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NASA 2005 SBIR Phase 1 Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.01-8330
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Health Monitoring and Fast on-Line Actuator Reconfiguration Enhancement (IHM-FLARE) System for Air Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Co Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6580

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jovan Boskovic
jovan@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6580

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSCI proposes to develop innovative algorithms for the integration of Health Monitoring (HM) subsystem with the existing FLARE (Fast on-Line Actuator Reconfiguration Enhancement) system that achieves rapid stabilization of the closed-loop flight control system in the presence of flight-critical failures. While both systems generate on-line estimates of the failure-related paramaters, the HM system can generate false failure information, while the FLARE system may result in poor performance in subsequent flight regimes if its parameter estimates are far from their true values. The main idea is to combine the failure parameter estimates from the HM and FLARE systems to assure robustness to false alarms, missed detections and detection delays in the HM system, and to use the combined estimate in the adaptive reconfigurable control law to assure the desired closed-loop performance. In order to achieve the project objectives, we plan to carry out the following tasks in Phase I: (i) Modify F/A-18 aircraft simulation to test the feasibility of the proposed approach; (ii) Develop the IHM-FLARE architecture and algorithms; and (iii) Evaluate the performance of the flight control system under false failure information. Phase II will result in algorithm enhancements, and implementation and testing using high-fidelity and piloted F/A-18 simulations. Boeing Phantom Works (Mr. James Urnes, Sr.) will provide technical and commercialization support throughout the project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Health Monitoring systems are becoming increasingly complex, and are commonly well suited for accommodation of a limited class of single failures since their emphasis is on failure detection and identification. On the other hand, our FLARE system is well suited for accommodation of severe multiple simultaneous failure but may result in poor long-term performance. Effective integration of these systems will enable efficient usage of the health monitoring information to assure robustness of the system under a variety of false failure information scenarios, and improved system performance. Immediate NASA applications are in civil aviation, and the development of an effective IHM-FLARE system is consistent with the goals and objectives of the NASA Flight Safety Program. Other important NASA applications are in the area of spacecraft control, and Space Exploration where an efficient IHM-FLARE system will decrease the crew workload and assure the desired system performance for the Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system has substantial potential in commercial aviation where effective control reconfiguration techniques that are robust to false failure information can substantially improve flight safety. Immediate applications exist in military aviation where the advanced fighter and transport aircraft are already equipped with sophisticated health monitoring systems. Other important applications are in the area of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) where effective integration of health monitoring and reconfigurable control that assures robustness to false failure information can substantially increase the autonomy of the vehicle. Related applications are envisioned in the areas of robotics, and unmanned ground and underwater vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.01-8659
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: See-and-Avoid Collision Avoidance Using ADS-B Signal and Radar Sensing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leonard Haynes
lhaynes@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2785

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
IAI proposes an innovative solution to enable unrestricted flight in low-altitude airspace for small aircrafts This solution includes an L-band RF transceiver-sensor package, which continuously transmit Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) compatible beacons to alert other cooperative aircrafts and ATC ground stations about the UAV's position and intent. In addition, it uses the reflected beacon signal as a radar signal to detect and track any non-cooperative targets within its effective range. A multifunctional RF transceiver serves as both the primary radar and secondary surveillance radar (SSR). The advantage of the proposed sensor package is low-cost, low-power (estimated power consumption < 50 watt) and compatibility with current aviation technologies. This sensor package is coupled with on-board collision avoidance logic and situation awareness display concepts for a remote ground control station. Simulation-based demonstration ? leveraging IAI's CybelePro<SUP>TM</SUP> agent infrastructure ? is also proposed to exercise the system "end-to-end" and allow for nearly seamless transition to human-in-the-loop evaluation of display concepts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One of the applications of NASA-related application for this sensor system is UAV collision avoidance. For UAVs to be more efficient in their increasing applications, they must be integrated into the Air Traffic Control system that currently only controls piloted aircraft. To achieve this, developers must deliver collision avoidance equipage sufficient to assure air safety. Current procedures for UAV operation within the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) are cumbersome and unsustainable for the long term. They often require separate attention from air traffic control authorities, limiting user flexibility and responsiveness, and hindering effective operations - military or commercial. The proposed research will add the ability to see and avoid both cooperative (transponding) and non-cooperative aircraft to UAVs. Such capability is crucial to providing military services and industry with sustainable, flexible UAV operations, sufficiently robust to safely deploy whenever and wherever needed. Additionally, these technologies will increase safety in the civil sector through integration on manned aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed sensor package can also be used on other onboard-pilot operated aircrafts as a replacement of expensive TCAS system. In the near future more and smaller size aircrafts will be equipped with low-cost ADS-B or UAT system. Current technologies are based on beacon signaling instead of active sensor, thus cannot effectively detect and track noncooperative threats. The proposed technology will help to develop next generation collision avoidance systems with enhanced situation awareness and minimum cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
RF


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.01-9281
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cockpit-based Wake Vortex Visualization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Micro Analysis & Design, Inc.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301-2577

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angelia Sebok
asebok@maad.com
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder,  CO 80301-2577

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To prevent aircraft accidents due to wake vortex hazards, FAA procedures specify the minimum separation required between different categories of aircraft. However, a mandate for increased National Airspace System capacity has led to efforts to tighten these time-tested separation constraints. One of these efforts, NASA's Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS), is intended to measure, calculate, and display wake vortex information to air traffic controllers. The controllers will utilize this information to decrease the time and distance between aircraft, thereby increasing capacity while maintaining safety. To complement this ground-based approach and provide an additional layer of safety, we propose to increase pilot situation awareness (SA) to the wake vortex hazards in the airport vicinity. In this proposal, our goal is to design a conceptual prototype of a wake vortex display for eventual use on commercial air carrier flight decks. We have chosen the commercial air carrier domain as the focus of our efforts because this is where the pressure to increase capacity is the greatest and thus, we believe, maintaining safety via pilot SA is more critical. Further, we will develop human performance models to evaluate the effect of the display on pilot SA, workload, and performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A potential NASA application for this project is an avionics display within the cockpit that increases air safety. This display could be implemented in NASA aircraft to allow the pilots to see wake vortex. This information could be of particular interest to pilots of aircraft in the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), since wake vortex poses a more serious threat to smaller rather than larger aircraft. That information can then be used to avoid the hazard areas and reduce accidents and incidents caused by an aircraft entering the wake of another aircraft. Another application for NASA is the IMSAS-based human performance model. This could be used to predict pilot performance in future aircraft systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential commercial application for this project is an avionics display within the cockpit that increases air safety. This display could be marketed to manufacturers of commercial, military, and private aircraft to allow the pilots of these aircraft to see wake vortex. That information can then be used to avoid the hazard areas and reduce accidents and incidents caused by an aircraft entering the wake of another aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Pilot Support Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.01-9490
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scenario-Based Performance Observation Tool for Learning in Team Environments Aerospace Crew-Centered Technologies (SPOTLITE-ACT)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Ste 1400
Woburn, MA 01801-1728

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Amy Alexander
aalexander@aptima.com
12 Gill Street Ste 1400
Woburn,  MA 01801-1728

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The insertion of new technology in the cockpit, especially "smart" technology designed to become an additional crewmember, will necessarily impact flight-related operations and crew functioning. We propose to develop an observer-based assessment tool, and associated measures, that will allow National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) researchers to assess the impact of new technologies on crew resource management (CRM) performance. This is particularly important because the new FAA Advisory Circular on CRM training specifically calls for specialized training and evaluation in advanced technology cockpits (AC 120-51E, Page12, Part 13c). Our proposed approach is innovative in two respects. First, in contrast to existing measures of CRM performance, the measures will be sensitive to performance effects related to the insertion of crew-centered technologies in the cockpit. Second, the performance measures will be implemented in a hand-held PC instrument, the Scenario-based Performance Observation Tool for Learning in Team Environments?Aerospace Crew-centered Technologies (SPOTLITE-ACT), with a relational database that will allow for easy collection, storage, and retrieval of experimental data. SPOTLITE-ACT will provide NASA researchers with the capability to measure and evaluate the effects of crew-centered technologies on pilot performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SPOTLITE-ACT tool will allow NASA to conduct human factors research and examine the impacts of new cockpit technologies on crew resource management (CRM) performance. The tool will be implemented on a tablet PC with a relational database allowing for ease of data collection, storage, and retrieval in both operational and simulation environments. SPOTLITE-ACT will allow NASA to compare performance within and across technologies, pilot groups, and operation-types. Furthermore, the tool provides a flexible software framework for the future addition of other measurement "modules" for assessing performance under different conditions and in different domains. For example, another SPOTLITE module can be developed to analyze air traffic controllers' performance during sector handoff procedures. SPOTLITE-ACT will be relevant for vehicle safety technologies such as synthetic vision systems (SVS) and cockpit displays of traffic information (CDTIs), as well as other NASA-sponsored projects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SPOTLITE-ACT tool will appeal to customers who need to assess the impact of new crew-centered technologies on CRM performance and those who develop and conduct training for pilots on new crew-centered technologies. Aerospace system designers can benefit by using the proposed tool to analyze technology-related effects on performance throughout the development cycle. Government or industry personnel concerned with technology implementation and certification can use the proposed tool to compare performance observed with the new technology to that obtained with other new or existing options. Additionally, complex human-machine systems or organizations like an air traffic control tower, power plant control center, or hospital emergency room would benefit from an analysis of the effects of emerging technologies on human performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.02-8162
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Safety and Security; Fire, Icing, Propulsion and Secure CNS Aircraft Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wireless In-situ Nondestructive Inspection of Engine Rotor Disks with Ultrasonic Guided Waves

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Zhao
xzhao@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2785

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The integrity of rotor disks in engine turbines or fans is vital to aviation safety. Cumulative cracks at critical loading and high stress areas, if not detected and repaired in time, can lead to a catastrophic failure. Traditional inspection methods such as Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection (FPI) and Eddy current are point-by-point methods and very time consuming. Disassembly of the engine is needed for each inspection, which may generate more problems. We propose a wireless in-situ ultrasonic guided wave health monitoring approach that can eliminate all the disadvantages of conventional methods. It applies light, thin ultrasonic guided wave circumferential patch transducers around the root of the disk. Guided waves travel in the radial direction and can inspect the whole disk area. The electrical signal is coupled wirelessly to the circumferential patch through a pair of RF antennas mounted on the rotor shaft and a stationary fixture around the shaft, respectively. The inspection can be done even when the disk is rotating. The envisioned system has minimal impact to the rotor performance, can instantaneously provide reliable and quantitative data such as crack location and severity level, can minimize and eventually eliminate the need for structural disassembly, and is able to communicate wirelessly for in-situ engine health monitoring.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability to detect and characterize cracks in the engine rotor disks in an early and accurate manner is always critical for improving safety and reducing cost for many NASA aviation vehicle propulsion systems. At the end of Phase 2, we will have a small, light weight, low cost, and robust system with both hardware and software integrated together for cracks detection and localization. The success of such a system will greatly enhance the aviation safety while reducing the downtime due to scheduled maintenance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In-situ wireless health monitoring and fault diagnosis is equally important for many military and commercial systems such as aircraft, automobiles, trains, home appliances, nuclear reactors, etc. The system can either perform continuous monitoring for the critical high strength components or switch on-off when needed. We expect the market for this system to be at least 10 million dollars.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.02-8892
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Safety and Security; Fire, Icing, Propulsion and Secure CNS Aircraft Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Fire Detector for Monitoring Inaccessible Areas in Aircrafts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
En'Urga, Inc.
1291-A Cumberland Avenue
West Lafayette, IN 47906-1385

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jongmook Lim
jongmook@enurga.com
1291-A Cumberland Avenue
West Lafayette,  IN 47906-1385

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
En'Urga Inc. will evaluate the feasibility of utilizing reflected, multi-wavelength, near infrared radiation for detecting fires in inaccessible areas within aircraft. The two key issues that will be addressed during the proposed work are: (1) the feasibility of obtaining near infrared radiation signatures from inaccessible areas through multiple internal reflections within the enclosure, and (2) the feasibility of decoding the signatures with sufficient fidelity so as to eliminate false alarms. Three Phase I tasks are planned to address the feasibility of the proposed project. The first task is to design and fabricate a system for obtaining near infrared radiation signatures within an instrument rack, representative of the inaccessible areas in aircrafts. The second task is to develop a fire detection system that readily discriminates between real fires and false alarms. The final task is to evaluate the system in a laboratory. It is anticipated that at the end of the Phase I work, the feasibility of utilizing reflected near infrared radiation for uniquely distinguishing fires would have been demonstrated. For Phase II work, a prototype, low cost and low weight system will be fabricated and evaluated both at En'Urga Inc. and at the microgravity facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for the proposed fire detector is in the prevention of on-board fires in spacecrafts. A false alarm free fire detector that can quickly detect and locate fires hidden behind instrument panels and in cargo bays is crucial to developing mitigating strategies in the event such fires occur. With the ongoing emphasis on space exploration, it is likely that more manned space flights will be required in the future. For such manned missions, even false alarms that sometime occur in current NASA spacecrafts have the potential of leading to disasters, particularly if their frequency is such that they are ignored. Therefore, the proposed fire detector is crucial to NASA for building a portfolio of fire detection technologies that can be readily employed for various missions in the future.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary commercial application of the proposed fire detector is in the detection of instrument panel and cargo hold fires within aircrafts. Aircraft fires, though infrequent, can be potentially devastating to the industry. Every year, there are several dozen instances of false fire alarms in civilian aircrafts, leading to flight delays and high costs associated with dealing with the alarms. Any fire detector that is as reliable as the existing smoke detectors and less false alarm prone is commercially attractive to the aircraft industry. In addition to the aircraft industry, the proposed fire detector will be beneficial for various military applications within small enclosed spaces such as inside submarines and ships. The low false alarm feature of the fire detector will also be beneficial to museums, art galleries, and large warehouses, where a single deployment of a fire protection system due to a false alarm has very high monetary loss.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Combustion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.02-9042
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Safety and Security; Fire, Icing, Propulsion and Secure CNS Aircraft Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiosonde-Borne Cloud Assessment System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Dynamics, Inc.
2560 North Triphammer Road
Ithaca, NY 14850-9726

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jack Edmonds
jedmonds@idiny.com
2560 N. Triphammer Road
Ithaca,  NY 14850-9726

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Significant improvements in existing technologies for icing weather information systems are required to increase the level of safety for all aircraft flying in the atmospheric icing environment. Innovative Dynamics, Inc. proposes to develop a cloud properties sensor for providing warning of hazardous airborne icing conditions. The proposed innovation is a new capability for measuring cloud properties that would consist of a small expendable radiosonde-borne optical probe. This cloud property information is currently obtained by launching an aircraft or positioning a satellite to the desired location, which makes it difficult obtain this information economically. New low cost commercially available semiconductor lasers, developed for the fiber optic communication industry, allows this innovation to be possible. The sensor would measure liquid water content, mean drop size, and droplet phase using a low-power infrared laser based sensor system. These parameters would be used to identify certain cloud conditions that pose airborne icing hazards to aircraft. Current low cost expendable radiosondes provide altitude, location, temperature, and atmospheric pressure information, but not water content information that indicate aircraft icing potential. This cloud property information is crucial to aircraft operating at altitudes, as well as important in weather forecasting models. Phase I will develop the sensing technique for cloud icing potential. Phase II will integrate this technology with a current weather radiosonde for complete atmospheric profiling.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will provide advanced warning of aircraft icing conditions. NASA conducts atmospheric studies using instrumented balloons that fly from just a few hours to over 100 days. A light-weight sensor that measures cloud content would be a useful addition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will improve aircraft safety by predicting when and where icing hazards exist. This is particularly advantageous to general aviation and to commuter aircraft which are most susceptible to icing accidents. NOAA and universities also conduct atmospheric research and could use the technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.03-8321
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Security Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Damage-Adaptive Control System (IDACS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scientific Systems Co Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6580

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jovan Boskovic
jovan@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn,  MA 01801-6580

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSCI, in collaboration with Boeing Phantom Works, proposes to develop and test an efficient Integrated Damage Adaptive Control System (IDACS). The proposed system is based on the development of a coupled structural and aerodynamic model of aircraft dynamics under wing damage, and multiple-model damage estimator whose estimates are used in the reconfigurable control law to stabilize the aircraft and achieve acceptable performance of the closed-loop flight control system. In order to achieve these objectives, we propose to carry out the following tasks in Phase I: (i) Develop an integrated structural and aerodynamic model of wing damage; (ii) Evaluate the feasibility of a multiple-model wing damage estimator; and (iii) Test and evaluate the performance of the IDACS. Boeing Phantom Works (Mr. James M. Urnes, Sr.) will provide technical and commercialization support under the project. The main emphasis of the Phase II work will be on enhancements and integration of the proposed IDACS algortihms, and the development of the corresponding software tool.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Due to increasing terrorist threats, in the recent years there has been a lot of interest in the development of effective adaptive reconfigurable control systems that can compensate for the damage in commercial aircraft caused by man-portable air defense systems (ManPADS), and NASA added this aspect of the fault-tolerant control problem to the existing Aviation Safety program. The techniques developed under this project are also expected to contribute to technologies that will enable autonomous or semi-autonomous Space Exploration mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications of the IDACS are in the area of commercial and military aircraft. Autonomous IDACS will find wide applications in other programs such as spacecraft control and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.03-8545
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Security Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Structural Health Monitoring Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Matrix

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
650 Vaqueros Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3525

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Behzad Moslehi
bm@ifos.com
650 Vaqueros Avenue
Sunnyvale,  CA 94085-3525

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fiber Bragg Grating had been identified as very important elements, especially for strain measurements in smart structures. In many applications, arrays of FBG sensors along a single fiber at multiple locations are required to collect data samples at high speed with microstrain resolution. However, the traditional approaches based spectrum scanning and Wavelength Division Multiplexing are either lacking in sampling rates due to scanning and processing speed or cost prohibiting, respectively, as the number of optical sensors increased. The technique IFOS is proposing is based on the combination of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) and Frequency Modulation (FM) techniques. In addition, IFOS will implement multi-fiber multiplexability to the present high-speed WDM systems with Space Division Multiplexing scheme to increase the number of sensor array based on fast optical switch. These approaches will have advantages over scanning systems as well as WDM based in terms of speed and the capability of multiplexing FBG sensors at lower cost. Potential implementation of proposed technique and high-speed FBG sensors in structure health monitoring and intelligent sensing will be demonstrated, in collaboration with the research team at the University of Akron.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed project has direct NASA applications in the following areas regarding aerospace vehicles and structures: o Automated Nondestructive Evaluation for faulty structural components o Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) o Flight control System o Real-time autonomous sensor validity monitors o Monitor statistical manufacturing, assembly process, and control; composite materials for internal temperature and pressure during the curing process; composite bonded repairs; sandwich structures; gun barrel; reusable launch vehicles; pressure vessels and tanks burst testing; aero propulsion flight tests o Self-monitoring structures with alarm and abort capabilities o Pyrotechnic test and data acquisition for shock response spectrum analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For aerospace vehicle health monitoring applications, this fiber sensor network will significantly increase the sensing capability as well as extend the applicability of grating-based fiber-optic sensors systems at low cost. Further applications include instrumentation for jet and Flight Control Systems, oil exploration, marine structures and nuclear power plants requiring real-time control and monitoring, and critical infrastructure monitoring for homeland security.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Structural Modeling and Tools
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.03-8911
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Security Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System (OBBIGS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Valcor Engineering Corporation
2 Lawrence Road
Springfield, NJ 07081-3121

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marcos Simon
marcossimon@electroid.com
45 Fadem Road
Springfield,  NJ 07081-3121

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Valcor Engineering Corporation proposes to develop an advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System, OBIGGS, for aircraft fuel tank inerting to prevent hazardous in-flight conditions and to mitigate their effect when they do occur. Aircraft fires represent a small number of actual accident causes, but the number of fatalities due to in-flight, post-crash, and on-ground fires is large. The novel OBIGGS system will inert aircraft fuel tanks with nitrogen generated by a hollow fiber membrane module. The system will provide a cost effective method for fuel tank inerting, will be robust and resistant to chemical contamination. An OBIGGS system that is based on nitrogen generation is environmentally friendly and does not require hazardous chemicals for fire suppression. In addition to improving aircraft safety by mitigating hazardous in-flight and on the ground conditions the OBIGGS systems will also contribute to aircraft security and will mitigate aircraft damage from hostile attacks.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced OBIGGS systems will be used to inert center fuel tank on new commercial aircraft such as; Boeing 7E7, and to retrofit the existing commercial aircraft fleet including the Boeing 747, and 737, as well as for fuel tank inerting of military aircraft including C-17.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The novel advanced OBIGGS technology will generate spin of applications in nitrogen generation and in membrane based gas separation in general. The technology will advance membrane gas separation system design for commercial and military applications. Both stationary and mobile membrane gas separation systems are used commercially to generate nitrogen for blanketing, inerting, purgin and other applications. In particular, the technology will bring major advances to currently employed mobile nitrogen generation system: ship-board inerting (cargo and tanker), mobile nitrogen generating ground carts, SIGNAS, (Navy and Air Force) and mobile container inerting (trucks and ships).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.03-9787
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Security Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Synthetic Receptor-Based Biosensor for Safety and Security Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
INNOSENSE LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kisholoy Goswami
kisholoy.goswami@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will develop a sensitive and specific biosensor worthy of field deployment for autonomous operations. The underlying technology will enable in situ detection of terror agents in the cargo space of an aircraft or in airports and thereby reduce vulnerability of the Air Transportation system. There is a critical need for sensitive, rugged biosensors capable of performing assays under harsh conditions with minimal crew attention for decreasing the time and cost of analyses. Toward that goal, tasks have been designed in this Phase I proposal to develop a biosensor using molecularly imprinted polymers - a class of synthetic receptors that can be tailored to selectively interact with analytes for which recognition molecules of biological origin may not be available. The feasibility of a sensor array will be demonstrated by using nerve agent simulants. A prototype sensor array device, and smart signal processing algorithm will be developed in Phase II. For Phase III manufacturing engineering and Phase III follow-on funding, discussions have been held with two potential partners. A highly proficient engineering team, with a cumulative 70 person-years of experience in materials science and optical sensors, is in place to develop the biosensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aside from use in the air transportation system, this project would offer robust biosensor for monitoring air quality and water quality during human exploration of space. The resulting device will minimize frequent calibration needs and make the system autonomous freeing the crew to tend to priority assignments. Imprinted polymers can be tailor-designed to detect analytes for which no naturally occurring receptors are available. The ability of imprinted polymers to withstand harsh conditions is ideally suited for NASA missions in orbiting platforms, vehicles in transit, and on the surface of a celestial body.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project will also allow NASA to leverage its resources in support of National Security, allowing monitoring of other ground facilities that are vulnerable to terrorist attack in which chemical and biochemical warfare agents as well as explosives may be used. The cost, shelf life, and storage conditions of receptor molecules are important considerations in constructing a commercially viable biosensor. Current leading biological detection technologies use naturally occurring receptors such as antibodies and DNA strands. However, these materials, especially proteins, must be preserved at low temperatures. The proposed work will demonstrate innovative antibody mimics that can be synthesized instead of growing biologically. Besides NASA, more than 17,000 potential biosensor market customers could become users of the proposed technology. These include the Homeland Security Department, environmental monitoring companies, military bases and mobile units, biotechnology companies, medical research institutions, and clinical laboratories.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Biochemical
Optical
Photonics
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Microgravity
Optical & Photonic Materials
Organics/Bio-Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.04-8594
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated On-Line Health Management and Data Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aircraft Control Augmentation and Health Monitoring Using FADS Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vibroacoustics Solutions, Inc.
2205 229th Place
Boone, IA 50036-7003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jerry Vogel
vogel@iastate.edu
2205 229th Place
Boone,  IA 50036-7003

