 

PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.08-9043
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Nitrous Oxide Analyzer for Atmospheric Research

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136
(505) 466-3953

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joerg Kutzner
jkutzner@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-8136
(505) 466-3830

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project targets the development of a highly sensitive gas sensor to monitor atmospheric nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is an important species in Earth science research. It is one of the four principal greenhouse gases that result from human activities. It is the primary source gas for nitrogen oxides in the stratosphere, a useful dynamical tracer and a powerful greenhouse gas. It is the only long-lived atmospheric tracer of human perturbations of the global nitrogen cycle. Atmospheric mixing ratios for nitrous oxide are around 320 parts-per-billion (ppb). Though it's atmospheric concentration is much smaller than that of the most cited green house gas carbon dioxide, it is an effective greenhouse gas having a Global Warming Potential of 296 over a 100-year time span. Vista Photonics proposes to develop a compact, low weight, highly sensitive, in situ monitor for nitrous oxide.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The targeted sensor platform is a compact, ultra-sensitive device for Earth science research. It will allow in situ monitoring of atmospheric nitrous oxide in a variety of surface and airborne applications. This sensor generation will be applicable to NASA's Airborne Science program. Because a substantial part of nitrous oxide emission stems from the oceans, the proposed sensor will impact NASA's Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry, and Applied Sciences programs, including the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). The sensor versatility will allow detailed studies of emissions from selected sources. The compact and highly sensitive instrumentation will substantially increase the possibilities of atmospheric nitrous oxide research. It will also be valuable for calibration and validation of satellite measurements that are routinely performed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The nitrous oxide sensor will be the basis to develop general devices for highly reliable, sensitive monitoring and/or detection of different gas species. The small and ultra-sensitive sensor generation will be broadly deployable. Applications include environmental monitoring and protection, occupational safety, modern manufacturing, and biomedical applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.08-9140
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Atmospheric Aerosol Analysis using Lightweight Mini GC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Seacoast Science, Inc.
2151 Las Palmas Drive, Suite C
Carlsbad, CA 92011-1575
(760) 268-0083

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sanjay Patel
sanjay@seacoastscience.com
2151 Las Palmas Drive, Suite C
Carlsbad,  CA 92011-1575
(760) 268-0083

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The major components of manmade aerosols are created by the burning of coal and oil. These aerosols are recognized to have a significant climatic impact through their effects on solar and terrestrial radiation. The accurate speciation and measurement of the composition of these aerosols is an important first step in understanding and managing these pollutants. This proposal focuses on the development of a detection system specifically for the collection, speciation and identification of gas phase and aerosolized organics. The proposed portable system will be approximately 1/10 the size and 1/5 the cost of traditional bench top analytical units and will be capable of sample collection and battery operation without the need for compressed bottled gas. The Seacoast system will integrate its proprietary chemicapacitive sensor array technology and commercial sensors with a preconcentration/chromatography system, combining selectivity from a diverse sensor array with a miniature sampling system for amplified sensitivity. The specific components will be: 1) vapor collection pump, 2) sample preconcentrator capable of being heated quickly and in stages, 3) capillary column to separate the chemicals released from the preconcentrator and provide selectivity, 4) the chemical sensor array containing Seacoast's chemoselective microcapacitors or "chemicapacitors" and metal-oxide-based detectors, 5) integrated user interface. The system will be designed to be modular so as to allow further expansion with other sensor technologies. In addition the Seacoast system utilizes air, sampled from its environment, as a carrier gas thus requiring no bottled gas for increased portability and ease of use. The system will be capable of both gas phase (sampling from the environment) and liquid phase (from direct injection of possible source pollutants) operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program effects environmental research by providing research tools to scientists who study atmospheric pollutants. This low cost miniature gas and aerosol analyzer will allow for direct measures of chemicals from a variety of polluting industries, clouds, and plumes, by providing a lightweight battery powered system that can be launched in balloons or other UAVs. When coupled with GPS, the system could be used to map plumes from many sources.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The product proposed here could be used to continuously monitor organic aerosols in the environment. It could log the data or send the information through a secure wireless or wired internet connection if available. This development work has very broad relevance in a number of other government and civilian applications. For example, these sensors may be used in any application for monitoring a variety of chemical targets where a premium is placed on early detection. The low cost, low power consumption and small size of this technology is expected to enable penetration of market space previously inaccessible to sensor systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 S1.08-9355
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Calibration/Validation Technology for the CO2 Satellite

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Atmospheric Observing Systems, Inc.
1930 Central Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80301 - 2895
(303) 443-3389

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. James R. Smith
jim@aosinc.net
1930 Central Avenue, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80301 - 2895
(303) 817-6854