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I research proposal is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of an innovative architecture comprising control augmentation and on-line health monitoring system. This architecture integrats Flush Air Data System (FADS) with Reconfigurable Generalized Predictive Control (RGPC) technologies. The Phase 1 effort includes identification and description of all supporting modules, their functionality and associated algorithm structures, connectivity, and final simulations using a specific aircraft for system performance evaluations. Proof-of-concept study will include demonstrating the capability using selected aircraft health degradation and/or failure situations. The concept innovation is derived from the prognostic nature of the system feedback used by the controller for applying corrective aircraft control. In traditional controllers the errant transients possessing loss of control potential are detected after the fact and corrective actions for recovery are commanded by controller posteriori. The proposed system performs a real-time autonomous monitoring of aircraft surface pressure fields that contain precursor information for prediction of incipient errant transient motions. The proposed system will enable reconfiguration of control based on measured pressure field anomalies that indicate standard control system equipment malfunctions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If the proposed research goals are achieved NASA will be benefited in following different areas: 1. Overall aircraft safety - Due to predictive nature of FADS and RGPC control system several failure and/or malfunction scenarios can be avoided. Also, in the event they are not avoidable, the proposed system will detect the problem sooner and exploit its reconfiguration capability to recover from the failure efficiently. 2. On-Board Health Monitoring - The FADS system coupled with RGPC provide wealth of information that can be used to monitor the health of the aircraft. 3. Improved Pilot Information System - The incipient perturbations/ anomalies can be made known to the pilot instantaneously with cockpit display. 4. Enhanced Attitude Determination and Control and Enhanced Guidance, Navigation, and Control - Direct consequence of predictive nature of the system. BROADER IMPACT: The proposed system can also be adopted in spacecraft avionics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The civil aviation, general aviation, and recreational aviation industries will have largest impact of the proposed technology. The primary benefit these industries will receive is the ENHANCED SAFETY of the aircraft and its occupants. Several of the accidents that occured in the last decade due to malfunction and/or failure and pilot errors could be avoided with the proposed system. The passenger safety coupled with aircraft safety can translate to billions of dollars for civil aviation industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Control and Monitoring


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.04-8879
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated On-Line Health Management and Data Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flight Systems Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEMOmetrics Corp
28 Constitution Road
Boston, MA 02129-2008

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Rodriguez
NEMOmetrics@aol.com
28 Constitution Road
Boston,  MA 02129-2008

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of components and systems will be measured and tracked by carefully monitoring and analyzing of power usage and start up and shut down transients. In depth analysis of this data enables real time assessment of system and component functioning and identifies potential system and component faults and failutes. The system is light weight, small and inexpensive because the system requires only a sensor at the mains power input and uses existing power wiring to carry data. Phase I will involve ground measurements on the control and power systems of a small UAV. Phase II will involve measurements and analysis of a system in flight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Initial applications will provide safety and system reliability to NASA UAVs including including the ESCD (Earth Science Capabilities Demonstration) Project and its REVEAL (Research Environment for Vehicle-Embedded Analysis on Linux) system, the Airborne Electric Remote Observations Systems (AEROS) project and the High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) platforms and systems. During Phase II, capability will expanded to be used on manned aircraft, spacecraft and ground support systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nonintrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO) is also applicable to wheeled vehicles including autos, trucks and military vehicles and to ships and hovercraft. It also can be used for energy monitoring and conservation in buildings and other industrial facilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Testing Facilities
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.04-9399
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated On-Line Health Management and Data Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Power Replenishment Patch for Spacecraft Health Monitoring Sensors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metis Design Corporation
222 Third Street
Cambridge, MA 02142-1735

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Seth Kessler
skessler@metisdesign.com
222 Third Street
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1735

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Metis Design Corporation (MDC) proposes the development of a strain-based power replenishment technology to harvest energy for recharging remote sensors. MDC has been working to development of a structural health monitoring (SHM) device, which essentially evolves the embedding of sets of sensors into a structure to allow continuous remote monitoring. MDC's work is aimed at developing a robust infrastructure package to support a variety of sensor types and detection methods for aerospace structures. Components have been developed to acquire data, excite transducers, store and wirelessly transmit data, as well as a thin-film battery and packaging to protect the electronics from moisture, EMI and impact. During the course of this SBIR, MDC will work to develop a power replenishment patch that uses piezoelectric technology coupled with an innovative circuit design to "top-off" SHM system batteries. These thin patches would be intimately bonded to the structure in order to harvest strain energy to recharge a thin-film Lithium battery slowly over time. This concept is unique since it takes advantage of the low duty cycle of SHM electronics, instead of attempting to harvest energy for continuous system operation. MDC will demonstrate the ability to performing structural integrity testing using only harvested power.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are four basic areas of applicability to NASA. The first is long duration spacecraft, such as satellites and space exploration vehicles, which need cheap and light monitoring to confirm damage that occurs during launch or deployment. Another important area is expendable launch vehicles to facilitate launch/no-launch decisions, due to damage sustained during vehicle assembly or pre-launch. Of probably greatest importance, SHM systems will be a key technology for reusable launch vehicle for quick turn around times. Lastly, SHM systems would also be useful for the space station to help guide wear and maintenance, especially near docking regions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Structural integrity monitoring has the potential for economic benefits in a broad range of markets. These systems can be utilized by structures from military or civil aircraft, to cars, ships or civil infrastructure. The first major benefit is that integrity monitoring eliminates the need for scheduled inspections. A second major economic benefit is that a continuously monitoring system would allow for the use of the much more efficient condition based maintenance (CBM) design methodology of a structure, otherwise known as need-based repair. A third benefit would be from increased service time of the structure. Finally, an SHM system could have a significant financial impact if it is able to detect the need for maintenance before a catastrophic failure, potentially saving lives and a costly vehicle.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Tankage
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Composites
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Energy Storage
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy
Wireless Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.04-9693
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated On-Line Health Management and Data Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Real-Time Quantitative Condition Alerting and Analysis Support System for Aircraft Maintenance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerotech Research
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News, VA 23606-4507

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Robinson
paulrobinson@atr-usa.com
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Ste 200
Newport News,  VA 23606-4507

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Financial constraints and the need for improved operational efficiency are requiring airlines to emphasize "on-condition" maintenance over scheduled maintenance where possible. However, many of the specific conditions and events of interest to airline maintenance are not being monitored by automatic systems. Some of these events are detected through a subjective determination by the aircrew. This subjective determination can result in both maintenance being performed unnecessarily and maintenance not being performed when needed. AeroTech will develop a multi-tier, Quantitative Condition Alerting and Analysis Support (Q-CAAS) system for aircraft that will in real-time, automatically downlink to maintenance personnel, reports on the occurrence of specific conditions and events (e.g. loads exceedance). The reports will be displayed on a web based, ground station network. The system will also track individual aircraft's exposure to particular in-flight conditions allowing airline personnel to tailor maintenance programs to individual aircraft. By providing quantifiable data in real-time, operational decisions can be made to minimize the impact and maximize the benefits of on-condition maintenance. The Q-CAAS system will be comprised only of software that can be implemented on most current fleet aircraft, keeping costs low, minimizing the time to market, and therefore maximizing the likelihood of industry adoption.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This system will directly support the Aviation Safety and Security Program's focus of protecting and preventing damage to aircraft due to abnormal operations and system failures, and can be directly applied to two elements of this focus: 1) the Phase I Single Aircraft Accident Prevention element, whose goal is to develop health and usage technologies that enable realtime and trending status of critical on-board aircraft systems in order to reduce failed equipment citings in fatal accident reports by 15%, and 2) the Phase II Aircraft & Propulsion Systems Self-Diagnosis & Self Reliance element, which includes a subproject for developing sensors for self-diagnostics of structural components. The fact that the system comprises software only, lends itself to straightforward integration into simulations, laboratory tests, and flight experiments on NASA research aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system will have numerous benefits to airlines (including regional jet operators) and business jet operators in their efforts to keep their aircraft in top working condition, to ensure safe operation of aircraft, to reduce maintenance costs, and to reduce operational delays (and therefore costs) due to unscheduled maintenance. The system also has applications within the Department of Defense, including UAVs. The real-time information provided by the system will enable maintenance personnel to make immediate decisions regarding the need for maintenance and the scheduling of the maintenance. Maintenance will then be able to work with operations personnel to minimize the impact to overall operations. Delta Air Lines has agreed to support AeroTech in the development of the system. When the goals of this work are complete, with Delta's participation, the operational and maintenance benefits will be quantifiable, and the commercial case for adoption of this system will be demonstrated.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A1.04-9755
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated On-Line Health Management and Data Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Model Updating in Online Aircraft Prognosis Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sentient Corporation
850 Energy Drive
Idaho Falls, ID 83401-1563

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sean Marble
smarble@sentientscience.com
850 Energy Drive
Idaho Falls,  ID 83401-1563

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Diagnostic and prognostic algorithms for many aircraft subsystems are steadily maturing. Unfortunately there is little experience integrating these technologies into a complete and practical on-board prognosis system, and integration often proceeds in an ad-hoc manner. Sentient Corporation proposes to develop a general-purpose architecture and set of reusable algorithms for integrating diagnostics and predictive models into an efficient and highly accurate prognostic system. The architecture is based on a flexible and powerful model updating algorithm that provides optimal fusion of diagnostics with model-based state indications and minimization of uncertainty in remaining life predictions. This project will focus on development of several key features of that algorithm, including automatic recognition of a failure that is not progressing according to the physical model, and practical considerations for on-board use such as minimizing computational and memory requirements. By the end of Phase II, Sentient will demonstrate a working prototype of an on-board prognostic system developed using the proposed architecture and tools. This demonstration will use diagnostic and model algorithms developed under the DARPA Prognosis Program, and will be compared to a large set of fault data for turbine engine and subscale bearings.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This general-purpose set of reusable tools and code will substantially reduce the time and cost of developing on-board prognostics for new aircraft and spacecraft health management systems, while helping to ensure robust and accurate performance of the final system. Any system that uses sensor-based diagnostics to indicate state and models to predict fault progression would benefit from the proposed toolset. This includes vehicle health management systems in spacecraft, launch vehicles, propulsion systems, and similar applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed toolset will have extensive military and commercial applications. Aircraft and specifically propulsion systems are currently leading the way in implementation of new prognostic health monitoring technologies. Programs such as the Joint Strike Fighter will likely be first to adopt these architectures and tools, followed by other military/commercial aircraft and shipboard/industrial equipment markets. Sentient will strive to eventually make the architecture the de facto standard for prognostics by utilizing open interfaces and providing robust plug-and-play components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.01-8590
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Noise Breakthrough Turbine-Based Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Identification and Reduction of Turbomachinery Noise

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Comet Technology Corporation
3830 Packard, Suite 110
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2051

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Satha Raveendra
rraveendra@cometacoustics.com
3830 Packard, Suite 110
Ann Arbor,  MI 48108-2051

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Noise has become a primary consideration in the design and development of many products, particulary in aerospace, automotive and consumer product industries. Communities near airports are often exposed to high noise levels due to low flying aircraft in the takeoff and landing phases of fligh and the major contribution to the overall noise is comming from the propulsion source noise. It is proposed to develop solutions based on integrated generalized acoustical holography and active noise control technologies that will enable the identification and reduction of turbomachinery noise. In this development, generalized acoustical holography will be used for noise source identification and active noise control together with passive control will be used for the noise reduction.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developed system will enable the identification and reduction of noise radiated by turboengine, rotocraft and advanced propeller aerodynamic noise. The adaptation of the developed system will enable noise reduction in other situations such as control of aircraft cabin noise and helicoper cabin noise.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The adaptation of the developed system will have applications in many areas such as identification and reduction of noise radiated by internal combusion engine, exhaust noise, automotive interior noise as well as noise radiated by industrial noise sources such as vacuum pumps, forced air blowers, gas turbine exhausts, and airconditioning systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.01-9658
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Noise Breakthrough Turbine-Based Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optimizing Noise Attenuation in Aircraft Exhaust Ducts Employing Passive and Active Absorbing Splitters and Struts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
KJB Consultants
11641 Weston Pointe
Strongsville, OH 44149-9270

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenneth Baumeister
annak51@yahoo.com
11641 Weston Pointe
Strongsville,  OH 44149-9270

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA requires accurate numerical simulation of high bypass nacelle acoustics and the development of advanced nacelle absorption techniques to reduce engine noise levels. Thus, this Phase I effort will expand current Transient Finite Difference (TFD) nacelle algorithms to include ? Simulation of active and passive nacelle exhaust splitters, ? 3D simulation of passive and active absorbing radial struts, ? Optimization of multiple segment wall, splitter and strut absorbers for maximum noise reduction. The exceptional performance and accuracy of the TFD method has already been documented for passive and active noise reductions in 2D aircraft nacelles. Recent experimental data have show promise for significant noise reduction for active noise treated struts as well as classic exhaust splitters. Therefore, this Phase I study will extend the current TFD nacelle algorithms to optimize splitter rings usage in exit nacelle ducts and 3D active and passive treatment of exhaust duct struts. The Phase II effort will include the capability of analyzing more complex 3D ducts with circumferential-segmented absorbing liners as well as external cowling and airframe noise sources. The numerical algorithms of this TFD Phase I study will provide NASA Glen and industry an innovative tool for acoustic nacelle design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Phase I code will allow NASA to significantly reduce both tone and broadband engine noise in scale and full size engine nacelle exhaust ducts as well as inlets. The code will predict both engine noise reductions for both passive and active treatments over a wide frequency range. The exact analytical predictions will eliminate some expensive experimental design and testing of complex 3D engine hardware with splitters and engine struts. The Phase II study will analyze advanced noise treatment concepts such as circumferential passive phase treatment, which has been shown to significantly reduce engine noise. The code will be very versatile; thus, it could also be used in the acoustic design and testing of NASA's advanced engine concepts such as the pulse detonation engine or other advances in combustion-based propulsion. The code should increase NASA's productivity and reduce operational costs by reducing expensive experimental testing of large-scale engine hardware.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Phase I code will allow aircraft nacelle manufactures to significantly reduce the time between initial prototype and final design of acoustically treated nacelles. The code will aid in their reduction of tone and broadband noise by the optimal application of both conventional and advanced engine acoustic treatments. The manufacturer will be able to quickly evaluate both passive and active treatments for complex 2D and 3D nacelle structures over a wide frequency range. To meet a variety of other commercial needs, the geometry and grid generation codes will be constructed with enough flexibility to model mufflers, automobile interiors, and other business applications besides an aircraft nacelle. The code could also be useful in quieting large exhaust ducts in power and industrial plant operations. Architectural engineers may find the code useful in quieting their duct ventilation systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.02-8918
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Fuel Cell Technologies for Aircraft Propulsion & Power
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Unit Power and Power Density Fuel Cells

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840-4027

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anuncia Gonzalez-Martin
anuncia.gonzalez-martin@lynntech.com
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station,  TX 77840-4027

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fuel cells offer a promising technology for clean, efficient power generation important to both High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) remotely piloted aircraft, and future envisioned environmentally friendly commercial transports. In addition, hydrogen and fuel cells have the potential to solve several major challenges facing America today: dependence on petroleum imports, poor air quality, and greenhouse gas emissions. One of the most challenging issues in today's Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is to increase unit power and power density (volume and weight). Bipolar plates play a critical role in the PEM fuel cell performance and durability, and they represent the major part of the fuel cell stack in weight and volume. Bipolar plates are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. Lynntech will develop a new type of bipolar plate using electrically conductive polymer sheets. The material is light, inexpensive, highly conductive, chemically inert, easy to process, and corrosion resistant. The use of this conductive polymer bipolar plate in PEM fuel cells will reduce cell weight, volume, and cost, while simplifying cell assembly. This in turn will drastically increase fuel cell unit power and power density.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fuel cells offer a promising technology for clean, efficient power generation important to both High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) remotely piloted aircraft, and future envisioned environmentally friendly commercial transports. To realize these aircraft applications will require one or even two orders of magnitude improvement in unit power and power density (volume and weight) for the fuel cell stack, as compared to ground based systems. Bipolar plates represent the major part of the fuel cell stack in weight and volume. Thus, reducing bipolar plates weight and volume will have a direct impact on increasing the fuel cell unit power and power density.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new material has significant commercial potential because of its lightweight and low cost. It also has a high potential for public acceptance because it will solve some of the serious problems associated with today's PEM fuel cell technology. The inexpensive approach developed by Lynntech for the fabrication of conductive polymer sheets will significantly simplify the assembly of fuel cells, increase power density (kW/L) and specific power (kW/kg), while substantially reducing the cost. This in turn will enable wider commercial adoption of PEM fuel cells. This new technology will be of particular interest to the federal government and private industries that can be benefited by the use of stationary and mobile PEM fuel cells. Examples include: (i) replacement of gasoline and internal combustion engines in cars and buses, (ii) small portable power units for cell phones, lap tops, and computers; and (iii) stationary power units for homes, industries and communities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.03-8565
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Hydrogen Fuel Systems and Components for Aircraft Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber Optic Sensors for Leak Detection and Condition Monitoring in Hydrogen Fuel Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, OH 43082-8699

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mokhtar Maklad
mmaklad@lakeshore.com
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville,  OH 43082-8699

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I proposal addresses the need for explosion proof, sensitive and reliable hydrogen sensors for NASA and commercial hydrogen fuel systems. It also addresses the need for multiple sensing points with minimum tank or bulkhead feedthroughs. The proposed innovations will increase the response speed of reported hydrogen sensors by a factor of 5 and the sensitivity by a factor of 10. In the Phase I feasibility work, it is proposed to demonstrate these attributes for single sensors. In Phase II, the multiplexing, detection reliability and special packaging necessary to make the sensors practical for NASA and other applications will be demonstrated in preparation for commercialization in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The use of hydrogen as a fuel in many air and space vehicles that will be subjected to severe and unknown stresses over long lifetimes, and its storage and transfer on the ground, exposes personnel and facilities to potential fire and explosion hazards, making hydrogen leak detection necessary. These sensors will find applications wherever there is a compartment, tank or other environment where the lower explosive limit of 4% hydrogen in air might occur. These include cryostats, launch tanks, ground tanks, piping, near engines, and others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The early adoption of these hydrogen detection systems by NASA will lead to applications experience, production enhancements and cost reductions. Applications will then appear as the hydrogen economy grows. The advanced, explosion proof hydrogen detectors will be adapted for fuelling stations, ground vehicles and potentially in every hydrogen fuel cell. The same systems as used in NASA aerospace will also be utilized in civilian and military aircraft powered by hydrogen.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
High Energy Propellents (Recombinant Energy & Metallic Hydrogen)
Propellant Storage
Control Instrumentation
Feed System Components
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Fluid Storage and Handling
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Photonics
Metallics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.03-9642
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Hydrogen Fuel Systems and Components for Aircraft Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Cyclic Catalytic Reformer for Hydrocarbon Fuels

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eltron Research, Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James White
eltron@eltronresearch.com
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder,  CO 80301-3241

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposed Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I addresses development of a compact reformer system based on a cyclic partial oxidation (POx) technology for the purpose of generating hydrogen for fuel cell systems. The need for improved reformers arises from: 1) the tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to deposit carbon on surfaces; 2) requirement of large quantities of steam; 3) a massive and voluminous fuel desulfurization stage; 4) substantial size and power consumption requirements; and 5) the lack of efficient, robust, and compact hydrogen separation technology. These issues will be addressed by employment of a fixed bed cyclic redox system utilizing a metal oxide oxygen carrier for partial oxidation of fuel. The reformer will consist of a small heated bed of sulfur tolerant partial oxidation catalyst and will operate by alternate exposure to air and vaporized fuel. Carbon deposition and steam requirements and, possibly, the need for a prereformer will be reduced or eliminated by this cyclic mode. This cyclic operation will also eliminate the need for an expensive air separation unit or for H2/N2 separation. Phase I will consist of identification of catalysts, testing under cyclic conditions with real fuel, and integration of reformer and hydrogen separation modules. On the basis of Phase I data, a prototype system will be designed, fabricated, and tested during Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If successful, the resulting device and technology would enable improvements in hydrocarbon reforming that would impact fuel cell applications and, in particular, fuel cell systems for zero emissions and high altitude long endurance remotely operated aircraft (HALE ROA) applications. An additional potential benefit is that partial oxidation as employed in the proposed Phase I may ultimately be able to replace the fuel desulfurizer, prereformer, and steam reformer in such systems with a single compact unit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology discovered herein may serve to accelerate utilization of hydrogen as a practical fuel for civilian transportation and municipal power applications. For example, use in other mobile (e.g., automotive) applications can be envisioned. Additionally, the resulting technology will find use in combustion applications such as fuel fired heating systems. Stable, active and selective catalysts discovered under this contract will be immediately applicable toward development of a compact, economic fuel processor for reformation of logistic fuels into a high purity hydrogen gas stream suitable for introduction into the anode compartment of a hydrogen/air fuel cell.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.04-8086
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanofiber Additions for Tailorable Vibration Damping Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Sciences, Inc.
141 W. Xenia Ave., PO Box 579
Cedarville, OH 45314-0579

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Burton
dburton@apsci.com
141 W. Xenia Ave., PO Box 579
Cedarville,  OH 45314-0579

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of NASA's Quiet Aircraft Technology project is to reduce perceived aircraft noise by half in 10 years and by 75 percent in 25 years, using 1997 levels as the baseline. These reductions are necessary to meet the expected demand for air travel and increasingly stringent noise standards around the world. A significant portion of noise reduction will be achieved through lighter aircraft as a result of advances in composite materials, such as nanocomposites. Vibrations are undesirable for structures, due to the need for structural stability and dynamic response, position control, and durability. Vibration and acoustic reduction can be obtained in structural materials by increasing the damping capacity (expressed by the loss factor) and/or decreasing the stiffness (expressed by the storage modulus). It is proposed to investigate carbon nanofiber composites for their expected acoustic damping properties by adjusting fiber volume fraction and length to appropriately tailor acoustic damping responses for this material. Nanocomposites based on carbon nanofibers have high potential for advances in material performance (weight specific strength and stiffness, vibration damping, flammability reduction, and electrical conductivity) as well as manufacturing simplification and cost reduction.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This innovation is applicable to any metal or polymer-based aircraft or aerospace structures which are subjected to vibration / noise. This innovation will enable the substitution of nano-enhanced polymers, with increased stiffness and superior damping properties, to be substituted for metal components which tend to have inferior acoustic damping properties.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond the aircraft and aerospace applications, this innovation would increase the substitution of polymer components vs. metal components to reduce vibration and noise in automobiles, and other transportation vehicles, as well as machinery, sporting goods, anti-sonar submarines, and loudspeaker diaphragms.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.04-8523
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computational Aeroacoustics Using the Generalized Lattice Boltzmann Equation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetaHeuristics
209 W. Alamar Ave, Suite A
Santa Barbara, CA 93105-3701

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kannan Premnath
nandha@metah.com
209 W. Alamar Ave, suite A
Santa Barbara,  CA 93105-3701