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 5
End: 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
We are proposing to develop high altitude CO2 analyzer technology that can be deployed on the research aircraft of NASA's Airborne Science Program (ASP). The ultimate scientific goal is the calibration/validation of CO2 observations made from spacecraft. Two forms of the analyzer are to be developed, pod for unmanned aircraft and rack for more general purpose platforms. The CO2 payloads are small and light enough to perform on all 15 platforms of NASA-ASP, some reaching altitudes of more than 65,000' ASL and capable of probing at least 95% of the atmospheric column. By prior work, we have built a prototype having the appropriate levels of sensitivity (0.10 ppmv), bias (<0.10 ppmv) and spatial/temporal resolution (1 Hz). Consequently, we can initiate our program with Technical Readiness Level (TRL) 5-6. Validation of the prototype was on a piloted aircraft by a second airborne AOS analyzer system of the same specifications and by flask samples analyzed by NOAA/GMD. Observations, some reaching altitudes of 26,000' ASL, were referred to the WMO scale of CO2 DMF by use of reference gases. As a result of prior technological and scientific work, our Phase I program can present a detailed plan for achievement of TRL 9.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
(i) CO2 analyzer payloads appropriate for all platforms of NASA's Airborne Science Program.
(ii) Validation/calibration of the atmospheric CO2 column observed by satellite.
(iii) Studies of atmospheric CO2 as part of detailed process studies of oceanic and terrestrial environments.
(iv) Improvement of the CO2 analyzer technology of the Eddy Covariance Flux Monitor, a robotic platform being developed to observe the air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide as part of NASA's Southern Ocean Initiative.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
(i) Drop-in CO2 analyzer payload for great range of platforms to include robotics and the cabin of conventional aircraft.
(ii) Validation/calibration of the atmospheric CO2 column observed by satellite.
(iii) Studies of atmospheric CO2 as part of detailed process studies of oceanic and terrestrial environments.
(iv) Improvement of all CO2 analyzer technologies invented and developed by AOS, Inc. for a substantial range of robotic and manned platforms.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Biomass Production and Storage
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
General Public Outreach
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
K-12 Outreach
Mission Training
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials
Photonics
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Simulation Modeling Environment
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Teleoperation
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Training Concepts and Architectures



 

PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.08-9682
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Stanton
astanton@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe,  NM 87505-3993
(505) 984-1322

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 4 to 6

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO). The application of recently developed room temperature vertical cavity diode lasers operating near 2300 nm permits the development of sensitive and rugged instrumentation for measurement of atmospheric CO with high precision. Phase I efforts will address the feasibility of measuring CO to a precision of 10 parts-per-billion or better over a range of tropospheric temperatures, pressures, and humidities. Phase II will emphasize development of prototype instrumentation for field testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful development of a VCSEL-based instrument for high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide will allow NASA to adopt a single high-reliability system for measurement of CO using a wide variety of platforms (e.g. aircraft, balloons, ground-based network, etc.). The instrument will be very compact and low-power and designed for long-term operation with minimal attention and maintenance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology will have direct commercial application in new instrumentation for atmospheric research. Other important commercial applications include combustion monitoring and control and toxic gas sensing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.08-9774
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Small Submersible Robust Microflow Cytometer for Quantitative Detection of Phytoplankton

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Translume, Inc.
655 Phoenix Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2201
(734) 528-6371

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Haddock
thaddock@translume.com
655 Phoenix Drive
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2201
(734) 528-6135

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 3 to 5

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Translume will develop an extremely robust, inexpensive micro flow cytometer (mFCM) for quantitative detection of phytoplankton. This device will be designed to be deployed on oceanographic platforms, such as moored buoys, or autonomous vehicles of the type presently used by our collaborator Dr. Needoba at the NSF Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction. Our microflow cytomer will be optimized for low power consumption and autonomous long-endurance operations. Previous flow cytometers designed for at-sea applications are physically large and have considerable consumable needs. While the core of these instruments may be small, they require ancillary systems that drastically increase their size, weight, and power consumption. In order to reduce size and power consumption, our mFCM will operate without any pump. We will rely on sea motion (either waves or motion of the vehicle) to drive the fluid (sample and sheath) through our cytometer. The flow velocity will be unsteady and at times may be severely pulsed. This mode of operation would normally be considered unacceptable, as it would drastically affect the flow characteristics such as sheathing, as well as phytoplankton size and density measurements. However, our device will include an integrated optical flow velocity measurement capability that will remediate these shortcomings. The complexity associated with this velocity measurement capability, and the related power consumption, is only a small fraction of that of a pump-operated system. Thus the practical challenges of oceanic deployments will be significantly reduced. Expenditure of sheathing fluid will be minimized using advanced three-dimensional microfluidic design features; or potentially completely eliminated using a sheath-less design. Extreme robustness will be insured by creating all elements (microfluidic optics, structural frame) in a single fused silica monolith providing permanent and exact alignment of all elements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We will develop a submersible micro flow cytometer for quantitative detection of phytoplankton in response to NASA call for sensors for monitoring phytoplankton and harmful algal blooms. Marine phytoplankton account for 50% of global photosynthesis. For some time scientists have employed satellites to measure the amount and distribution of chlorophyll a, an indicator of phytoplankton biomass in the ocean. More recently NASA's Aqua satellite has been monitoring red-light fluorescence emitted by phytoplankton. This fluorescence reveals insights about the physiology of marine plants and the efficiency of their photosynthesis. The amount of fluorescence increases when phytoplankton are under stress, for example from a lack of iron. When phytoplankton cells are iron-starved, additional solar energy is emitted as fluorescence rather than being transferred through the photosynthetic pathway. Thus, chlorophyll measurements indicate phytoplankton biomass, and fluorescence provides insight into how well they are functioning in the ecosystem. The space-based instruments must be calibrated, and the algorithms applied to the collected raw data need to be validated. Our sea-based micro flow cytometer will provide sea-truth date to give an independent verification and confirm the validity of the data collected using spaced-based platforms. Its low fabrication cost will allow for the global deployment of numerous units, thus enhancing NASA's Earth science research capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The goal of this program is to fabricate a submersible micro flow cytometer (mFCM) for quantitative detection of phytoplankton. In situ detection of phytoplankton is a presently a niche market mainly directed at climate research. This market will grow dramatically if the mFCM price was significantly reduced and its deployment simplified. For example, NOAA has deployed ARGO, a global array of 3,000 free-drifting profiling floats that measures the temperature and salinity of the upper 2000 m of the ocean. These buoys could be equipped with our inexpensive mFCM. In addition, there are numerous potential customers (US government and commercial) that could use small inexpensive and robust microflow cytometers. The Navy has interest in better methods of detecting phytoplankton blooms, as they can interfere with submarine navigation. They are also interested in water quality issues associated with coastal assets. There are major developments to pursue the use algae as a biofuel source. This emerging industry will need a means to monitor algae growth, which could be served by a variant of our microflow cytometers. There are also new proposed water standards that call for algae monitoring (for example Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament). These regulations affect many aquatic environments, such as lakes, river, beaches, and estuaries. Altogether, we believe that tens of thousand of microflow cytometers could be employed to monitor algae and phytoplankton.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomass Production and Storage
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors

PROPOSAL NUMBER: 09-1 S1.08-9836
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Water Properties Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kaitech, Inc.
22 Mariners Drive
Marshfield, MA 02050 - 3158
(781) 837-8465

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Richard E Cox
tooque@earthlink.net
22 Mariners Drive
Marshfield, MA 02050 - 3158
(781) 837-8465

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 3

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (Limit 2000 characters, approximately 200 words)
In this Phase I project, Kaitech proposes to design a Water Properties Sensor (WPS) sensing system to synchronously measure the spectral inherent and apparent optical properties and the physical properties of oceanic, coastal, and fresh water. This single instrument will provide oceanographers with a small, easy to deploy, affordable, and adaptable integrated sensing system to collect and measure geospatial information of the in situ water's fundamental marine processes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
The WPS's applications have capabilities to support NASA's earth science programs to gather the in situ measurements of environmental conditions impacting the marine processes. Basic programs this instrument can support include: NASA's Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry and Applied Sciences programs, its Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) program, its regional coastal research, and NASA's satellite measurement calibration and validation programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Limit 1500 characters, approximately 150 words)
Non-NASA applications include supporting marine field studies for coastal research by Federal, state, and local resource managers.

NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biochemical
Biomolecular Sensors
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials
Photonics
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Testing Requirements and Architectures



 

PROPOSAL NUMBER:09-1 S1.09-8095
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors and Sensor Systems for Planetary Science
PROPOSAL TITLE: Frequency Agile Mid-IR Source for Planetary Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Novawave Technologies
900 Island Drive, Suite 101
Redwood City, CA 94065-5176
(650) 610-0956

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
H.-J. Jost
hjjost@gmail.com
900 Island Drive, Suite 101
Redwood City,  CA 94065-5176
(650) 610-0956

Expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) upon completion of contract: 2 to 4

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a compact, room-temperature widely tunable middle infrared laser source that will be ideal for detecting methane, it's isotopes and related species using ultrasensitive a