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall objective of the proposed project is to develop a generalized lattice Boltzmann (GLB) approach as a potential computational aeroacoustics (CAA) tool for noise prediction thus contributing to NASA's goal of reducing noise levels of subsonic aircraft. Lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) based simulations are attractive for CAA as they can handle very complex geometries and parallelize with excellent scalability. This enables efficient simulation of very large problems, such as airframe systems. The innovativeness of the proposed GLB method lies in employing multiple relaxation times to capture different hydrodynamic/acoustic modes accurately, in contrast to usual LBE solution methods using a single relaxation time for all modes. The GLB approach would enable higher fidelity CAA simulations as well as exhibit stability at higher Reynolds numbers. Multiple relaxation times can also enable represent turbulence better for large eddy simulation. In phase I, the feasibility of the GLB method will be evaluated by coding a 3D solver, including a subgrid scale turbulence model and multiblock grid refinement algorithms, with testing against several CAA benchmark problems. If successful, a validated package based on the GLB method interfaced to NASA pre/post processors, like CART3D, for complex geometries would be developed in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed GLB approach for computational aeroacoustics will have a broad range of applications, particularly for structures with complex geometrical shapes. These include noise prediction from a variety of airframe structures such as landing gear, flaps and slats during take-off and landing. The approach is also well suited for acoustic analysis of aircraft internal systems. In addition to prediction of noise, the computational package would also be applicable to computational fluid dynamics of low Mach number flows in aircraft systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications of the GLB computational package include prediction of noise from a variety of automotive components and industrial equipment such as HVAC systems. There is a significant opportunity in these sectors as the existing commercial computational packages for fluid dynamics, which are based on decades old algorithms, are not able to address such large-scale coupled acoustics/fluid dynamics problems adequately.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Simulation Modeling Environment
Structural Modeling and Tools
Airport Infrastructure and Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.04-8833
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aircraft Systems Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Sensitivity Pulsed Laser Vibrometer for Aircraft Interior Noise Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brimrose Corporation of America
#19 Loveton Circle, Hunt Valley Loveton Center
Sparks, MD 21152-9201

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Chen Wang
ccwang@brimrose.com
#19 Loveton Circle, Hunt Valley Loveton Center
Sparks,  MD 21152-9201

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose an innovative pulsed laser vibrometer technology for the monitoring of interior noise inside an aircraft. The optical speckle-tolerant nature of the pulsed laser vibrometer, coupled with its high sensitivity and bandwidth in surface vibration monitoring, makes the proposed technology ideal for the monitoring of aircraft interior vibrations from surfaces with widely varying colors and degrees of optical speckle inducing power. The highly sensitive pulsed laser vibrometer allows handheld, portable operation, even in places difficult to access, thanks to its remote and non-contact nature for surface vibration monitoring. Other advantages enabled by the proposed technology include the compactness and low optical power requirement, which make it ideal for deployment in situations where the availability of space and power can be significantly restricted, for example, spaceborne applications. The feasibility of using the proposed photo-EMF pulsed laser vibrometer to monitoring surface vibrations of samples with widely varying surface characteristics will be demonstrated during the Phase I program. A working prototype pulsed laser vibrometer system for aircraft interior noise monitoring will be developed during the Phase II research program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful execution of this proposed program will lead to a compact, highly sensitive, and low power-consumption pulsed laser vibrometer capable of detecting surface vibrations with high sensitivity and bandwidth. The optical speckle-tolerant nature of the proposed technology makes it ideal for applications including the inspection of structural integrity of turbine engine blades, the integrity of insulation foams on the space shuttles. Further NASA applications include the monitoring of operational characteristics of mechanical apparatus through vibration sensing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications include the quality control on industrial assembly lines, for example, household appliances and automotive windshield wiper motors, as well as the monitoring of the performance and maintenance of machines, for example, locomotive engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Structural Modeling and Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.05-7642
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Drive Components, Power Management and Distribution Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Superconducting Aero Propulsion Motor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Satcon Technology Corp
27 Drydock Ave
Boston, MA 02210-2377

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Lovelace
ed.lovelace@satcon.com
27 Drydock Ave
Boston,  MA 02210-2377

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Superconducting electric propulsion systems will yield improvements in total ownership costs due to the simplicity of electric drive when compared with gas turbine engines, and due to greater power densities and efficiencies of electromechanical energy conversion processes. Two principal types have been considered in Naval propulsion studies that have promise for all electric aircraft. Both of these classes of motor, however, have technical risk attributes that are less than ideal with respect to reliability and efficiency: complex rotating cryocoolers for the AC synchronous machine, and low voltage (hence high current) brushed armatures for the DC acyclic (homopolar) machine. SatCon proposes a 'stationary field synchronous motor', which combines the benefits of both synchronous and acyclic motors by combining the ability to use COTS cryocoolers inherent to the acyclic motor with power transfer to the armature at reasonable voltage and current levels. This will be traded off against an AC synchronous machine using a rotating cryocooler with a novel flow management design to reduce the complexity and losses. The result of the two-phase effort will be the design, prototyping, and testing of an improved power density superconducting propulsion motor suitable for aircraft propulsion applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Today fuel prices are increasing with cost roughly 1/3 higher than at the same time in 2004. Simultaneously, the issue of Global Warming and the impact of greenhouse gases, and depletion of the ozone layer has increased the emphasis on reduced or "zero" emission from combustion processes. As the lead government agency developing future aviation technologies, NASA has a critical role to play in this area. This work is directly relevant to NASA long-term goals for all electric aircraft for zero emissions and fuel independence. This will enable long endurance military missions and cost effective civilian transport with beneficial environmental and sustainability impacts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Once fully developed by SatCon, this technology while designed for NASA applications can also be used to leverage development costs for zero emission, civilian aviation transport propulsion systems. Also, a high power density electric propulsion system will have far reaching effects in the area of Hybrid Electric Vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Superconductors and Magnetic
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.05-7948
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric Drive Components, Power Management and Distribution Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Stator Coils for Electric Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hyper Tech Research, Inc.
1275 Kinnear Road
Columbus, OH 43212-1155

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Rindfleisch
mrindfleisch@hypertechresearch.com
110 E. Canal St.
Troy,  OH 45373-3581

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Many are pursuing the development of electric propulsion systems for large aircraft due to the potential of being cleaner, quieter, lighter, and more versatile than current platforms and because the use of liquid hydrogen (LH2) fuel in these systems decreases our dependence on petroleum. It is desirable to have very light components, such as the stator, for these electric propulsion systems. Superconducting stator coils can be lighter weight than cryogenically cooled copper stator coils. The recent development of magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting wires makes possible the potential to have much lighter weight superconducting stator coils than with any other metal or ceramic superconductor. The MgB2 superconductor, cooled in the available liquid hydrogen fuel, is the ideal candidate wire material for stator coils for large aircraft motors. The lighter weight coils, especially in the stator, will enable a lighter weight motor. During the Phase I we will demonstrate using this magnesium diboride superconductor wire in diamond wound stator coil form. This will show feasibility of fabricating full size diamond patterned stator coils in a Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides large aircraft motors, magnesium diboride superconductors can benefit NASA applications for superconducting ADR coils, transformers, inductors, magnetic bearings, actuators, MHD magnets, and other potential power conditioning applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercialization of magnesium diboride superconducting wires will allow less expensive and more open MRI systems for medical use, and lower cost and more efficient power utility applications such as transformers, motors, generators, fault current limiters, and SMES.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Superconductors and Magnetic
Power Management and Distribution
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.06-8192
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart, Adaptive Aerospace Vehicles With Intelligence
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wireless Health Monitoring for Large Arrays of MEMS Sensors and Actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065-1812

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Ching-Fang Lin
cflin@americangnc.com
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley,  CA 93065-1812

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this Phase I project is to demonstrate an automated on-line structural health monitoring system for aircraft structures using a combination of wireless data acquisition and fault detection filter via a sensing network for vehicle-embedded large arrays of MEMS sensors and actuators. A fault detection filter, whose functions are to identify and localize the damage, is considered as a new concept in the field of structural health monitoring. Sensor validation is implemented in the distributed sensor network to ensure only validated data are sent to the central station for further system utilization. Wireless communication provides a safe, affordable, and more efficient method for the online health monitoring of vehicle subsystems and information monitoring. It also involves signal processing to support decision-making related to safety, maintenance, or operating procedures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the potential applications for on line monitoring of spacecraft, it can be applied to remote sensing platforms and distributed monitoring environments, such as, a robotic systems, long-endurance sensing platforms (LESPs), unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) and ground engine tests.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed component can be applied in many fields for real-time data sampling and processing. Applications can support general manufacturing, the commercial aviation industry and real time monitoring sensors environment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.06-8239
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart, Adaptive Aerospace Vehicles With Intelligence
PROPOSAL TITLE: Vibration Energy Harvesting for SHM Sensors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TPL, Inc.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109-4416

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Lakeman
clakeman@tplinc.com
3921 Academy Parkway North NE
Albuquerque,  NM 87109-4416

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Wireless sensors show enormous promise for safety improvements and cost reductions in monitoring the structural health of aircraft and spacecraft. A significant challenge for wireless sensors is power. Because of the labor and associated costs associated with changing hundreds, if not thousands of batteries, combined with the fact that many will be deployed in inaccessible locations, these systems will have to rely on harvesting energy from the environment to provide long-lived power. TPL and Washington State University (WSU) propose to develop a vibrational energy harvesting system based on the P3 (Palouse Piezo Power) Micropower Generator. The P3 is a patented, MEMS-based, piezoelectric membrane generator that has been demonstrated to operate over 1 billion cycles. In this effort, TPL will team with WSU researchers to develop a microfabricated proof mass for coupling vibrational energy into the piezoelectric membrane and to develop packaging for the device so it can be deployed in real world situations. Combined with TPL's patented microbatteries and microsupercapacitors for energy storage, the proposed system will provide a stand-alone power source that does not need recharging or refueling for wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will provide a stand-alone power source for wireless sensors that does not need recharging or refueling. There are numerous applications for wireless sensors in aerospace, defense, medical, environmental, and industrial sectors ranging from structural health monitoring, industrial process control, environmental (HVAC) management, infrastructure security, and battlefield chemical and biological weapons detection, among others. NASA's interest in structural health monitoring, in particular, extends to air and space vehicles, fixed wing and rotorcraft, satellites, inter-planetary mission vehicles, and high altitude, long endurance (HALE) vehicles. For wireless sensors in general, NASA applications will extend from remote sensing on earth, climate and meteorological monitoring, and geolocation in planetary exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is a myriad of non-NASA applications for structural health monitoring, including bridges, buildings (particularly high value, or sensitive buildings such as nuclear power or chemical plants), seismic detection, and ships (e.g. oil tankers or other vessels carrying cargoes that may be harmful if spilled). Other applications of wireless sensors extend into medical, industrial manufacturing (inventory management, process control), agricultural, domestic (smart house), and automotive (some estimate up to 1trillion automotive sensors in 2010 including tire pressure monitors and stability control).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.06-8830
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart, Adaptive Aerospace Vehicles With Intelligence
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Metal RubberTM Sensors and Interconnects

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5556

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrea Hill
ahill@nanosonic.com
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-5556

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the proposed program is to develop lightweight and highly elastic electrically conducting interconnects and strain sensor arrays for next generation adaptive aerospace vehicles and structures. The systems-level problem this would solve is the inability of currently available materials to undergo the large strains and displacements associated with shape changes of morphing structures. NanoSonic will demonstrate the feasibility of the Metal RubberTM family of freestanding nanocomposite materials to serve as 1) electrically conductive, low modulus electrodes for large displacement mechanical actuators required to affect large shape changes, and 2) an integrated network of strain sensors to allow mapping of strain and determination of shape in adaptive structural components. Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> is fabricated via layer-by-layer, molecular self-assembly, which enables thickness and placement control over multiple molecular constituents for true nanostructured multifunctionality. As an electrode material, new, ultra-low modulus Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> can be strained to 1000% elongation while remaining electrically conductive; it returns to its original shape and nominal conductivity when released. As a strain sensor, strains up to 1000% have been measured in very highly flexible structures. During Phase I the feasibility of using such electrodes and strain sensors would be demonstrated in cooperation with a large aerospace company.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications for materials developed on this program include 1) highly flexible electrical interconnects for mechanical actuators, flex circuits, robotics, prostheses and flexible displays, 2) strain sensors capable of measuring very large strains, 3) low-weight replacements for metal electromagnetic interference shielding materials and electrostatic discharge materials, 4) low-weight RF antenna and waveguide components, and 5) low mass density replacements for metal wiring and cabling on spacecraft and exploration vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> can be used as replacements for conventional tin-lead solder for the mechanical, electrical and thermal interconnection of electronic and mechanical components. Similar materials may also be used in high performance, highly flexible and mechanically robust electronic flex circuits, flexible displays and smart electronic fabrics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.07-8022
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Atmospheric Flight Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhanced L/D and Virtual Shaping of NLF Sections

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo, CA 90245-2822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kerho
mike@RollingHillsResearch.com
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo,  CA 90245-2822

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A robust flow control method promising significantly increased performance and virtual shape control for natural laminar flow (NLF) sections is proposed using a novel momentum porting concept. Significant aerodynamic, systems, and control benefits are possible through the integration of virtual aerodynamic shaping technology into modern aircraft. Virtual aerodynamic shaping involves using flow control technology to manipulate the flow field to achieve a desired result regardless of the geometry. A high-payoff approach to significantly increased air vehicle performance is the use of a novel momentum porting concept for the virtual shaping of extended run natural laminar flow sections. The objective of this research is to incorporate a robust and simple tangential pulsed jet blowing system that requires no external air to design and virtually shape an extended natural laminar flow section offering radical performance enhancement in the form of increased lift-to-drag and maximum lift. Additionally, the system will produce a wing design enabling a hinge-less, full-span virtual shaping capability which can be used for fully pilot reactive roll control, span load tailoring, and gust load alleviation. The system will provide significantly enhanced performance for the air vehicle throughout the entire flight envelope.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed virtual shaping natural laminar flow technology has significant potential application in several NASA programs. The virtual shaping system could be fielded in several NASA aircraft unmanned systems, including UAVs, high-altitude long-endurance remotely operated aircraft (HALE-ROA) for reconnaissance, and Mars exploratory aircraft. NASA designers will be eager to exploit the advantages of the virtual shaping technology coupled with realizable pilot reactive flow control. The technology developed in the program can be applied to several other active flow control areas. The system will be applicable throughout NASA's high altitude sensor and UAV aviation community.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercialization potential for advanced, high performance airfoils, designed with a reliable and robust active flow control system is quite good. By using Rolling Hills Research's new design approach coupled with realizable pilot reactive flow control, designers of new air vehicles will be able to take advantage of virtual shaping for unconventional designs. The technology developed in the program can be applied to several other active flow control areas. The air vehicle industry will be eager to exploit the advantages of robust active flow control technology. Both commercial and military air vehicle designers will find the technology extremely appealing, allowing significant commercialization potential. The system will be applicable across a wide range of platforms, including high flying UAV type aircraft and sensor platforms and smaller, mid-range UAVs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.07-8360
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Atmospheric Flight Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: VTOL to Transonic Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Acuity Technologies, Inc.
3475 Edison Way Bldg P
Menlo Park, CA 94025-1873

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Clark
bob@acuitytx.com
3475 Edison Way Bldg P
Menlo Park,  CA 94025-1873

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and aerodynamically complex. To our knowledge no cyclogyro has ever flown. We propose to demonstrate through simulation and rotor testing that with appropriately designed cyclogyro rotors and propulsion algorithms, aircraft can transition smoothly from low-speed and vertical flight to near-transonic forward flight. We posit that lift and propulsion can be achieved while increasing the aircraft critical mach number above that of conventional subsonic airplanes with fixed wings. We will show that thrust and lift can be maintained across all speeds, and attainable thrust increases with increasing airspeed for constant rotor speed. Gliding and vertical autorotation can be performed safely with rotors stopped or rotating, respectively.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A practical cyclogyro would provide a NASA with a versatile, capable observation platform, chase plane, and instructional aeronautics demonstrator, as well as a test vehicle for improving cyclogyro flight characteristics and efficiency.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The benefits of a VTOL capable craft that can approach the speed of sound in forward flight without radical reconfiguration are many, including convenient commercial transportation, rapid disaster/rescue response, and flexible multi-mission defense vehicles. We propose that the realization of a successful cyclogyro design can be accomplished with revolutionary structural and aerodynamic innovations, and a successful cyclogyro would be a revolutionary subsonic aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.08-7987
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling, Identification, and Simulation for Control of Aerospace Vehicles to Prepare for Flight Test
PROPOSAL TITLE: HALE Toolkit (HTK)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M4 Engineering, Inc.
2161 Gundry Avenue
Signal Hill, CA 90755-3517

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Myles Baker
myles.baker@m4-engineering.com
2161 Gundry Avenue
Signal Hill,  CA 90755-3517

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of a toolkit for optimization and virtual flight test of HALE vehicles is proposed based on extensions of the IHAT system for integrated multidisciplinary analysis/optimization of high speed weapons.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applicable to development of many aircraft, but focused on high alitutde, long endurance (HALE) vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applicable to development of many aircraft, but focused on high alitutde, long endurance (HALE) vehicles. Numerous applications in DoD (e.g., Sensorcraft)

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.08-8060
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling, Identification, and Simulation for Control of Aerospace Vehicles to Prepare for Flight Test
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost, Integrated Ground Test, Simulation, and Flight Control Development Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo, CA 90245-2822

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kerho
mike@RollingHillsResearch.com
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo,  CA 90245-2822

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An important mission for NASA is the development of revolutionary flight concepts and technology. The development of Micro unmanned air vehicles (MAVs) and Mars aircraft has received considerable attention recently. Unlike conventional aircraft, MAVs and Mars aircraft suffer from operation in an extremely low Reynolds number flight regime. Generally, a low Reynolds number is considered to be between 150,000 and 500,000. Both MAVs and Mars aircraft, however, can have operational Reynolds number regimes from 20,000 to 120,000. At these extremely low Reynolds numbers, the aerodynamic flow features are dominated by laminar separation and separation bubble effects, which are highly unstable and very dependent upon the free-stream conditions and atmospheric turbulence. Although it is often argued that an exploratory vehicle will operate over a benign portion of the flight envelope, an encounter with strong winds or gusts, particularly during a maneuver, could excite a highly non-linear response. This means that the assumption of linear derivatives for stability and control may not be valid, which could cause the loss of a vehicle designed with a control system based on linear assumptions. It is proposed that a low-cost, integrated ground test, simulation, and flight control development environment be created to address these challenges.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The use of the water tunnel to acquire aerodynamic databases at low Reynolds numbers, which match the flight Reynolds number for small UAVs and other exploratory aircraft, will make this system highly desirable. NASA will be able to utilize this integrated test and design environment to measure nonlinear aerodynamics and account for them in flight control systems for MAVs and Mars exploratory vehicles

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The use of the water tunnel to acquire aerodynamic databases at low Reynolds numbers, which match the flight Reynolds number for small UAVs and other exploratory aircraft, will make this system highly desirable. RHRC will be able to provide both testing and design services to smaller companies that are developing MAVs. The demonstrated utility of the system will also help market RHRC's water tunnels, balances, and software for use by universities and larger companies. Since many universities currently operate their own UAVs as teaching and research tools, the ability to mathematically model them correctly, simulate them, and develop experimental control systems for them will greatly enhance the value of the UAV as a teaching tool.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.08-8381
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling, Identification, and Simulation for Control of Aerospace Vehicles to Prepare for Flight Test
PROPOSAL TITLE: HALE Modeling Tools for Real Time Hardware-Coupled Aeroservoelastic Simulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Todd Quackenbush
todd@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing,  NJ 08618-2302

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ongoing work under NASA sponsorship is defining promising High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) demonstration vehicle designs for remote sensing, communication relay, environmental monitoring, and other critical missions. Continuing challenges in preparing these vehicles for flight test include issues that will also be critical in the development of operational HALE vehicles: time-accurate simulation of aeroelastic effects; simulation-based design of flight control and propulsion systems for high efficiency, structural stability, and adequate control at all flight conditions; and effective, validated, full-vehicle dynamics analyses for aeroservoelastic applications. The proposed effort will address these needs by making available modular, state of the art modeling tools for use in full aircraft simulations to support vehicle assessment and control system design throughout the HALE flight test and development process. These tools will be operable in a range of modes with up to real-time turnaround and will feature a unique ability to support hardware-coupled ("hardware in the loop") simulation in conjunction with finite element-based aeroelastic modeling. This capability will support both near term flight demonstrations of prospective HALE vehicles and long-term design and analysis tasks for NASA HALE platforms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A key benefit of the proposed effort would be the development of a fully-coupled nonlinear aero-elastic analysis, simulation, and design tool for HALE aircraft that would support projected NASA flight test activities. This tool would enable non-real-time design/optimization analysis functions and real-time hardware-in-the loop flight simulation, testing and support capabilities; this functionality improves on competing approaches that offer only non-real-time analysis of a purely computational nature and require the acquisition of commercial analysis tools. The ability to couple directly to flight hardware is judged to offer a significant advantage in terms of providing direct support to flight test preparation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This effort would provide major defense contractors, DoD agencies, prime contractors for HALE programs, and manufacturers of high altitude aircraft or airships a comprehensive analysis with the capability for high fidelity, configurational aerodynamics analysis of both high altitude fixed wing aircraft and airships in calculation times conducive to both support of flight test activities and design. No computational tool exists that can provide this capability incorporating full airframe aerodynamics and aeroelastic modeling, as well as a capability for hardware-coupled simulation. In addition, design information on high altitude propulsion systems would be generated to assist optimization current propeller and wing designs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.09-8108
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Sensors and Airborne Instruments for Flight Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dynamic Strain and Crack Monitoring Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
An-Dien Nguyen
a.d.nguyen@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of condition-based monitoring sensor network systems has the potential to provide an enhanced aircraft safety by real time assessment of the aircraft's structural integrity. Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a structural health monitoring sensor system, capable of simultaneously monitoring dynamic strain and structural damages in aircraft components in real time. Our novel sensor technology offers a number of advantages including compactness (0.2mm x 5mm x 5mm), lightweight (few grams), low cost, and fast response (milliseconds). We achieve this by fabricating Bragg gratings on stress-sensitive polymer planar waveguides on a flexible substrate, which is capable of measuring stress, strain, and temperature, and monitoring damages in advanced material structures. In Phase I, using a DFB laser with a feedback control we will demonstrate the sensor's capability to measure both static and dynamic strain with large dynamic range, high accuracy and high sensitivity. In addition, combing the low-cost laser-based demodulation technique and an acousto-ultrasonic method we will demonstrate the polymer gratings' capability to monitor ultrasonic stress waves indicating the presence and severity of damages in a metal structure, when the structure is probed by an ultrasonic wave generation actuator device.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Integrated optical technology provides significant advantages for advanced aerospace platforms because they are lightweight, immune to electromagnetic wave interference, and do not produce short circuits or ground loops. The development of integrated optic Bragg grating sensors has the potential to increase reliability, enable lower cost, and facilitate effective condition-based structural health monitoring of NASA's advanced aircraft and spacecraft components and systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The novel dynamic strain and damage monitoring sensor system will offer significant cost saving for the civil and aerospace industries by providing a cost-effective solution for structural monitoring for large aerospace and civil structures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A2.09-8187
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Sensors and Airborne Instruments for Flight Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flow-Angle and Airspeed Sensor System (FASS) Using Flush-Mounted Hot-Films

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tao of Systems Integration, Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666-1325

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Siva Mangalam
siva@taosystem.com
144 Research Drive
Hampton,  VA 23666-1325

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Micron-thin surface hot-film signatures will be used to simultaneously obtain airspeed and flow direction. The flow-angle and airspeed sensor system (FASS) will provide airspeed with practically zero-lag and to less than one knot accuracy and flow angularity to a fraction of a degree, with natural immunity to EMI and RFI. Unlike Pitot-static and other conventional techniques, which experience serious limitations in accuracy, pneumatic lags, and frequency response in thin upper atmospheres, FASS will measure airspeed all the way to zero knots and perform equally well at sea level as well at high altitudes and even in the thin Martian atmosphere. The FASS addresses important flight-operation and flight research problems with crucial impact on vehicle performance, stability & control, structural loads, and pilot action. FASS will permit easy integration with aircraft avionics systems including conventional instruments used for pressure, temperature, and density measurements. Sensor elements will be coated to withstand harsh environment and waterproofed for underwater applications. FASS will be developed and marketed both as a stand-alone device and as an embedded, non-intrusive system. Commercial applications include aerospace vehicles, submarines, ships, boats, atmospheric wind sensing, oceanographic measurements, and tall structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
? High-Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) platform, including solar-powered vehicles and remotely operated aircraft (ROA) program. ? High-altitude and high-endurance UAVs such as Global Hawk ? Mars exploration plane. ? Reusable Launch Vehicles. ? All NASA flight-testing R&D applications, from low speeds to supersonic speeds.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
? Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). There is now a strong spurt in developing RLV. FASS will be a valuable component of such vehicles and will provide accurate and reliable information for the flight-critical reentry phase of the flight envelope ? FASS will be useful for UAV and UCAV, particularly because of its desirable features like low power consumption, small size, and weight ? FASS will be used by high altitude airship (HAA) used for long endurance vehicles that require to be accurately controlled and maintained in fixed positions for long duration ? FASS can be retrofitted on all existing small and large, civilian and military aircraft and helicopters. The low speed and accurate angle of attack and side-slip angle features will contribute significantly to their safety, performance and control. ? FASS will also be useful for underwater applications. For example, FASS can be used with waterproofed sensors to operate on submarines. ? FASS will find use in atmospheric and oceanographic engineering applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A3.01-7590
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Eulerian Air Traffic Flow Management Agent for the ACES Software

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis, Inc.
868 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto, CA 94303-4622

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
P. K. Menon
menon@optisyn.com
868 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto,  CA 94303-4622

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of an Eulerian model based en route traffic flow management agent for the ACES software is proposed. The proposed research will use a recently-developed automatic modeling technique, together with a predictive air traffic flow control approach. Performance of the traffic flow management agent will be evaluated in several traffic flow control situations. The sensitivity of the traffic flow management system to variations in traffic patterns and weather will be investigated. Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of developing the traffic flow management agent. A complete version of the proposed software agent will be developed during the Phase II work. It will be fully integrated with the ACES software and commercialized during the Phase III work.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ACES software is being used by NASA researchers for developing and evaluating advanced ATM concepts. The traffic flow management agents developed under the proposed research effort will help support NASA's research initiatives.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The strategic flow control methodology developed under the proposed research will help develop decision aids for future air traffic flow management. This flow control technique is also useful for developing decision support tools for collaborative flow control and for designing regional metering strategies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A3.01-7956
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Safe, Legal, and Autonomous See-and-Avoid System for UAVs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerotonomy, Incorporated
117 Herron Street
Fort Oglethorpe, GA 30742-3127

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Neidhoefer
jneidhoefer@aerotonomy.com
117 Herron Street
Fort Oglethorpe,  GA 30742-3127

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aerotonomy, Incorporated, and subcontractors Georgia Tech and the AAI Corporation will combine state-of-the-art adaptive UAV control, optimized sensor suites, innovative strategic and tactical maneuvering systems, and a wealth of experience in manufacturing and operating Tactical UAVs (including the Shadow 200) to create a practical and autonomous See-and-Avoid System (SAAS) for safe UAV operations within the National Airspace System (NAS) and outside of Special Use Airspace. The SAAS will enable UAVs to autonomously perform both strategic maneuvering to follow the same predictable "right-of-way rules" followed by manned aircraft, as well as tactical maneuvering to perform close quarter collision avoidance. The primary innovation in this project is the Strategic Maneuvering System (SMS), a rule-based "maneuver executive" that will enable a UAV to interact with manned aircraft or other UAVs in a manner that is predictable and consonant with NAS operating procedures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The most immediate and obvious synergy with an existing NASA program is the Access 5 program. Although some specifics of the Access 5 program differ from this project (Access 5 focuses on UAV operations above 18,000 ft. while we focus on operations below 18,000 ft.; also our SAAS considers UAVs and manned aircraft that may not be equipped with transponders), many of the conclusions and lessons learned during Access 5 will greatly benefit the proposed program. The deliverables of the proposed program will also directly benefit Access 5. The SAAS developed in this program will also have potential applications to several other NASA programs including work on modernizing the Air Traffic Management System taking place at the NASA Ames Research Center, as well as the work on Intelligent Flight Controls being done by the Adaptive Controls Group in the Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AAI Corporation, the manufacturer of the Shadow family of UAV systems, recognizes the potential benefits of the proposed technology and has endorsed our proposal. AAI's wide range of UAV products and advanced development activities provide numerous opportunities for NASA, military, and commercial application of the technologies developed here. In addition to opportunities with AAI, Aerotonomy will pursue commercialization of these technologies with other major UAV systems developers, such as Boeing, Northrop Grumman, General Atomics, Aerovironment, Lockheed Martin, and Aurora Flight Sciences. We will also seek synergistic funding from the DoD and other government agencies including the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Army, and DARPA for additional research, systems development, and testing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Perception/Sensing
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Expert Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A3.01-8442
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Debugging and Event Tracing for Multi-Agent Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vikram Manikonda
vikram@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2785

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Large-scale agent systems have become key tools in modeling and simulation tools such as NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), an agent-based simulation of the National Airspace System (NAS). However, existing tools for single host debugging and analysis do not address the problem of understanding large distributed systems consisting of thousands of autonomous and independent agents. In this Phase I effort, we propose a distributed debugging and event tracing capability for multi-agent systems advancing the state of the art in development tools for distributed systems. This capability will dramatically reduce the time and effort required to understand and diagnose the behavior of complex, distributed applications. With the proposed innovation, the build and test development cycle for ACES will be dramatically reduced, enabling more functionality to be added in the form of toolboxes with less time spent in expensive system level testing. This will allow more future concepts to be evaluated with ACES in a shorter time ? meeting a critical need for customers such as the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in their development and analysis of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) concepts using ACES.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial target customer of the proposed toolset and capability is NASA's CTO7 ACES program and ACES users such as the AwCNS program. The resultant software will be directly integrated in the CybelePro framework as part of IAI's agent system development product line and provided to NASA users.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system debugging capability will be directly marketed to private industry, the government, and universities engaged in development of distributed systems in need of such a debugging capability. The distributed debugging and analysis tools will be supplied to existing DoD CybelePro users and applications for mobile ad-hoc network modeling, battle command and C2 systems, and distributed robotic teams.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A3.01-8926
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airport Ground Resource Planning Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
1190 Hawling Pl
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Atkins
atkins@mosaicatm.com
3 Primrose Lane
Westford,  MA 01886-3312

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA-developed Surface Management System (SMS) is currently being used by several air carriers on a daily basis. Although SMS was intended to create shared awareness between FAA and National Airspace System (NAS) user stakeholders in airport traffic management, it was not designed to address the specific needs of air carriers or airport authorities. This suggests a market for an airport automation tool aimed directly at the decisions that air carriers must make every day and which can significantly impact their business efficiency. This project will design and build a tool to improve the efficiency with which airport ground resources are used. Substantial re-designing of the displays relative to those available in SMS will improve the system's usability. Moreover, the complexity of the problem of optimizing resource assignment in the presence of the uncertainties involved suggest that automation may be able to improve efficiency and reduce the planner's workload. The Airport Ground Resource Planning (AGRP) tool will include both appropriate graphical user interfaces for visualizing resource allocations and making manual entries as well as advanced planning algorithms to recommend efficient allocation decisions. Phase 1 will study a single resource ? the off-load crews for a cargo operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR is focused primarily towards a commercial product and, therefore, potential NASA applications are limited. However, one application for this work is to NASA's continuing analysis of the impact and benefits of other automation or surface traffic management changes. NASA could use the ground resource planning algorithm to study how other changes on the airport surface would affect delays or throughput. The ground resource planning problem, fundamentally, is a queuing problem where each resource is a separate queue. The algorithm optimally assigns flights to queues and calculates the wait and service times. Therefore, the algorithm could even be applied to study runway usage, where each runway is a resource, or taxiway usage where the resources of interest are the intersections. In addition, NASA could integrate the new user interface into NASA's advanced airport surface automation research to broaden the capabilities available to address NASA's research goals.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The AGRP tool is intended to be used by air carriers or airport authorities responsible for managing ground resources such as parking gate assignments. Ground resource managers will use the AGPR tool to aid parking gate assignments, off-load and load crew utilization, fuel and catering scheduling, maintenance crew assignments, and marshalling/tug dispatching. The benefit from the AGPR tool will be most noticeable for air carriers at hub airports or airport authorities responsible for utilization of a resource for the entire airport. This technology is applicable both here in the United States as well as internationally. Ground resources, including parking gates, are shared between air carriers at many international airports, making efficient use of the resources including fairness more important. In addition, fuel or catering companies contracted by the air carriers to provide services could use the AGRP tool to better manage their operations.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A3.01-9577
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrating Human Performance Metrics into the Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Micro Analysis & Design, Inc.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301-2577

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kenneth Leiden
kleiden@maad.com
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder,  CO 80301-2577

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's Future Air traffic management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) is a simulation tool to evaluate next generation air traffic management (ATM) systems. FACET has been gaining popularity with ATM researchers in research years due to its well-designed user interface and robust capabilities for simulating the interaction between the National Airspace System (NAS) and new ATM concepts. Since controller task load and performance is a critical aspect of any future ATM concept, we propose to integrate human performance metrics into FACET. Currently, the only representation of human performance in FACET is through calculation of dynamic density, which estimates controller task load at the sector level through regression analysis of subjective controller ratings for current operations. However, the applicability of dynamic density in its current form for predicting controller task load of future ATM operations is unknown. By integrating human performance metrics directly into FACET, preliminary task load implications and predictions of workload-constrained sector capacity of any future ATM concept would be immediately available to researchers. This would be particularly useful to future ATM tradeoff studies and could be used in lieu of subjective controller ratings for preliminary recalibration of dynamic density for future ATM operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FACET is widely used by ATM researchers at NASA and other government agencies. Since controller workload and performance is a critical aspect of any future ATM concept, integrating human performance modeling into FACET will expand the robustness of the tool for performing system tradeoffs and focusing expensive human-in-the-loop experiments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial potential of FACET integrated with human performance modeling is growing as more countries privatize or consider privatizing their air traffic services. Companies providing air traffic services can evaluate controller workload issues using FACET to determine if investments in controller tools and technologies are worthwhile.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Computer System Architectures
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A3.01-9744
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-Objective Analysis for Jointly Reducing Noise and Emissions via ATM/Aircraft Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metron Aviation, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon, VA 20170-4758

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Terry Thompson
thompson@Metronaviation.com
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon,  VA 20170-3456

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Leveraging extensive experience from Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) environmental analysis, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Airspace Re-design projects, as well as National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) environmental modeling and decision-aid projects, Metron Aviation develops a software system to enable balanced noise and emissions reductions by integrated Air Traffic Management (ATM)/aircraft systems. The proposed capability, Emissions and Noise Total Impact REduction (ENTIRE) is innovative in the follow ways: 1. It spans the spectrum of environmental impacts, encompassing both noise and local air-quality; 2. It conjoins both ATM and aircraft-based activities for the management of these impact; and 3. It provides a tractable algorithmic approach to achieving specific noise and emissions impact reduction goals. The proposed capability directly supports the next-generation capabilities and environmentally friendly ATM capability sought under Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Subtopic A3.01 ? Next Generation ATM Systems, directly addressing integrated ATM/aircraft systems that reduce noise and emissions. This software system enables NASA to provide quantitative techniques for finding ATM/aircraft operations that achieve specific combined noise and emissions impact reductions using methods that identify relative contributions of each aspect of ATM and aircraft operations to these reductions. At its core the system will utilize greedy/breedy algorithms with variance in degrees of freedom and comparison of subsequent solutions towards meeting specific impact reduction goals.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The goals of the JPDO mandate that environmental impact be a part of almost all changes in the future systems and procedures being designed and integrated into the NAS. This indicates that there is a strong need and a growing market for a system like ENTIRE. This need may lead to commercial opportunities for NASA in the following ways: 1. The ENTIRE effort will allow NASA to design and develop robust and adaptable mixtures of ATM/aircraft operations reducing combined noise and emissions impacts. This capability will potentially allow NASA to develop tools and solutions that may be of commercial value to other firms and other government agencies such as the FAA. 2. With the development of these capabilities, and related expertise in developing solutions to aviation-related environmental impact, NASA may win research opportunities from commercial firms and airlines seeking to mitigate environmental impacts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Phase I and Phase II non-NASA commercial potential for the ENTIRE method and supporting algorithms is significant in the following ways: ? Aviation-related commercial firms of all types (airlines, aerospace companies, consultants, etc.) need access to a methodology and algorithms that will help them plan and execute optimal mixtures of ATM and aircraft operational activities to reduce environmental impacts associated with aviation noise and emissions; and ? The long-term nature of the JPDO development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) implies that the changing nature of the business strategies of NAS users will require continued adjustment in the ATM/aircraft operational activities, perhaps in a tactical fashion. This will provide commercial opportunities for firms able to rapidly ingest large amounts of complex demand, capacity, and weather information, analyze this information, and produce optimal operational-activity plans.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I A3.01-9828
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Integrated Turbulence Hazard Decision Support Tool for Controllers and Dispatchers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aerotech Research
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News, VA 23606-4507

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Robinson
paulrobinson@atr-usa.com
11836 Fishing Point Dr, Suite 200
Newport News,  VA 23606-4507

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Every day, turbulence has an adverse effect on aircraft operations and capacity of the NAS, costing the airline industry at least $100 million annually in operational inefficiencies, unscheduled maintenance, and injuries. A contributor to these costs is that controllers' and dispatchers' current tactical knowledge of turbulence hazards relies heavily on verbal pilot reports of turbulence, which are often inconsistent, late, and subjective. AeroTech will develop a turbulence hazard decision support tool (TurbDST) that will enhance controllers' and dispatchers' situational awareness of the location and severity of turbulence; by providing real-time quantitative turbulence information down-linked from aircraft. TurbDST will enhance tactical and strategic decision making with regard to airspace usage and aircraft routing by enabling users to predict the effect of the reported/detected turbulence on aircraft whose route may take them through that location. With enhanced turbulence knowledge, collaboration with pilots regarding route changes can be improved and cost savings to the airlines can be gained through more efficient and safer aircraft routing. Phase I will prove technical feasibility of integrating the turbulence information and will develop, using controller and dispatcher inputs, CONOPS and requirements for the TurbDST. By Phase III, a meaningful controller/dispatcher TurbDST will be developed, tested, and evaluated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
When the goals of the proposed R/R&D are met, this turbulence hazard decision support tool will be supportive of NASA's Airspace Systems program's goal to "improve throughput, predictability, flexibility, collaboration, and efficiency of the National Airspace System" and the Efficient Flight Path Management's (EFPM) goal to develop "integrated air traffic management decision support tools and advanced traffic management concepts to facilitate modernization of the NAS." The TurbDST has direct applications to the EFPM's Advanced Routing technical area and the Direct-To (D2) tool, specifically with assisting in the visualization and notification of routing conflicts due to hazardous weather (turbulence). The Strategic Airspace Usage project's Collaborative Traffic Management portion would also benefit from the tool. TurbDST will also directly contribute to NASA's Aviation Safety & Security Program's stated national goal of a 50% reduction in aviation accidents by 2007 and benefit the efforts of the Turbulence Prediction and Warning System (TPAWS) program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AeroTech's TurbDST will provide controllers and dispatchers with improved situational awareness and information concerning turbulence location and severity that will both enhance decision-making and enable more efficient collaboration with pilots concerning flight path changes to avoid hazardous turbulence. Use of the TurbDST can result in more efficient routing of aircraft around turbulence, reductions in enroute delays due to weather/turbulence, and reductions in injuries due to turbulence, which all translate into cost savings for aircraft operators. The TurbDST also has potential as a preflight planning tool for both dispatchers and pilots. The tool will be software that can be used as a standalone system or integrated into current controller or dispatcher flight following and routing displays. Air Traffic Control Centers and Part 121 carriers (both domestic and international) will be the primary markets for the TurbDST. Delta Air Lines supports AeroTech's Phase I efforts.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management



PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X1.01-7753
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Computing and Reconfigurable Electronics
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Non-Volatile SRAM For Spaceborne Applications Using a Novel Ferroelectric Non-Linear Dielectric

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Structured Materials Industries, Inc.
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3723

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joe Cuchiaro
jcuchiaro@aol.com
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08854-3723

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A ferroelectric non-linear dielectric was recently discovered that, in their film form, possess a number of properties that make it an excellent choice for radiation-hardened electronics, particularly a radiation hardened (total dose hardened and SEE immune) non-volatile (NV) static random access memory (SRAM). Electrical measurements of these films demonstrated a relatively low dielectric constant (~20), an inherent ability to form a native buffer layer when deposited directly on silicon, and a strong polarization hysteresis effect. These results indicate that this film may be used to replace the two n-channel and two p-channel transistors in a traditional 4-T SRAM latch cell with two n-channel and two p-channel non-linear dielectric field effect transistors (NLDFETs). The threshold voltage hysteresis effect of the NLDFET should achieve full SEU immunity to at least 80MeV-cm2/mg of ionizing radiation, when used in a standard 6-transistor SRAM cell structure, thus have ultra-fast access times (like commercial SRAMs) while offering full non-volatility. In Phase I we will provide the device proof of concept, then in Phase II build a prototype memory. Phase III will see commercialization by licensing and sales. The resulting NV-SRAM products have the potential to be orders of magnitude faster than any existing EEPROM or FLASH devices because the nonlinear dielectric film forms a native dielectric with silicon giving the structure resistance to "wear-out" or "data-retention" problems. Finally, the SMI material is fully compatible with CMOS processing and has been accepted into major commercial silicon fabrication lines as a high-k dielectric for linear applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA Commercial applications include licensing of 6T SRAM technology to major semiconductor manufacturing companies, radiation hardened high-density SRAM 916 - 32M) and Non-Volatile embedded memory product that operate fast with state-of-the-art microprocessor speeds.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial products derived from this program have the potential to be orders of magnitude faster than any existing EEPROM or FLASH devices because of the employment of the non-linear dielectric, which also give the structure resistance to "wear-out". Thus the technology can be broadly applied to slicon semiconductor devices in general.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X1.01-9182
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Computing and Reconfigurable Electronics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular, Fault-Tolerant Electronics Supporting Space Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AeroAstro, Inc.
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn, VA 20147-3373

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Seng
bill.seng@aeroastro.com
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn,  VA 20147-3373

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AeroAstro's innovative design approach for implementing reconfigurable electronics frees the spacecraft designer to concentrate on the mission at hand with significant assurance that single-point failures can be automatically corrected. It also uses dynamic reconfiguration to change circuit functions which will create the opportunity to conserve mass, volume, and power while providing capabilities that may have been valuable, but deemed to be less important or infrequently needed so that they could not justify dedicated hardware. The system operates at a much finer level of granularity than with other reconfigurable approaches, which increases not the only adaptability and versatility, but also reduces the redundancy required to assure the success of the mission. Unlike traditional approaches that employ redundant systems, there are no mass penalties, and affordability is achievable. Significant benefits include dramatic orders of magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Reconfigurability benefits all missions by providing graceful degradation of electronic systems after damage, and also enabling additional functionality. The improved safety achieved is essential to success. Failures result in loss of experiments, the mission, and even the astronauts' lives. Delays in restoring failed equipment to at least minimal functionality are intolerable. The demands of interplanetary travel are more difficult, beginning with Mars exploration missions, much longer in duration, thus increasing the likelihood of failure. There will be powerful contention over the allocation of resources. Compromises reducing spare parts are inevitable. Self-diagnosing, self-repairing systems enhance the success of these bold ventures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military systems, to destroy sensitive equipment if capture is imminent, to cloak equipment by stealth or to enable graceful degradation after battle damage. Electronic systems not used simultaneously can be combined into a single reconfigurable system. The aircraft industry. Critical system failure might cost hundreds of souls. Other transportation systems, including automotive, trucks, railroads, and ships. Power plants, electrical transmission/distribution systems, financial networks, homeland security-related systems. Medical systems, vital in operating rooms and other areas of hospitals, and personal electronic systems that sustain life benefit from increased reliability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Manned-Manuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits
Tools
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X1.01-9968
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Computing and Reconfigurable Electronics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation-Tolerant, Space Wire-Compatible Switching Fabric

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Science and Novel Technology
27 Via Porto Grande
Rancho Palos Verdes , CA 90275-2049

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vladimir Katzman
traffic405@cox.net
27 Via Porto Grande
Rancho Palos Verdes ,  CA 90275-2049

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current and future programs of near-Earth and deep space exploration require the development of robust serial data transfer electronics within the spacecraft's subsystems while preserving open system architecture. The electronics must be reconfigurable, fault-tolerant, and have the ability to operate effectively for long periods of time in harsh environmental conditions. Existing data transfer systems based on passive backplanes are slow, power hungry, slightly reconfigurable, provide limited expandability, and have low tolerance to radiation effects. One of the most promising approaches to alleviate these system shortcomings is based on switching fabric (SF) backplane architecture with serial (i.e. Space Wire (SW)) interfaces. In response to the described needs, we propose to develop a novel, radiation-tolerant, SF with a user-selectable standard SW interface or our patent-pending multi-level (ML) interface that features a high frequency range, low power consumption, and advanced functionality. Our ML interconnect technique eliminates the need for the second information channel utilized in the SW data-strobe encoding scheme. Instead the channel can be used as a redundant link for improving the system's fault tolerance specification. Radiation tolerance of the proposed system is achieved through the combination of the state-of-the-art and proprietary hardening-by-technology, hardening-by-design, and hardening-by-architecture techniques.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful accomplishment of this project will result in the development of a compact Application Specific Integrated Circuit or Multi-Chip-Module, which has the potential to revolutionize intra-space craft system development. The universal software-reconfigurable interface will not only speed-up the system's design and assembly process, but will open the way for the implementation of a true Plug and Play architecture and in-situ hardware adaptation. This is extremely important for the realization of future innovative concepts for space exploration over the next decade.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The novel space wire protocol based switching fabric approach that will be developed during Phase I will be implemented as a low power, open architecture, radiation hardened, application specific integrated circuit. The developed technology will mitigate new mission risks and minimize system cost and development time. This communication technology will also help computer and system designers to increase the processing power of future large computer systems in the movie industry and in a variety of military and industrial applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X1.02-8141
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environment Electronics/SEE
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computer Aided Design Tools for Extreme Environment Electronics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corp
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marek Turowski
jls@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1926

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project aims to provide Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools for radiation-tolerant, wide-temperature-range digital, analog, mixed-signal, and radio-frequency electronic components suitable for operation in the extreme environments of the Moon, Mars, and other deep space destinations. All such exploration systems will need reliable electronics able to operate in a wide temperature range (-230?C to +130 ?C) and high radiation levels. There is very little knowledge of semiconductor device behavior in extreme low temperatures (currently ongoing research) and no reliable models or design tools. CFDRC will develop first commercial-quality validated models and CAD tools for predicting the electrical performance and reliability of electronic components in extreme low temperatures, with included radiation effects and reliability analysis, using coupled semiconductor and thermal-mechanical simulation. This work will use and implement the newest data from the ongoing NASA Exploration Systems and Research Technology (Code ES&RT) program, led by Prof. Cressler at Georgia Tech (subcontractor in this proposal), involving JPL, BAE, Boeing, Vanderbilt, and others, aimed at developing electronics technology for mixed-signal circuit applications for lunar (to -230?C) applications. Reliable and validated CAD tools will help to predict electronics performance and radiation response in the extreme temperatures, and reduce the amount of testing cost and time.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improvements in electronic components and systems reliability and radiation hardness are required to enable NASA future exploration missions. The proposed Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools will support development and design of radiation-tolerant, wide-temperature-range digital, analog, low power, mixed signal, and RF electronic components, and integrated modules suitable for operation in the extreme environments of the Moon, Mars, and other deep space destinations, in particular, in extreme low-temperatures. The new CAD tools for predicting the electrical performance and reliability for low-temperature electronic systems and components will help NASA to: ? better understand and predict behavior of electronic devices and systems in deep space environments; ? assess and select new electronic technologies, devices, and materials for extreme low temperatures; ? better evaluate the extreme-temperature performance and radiation response at early design stage; ? set requirements for hardening and testing; reduce the amount of testing cost and time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential users include other space electronics suppliers, in particular for DoD space communication and surveillance systems as well as commercial satellites. There is also an interest in cryogenic electronics for high-sensitivity, low-noise analog and mixed-signal applications, like metrology, sensors (radiation, optical, X-ray), radiometrology, radio and optical astronomy, infrared and photon detectors, and other high-end equipment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X1.02-8196
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environment Electronics/SEE
PROPOSAL TITLE: DC-Motor Drive Encompassing SiGe Asynchronous Control Electronics for Ultra-Wide (-230 C to +130 C) Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arkansas Power Electronics International, Inc.
700 W Research Blvd
Fayetteville, AR 72701-7174

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roberto Schupbach
marcelo@apei.net
700 W Research Blvd
Fayetteville,  AR 72701-7174

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to investigate and prove the feasibility of developing ultra-wide temperature (-230 <SUP>o</SUP>C to +130 <SUP>o</SUP>C) motor drives utilizing Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) asynchronous logic digital control electronics. Asynchronous circuits remove the concept of a global clock by incorporating handshaking protocols to control the circuit. The handshaking protocols allows for flexible timing requirements, high power efficiency, and low noise/emission generation. The flexible timing nature of asynchronous logic makes this type of logic circuit an excellent candidate for extreme temperature control electronics. In addition, the outstanding low-temperature performance of SiGe coupled with its industry standard manufacturing processes makes the SiGe-based asynchronous digital electronics an ideal technology choice for developing digital electronics for space applications. By utilizing the benefits of asynchronous logic in conjunction with the excellent temperature performance of SiGe, future ultra-wide temperature digital control electronics will operate reliably, exceeding the capabilities of today's state-of-the-art Si electronics by several folds. Lastly, The marriage of SiGe-based asynchronous control with power electronics into an ultra-wide temperature range DC-motor drive will prove to be immensely valuable to the NASA program in reducing systems' weight, improving efficiency, reliability, and performance?all resulting in significant cost savings.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The first market for this technology will be in the power electronics systems of NASA Lunar and Martian science missions and deep space exploration vehicles, including spacecraft, balloons, rockets, and aircraft. APEI, Inc. plans to develop the technology throughout Phases I, II, and III with this purpose and goal in mind. There are a wide range of NASA applications in which this technology could significantly improve performance and/or reduce launch costs. Ultra-wide temperature electronics will eliminate (or reduce) the need for thermal control reducing size, weight, and power usage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for this technology are found on the commercial avionics, medical and defense sectors. The avionics industry is actively pursuing the development of extreme temperature electronics for sensors, radio-frequency power amplifiers and actuators/motor drive application. This technology has the potential of simplifying the design the next generation of crafts and commercial satellites expanding their current capabilities. The medical fields and the defense sectors have particular interest on extreme temperature electronics since it has the potential of impacting several areas such as magnetic resonance imaging, particle accelerators, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X1.02-9356
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environment Electronics/SEE
PROPOSAL TITLE: SOI MESFETs for Extreme Environment Electronics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SJT Micropower
16411 N. Skyridge Lane
Fountain Hills, AZ 85268-1515

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joseph Ervin
joseph.ervin@asu.edu
16411 N. Skyridge Lane
Fountain Hills,  AZ 85268-1515

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We are proposing a new extreme environment electronics (EEE) technology based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). Our technology allows MESFETs to be fabricated using commercial SOI CMOS foundries with no expensive changes to the process flow. The MESFETs are radiation tolerant and the use of SOI substrates makes them SEU immune. They offer unique advantages compared to equivalent geometry MOSFETs including: i) higher operating frequencies in the ultra-low power regime; (ii) 10 ? 100X lower 1/f noise; (iii) high voltage operation (>20V). The MESFETs show excellent performance up to 200C, as do simulations down to ? 185C. The low-noise, high-speed (GHz) and ultra-low power capability of the SOI MESFETs makes them ideally suited for a variety of EEE mixed-signal circuits including analog-to-digital converters, low-noise amplifiers and voltage/current references for advanced sensor applications. The high voltage capability also suggests MESFET applications in power amplifier communication modules, as well as DC-DC converters in power management systems. During Phase 1 we shall develop device models that describe MESFET operation over the temperature range ?180 to + 130C. The models will be calibrated against data taken from our existing MESFETs, and will operate within industry standard CAD tools. The models will be used to design and simulate an operational amplifier, a voltage controlled oscillator, a power amplifier and a low noise amplifier. The layout of the simulated designs will be completed during Phase 1, for fabrication during Phase 2 in partnership with a commercial foundry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A low power, mixed-signal MESFET technology will be valuable to NASA wherever extreme environment electronics are required. This will include missions to the moon and Mars, where wide temperature swings will be experienced. Missions to Jupiter will benefit from the high radiation tolerance of the MESFETs. The low-power capability of the MESFETs will reduce the overall power consumption of spacecraft communication and sensing systems. The high voltage capability will be of use for advanced power management systems. The development of MESFETs for medical implants will benefit NASA through improved astronaut health monitoring. Because the MESFETs can be manufactured using commercial SOI CMOS processes, our technology is extremely affordable, and is compatible with the future scaling of SOI CMOS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MESFET technology we are developing will have widespread applications in commercial electronics, wherever low-power, mixed-signal circuits are required. Applications include the transceiver components of personal communication systems that will benefit from the low-noise, low-power, RF capability of the MESFET in the receive stage, and from the increased efficiency of the MESFET power amplifier in the transmit stage. MESFET component such as A/D converters and operational amplifiers will be of use in sensor networks and systems. The ultra-low power, RF capability of the MESFETs will be particularly useful in medical implants, such as pacemakers and artificial cochlea. SOI MESFETs offer significant 'added-value' to existing SOI product lines because of their high voltage capability that greatly exceeds the maximum operating voltage of the SOI MOSFETs. This will allow new SOI products to be developed, without additional cost. Examples include multiplexors, DC-DC converters, voltage and current regulators etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Data Input/Output Devices
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X1.03-8199
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Imaging
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multispectral Panoramic Imaging System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM)
60 Fourth Avenue
Albany, NY 12202-1924

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zack Mian
zack786@nycap.rr.com
60 Fourth Avenue
Albany,  NY 12202-1924

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
International Electronic Machines Corporation, a leader in the design of precision imaging systems, will develop an innovative multispectral, panoramic imaging system for use on exploratory landing craft. During Phase I, IEM will build upon and advance alternative strategies, including our patent pending Synthetic Field of View (SynthFOV) technology and our Pan/Tilt Mirror System (PTMS), initially conceived by IEM for the USMC Gladiator UGV. These two technologies will eliminate or significantly reduce the use of conventional moving parts, will decrease power demand, will reduce launch weight, and will require less space than current imaging systems. SynthFOV incorporates an array of Off-Axis Telescopes to focus light to a sensor via a series of optically precise mirrors. The PTMS uses a centrally configured mirror that rotates and tilts along both horizontal and vertical axes thereby directing the reflected light to a sensor. Alternative configurations include use of two imagers for stereo panoramic imaging; incorporating filter wheels for multispectral imaging on a single sensor; use of multiple sensors for imaging visible, near IR, and other wavelengths, and use of multispectral lenses to further reduce weight. IEM will evaluate these and other alternatives and will demonstrate the applicability of the selected approach through pre-prototype testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Multi-Spectral Panoramic Imaging System will advance future planetary exploration. The smaller size, lighter weight, fewer conventional moving parts, and adjustable fields of view will improve imaging capability over current mechanically based pan/tilt camera systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The markets for a successful implementation of this panoramic imaging system are very large and diverse. Security systems which do not require constant monitoring by human operators, which are adaptable and customizable, and which can automatically detect security risks and notify the appropriate personnel would be of vast interest to all branches of the military, to all law-enforcement organizations at Federal, State, and local levels, and to industry in a wide variety of settings. In the current security-minded political climate, security is a multibillion-dollar market which is only likely to expand in the next decade. Multispectral components of this imaging system would also have wide application in security, safety, industrial maintenance, and scientific roles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X1.03-9361
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Imaging
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rover Radar for Surface Navigation, Hazard Detection and Negative Obstacle Avoidance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Epsilon Lambda Electronics Corporation
396 Fenton Lane, Suite 601
West Chicago, IL 60185-2687

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Knox
bobk@epsilonlambda.com
396 Fenton Lane, Suite 601
West Chicago,  IL 60185-2687

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Topic X1.03 NASA (JPL) is seeking to extend and implement long distance exploratory surface rover missions to gain knowledge of surface topology and roughness. The benefit is to identify suitable sites for future landings of human or robotic missions and to aid in pinpoint landings. High resolution millimeter wave radar sensors provide a low cost, reliable way for a Moon or Mars Rover to detect hazards and negative obstacles (i.e. holes and drop-offs) while moving or stationary. A radar sensor is effective as a stand-alone sensor, or as a complement to the stereo vision based and laser line systems used on previous successful rover missions. The low computer overhead and inherently rapid response of a radar sensor enables a rover to rapidly traverse extremely rugged terrain without risk of falling into a hole or being otherwise trapped. The rapid traverse speed provides a wider area for collection of science data, and reduces the fraction of limited mission time spent on moving, as opposed to measurement. The overall objective of the proposed program is to develop a practical rover radar sensor for negative and positive obstacle detection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond the application stated in SBIR topic X1.03, the radar sensor is applicable to all NASA robotics and rover requirements, whether for Mars, the Moon, and destinations beyond. The proposed concept may also be applicable for certain landing and docking activities, where precise, automated actions can be supplemented with MMW radar.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA commercial applications include robotics and unmanned vehicle applications, where concerns similar to that of the Moon/Mars rover apply ? ie. avoiding positive and negative hazards. This may include all areas of robotics and unmanned vehicles, including those used in Homeland Security Operations, Surveillance, Rescue Operations, and Land Surveys. Another application includes terrestrial robots for exploration of hostile environments (arctic, volcanoes, etc).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Mobility
Perception/Sensing
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Microwave/Submillimeter
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X1.03-9694
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensing and Imaging
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra Compact, Low Power, NIR, Flash LADAR Receiver

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Voxtel, Inc.
12725 SW Millikan Way, Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005-1687

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Williams
georgew@voxtel-inc.com
12725 SW Millikan Way, Suite 230
Beaverton,  OR 97005-1687

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The object of this effort is to design a miniature, low power, angle-angle-range, 3-D flash LADAR receiver that can be implemented using germanium-on-insulator/silicon-on-insulator (GOI/SOI) hybrid wafer stacks. The germanium layer of the wafer stack will be used for photodetection functions, so as to take advantage of its excellent photoabsorption in the visible and NIR, as well as its high carrier mobilities. Low-noise, high-bandwidth amplification and pulse detection circuits will be fabricated in the silicon layer of the wafer stack, using mature complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The proposed design is optimized to be both low power and radiation tolerance. The SOI architecture is inherently tolerant of radiation, as the small volumes of device material involved have a correspondingly smaller scattering cross section. Moreover, isolation of the thin device layer from the substrate means that CMOS receiver circuits fabricated on such a wafer will benefit from increased speed, reduced power consumption, and lower noise. Finally, as the proposed design can be manufactured using commercial CMOS foundry lines, no additional cost, development time, or quality control measures relative to a standard CMOS process will be incurred, once the hybrid wafers are procured. In Phase I, the proposed receiver will be designed, simulated, and optimized using TCAD tools. The design and simulation tasks will be complemented with a short-loop fabrication experiment in which critical receiver components will be fabricated from hybrid GOI/SOI wafer prototypes and characterized.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA may use LADAR's terrain mapping capabilities for space exploration, and autonomous navigation. As example, one of the recent NASA Mars probes, lost while attempting to land near the planet's South Pole region, probably fell into a crevasse. A 3-D imager could provide highly accurate maps of potential landing areas, offering mission planners more accurate site selection data. NASA also is investigating LADAR applications for spacecraft docking systems. LADAR is also usefully for unattended vehicle navigation, hazard avoidance, detection of obstacles present in the path of an autonomous vehicle, and 3-D scene structure applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LADAR systems have applications for obstacle detection, land and building survey, 3-D modeling, target identification, terrain mapping, and navigational guidance. The military is currently using LADAR in missile seekers and UAV platforms, and is interested in using the 3-D mapping capabilities of LADAR. For example, in an urban operation, if terrorists were suspected of operating in a building, accurate LADAR maps could be used to do 3-D modeling of the area, permitting ground forces to find the best ways to approach the structure without being seen.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X1.04-8475
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface Networks & Access Links
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Tolerant Reconfigurable/Reprogrammable 802.16 Communication System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aeronix, Inc.
1175 W. Hibiscus Blvd, Suite 200
Melbourne, FL 32901-2703

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeff Ernst
jernst@aeronix.com
1775 W. Hibiscus Blvd, Suite 200
Melbourne,  FL 32901-2703

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Exploration of planetary surfaces will require a communication architecture that supports operational capabilities in which fixed and mobile assets on the planetary surface can communicate seamlessly and securely. Aeronix understands the issues and believes that the solution lies in the development of radiation tolerant wireless devices that employ the benefits of FPGA technology as an underlying architecture feature. Aeronix is currently developing two technologies that will be directly leveraged. ? A FPGA/DSP based enhanced 802.16-2004 wireless LAN air-to-ground solution targeted for DoD applications with peak throughput of 65.5 Mbps. ? A Radiation Tolerant FPGA based, NSA Crypto Mod compliant cryptographic module for space. The specific problem addressed by this Aeronix Phase I SBIR effort is to identify enhancements to the 802.16-Terrestrial architecture and design required to meet the harsh environmental and radiation conditions expected in space and on planetary exploration missions. The new radiation tolerant communications solution will be identified as 802.16 RadT and will have operational capabilities of 65.5 Mbps / 70 miles. Additionally, this SBIR will address the unique requirements for Information Assurance and Type 1 crypto for classified command, control, and data requirements via integration of radiation tolerant crypto.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include spaced-based wireless networks, lunar-based wireless networks, and Mars-based wireless networks. Usage models include point-to-multipoint and Mesh networks for communication between base stations, mobile rovers, mobile humans, and sensors. Equipments supported via this SBIR include base station access points, subscriber stations, wireless bridges, and wireless NICs for radiation environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
IEEE 802.16 (i.e. WiMax) is an industry-lead standard that is being targeted broadly for metropolitan area networks and last mile applications with extended range and high-speed data requirements. Aeronix is investing in 802.16 PHY and MAC intellectual property to address markets such as DoD, NASA, and commercial. Award of this SBIR will extend the capabilities. Commercial applications include applications that require Aeronix extended Doppler and rotor craft communication capabilities. Examples include air-to-ground commercial wireless LAN's (such as air-to-ground Internet access) and ground-to-ground high speed mobile applications (automobiles). Traditional 802.16 last mile applications are a market potential market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Manned-Manuvering Units
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.01-7709
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional High Performance Textiles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NanoTex Corporation
9402 Alberene Drive
Houston, TX 77074-1306

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Felipe Chibante
fchibante@ntxcorp.com
9402 Alberene Drive
Houston,  TX 77074-1308

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR proposal is to establish a platform technology of space durable thermally/electrically conductive fabrics for space environment applications. The fabrics are based on nanoengineered fibers and yarns under development at NanoTex Corp. With increased emphasis on long term manned space missions with limited resources, there is increased need for efficient passive thermal control systems. Furthermore, the proposed fabrics are multifunctional as they will have improved strength and tenacity, designed electrical conductivity, and greater thermal stability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This innovative manufacturing technology will provide lightweight high-strength, thermally conductive textiles that can also carry electrical charge for space-based applications. Other NASA areas such as: weight/cost reduction of spacecraft systems; radiation shielding; nanoscale devices; electronics and thermal management would benefit from increase nanotube composite availability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial applications will focus on high value added components for the $10 billion advanced composites market segment (aerospace/ defense, semiconductor, sport) and niche applications requiring minimal material such as electrostatic dissipative films and thermal management.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.01-8036
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Abating Highly Flexible Multifunctional Polyimide Cryogenic and Thermal Insulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GFT, LLC
310 E. South Street
Pennville, IN 47369-9465

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philip Griffith
phil@gftco.com
310 E. South Street
Pennville,  IN 47369-9465

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of highly flexible thermal insulation materials with multifunctional properties based in polyimide polymers and designed to provide significant radiation abatement is proposed. These new material forms provide their enhanced properties while ensuring benign behavior in adverse thermal environments ranging from cryogenic to elevated temperatures. In addition, the introduction of radiation abating materials into the polymeric precursor or foam provides a protective element not available in current state-of-the-art insulation materials. The proposal team provides a fundamental understanding of the chemistry and physics of polyimide foams, the test facilities for measurement of structural and mechanical properties and production facilities sufficient to produce materials in volume necessary for prototype tests in NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include cryogenic and thermal insulation for deep space vehicles and earthbound launch systems; space suit insulation; cryogenic and thermal protection for radiation sensitive components; multifunctional flight deck and passenger compartment insulation aboard aircraft, launch vehicles, and CEV designs; noise and vibration abatement material for launch vehicle payloads.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include cryogenic insulation for the LNG and other liquefied gas production and transport industries; multifunctional insulation for military and commercial aerospace and marine entities; radiation shielding for the electronics industries; acoustic deadener for the automotive industry; flame resistant acoustic foam for the entertainment industry; acoustic and flame resistant ceiling tiles for building construction; home attic and wall insulation once product matures later in its lifecycle.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Solar
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Reuseable
Thermal Insulating Materials
Tankage
RF
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Manned-Manuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
In-situ Resource Utilization
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.01-8308
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Ultrahigh Temperature CMC-Lined C/C Combustion Chambers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague St
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gautham Ramachandran
gautham.ramachandran@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA and DoD are seeking economical and high-performance bipropellant thrusters for various applications. These goals cannot be achieved using the silicided C103 chambers in current use. Ultramet has developed and successfully demonstrated carbon fiber-reinforced zirconium carbide (C/ZrC) and carbon fiber-reinforced zirconium-silicon carbide (C/Zr-Si-C) ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for use in liquid propellant applications up to 4200<SUP>o</SUP>F. Although the density of these CMCs is less than that of C103, further reducing overall weight is desired with a target goal of 2.6 g/cm3. Carbon/carbon (C/C) is widely used because of its light weight and high specific strength at elevated temperatures. However, adequate long-term protection of C/C is the limiting factor for its use in liquid propellant propulsion components. Ultramet will combine the light weight of C/C and the ultrahigh temperature oxidation resistance of C/Zr-Si-C CMCs in a unique laminate composite. This system will possess an overall density that is similar to C/SiC while increasing the operating temperature to 4000<SUP>o</SUP>F in liquid propulsion applications. Net-shape fabrication of CMC-lined C/C combustion chambers will be accomplished by adapting an innovative variant of Ultramet's melt infiltration technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed materials concept will apply to many NASA applications, including hot gas components for liquid propulsion applications. The combination of the long-duration oxidation resistance of ultrahigh temperature CMCs with lightweight C/C will also make this system ideal for applications such as surface skin structures in leading edges and thermal protection systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many applications in DoD and DOE systems require lightweight, high strength, high temperature oxidation-resistant structures. DoD applications that use liquid propulsion, such as IHPRPT programs, would benefit from the developments in this project. DOE has significant needs for energy generation and management that could also be targeted.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.01-8458
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Silicone-based Coatings for Flexible Fabric Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive N., Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3723

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amit Singhal
asinghal@neicorporation.com
201 Circle Drive N., Suite 102/103
Piscataway,  NJ 08854-3723

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High performance silicone coatings are desired for flexible fabrics used in several space and consumer applications. For instance, the total weight of silicone coatings that are used on Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) airbags can be reduced by improving their thermal stability and mechanical properties. The proposed program focuses on developing advanced silicone coatings by working with a manufacturer of coated and laminated fabrics for industrial and general-purpose applications. In Phase I, we will develop coating formulations, deposit coatings on a few different types of fabrics, and characterize the coatings for various properties that are required for airbag applications. Additionally, plans for commercialization and scale-up will be developed during Phase I for implementation in Phase II, so that the product can be manufactured and marketed in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed silicone coating technology will help to reduce the coating weight on airbags used for MER applications while maintaining or increasing the seam strength. This generic technology may also be utilized in a broad range of space-related flexible fabric applications, including inflatable space structures, parachutes and space suits.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The silicone coating technology that is being developed in this program has immense potential in industrial textile coatings that are used in various sectors, including manufacturing and processing, transportation, construction, sports and leisure, and personal and property protection. For example, transportation applications, such as airbags, inflatable boats, interior trim and lining, convertible tops, truck covers and lifejackets, need coatings with high abrasion resistance and durability, high chemical resistance, fire resistance, high thermal stability, and good tear strength.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Erectable
Inflatable
Portable Life Support
Suits
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.01-8733
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Super Lightweight, Metal Rubber Fabric for Extreme Space Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5556

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jennifer Lalli
jlalli@nanosonic.com
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-5556

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NanoSonic has fabricated revolutionary nanostructured, yet macroscale, multifunctional Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> films via layer-by-layer, molecular self-assembly, which enables thickness and placement control over multiple constituents for true nanostructured multifunctionality and homogeneity (surface roughness +/- 5 nm). NanoSonic has recently transitioned this innovative approach into a method to produce flexible, super lightweight, conductive fabrics for inflatable spacecraft. In support of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration, low cost Metal Rubber Fabric<SUP>TM</SUP> would be optimized as high performance textiles and sensors for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Specifically, nanostructured fabrics with ultra-low mass density (0.0011 g/cc), offer electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and the elastomeric variants exhibit a novel approach to large area sensors. Metal Rubber Fabric<SUP>TM</SUP> is not fabricated from conducting polymers or sputter coated fibers. NanoSonic's in situ approach involves chemically reacting monolayers of nanosized components, eliminating residual stress between each constituent. Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> technology has led to advanced electrically conductive (as low as 10-5 &#937;&#8729;cm) inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposites that can be strained to > 1000% elongation that return to the original shape and nominal conductivity when released, even at cryogenic temperatures (-80&#61616;C). Metal Rubber Fabric<SUP>TM</SUP> requires less than 1 vol% of metal, allowing the manufacturing a cost effective, advanced textiles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications for Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> Fabrics include ultra-lightweight textiles for NASA inflatables (ballutes, habitats, airbags, parachutes and suits), protective coatings against electrostatic charging, EMI, radiation, and abrasion. Low modulus Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> Fabrics and films can also function as conducting electrodes for high strain mechanical actuator and sensor devices, and as low-weight, electrically conductive and mechanically flexible coatings for systems requiring physically-robust electromagnetic shielding, ground planes or electrical interconnection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> can be used as replacements for conventional tin-lead solder for the mechanical, electrical and thermal interconnection of electronic and mechanical components. Such materials may also be used in high performance, highly flexible and mechanically robust electronic flex circuits, flexible displays and smart electronic fabrics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Reuseable
Ceramics
Composites
Organics/Bio-Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.01-9174
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhanced Damage Tolerance High Temperature Composite Using a Biomimetic Toughening System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451-1016

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Kovar
bkovar@infoscitex.com
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham,  MA 02451-1016

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lightweight composite structures are required to provide space vehicles with increased thrust-to-weight ratio and durability. New methods for toughening composites that also add functionality, such as making high temperature structural composites more thermally and electrically conductive, can increase spacecraft performance. Infoscitex proposes to enhance toughness of a thermal-oxidatively stable structural composite by more than 50 percent (measured by G1C) by depositing dispersed carbon nanofibers within insulating, resin-rich, interlaminar regions. Our approach also increases z-direction thermal and electrical conductivity, enabling dissipation of heat and electrical charge from hot spacecraft power supply and propulsion enclosures. In Phase I, we will process commercial carbon nanofibers and high temperature composite prepreg into nanofiber-toughened and control composite test panels using an autoclave. Cured composite test panels will be tested for G1C, open hole tensile and short beam shear strength, thermal and electrical conductivity and failure analysis to demonstrate feasibility. In Phase II, we will refine the composite toughening process and materials, conduct compression-after-impact tests, scale-up and produce a prototype multifunctional composite spacecraft structure for testing. Our team includes commercial prepreg and carbon nanofiber suppliers, a space vehicle structure manufacturer and experts in high temperature composite processing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed biomimetic enhanced damage tolerance high temperature system will find use in ultralightweight, multifuctional, structural applications for future space vehicle platforms. The high temperature performance of the composite will make it particularly attractive for hot zones of the space vehicles approaching 700F.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications, the composite technology will be attractive for terrestrial aircraft (i.e. advanced military aircraft). Additional applications include body and vehicle armor with enhanced ballistic performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Composites
Organics/Bio-Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.02-7872
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structures and Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: New Analysis and Theory of Deployable Folded Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Folded Structures Company, L.L.C.
1142A Old York Road
Ringoes, NJ 08551-1045

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Kling
kling@netcarrier.com
1142A Old York Rd
Ringoes,  NJ 08551-1045

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A recently developed mathematical theory has great value for deployable space structures and in situ manufacture of large beams, panels, cylinders and other components. The new technology offers diverse capacity to design, manufacture, and self-assemble periodically folded sheet material. The range of materials includes many customized core materials for laminated panels, cellular habitat wall constructions, structural beams, parabolic reflectors, and efficient truss systems that can be packaged ideally as a roll of sheet material and deployed in space by inflation or passive radiation. The goal of this proposal is to launch the technology by demonstrating the diversity of folding architectures for deployable and in situ manufacture of space structures, and by developing the design and simulation software for distribution to the engineering community. To fully illustrate the scope of applying the design methodology for deployable space structures, inventories of the strategy for deployment, the desired laminate geometry, and the folding architectures will be made. By relating the dynamical constraints of these three inventories in a three-axis matrix and then optimizing the found solutions through the software, a diverse scope of deployable structures will be illustrated. Moreover, proof of concept for a second generation of software operating through new algorithms will be shown concurrently for space applications and others.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposal will generate a comprehensive summary of the applications of this new materials technology to deployable and in situ manufactured space structures. This summary will give an overview of the architectural structures and deployment strategies available. Habitats, rigid panels, box beams, I-beams, large rings, large cylinders, large tori for possible space station design and others. The key advantages are that rolled sheet material transports compactly, the self-assembly, in situ manufacture and deployment strategies are diversely controlled through the algorithms, the sheet material is natural for shells, and many multi-laminate constructions are available. Other applications are in stretchable fabrics, nano-devices, self-correcting parabolic dishes, and self-healing multi-laminate flexible cloth.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This new sheet technology applies to paper, metals, polymers, composite cloths, wire meshes, nano sheets, and ceramic filled papers. The technology is completely scaleable and the structures generated diverse. Specific applications include cores for stronger corrugated cardboard, protective packaging wrap, high-performance cores replacing honey-comb in airplanes, steel sub-floors in office buildings, nano light boards for high speed processors, crash and vibration absorbing materials in automobiles, composite bridge decks, a particle board substitute, and ceramic filters.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Erectable
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Structural Modeling and Tools
Suits
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.02-7885
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structures and Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rigidizing Inflatable Deployable Dwelling (RIDD)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Firestar Engineering, LLC
557 Burbank St., Unit J
Broomfield, CO 80020-7160

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Fisher
david@firestar-engineering.com
557 Burbank St., Unit J
Broomfield,  CO 80020-7160

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
By combining thin thermoplastic films, woven Vectran reinforcements, and heat a reliable, deployable, rigidizing space habitat can be created. Although much research has been performed on rigidizing space structures, characteristic material flaws prevent reliable deployment of rigidizing extraterrestrial habitats. Many materials fail space qualification due to the catalytic nature of their rigidization method. However, by layering thin low-density polyethylene with virtually any composite weave, a pliable composite is created. When inflation pressure and heat are applied, the low density polyethylene melts into the composite weave and causes the entire matrix to harden. The proposed composite would consist of Vectran with a low-density polyethylene laminate. Because our composite is stable at nearly cryogenic temperatures through around 100 C, it outperforms most other rigidizing materials currently being studied. The thermal properties coupled with nearly zero creep provide strong promise for its compatibility with rigidizing habitats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rigidizing habitats would promote extended stays in space. Inflatable rigidizing habitats would allow NASA to expand on the ISS as well as create a large living volume for deep space exploration. Volume and mass limitations on launch vehicles restrict the living space permitted with normal materials. The material we propose minimizes volume and mass so as to maximize living space. Any application where a large habitable volume is needed, our composite can be implemented.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As the private sector's interest in space grows with technology, space tourism is bound to grow as well. Currently Bigelow Aerospace is seeking technology to create an orbiting space hotel. The composite habitat proposed would be a viable solution to house space tourists. Terrestrially the composite could be used for long term habitats in extreme conditions such as the north/south pole. The composite is stable over a wide range of temperatures, so if a light weight rigid structure were needed, a Vectran/polyethylene module could be used. Additionally, deployable components for satellites are always needed. Since our material needs no inflation pressure to remain structural, deployable booms, solar arrays, antennas, and trusses could also be made out of the same material. Because technology is progressing at such an astonishing rate, high performance rigidizing material will become increasingly important.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Erectable
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Portable Life Support
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.02-7984
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structures and Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Lightweight Self-Deployable SMP Nanocomposite Sandwich for Habitat Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wright Materials Research Co
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek, OH 45430-1120

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Seng Tan
sctan@sprintmail.com
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek,  OH 45430-1120

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space deployable and rigidizable structures that are ultra-lightweight, and have gas barrier property, space durability, and high impact resistance are desirable to improve the reliability and launching cost of space habitat structures. Some of the components currently in use such as shelters or habitats use double-wall thick films with high internal pressure. All these hollow components are vulnerable in space because of the debris and meteorites that can strike them. They will lose their functions if hit and damaged by foreign objects. These structures typically rely upon electro-mechanical mechanisms and devices for deployment and maintaining them in space for operation, which occupy over 90% of the total mass budget in many cases. In this Phase I project, we propose to develop ultra-lightweight, self-deployable microcellular foamed sandwich structures from nanocomposite shape memory polymers (SMP) and CHEM deployed technique as structural components of space habitats. Such a structural module can be compacted into a very small volume to facilitate launching. The deployment energy is the heat from the sun. This concept greatly simplifies the entire operation, reduction in weight and cost, and improves reliability. They also feature great impact resistant. Foams processed by the conventional chemical-blowing agent have toxicity problems. Our microcellular SMP foamed sandwich structures do not involve any toxicity and will have higher mechanical properties than those processed by the conventional techniques. They can be used to replace or supplement to the inflatable technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ultra-lightweight microcellular nanocomposite foamed sandwich structures from SMP/CHEM have a number of potential applications for space structures including space habitats, rigidified boom and support structures for Gossamer space structures, rover subsystems like wheels, chasis, insulation boxes masts, solar array deployment devices, shelters and hangars for space habitats, airlocks, electronics boxes, tanks/shells/shields, insulation for propellant tanks, solar arrays radar boards, and support structures for telecommunication subsystems like struts and beams, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Shape memory polymers are fairly recently developed functional polymers that find applications in a broad range of temperature sensing elements. Shape memory gels have been explored to perform various functions including artificial muscles and organs, drug-delivery devices, chemical valves, and actuators. Additional potential applications may include self-deployable tanks, coolers/thermoses, construction, toys, automotive components, thermal insulation, packaging, impact energy absorption products, filters, high damping sound and electromagnetic shielding.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Erectable
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Reuseable
Thermal Insulating Materials
General Public Outreach
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.02-8500
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structures and Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular Self-Rigidizing Lightweight Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
United Applied Technologies, Inc.
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville, AL 35803-4327

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
LARRY BRADFORD
l.bradford@unitedappliedtech.com
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville,  AL 35803-4327

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An innovative structures concept has been developed that uses space qualified flexible thin film polyimide to produce ultra-lightweight inflation deployed self-rigidizing structural components with very small packaging volume and extremely high buckling/bending strength to accurately deploy and provide precision assembly of modular space systems. This membrane material can be thermally formed to virtually any shape to produce booms, elbows, tees, flanges, and flat or curved panels to support or connect space structure components and facilitate in-space assembly. Tube and panel specimens with various stiffener cross section geometries have been produced that demonstrated precision modular assembly and impressive stiffness. This Phase I effort is proposed to design and fabricate a representative sub-scale structure subassembly comprised of flat or curved structural panels, support tubes/struts, and associated connector/interface components to demonstrate the structural integrity and modularity of the technology and scalability of the manufacturing process. Phase II can produce and demonstrate a full-scale mission applicable inflatable space structure or habitat assembly that can be compactly packaged for launch, pressurized for deployment, and rigidized after deployment/assembly with no internal pressure required to maintain structural stiffness and shape. Emphasis will be placed on deployability, providing for modular assembly, and scalability of the manufacturing technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The deployable self-rigidizing technology is of direct relevance to any future space mission under consideration that includes large structures. The optimized stiffener design and related manufacturing processes are applicable to lunar habitat and other lunar base structures, solar sail deployment/support, large space telescopes, satellite communications antennae, support structure for large solar reflectors for solar thermal propulsion, deployment/support of thin film solar photovoltaic arrays, large space deployable radiators, and many other as yet not envisioned large space structures where launch volume and weight is critical.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial space applications include support structures for large communications satellite antennas. Non-space commercial applications include: packaged mast/antenna to be deployed in remote areas for both military and civilian use (firefighters/law enforcement/rescue operations, etc); small packaged, deployable portable emergency shelters; wings/fuselage for both model airplanes and unmanned expendable aerial vehicles; emergency deployable life rafts; and other applications where small volume stowable/deployable articles have substantial merit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Solar
Airframe
Erectable
Inflatable
Modular Interconnects
Structural Modeling and Tools
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.02-8577
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structures and Habitats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Photochemical Cyclopolymerization of Polyimides in Ultraviolet Ridgidizing Composites for Use in Inflatable Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Coatings International
2990 Gilchrist Rd., Suite 1100
Akron, OH 44305-4418

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Johnson
sjohnsonaci@core.com
2990 Gilchrist Rd. Suite 1100
Akron,  OH 44305-4418

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This innovation uses photochemical cyclopolymerization of polyimides to manufacture ultraviolet rigidizable composites for use in RIS (ridgidizing inflatable) structures. Sunlight initiated polymerization (UV polymerization) has been identified as a promising method for ridgidizing composites for inflatable space structures. The use of in-situ polymerized polyimides will provide superior dimensional and dynamic properties to enhance the performance characteristics of RIS deployed space based structures such as antennas, solar arrays and sunshields. As a class, polyimide polymers are known to possess excellent physical and chemical properties superior to conventional thermoset resins. But polyimides are typically produced at very high temperatures, making their use as RIS materials impractical. By utilizing a unique chemistry and polymerizing in-situ with sunlight, a new ridgidizable composite will be fabricated. The resulting polyimide impregnated composite can be rigidized in space and provide mechanical properties superior to those achieved with previous radiation cured composites. Stability of the polyimide precursors will permit long term storage of RIS prior to deployment. When produced in scale the composite will provide a cost competitive method of fabricating RIS and meet the growing demand for this type of space architecture. Terrestrial applications also exist in the homeland security and disaster response sectors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Solar arrays and concentrators Satellites and antennas Spaceship structures and habitats Landing strictures and habitats

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Homeland Security Portable, rapidly deployed structures that can withstand rigorous environments such as wind and snow. Disaster Relief Portable, rapidly deployed structures that can withstand rigorous environments such as wind and snow. Housing/Commercial With further research, the composites developed in this program could be used in these applications. Advertising Inflatable structures are commonplace now for advertising purposes. Structural Components Aircraft part fabrication and repair, field repair of lightweight vehicles. Anywhere lightweight rigid materials are needed with superior physical properties, especially fabrication in the field.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Erectable
Inflatable
Testing Facilities
Structural Modeling and Tools
Tankage
Manned-Manuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.03-7568
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nanostructured Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanotube Reinforced Multifunctional Materials for Radiation Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Modification, Inc.
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-4428

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ramachandran Radhakrishnan
radha@matmod.com
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax,  VA 22031-4428

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's programs to send manned and unmanned missions to Moon, Mars and the planets beyond will require structural materials that can protect the crew and the spacecraft from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), Solar Energy Particles (SEP) and micrometeroid impact. In this Phase I effort, MMI proposes to reinforce high hydrogen content epoxies with nanotubes to obtain high performance composites with 20-25% higher primary load-bearing properties

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for the proposed multifunctional composites will be for the CEV, the International Space Station, lunar and Martian habitats, micro spacecrafts and planetary rovers. The composites also could be used to shield the numerous spacecrafts and satellites against meteoroid and space debris impact.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DoD: The major government sector that will utilize these composites besides NASA will be the Department of Defense. They also have spacecrafts and satellites that need protection against micro meteoroids and space debris. Military aircraft and helicopter structure, reconnaissance satellites and high flying long-duration spycraft, structures for long range missiles, and uninhabited combat air vehicles, can be fabricated using the proposed composite materials. The excellent impact properties indicate these composites can be used for ballistic armor. Civilian: Applications will focus on commercial aircraft structure and interiors, satellites, wind turbine blades, and ballistic protection for law enforcement officers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.03-8174
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nanostructured Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbon Nanotube Electron Sources for Air Purification

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microwave Power Technology
1280 Theresa Avenue
Campbell, CA 95008-6833

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Espinosa
micpwrt@aol.com
1280 Theresa Avenue
Campbell,  CA 95008-6833

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Pollution of the environment is a world wide concern and is the subject of broadly based R&D into means of prevention and remediation. The innovation proposed here is the design of and electron beam source for clensing air.Bombardment by electrons has proven to be effective in destroying a wide spectrum of chemical and biological pollutants. Maintaining air purity becomes particularly critical in densely populated closed spaces. Such as occupied buildings, passenger transport vehicles, orbiting space vehicles and lunar or planetary exploration stations. The work proposed here is to appraise the feasibility of down sizing this effective technology to meet the much more restrictive cost, weight and reliability requirements attendant to commercial passenger transportation and manned space exploration. Key to meeting those requirements are carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters to replace the thermal electron sources as was done, by MPT, in developing the cold cathode x-ray tubes subsequently produced by Oxford X-ray Technology. MPT, working with Valence Corporation and others, have developed systems for eliminating odors and chemical components from air streams exhausted from sewerage treatment, large scale painting and food processing plants and environmental remediation installations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This phase I proposal involves the design of large-array CNT cold cathodes for an electron beam source suitable for use air conditioning systems for confined populated spaces. This technology has been demonstrated to be effective for destroying a broad spectrum of chemical and biological agents on a large scale. The key to applying e-beam technology to small scale applications is reduced weight and cost made possible by the use of CNT field emitters. Large numbers of such systems will be used for the reduction of emissions from small industrial and commercial applications. They will be particularly efficient for maintaining air purity in densely populated closed spaces, such as occupied buildings, passenger transport vehicles, orbiting space vehicles and lunar or planetary exploration stations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This work will allow us to develop large arrays of more intense, narrow electron beams as are required for such applications as x-ray diffraction and development of other vacuum electron devices. MPT is currently working on designs for electron beam tubes for industrial applications. The current tubes utilize thermionic cathodes but focused beams from cold cathodes would greatly improve both performance and efficiency. Uses include the purification of air, elimination of odors, non-burning destruction of evaporated hydrocarbons from fuel tanks and painting operations, cleaning of flue gasses and enhancing chemical reactions such as increasing the ignition of fuels, drying ink on high speed presses and sterilization of surfaces. They have the potential of reducing the build up of green house gasses and cleaning up the atmosphere on earth.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.03-8216
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nanostructured Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microwave-Assisted Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes and Reactive Synthesis of Nanocomposites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NanoPulse LLC
54 Huntley Way
Bridgewater, NJ 08807-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yubing Wang
ybngwang@yahoo.com
54 Huntley Way
Bridgewater,  NJ 08807-5565

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Offerers will build on their recent innovation of a microwave-induced route to the rapid functionalization, solubilization and reactive synthesis of carbon nanotube-ceramic and nanotube-polymer composites. The microwave process is environmentally friendly and results in the complete removal of metal catalysts used in the synthesis of the pristine nanotubes. These residual nanoscale metals are known to be toxic. The functionalization will be carried out via different routes so that the nanotubes can be rendered soluble in different solvents including water, alcohols, and nonpolar liquids. This will facilitate mixing with different polymer matrices for fabrication of composites, and also facilitate the formation of coatings and films. The reactive synthesis of ceramic and polymer composites involves the formation of the composite structure on the nanotube sidewalls via a microwave-assisted reaction. This will lead to the formation of a novel class of nanomaterials with unique structural, electronic and thermal properties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The opportunity addressed in this proposal is in the critical NASA Research Topic area X2.03 on Nanostructured Materials. Within this research topic we will focus our Phase I R&D effort on two areas that are of significant interest to NASA. It will include: (1) demonstration and initial development of metal-free, functionalized, soluble and alignable single wall carbon nanotubes that can be used in the fabrication of next generation composites; (2) development of reactive synthesis routes and the production of ceramic and polymer nanocomposite with single wall carbon nanotubes for high strength and tunable electrical/thermal properties.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work will have non-NASA applications in the areas of adsorbents, solar cells, light emitting diodes, active coatings, fuel cell electrodes, nanoenergetics and medical imaging.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.03-8282
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nanostructured Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Nanotube Surface Reinforced Graphite Fiber Exhibiting Significantly Enhanced Properties

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MER Corp
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706-9237

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Withers
jcwithers@mercorp.com
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson,  AZ 85706-9237

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nanotechnology which includes carbon nanotubes has the potential to produce materials that exhibit properties beyond those expected from conventional materials which are anticipated to have a profound impact on NASA's future missions. Graphite fiber composites are multifunctional with high strength to weight ratios which form the basis of many aerospace systems. The combinations of carbon nanotubes with graphite fibers have the potential to significantly enhance fiber strength; offering significant advantages in multi-functional space flight applications. A unique approach will be utilized to incorporate carbon nanotubes onto existing graphite fibers to produce exemplary fiber strengths that will be utilized in composites with significantly higher strength to weight ratios. Nanotube reinforced graphite fibers will be produced and characterized in epoxy composites to demonstrate the expected property enhancements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The application for ultra high strength graphite fibers include missile launch tubes, attitude control systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, satellite systems, high speed transport aircraft (military and commercial), pressure vessels for H2 and other gas storage and high payoff lightweight systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NON-NASA Ultra high strength graphite fibers have applications in pressure vessels for gas (H2 and natural gas) storage in transportation, structures for bridge and building reinforcements and earth quake surviving, a variety of structures, defense applications and sporting goods/golf shafts, etc

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.03-8519
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nanostructured Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Metal-Polymer Nanocomposites for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
International Scientific Technologies, Inc.
P O Box 757
Dublin, VA 24084-0757

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russell Churchill
intlsci@earthlink.net
P O Box 757
Dublin,  VA 24084-0757

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has identified a need for new high performance-to-weight materials capable of protecting critical components from the space environment, mitigating threat of uncontrolled electrostatic discharge, and reducing vulnerability to radiation or thermally induced damage. Recent advances in metallic nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise of meeting these multifunctional design goals, but their achievement has been hampered by non-uniform dispersion of nanoparticles within the polymeric matrix. To address these problems, International Scientific Technologies - Aerospace Systems Division will modify metal nanoparticle surfaces with organic ligands to fabricate reliable nanocomposites. The proposed material development is responsive to NASA Subtopic X2.03 by providing a means by which a wide-range of multifunctional nanostructured materials may be designed and fabricated. The Phase I Technical Objectives include fabrication of conductive nanocomposites incorporating metallic nanoparticles in polymeric materials, measurement of nanocomposite properties in simulated space environments, and optimization of proof-of-concept conductive multifunctional nanocomposites. In the Phase I program, metallic nanoparticles will be functionalized for incorporation into polymeric matrices for electrostatic control and prevention of atomic oxygen degradation. The project innovation is the development of ligand-modified nanoparticle additives to realize multifunctional nanocomposites for space applications. Successful completion of the Phase I program will result in multifunctional spacecraft materials that are inherently anti-static for electrostatic control, and self-healing following degradation in harsh space environments. During Phase II, prototype multifunctional nanocomposites will be evaluated for control of electrostatic charging, and resistance to atomic oxygen and/or radiation degradation in simulated space environments prior to commercialization in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The multifunctional nanocomposites will find application in the Exploration Systems mission in protecting sensitive optical, electronic, thermal and acoustic components from environmental hazards including dust, radiation, thermal transients, atomic oxygen and spacecraft charging. The nanoparticle composites will be developed to provide transparent conductive layers of considerable importance to sensor systems employed in planetary surface exploration. It is expected that nanoparticle systems will also provide a high-performance-to-weight radiation shield that can be used as a layer within human habitations and space protective apparel. Other missions supported by NASA could also make use of conductive layers amenable to use in low earth orbit or in orbital paths traversing high radiation regions of space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The nanocomposites developed under the proposed SBIR program will find application to the protection of sensors, antennas and critical components aboard commercial satellites. The development of conductive nanocomposites will provide International Scientific an entry to the burgeoning flexible electronics market. The flexible conducting film market is expected to increase considerably as a result of demands for larger flat panel displays, the growth of distributed chemical, biological and radiation sensor markets for Homeland Security applications and the establishment of improved methods of static discharge control for touch screens. Further uses of the nanocomposites may be found in the development of variable dielectric constant materials utilizing ferroelectric nanoparticles and the fabrication of transparent magnetic components using ferromagnetic nanoparticles within the polymer matrix.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Composites
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X2.03-8731
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nanostructured Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional, Nanostructured Metal Rubber Protective Films for Space Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanosonic, Inc.
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5556

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jennifer Lalli
jlalli@nanosonic.com
1485 South Main Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-5556

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NanoSonic has developed revolutionary nanostructured, yet macroscale, multifunctional Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> films. In support of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration, low cost Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> freestanding or conformal skins would be optimized as protective coatings for human and robotic space exploration. Specifically, ultra-lightweight, nanostructured coatings with protection against electrostatic charging, abrasion and radiation over a wide range of mechanical and thermal fluctuations are offered. Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> is fabricated via layer-by-layer, molecular self-assembly, which enables thickness and placement control over multiple constituents for true nanostructured multifunctionality (nm scale); while advanced polymers have allowed scale-up to free-standing thick films (several mm thick, at < 1 g/cc). Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> is not a conducting polymer or a sputter-coated polymer film. It is a freestanding nanocomposite formed in situ by chemically bonding each monolayer of nanostructured constituent, thereby eliminating residual stress between each component. New, ultra-low modulus Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> can be strained to > 1000% elongation while remaining electrically conductive; and returns to its original shape and nominal conductivity when released. Bulk resistivity (as low as 10-5 &#937;&#8729;cm), and mechanical moduli (0.1 MPa to 500 MPa) have been demonstrated. Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> requires less than 1 vol% of metal, allowing the manufacturing a cost effective, advanced material

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications for Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> include ultra-lightweight protective coatings against electrostatic charging, EMI, radiation, and abrasion. Low modulus Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> can also function as conducting electrodes for high strain mechanical actuator and sensor devices, and as low-weight, electrically conductive and mechanically flexible coatings for systems requiring physically-robust electromagnetic shielding, ground planes or electrical interconnection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Metal Rubber<SUP>TM</SUP> can be used as replacements for conventional tin-lead solder for the mechanical, electrical and thermal interconnection of electronic and mechanical components. Such materials may also be used in high performance, highly flexible and mechanically robust electronic flex circuits, flexible displays and smart electronic fabrics.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Composites
Organics/Bio-Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.01-9345
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation & Transmission
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Solar Cell Nanotechnology for Improved Efficiency and Radiation Hardness

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corp
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marek Turowski
jls@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville,  AL 35805-1926

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Significant improvements in photovoltaic materials and systems are required to enable future exploration missions. This SBIR project, involving two innovative organizations: CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) and University of California Riverside (UCR), has two major objectives: 1) develop and provide reliable, validated computational tools for assessment, design, and optimization of novel nanostructures based on Quantum Dots (QD) for future nano-devices for space applications; 2) investigate, design, and demonstrate new photovoltaic (PV) structures based on QD nanotechnology, with improved efficiency and radiation hardness. The inherently radiation tolerant quantum dots of variable sizes maximize absorption of different light wavelengths ("multicolor" cell), which dramatically improves PV efficiency and diminishes the radiation-induced degradation. Phase I includes development of numerical tools for modeling electron-phonon transport in QD superlattices for photovoltaic applications, using experimental data from UCR Nano-Device Laboratory for validation and calibration of the new tools, and computational proof-of-concept. In Phase II, the new QD models will be integrated into CFDRC's advanced photonic-electronic device simulator. Novel QD photovoltaic nano-engineered materials and designs will be down-selected for further development to the point of testable prototypes. They will be fabricated and provided to NASA for electrical characterization and radiation testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improvements in solar cell efficiency and radiation hardness are required to enable NASA future exploration missions. Novel nano-engineered materials and multi-quantum-dot photovoltaic devices promise to deliver more efficient, lightweight solar cells and arrays which will be of extreme value to NASA space missions. The new modeling and simulation tools for quantum-dot-based nanostructures will help NASA to: 1. better understand and predict behavior of nano-devices and novel materials in space environment; 2. assess technologies, devices, and materials of new electronic systems; 3. better evaluate the performance and radiation response at early design stage; 4. set requirements for hardening and testing; reduce the amount of testing cost and time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All satellites, military and commercial, suffer from solar cell degradation due to the effects of radiation. The higher efficiency of the novel quantum-dot solar cells will increase capacity of the solar array at the beginning of life (BOL) to compensate for the degradation at the end of life (EOL), to maintain the minimal requirements of the spacecraft. Retarding the degradation will have substantive impact on the size and weight of the solar arrays for both military as well as civilian commercial space systems. The inherently radiation tolerant quantum dots will lead to more robust space defense systems. The new, more accurate modeling and simulation tools for Quantum-Dots based photonic devices will enable better understanding, analysis, and design of novel materials and nano-devices for aerospace systems and their radiation-response. The modeling and design tools will provide reduction in cost and time-to-market through significantly reduced experimental R&D, design cycle, and laboratory testing time and cost.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.01-9845
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Generation & Transmission
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Specific Power Multiple-Cylinder Free-Piston Alpha Stirling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sunpower, Inc.
182 Mill Street
Athens, OH 45701-2627

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Seon Kim
kim@sunpower.com
Sunpower, Inc. 182 Mill Street
Athens,  OH 45701-2627

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA seeks highly efficient, long life solar dynamic power conversion systems. The requirements for these missions emphasize low mass and high conversion efficiencies. A reliable and highly efficient Stirling convertor would provide mission planners with less costly spacecraft power options than currently exist. Current Stirling technologies have demonstrated a beginning of life specific power level of 4.2 W/kg, and a useful life greater than 10 years. The proposed effort will result in the preliminary design for an innovative multiple-cylinder alpha free-piston Stirling engine (AFPSE) for high power applications. The program approach minimizes development risk by combining proven technologies, experiences and innovative concepts of Sunpower Inc. and Global Cooling BV (GCBV) with AFPSE. The proposed system is a compact, highly efficient, long life, low mass Stirling machine for a high power conversion system. This configuration having multi-pistons in separate cylinders connected by rejector and acceptor is not only very simple due to one moving part in one cylinder with no displacer, but also highly adaptable due to its versatile shape. This machine is very innovative because it is anticipated to achieve a specific power greater than 100W/kg as well as a heat input to electrical output conversion efficiency greater than 30%.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting convertor will give spacecraft designers the option of utilizing a 1.) compact, low mass, and highly efficient power supply, 2.) a power supply module that can be clustered together to provide higher power levels, 3.) a power supply which can be adapted to both space and planetary atmospheres via simple changes to the gas management system with no impact on the operation of the critical dynamic components inside the convertor, and 4.) a controller design philosophy that allows the system to be easily adapted to varying mission requirements. Such a system is extensible to several areas of NASA's power generation needs including electric propulsion, robotic rovers, and backup power supplies for human surface expeditions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the space applications which this proposal directly addresses, there is a significant potential market for commercial small-scale power generation, particularly in light of increasing attention to the environmental cost of fuel consumption and the new stringency of fuel emissions regulations in some areas of the world. Sunpower licensee MicroGen, for example, has determined a substantial European and worldwide market for household cogeneration devices. Additionally there are numerous opportunities for remote and mobile power generation applications, including the marine market, auxiliary power markets, remote power generation, standby emergency power generation, peaking generation, truck-mounted power, power for oil and gas fields and other exploratory and off-grid sites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Thermodynamic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.02-8067
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur (Li-S) Battery with Specific Energy 400 Wh/kg and Operating Temperature Range -60C to 60C

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SION Power
9040 S. Rita Road
Tucson, AZ 85747-9194

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Yuriy Mikhaylik
yuriy.mikhaylik@sionpower.com
9040 S. Rita Road
Tucson,  AZ 85747-9194

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sion Power is developing a rechargeable lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery with a demonstrated specific energy exceeding 350 Wh/kg and the range of operating temperatures from ?40 to +45oC. The range will be extended to ?60 +60oC and specific energy to 400 Wh/kg. Performance improvement will be based on developing three components: 1. Advanced electrolytes with high ionic conductivity at liquid or glassy state at temperatures down to minus 70-100oC; 2. Advanced cathode with homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts increasing electrochemical sulfur utilization to 90% and energy to 400 Wh/kg; 3. Additives protecting lithium anode surface from reaction with electrolyte and providing long calendar life and low self-discharge; To demonstrate the effectiveness of components developed, we will build and cycle the series of 1.2 ? 2.5 Ah cells in the range of temperatures from ?70 to +60oC at rates from C/20 to 2C.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High energy, light- weight rechargeable batteries for Lunar and Mars rovers, EVA suits, satellites, and back-up power for electronic.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High energy, light- weight rechargeable batteries for unmanned vehicles, military communications, portable computers, digital cameras, smartphones, electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manned-Manuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits
Tools
Energy Storage
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.02-8348
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Phase I Program to Improve Low Temperature Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yardney Technical Products, Inc.
82 Mechanic St
Pawcatuck, CT 06379-2167

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Barbarich
tbarbarich@lithion.com
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck,  CT 06379-2154

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy ( up to 200 Wh/kg) and energy density (~ 500 Wh/L) and long cycle life (1,000 ? 30,000 cycles currently depending on the depth of cycling). However, at temperatures below about ?10<SUP>o</SUP>C, their charge/discharge performance is severely degraded which hinders their use in deep space and planetary missions. This decrease in performance may be due to the precipitation of ethylene carbonate (EC) at low temperatures, which may prevent the migration of Li+ ions between the electrodes during charge and discharge. We propose to determine the cause of the EC precipitation. Appropriate electrolyte systems will be designed to prevent phase separation of the electrolyte at low temperatures during charge and discharge.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-energy, rechargeable batteries capable of operating over a wide temperature range are of interest for a number of NASA applications such as orbiters, rovers, space vehicles, satellites, and astronaut equipment. Li-ion batteries are good candidates for many of these applications. The proposed work will extend the low temperature range of these batteries allowing their use on a wider variety of missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Li-ion batteries capable of operating over a wide temperature range are needed for a wide variety of civilian and military applications. These applications include electric and hybrid vehicles, satellites, aircraft, portable power tools, portable medical equipment, and other similar applications where the battery is operated outdoors and an external device may not be available to control the temperature of the battery.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.02-8482
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lithium-ion Energy Storage at Very Low Temperatures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EIC Laboratories, Inc.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062-2612

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dharmasena Peramunage
pera@eiclabs.com
EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey Street
Norwood,  MA 02062-2612

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Li-ion batteries with specific energy >180 Wh/kg, calendar life (>15years), and a wide operating temperature range (-60<SUP>o</SUP>C to 60<SUP>o</SUP>C) are crucial for the deployment of exploration vehicles such as rovers, landers, and penetraters as well as for low temperature burst power communication. The sub-ambient conductivity and liquid range of present rechargeable Li-ion battery electrolytes severely limit low temperature use. Co-solvents freezing as low as -132oC and Li salts with highly delocalized anions, enabling high degree of ionic dissociation in low dielectric environments provide us with a unique opportunity to develop non aqueous electrolytes for the low temperature with ionic conductivities well above 10-4 Scm-1. Our aim is to use these novel electrolytes as a direct substitute for the present electrolytes without affecting Li-ion battery performance or life during normal operation and access as least half the rated capacity at -60<SUP>o</SUP>C and 1/2C discharge rate. Working in collaboration with a leading developer of Li-ion batteries in Phase I, our low temperature electrolyte formulations will be evaluated in Li test cells containing anodes and cathodes used in commercial scale battery manufacture. In Phase II, electrolyte composition will be further optimized and prototype batteries will be fabricated and tested for performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Robotic landers, rovers and penetrators play an important role in modern planetary explorations enabling mission of enormous scientific value without risking the lives of astronauts. Rechargeable Li-ion batteries in these spacecrafts are required to perform efficiently over a broad temperature range extending close to ?60oC. The electrolytes being developed will find exclusive use in these batteries. They will also be useful for batteries employed in cold-climate terrestrial applications, high altitude balloons, and applications where non flammability of electrolytes is essential for safety of Li-ion rechargeable batteries.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We anticipate that flame retardant character of the proposed electrolytes will improve the safety of all Li-ion cells by reducing the reactivity between electrolyte and the electrode materials in the "charged" state. This may allow relaxation of stringent and costly safety related controls without increasing risk and, greatly reduce damage from cell venting by preventing flames, which could lead to injuries or collateral damage. Particularly sensitive applications include portable telephones, laptop computers, video cameras, and heads up displays, night vision equipment and batteries used in enclosed spaces e.g. underwater vehicles or underground bunkers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.02-8857
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated PEMFC Flow Field Design Concept for Gravity Independent Passive Water Removal

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ElectroChem, Inc.
400 West Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801-6519

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Pien, Ph.D.
mpien@fuelcell.com
ElectroChem, 400 West Cummings Park
Woburn,  MA 01801-6510

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary power systems for Space Shuttles and future space vehicles are based on fuel cells. Due to inherent fundamental performance, safety and reliability, NASA is interested in replacing the present alkaline fuel cell system with PEM systems. However, the conventional use by PEM systems of O2 reactant gas recirculation to remove product water, enhance cell uniformity, and control humidity could pose a serious safety concern. A fundamentally new PEM fuel cell design concept is proposed that removes liquid product water by controlled convection and wicking through layered porous structures that are integrated into each cell separator plate. This unique integrated flow field (IFF) concept also automatically and passively clears channels blocked by droplets. Furthermore, the same design includes transport of product water back to the entire flow field for humidification and greater cell performance. The IFF design enables high pressure and high voltage operation resulting in higher efficiency. For removal of product water vapor from the cell, the design concept includes ejectors to passively generate a modest gas circulation. In conclusion, this design innovation will significantly simplify the PEM operating system while generating higher performance and foster greater long-term safety in zero-g as well as ordinary gravity applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications range from EVA (extravehicular activity) life support systems, to regenerative fuel cells for surface electrical energy storage, to on-board power for reusable launch vehicles such as the current and future versions of the Space Shuttle. The technology will be readily scalable across a range of power capacities and fuel cell system sizes. Applications will also include high altitude flight systems that are based on regenerative operation and need high efficiency. Our innovative PEM fuel cell concept promises to support the performance, reliability, and safety requirements of these applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include both primary and regenerative (RFC) fuel cell power systems. Specifically, the RFC systems would be used for backup power, remote power, and residential off-grid electrical power. In addition to many of the above, primary PEM fuel cell applications include aircraft power. Specific market groups would be the telecommunications industry, electric power industry, business computer networks, airplane manufacturers, and homeowners. This same approach could be applied in all PEM fuel cell designs. This would a) simplify flowfield design, b) reduce blower pressure requirements, c) reduce system operation complexity, and d) provide a fail-safe means to prevent gas-channel blockage.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Energy Storage
Renewable Energy
Wireless Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.02-9626
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Storage
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Electrolytes for -100C Lithium Battery Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Covalent Assoc., Inc.
10 State St
Woburn, MA 08101-6820

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Konstantin Tikhonov
tikhonov@covalentassociates.com
10 State Street
Woburn,  MA 01801-6820

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA requires advanced high power primary lithium batteries for ultra low temperature applications. The key component that limits the performance at low temperature is the battery electrolyte. Proof-of-concept experiments have shown that Covalent's new non-aqueous electrolyte formulations greatly enhance low temperature primary battery performance while preserving its long shelf life. At temperatures as low as -100<SUP>o</SUP>C, our new electrolyte demonstrates superior transport properties due to minimal triple ion formation. Accelerated storage tests revealed no voltage delay indicative of a stable passive film formed on the lithium anode. When coupled with a high energy density cathode material such as carbon monofluoride (CFx), our new electrolyte formulations will enable primary lithium primary performance over a broad spectrum of ultra low temperature applications. Specifically, Li/CFx batteries incorporating the new Covalent electrolytes will deliver more than 30% of their room temperature capacity at temperatures as low as -100<SUP>o</SUP>C at practical discharge rates.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future NASA manned and unmanned missions to the moon and Mars require a new generation of primary lithium batteries designed to function at temperatures as low as -120<SUP>o</SUP>C. Such temperatures will be encountered on the moon where the night time lows reach -110<SUP>o</SUP>C, and on Mars where temperatures recorded by the Viking probes were as low as -107<SUP>o</SUP>C. At present, no battery exists that can provide practical discharge rates at such ultra low temperatures. Advanced Li/CFx batteries incorporating Covalent's novel low temperature electrolyte formulations will find use in astronaut equipment (lighting and power tools), communication devices, in situ resource utilization systems and sensor networks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of terrestrial applications where good low temperature performance is required. For example, the average night time temperature in the high Khumbu Himal (Mt. Everest region) is -36<SUP>o</SUP>C and often drops as low as -60<SUP>o</SUP>C. On the South Pole the average annual temperature is approximately -50<SUP>o</SUP>C, while the lowest temperatures recorded are below -90<SUP>o</SUP>C. The external temperature of an aircraft at 30,000 feet can reach -40<SUP>o</SUP>C and below. Portable lighting, electronic equipment, sensors and weapons systems that must function in those environments will greatly benefit from the proposed innovation. Covalent's new electrolyte formulations will also increase the battery rate capability in the temperature range of 22<SUP>o</SUP>C to -40<SUP>o</SUP>C. The unsurpassed room temperature conductivity of the new electrolytes will enable high power pulses required in a wide range of consumer applications, while high discharge rate capability at -40<SUP>o</SUP>C is of particular interest to the U.S. military.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Manned-Manuvering Units
Portable Life Support
Suits
Tools
Energy Storage
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.03-7985
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryo & Thermal Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sprayable Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Tanks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Danny Ou
dou@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough,  MA 01532-2501

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation addressed in this proposal is Sprayable Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Tanks, or STICT. This novel system could be applied in either an automated or manual spraying process, with much less sensitivity to process chemistry and environmental parameters than cur-rent spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) products like BX-265, while providing better insulation performance. The resulting material would form an aerodynamically smooth, uniform coating with better cohesion and significantly lower thermal conductivity. This would allow thinner layers of insulation which, when combined with greater material strain-to-failure, will eliminate the generation of in-flight debris. In this way, the proposed CryoGel insulation can render future space transportation systems safer and more reliable.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
STICT would replace some of the spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) products used on launch vehicles employing cryogenic propellants. In this application, it would exhibit higher thermal performance and mechanical durability than competing systems. Most importantly, it would minimize in-flight debris shedding, thereby improving the safety and reliability of US space transportation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
STICT would compete against polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams anywhere consistency, high quality, and low thermal conductivity are valued. Some examples of this would be subsea oil and gas pipelines, fuel cell systems, and LNG transport ships.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Thermal Insulating Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.03-8000
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryo & Thermal Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Methane Liquid Level Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Technologies Group, Inc.
641 SE Central Parkway
Stuart, FL 34994-3984

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Justak
jjustak@advancedtg.com
641 SE Central Parkway
Stuart,  FL 34994-3984

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Technologies Group, Inc. proposes the development of a Methane Liquid-Level Sensor, (MLS) for In-Space cryogenic storage capable of continuous monitoring of liquid quantities to better than 1% accuracy. The proposed sensor builds on previous liquid hydrogen sensor development successes and patents. It can be utilized to measure cryogenic propellants, and sub-critical cryogenic fluids in use on a wide range of space applications and in ground applications to monitor fluids ranging from liquid methane to MMH and N2O4. The MLS can also indicate the presence of contaminants such as nitrogen used to purge the system. The current methods use either wire resistance measurements, capacitance or point sensors, combined with pressure and temperature measurements. The MLS will be lighter, require less energy to operate, and provide less heat leak than existing technologies. Current techniques will not function correctly in boiling or stratified liquid cryogens or in reduced gravity. During phase I, Proof-of Concept experiments will be performed with liquid methane. Commercial applications in the Power/fuel industry have been identified.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Within the past few years, many technical reviews have indicated the need for advances in zero-g level sensor techniques. The absorption meter design lends itself well to a potentially low cost design. The tank could easily be made from any of the currently used metallic alloys used for the manufacture of cryogenic storage, and depending on the specific wavelength of light used for the optical attenuation measurement, inexpensive solid state electronics could make up the balance of the instrument . Test stands across the country constantly have troubles determining the levels of cryogen remaining in the tank. Level sensors fail and the crews must rely upon flow rate versus time calculations to determine the amount of cryogen remaining. This guess work would be eliminated with this sensor development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced Technologies Group has recently been investigating a liquid methane sensor for future automotive and storage tank facilities. LNG is composed primarily of methane. LNG producing facilities are receiving a lot of attention as possible replacement fuels for diesel. Advanced Technologies Group has recently been investigating a liquid oxygen sensor for home health care, in the area of oxygen therapy. The liquid methane sensor and the lox sensor are very similar. Currently, several home health liquid oxygen tanks utilize differential pressure measurements to determine liquid oxygen level remaining in the tank. This method is expensive, less accurate, and it biggest detriment to the system is the amount of heat leak introduces through the extra tubing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
High Energy Propellents (Recombinant Energy & Metallic Hydrogen)
Propellant Storage
Testing Facilities
Tankage
Pilot Support Systems
Biomass Production and Storage
Instrumentation
Optical
Photonics
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.03-8564
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryo & Thermal Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Passive Capillary Pumped Cryocooling System for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage Tanks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TTH Research
14300 Cherry Lane Ct., Suite 215
Laurel, MD 20707-4990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Triem Hoang
thoang@tthresearch.com
14300 Cherry Lane Ct., Suite 215
Laurel,  MD 20707-4990

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Significant cost and weight savings of a space mission can be achieved by improving the cryogenic storage technology. Added cryogen mass due to the cryogen boil-off, the oversized tanks and storage systems make the planetary missions prohibitive. The recently proposed Zero-Boil-Off (ZBO) strategy for cryogen tanks, which combines both thermal insulation and "cryocooling" technologies to manage the heat leaks. It is a straightforward concept that could lead to a significant weight/cost reduction for long-duration missions. However, several issues must be resolved before the ZBO benefits can be realized. One of which is the management of the through-the-tank-wall "heat leaks". Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) is a passive two-phase heat transport device that utilizes solely capillary action to circulate the working fluid in a closed loop to transfer heat from one location to another. LHPs do not contain mechanical moving parts and therefore are highly reliable and durable for space applications. A novel cryogenic LHP system is proposed for the ZBO cryocooling. It is capable of acquiring heat from a large area of the cryo-tank wall, transporting it to a cryocooler for heat rejection, and meeting other design requirements of cryogen storage systems for space missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cryogenic cooling has become increasingly important not only for the cryogen storage technology but the thermal management of IR sensors/detectors and high temperature superconductors. Spaceport operations, both on Earth as well as extraterrestrial, are heavily dependent upon a wide range of cryogenic storage systems such as liquid Oxygen and liquid Nitrogen. Each has unique performance requirements that need to be met. In addition, Far IR (FIR) telescopes require temperature control in the range of 20-30K. The LHP system will meet all aforementioned requirements offering a robust passive cryocooling transport over large areas.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) technology has reached a level of maturity that HTS electronic devices could be reliably produced. There were already feasibility investigations of utilizing all-HTS electronics for next generation Navy spacecraft. The proposed HTS electronics subsystem would have to be cooled to 77K for the superconducting properties to take effect. Cooling methods for maintaining an entire HTS electronic box or a cryogenic thermal bus at 77K are being seriously sought. The large area LHP cryocooling technology would provide a perfect solution for the aforementioned cryogenic thermal bus.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.03-9273
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryo & Thermal Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: A New Wick Structure to Significantly Improve Heat Pipe Performance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Pl
Rockledge, FL 32955-5327

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Scaringe
rps@mainstream-engr.com
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge,  FL 32955-5327

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Increasing thermal requirements for space-based thermal control systems are straining the capabilities of conventional heat pipes. Mainstream has experimentally demonstrated a new wick configuration that has been shown to more than triple the heat transport capacity of an otherwise identical copper water heat pipe(this proposal contains the experimental data). This Phase I will seek to extend these heat pipe experiments. Improved heat pipe technology is relevant and important to meeting thermal technology needs; it is well known that any means to improve heat pipe capacity widens the potential applications for their use. Extending the capability of a simple, highly reliable passive system means more applications where this passive heat pipe approach can be used instead of the more complex, and potentially less-reliable, active systems. This Phase I includes heat pipe experiments and limited performance optimization. Mainstream has already performed the marketing and commercialization studies, and we have secured a commercial aerospace partner (with funding) for a follow-on commercialization effort. Phase III commercialization would parallel our other SBIR commercialization efforts. Mainstream's prior record of accomplishment has demonstrated that we are very serious about commercialization and our DoD commercialization index is 90%.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed improvement to conventional heat pipe wick structures would be useful wherever heat pipes are currently used and increased heat flux capability would be desirable; i.e., thermal control systems of small satellites with variable duty cycles, spacecraft radiators, high-power electronic cooling, and avionics cooling. Also, when thermal control systems are needed at temperatures above the optimum for an Ammonia Heat Pipe (above about 30?C) and below the optimum for a Water Heat Pipe (about 150?C), the current heat pipe working fluids that can be used have very low liquid transport factors. Methanol--about the best working fluid in this range--has a heat transport factor that is at least half that of ammonia, and even less when compared to water. Since this is an area where considerable electronics cooling could be operating, the use of a higher heat transport configuration could improve the performance of these alternative working fluids as well as extending the operating range of water and ammonia working fluids; this would have a tremendous effect on future cooling system designs. Improved heat pipe wick technology represents a major advancement in the technology and would have far-reaching applications in both manned and unmanned NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Heat pipes are not in general a low cost solution to the cooling problem, but they are very reliable and effective and they have tremendous potential as power levels and volume requirements of commercial electronics increase. Until recently, heat pipes have been used mainly in difficult thermal control applications, such as: aircraft electronics, traction drives, portable computers, audio amplifiers and cooling of closed cabinets operating in harsh environments. The most versatile feature of using heat pipes is the wide variety of geometries that can be constructed to take advantage of the available space around the electronics to be cooled. In many applications, the available heat sink volume above the electronics is limited by the board-to-board spacing. In these situations, heat pipes are used in a low profile design that transports the heat to a large fin stack. For such near-term applications, this proposal contains market research data that demonstrates a significant market potential for improved heat pipe technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.03-9289
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryo & Thermal Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Defining the coupled effects of cryogenic, space-radiation, and hypervelocity impact damamge on COPV's

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hypercomp Engineering, Inc.
1080 North Main, Suite #2
Brigham City, UT 84302-0505

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Wayne Clark
waynec@hypercompeng.com
1080 North Main, Suite #2
Brigham City,  UT 84302-0505

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the research proposed herein is to define the coupled (combined) effect of critical environments on the structural performance of composite overwrap pressure vessels (COPV). The three environments that will be coupled are cryogenic temperature, space irradiation, and hypervelocity (micrometeoroid/space debris) impact. HyPerComp Engineering (HEI) have previously conducted research that studied the independent effects of the three environments on COPV structural performance. Prior research determined that COPV structural performance and capabilities were significantly degraded by each of the environments. Clearly, a space-based cryogenic fuel storage vessel would be exposed to all three environments simultaneously. Therefore, it is of interest to study the coupled effects of the environments, determine the coupled effect, and define design allowables that consider the simultaneous effect. The result will be a safer and more reliable COPV design. Note, the research proposed herein is applicable any space-based composite structure and earth-based COPV

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
POTENTIAL NASA APPLICATIONS 1. Cost and volumetric efficient cryogenic storage vessels (space-base, airplane-based, earth-based). 2. Space-based habitat structures, other composite structures exposed to cryogenic temperature, irradiation, and hypervelocity impact damage from micrometeoroid or space debris. 3. Safer and more reliable long-term usage of earth-based and space-based composite structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS 1. LH2 fuel cell applications. 2. Automotive and marine CNG fuel storage. 3. Marine transport of propane, methane, et al. 4. Environmentally-friendly earth-based cryogenic fluid storage. 5. Safer and more reliable earth-based cryogenic fluid storage.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Structural Modeling and Tools
Tankage
Fluid Storage and Handling
Production
Composites
Metallics
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X3.03-9923
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryo & Thermal Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: VOST Flow-Control Valve

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Big Horn Valve, Inc.
354 W Heald
Sheridan, WY 82801-5018

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zachary Gray
zg@WyomingSilicon.com
354 W Heald
Sheridan,  WY 82801-5018

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A cryogenic flow-control valve based on Venturi-Offset Technology (VOST) will be designed and modeled. VOST provides precise linear flow control within a hermetically sealed, thermally efficient, cylindrical envelope. Intended to demonstrate a breakthrough in cryogenic flow control, the valve has no external leak paths, holds position without power and has no dynamic seals. With only two moving parts, the valve is inherently simple and robust.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future spaceport systems. High pressure flow-control valves for engine testing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerospace and industrial flow-control valves.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Feed System Components
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X4.02-7844
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Design and Analysis Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optimal Rendezvous and Docking Simulator for Elliptical Orbits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Analytical Mechanics Assoc., Inc.
303 Butler Farm Road, Suite 104A
Hampton, VA 23666-1568

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Haijun Shen
shen@ama-inc.com
303 Butler Farm Road Suite 104
Hampton,  VA 23666-1568

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
It is proposed to develop and implement a simulation of spacecraft rendezvous and docking guidance, navigation, and control in elliptical orbit. The foundation of the simulation will be an extension of an existing tool for optimal rendezvous and docking simulations for spacecraft in circular orbit. The existing tool architecture functions in two phases. In the first phase, optimal trajectories are obtained for the point mass model of the docking vehicle subject to path constraints, with the assumption that the target vehicle is in a known, circular orbit. In the second phase of the simulation, the vehicle is considered as a rigid body whose attitude and trajectory is controlled such that the docking port is aligned with the target vehicle at the time of docking, and the flight path follows the optimal trajectory. It is proposed to extend the first phase trajectory optimization capability of this tool to the case when the target vehicle is in an elliptical orbit, and to also add the capability to model rendezvous navigation sensors in order to make use of estimated state feedback rather than true state feedback during the second phase of the simulation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications are in the area of generating requirements and for performing analysis of potential vehicle designs for missions requiring a rendezvous and docking capability, such as CEV missions to the ISS. The rendezvous and docking simulation capability is expected to aid the mission design process for both robotic and human exploration missions to the moon and beyond.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications outside of NASA are expected to be in the area of sales of software and services to large aerospace corporations that are designing the CEV. The rendezvous and docking simulation capability is expected to aid the vehicle design process in the area of thruster and docking port layout. The enhanced sensor modeling capability proposed would also aid the design of avionics packages for these vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X4.02-8340
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Design and Analysis Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Design and Analysis Tool for CEV Structural and TPS Components

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Collier Research & Development Corp
45 Diamond Hill Road
Hampton, VA 23666-6016

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Phil Yarrington
phil.yarrington@hypersizer.com
45 Diamond Hill Rd
Hampton,  VA 23666-6016

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation of the proposed effort is a unique automated process for the analysis, design, and sizing of CEV structures and TPS. This developed process will permit hundreds of conceptual and preliminary design trade studies to be performed in a matter of only a few days rather than several months. This shorter time is made possible by replacing or reducing currently required experienced analyst interaction (man in the loop) with predefined knowledge based sizing templates and floating virtual structural component definitions for both surfaces zones and connecting bonded/bolted joints. The resulting capability will be an open architecture built within the HyperSizer<SUP>REG</SUP> commercial software suitable for internally integrating NASA or industry developed specialty discipline analysis codes and externally integrating HyperSizer with NASA larger design systems. This new capability will be unique in that no other commercial or non-commercial tool will have the same level of depth, breadth, accuracy, speed, verification & validation, and software robustness for performing weight prediction and reduction, structural integrity margins-of-safety reporting, and reliability prediction and improvement. This innovation will involve four tasks: 1) Development of knowledge based sizing templates; 2) Development of floating virtual components; 3) Support for NASA on-going multi-disciplinary design system integration activities; and 4) Development of an automated HyperSizer-FEM iteration process for achieving FEA load convergence.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SBIR developed capability for CEV specific structural components will be integrated into the existing commercial HyperSizer<SUP>REG</SUP> structural sizing software. HyperSizer has and is currently being used by both Lockheed Martin/OSC and the Boeing/Northrop Grumman teams for their CEV designs. The listed innovative new capabilities proposed in the work plan are direct requests from these companies for application to their CEV trade studies, and from NASA users. Other active NASA users include Langley, Glenn, and Marshall research centers for planetary structures such as aerobrakes, UAV vehicles such as High Altitude Long Endurance, and cryogenic composite/metallic tanks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
HyperSizer is being used by aerospace engineers around the country for airframe design and analysis. For example, at Scaled Composites in Mojave, California engineers are using the software for various different experimental airframe designs since 2001, including the unconventional all composite Global Flyer that in 2005 flew non-stop around the world. Non-NASA applications include Boeing's commercial transport 7E7/787; Northrop Grumman's UAVs such as J-UCAS, Global Hawk, and composite ship superstructures; Lockheed Martin's F-22, C-130J, and JSF; Gulfstream's general aviation aircraft and Pratt Whitney's Hypersonic engines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Reuseable
Thermal Insulating Materials
Structural Modeling and Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Ceramics
Composites
Computational Materials
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X4.02-9854
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Design and Analysis Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: System Engineering Process Realization Toolkit

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Emergent Space Technologies, Inc.
6301 Ivy Lane, Suite 700
Greenbelt, MD 20770-6334

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Everett Cary, Jr.
everett.cary@emergentspace.com
6301 Ivy Lane, Suite 700
Greenbelt,  MD 20770-6334

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA faces many systems engineering challenges as it seeks to conduct exploration and science missions concurrently. One such challenge is implementing a repeatable systems engineering process to missions that vary greatly in scale and complexity. The same process applied to lunar and Mars exploration missions, for example, do not necessarily scale well to Earth science missions. Existing systems engineering tools do not adequately address this problem. They tend to be inflexible implementations of a "one size fits all" approach to process, and provide little or no interoperability with other tools used in the system engineer's workflow. Emergent Space Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop the Systems Engineering Process Realization Toolkit (SE-PRO). SE-PRO will broaden the capabilities for capturing, communicating, and implementing the systems engineering process, regardless of the size of the mission based on the ability to customize the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) approach to process implementation. The innovation lies in the intuitive graphical user interface that allows systems engineers to combine processes like CMMI, NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR's), and Goddard Procedural Requirements (GPR's), into a single process that is modifiable by the missions to specify the workflows, team assignments, and output products according to their needs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Systems Engineering Process Realization Toolkit has numerous applications within NASA. Process engineering is a fundamental aspect used to achieve the high quality and reliability necessary for realizing NASA's goals. The key enabler is the fact that the Process Realization Toolkit will not be tied to any specific process and can be applied to processes outside of the system engineering domain. Processes exist everywhere and this tool when applied properly could help users carry-out a process quickly, when time is a factor. An application would be to target mission operations, when a satellite operator who has a limited satellite-uplink window needs to perform an operating procedure in response to an anomaly. This tool could be used to document the steps involved in the procedure, and the organization of the tool would allow operators to quickly find relevant information.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside the NASA and aerospace domain, the System Engineering Process Realization Toolkit has broad commercial applications. Processes are documented and followed all the time in business. It may be a proposal process, sales call process, manufacturing process, etc. The market we see for this toolkit are areas where a) access to process must be timely, and b) where the process is very complex or where there are high turnovers in users of the process. Both these scenarios focus on the ability for this toolkit to timely display information in ways which are meaningful for users.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X5.01-8747
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Software Engineering
PROPOSAL TITLE: Model-Based Specification Checker for Multi-Domain Systems (SpecCheck)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1245-G Lyons Road
Dayton, OH 45458-1818

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Barton
d.barton@edaptive.com
1245-G Lyons Rd.
Dayton,  OH 45458-1818

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's software-intensive extraterrestrial exploration and observation systems are raising performance and reliability bars to unprecedented levels. Exaggerating the complexity, in order for such systems to be robust and responsive they must have the ability to use intelligent processes to self-detect and heal, or literally create new programs in response to new situations. Validating the readiness of such complex automated software for long term remote deployment demands not just covering code or branches, or even inputs and outputs, but rather to cover algorithms, rule bases, and states within the system. Even when reducing the order of the problem through traceable model extraction and abstraction we are left with state explosion that drives the test of mission-critical software to unacceptable cost and time extremes. Yet it must be done. This has been a matter of active research at EDAptive Computing, Inc. (ECI), NASA, and elsewhere. Modern specification and software modeling techniques combined with formal methods have yielded promising results. We have demonstrated parts of the solution with smaller scale flight-critical [USAF] software and [MDA] satellite systems. ECI is now uniquely poised to merge and bring the needed technology to fruition at the scale necessary for NASA Exploration Systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Commercial Applications include high reliability and mission critical systems associated with space, including satellites, life support systems, launch control systems, autonomous space vehicles, and any mission critical system in a high reliability situation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA Commercial Applications include similarly mission critical or high reliability systems: embedded control systems in medical equipment, avionics systems, nuclear control systems, automotive systems, and any system in a high reliabiilty situation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Software Development Environments
Nuclear Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X5.01-9960
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Software Engineering
PROPOSAL TITLE: System and Component Software Specification, Run-time Verification and Automatic Test Generation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Time Rover
11425 Charsan Lane
Cupertino, CA 95014-4981

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Doron Drusinsky
nasa_sbir@time-rover.com
11425 Charsan Lane
Cupertino,  CA 95014-4981

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The following background technology is described in Part 5: Run-time Verification (RV), White Box Automatic Test Generation (WBATG). Part 5 also describes how WBATG and RV yield Executable Model Checking (EMC). This proposal proposes using RV, WBATG and EMC for system level software verification. Similar techniques are commercially available for component level software (see Part 5 -- StateRover). The proposal suggests enhancing component-level UML-statechart visual modeling, code generation, Formal Specification of Correctness Properties (FS), RV, WBATG, and EMC towards the end of meeting the technology need of the subtopic, as follows: 1. Integrated specification-based and model-based WBATG for UML statechart models enhanced with FS. Having a seamless WBATG is required for system level verification because systems typically consist of a plurality of models and specifications making human driven verification difficult to perform. 2. Integrated white-box test generation of (1) with system level modeling using modeling. This integration will enable the use of system level data and models by the WBATG. 3. FS, RV, and WBATG's using the following system FS languages: Message Sequence Charts (MSC's) and Harel's Live Sequence Charts (LCS's). Items 1, 2 enable system level EMC as well as component-level EMC. Item 3 enables system level FS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA/JPL relies heavily on Matlab for system modeling. On the other hand, existing tools and techniques for robust and scalable software verification work primarily on the component level. Robust system level verification will provide significant improvement to the level of NASA's system and software safety because real-environment models will be usable in conjunction with robust formal methods.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA/JPL relies heavily on Matlab for system modeling. On the other hand, NASA's formal method and run-time verification efforts have been using on temporal logic and some statechart specifications for run-time verification model checking. Integrating these two aspects of system representation will provide significant improvement to the level of NASA's system and software safety because real-environment models will be usable in conjunction with robust formal methods. This is the positioning of our commercialization strategy within NASA. Time Rover's UML-statechart based modeling, specification, run-time verification and white box test generation are already commercially successful. For example, the Ballistic Missile Defense Project is using our tools instead of their initial plans to use IBM/Rational Rose Real-time. Time Rover's tools are the only formal specification, run-time verification, and white box test generation tools that have been successful on a commercial basis. We believe that support for system-level and environment modeling languages and tools, as specified in this proposal will appeal to many system level developers concerned with safety critical applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X5.02-8208
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Autonomy Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Concept of Operations Storyboarding Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
S&K Technologies, Inc.
56 Old Highway 93 North, Box 339
St. Ignatius, MT 59865-0339

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carroll Thronesbery
c.thronesbery@jsc.nasa.gov
201 Flint Ridge Plaza, Suite 102
Webster,  TX 77598-4363

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
S&K Technologies proposes to develop a storyboard tool to assist with the generation, verification, and refinement of storyboard information and its subsequent translation into model data for systems analysis and design tools. The most important contribution is an improved communication of the concept of operation between prospective customers and system developers. It addresses the difficulty of communicating highly technical information among specialized engineering groups so that the concept of operations illustrated by the storyboard accommodates the consideration of context of use, user task performance, effective application of new technologies, safety, and reliability. This difficulty is especially pronounced when the user's tasks are unusual (space operations) and the technology to support the task is novel (autonomous software with which humans interact and monitor). Communication is enhanced by focusing on the common language of storyboard information. The storyboard tool will help authors manage versions of storyboards to track alternate approaches for human task support and to maintain libraries of storyboards from previous systems. After assisting with the creation of storyboards and refining them in concurrent engineering sessions, the tool will assist in translating the storyboard information into data forms importable by analysis tools used by NASA systems engineers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since most new NASA systems can benefit from storyboards and prototypes, the storyboard tool can provide valuable assistance to a large number of NASA system acquisition projects. Particular attention will be paid to Exploration Systems projects because of the principal investigator's association with an ongoing NASA study of tools to support human factors engineering participation in the early systems analysis for Exploration Systems. Consequently, the storyboarding tool should be particularly applicable to Exploration Systems early analysis activities. However, it is also expected to generalize quite well to a wide span of NASA analyses to support system acquisition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications that could benefit from using the storyboard tool include military system acquisitions and early systems analysis for commercial applications. S&K Technologies has number of projects associated with military system acquisition, and the principal investigator has a background involving system acquisition for the Army, including some MANPRINT and human factors engineering experience. Consequently, S&K Technologies has experience marketing software and analysis services to military customers. For commercial customers, our marketing strategy includes: ? Bundling the toolkit with examples showing commercial applications ? Demonstrating at trade shows and conferences ? Internet advertising ? Trade magazine advertising

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X6.01-7610
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Operations Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Model-Based Real Time Assessment of Capability Left for Spacecraft Under Failure Mode

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tietronix Software, Inc.
1331 Gemini, Suite 300
Houston, TX 77058-2794

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michel Izygon
mizygon@tietronix.com
1331 Gemini, Suite 300
Houston,  TX 77058-2794

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project is aimed at developing a model based diagnostics system for spacecraft that will allow real time assessment of its state, while it is impacted by a failure mode, and provide to the crew the possible reconfiguration strategies to continue the mission. While a lot of research is being done on the development of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system, very little effort is made to provide the spacecraft with the capability to use IVHM information in order to assess the possible strategies possible when a failure event has impacted the vehicle. A model based system can use its understanding of the system state to deduce the potential reconfiguration commands and optimize the outcome in order to preserve the mission goals. Our proposed project is targeted at supporting the spacecraft fault tolerance capability by searching the system states space and selecting the most appropriate sequence of actions to execute in order to optimize the possibility of mission success, by reconfiguring the spacecraft to a desired new state.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is engaged in one of the most ambitious program with the Vision for Space Exploration which will take the next step in robotics explorations and human expeditions to the Moon and beyond. The concept proposed for this SBIR Phase I is generic and will be developed in such a way that it can support all the multiple kinds of advanced spacecrafts or robotics systems that NASA is going to develop. In the coming years, the CEV will be one of the focus of attention as it represents the new generation of manned spacecraft. Many additional spacecraft systems will be initiated in parallel to accomplish the Vision for Space Exploration. They include among others, complex advanced robotics assistants such as the Science Crew Operations Utility Testbed (SCOUT), the Robonaut project, or the mini AERCam. Providing these programs with a capability to recover from a failure mode by allowing the crew to intelligently select the best set of actions among the numerous alternatives will minimize risks associated with failures modes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In the commercial arena, any complex system that is directly impacted by different failure modes and requires the operating crew to select the best set of actions in a limited time could benefit from the proposed concept. Specifically, Power plants and Chemical plants, in which a failure mode could incur millions of dollars of lost revenue are clear target of our model based prognostics system. Other areas such as airplanes maintenance can also benefit from the technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X6.01-9292
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Operations Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Onboard Autonomous Scheduling Intelligence System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360
San Mateo, CA 94404-2627

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Stottler
stottler@stottlerhenke.com
951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Ste. 360
San Mateo,  CA 94404-1585

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Scheduling the daily activities of the crew on a human space mission is currently a cumbersome job performed by a large team of operations experts on the ground. This process is expensive, inflexible, and inconvenient for the crew in the spacecraft. As mission durations increase, it will become vital to give the crew more autonomy and reduce operations costs. We propose an Onboard Automated Scheduling Intelligence System (OASIS) that will automate scheduling work, giving the crew more autonomy and drastically reducing operations costs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
OASIS has immediate application in human space flight crew scheduling. The tool will improve crew autonomy and productivity, and cut costs, while preserving the safety and flexibility of current scheduling techniques.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Stottler Henke will market OASIS to the commercial space flight community. Also, in the process of implementing the proposed system we will be upgrading our generalized scheduling engine, Aurora, furthering our efforts to market Aurora to the manufacturing and supply-chain community.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X6.02-9287
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Assembly Maintenance & Servicing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrostatic Clamp

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Loats Associates, Inc.
201 East Main St.
Westminster, MD 21157-5201

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
G. Samuel Mattingly
loats@loats.com
201 East Main St.
Westminster,  MD 21157-5201

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses Topic X6.02, Space Assembly Maintenance and Servicing. Spacecraft surface attachments, such as handholds, foot-restraints or tether points are often installed prior to flight, to aid planned EVA (Extravehicular Activity) operations. However, such aids are precluded where their pre-installation could compromise aerodynamic, or other important functions, of certain surfaces. Furthermore, unplanned EVA tasks are, at times, required to address in-flight emergencies or other unanticipated circumstances. For these situations, a versatile means of securing essential EVA assist attachments is needed. This study proposes to research and develop an electrostatic attachment system for rapid surface attachment of portable EVA assist devices, almost anywhere on the exterior (or interior) of a space-borne platform. The system will enhance the addressable scope and efficiency of EVA task performance and aid in astronaut (or material) maneuvering and transit, worksite restraint, and tool or equipment tie-down. The attachment system will incorporate a self-contained power source, capable of operating in a vacuum environment, to produce and maintain a surface conforming electrostatic charge of sufficient magnitude to induce a useful attractive Coulomb holding force between the device and the surface to which it is contacted, without damage or permanent alteration to the surface.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The electrostatic attachment system envisioned by this proposal is applicable to a wide range of EVA and IVA tasks. The versatility and adaptability afforded by an electrostatic attachment system, as proposed herein, to rapidly and strategically position assistive surface attachments, and reposition them as needed, to best suit the specific and evolving maneuvering, transit, positioning and mechanical leverage requirements of each EVA/IVA task, without damage or permanent alteration of the surface, will both improve the efficiency with which such work tasks can be performed and expand the range of tasks that can be effectively addressed. It also has important applications for space-borne parts and material handling and for providing space based robotic systems with astrictive prehension capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An electrostatic attachment system has numerous potential commercial applications. These include robotics and automated parts and material handling applications. It offers potential advantages of size, cost and reliability over current equipment as well as advantages in the handling of small, fragile or highly flexible materials. The electrostatic system to be developed in this project can also potentially be used to supply a robot with astrictive prehension capabilities, thus enabling wall walking capabilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Mobility
Manipulation
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X6.03-9186
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Launch Site Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Detection of Gas Hazards and Leaks with an Atmospheric Sampling, High Resolution, Mass Spectrometer with Low Pumping Requirements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ionwerks
2472 Bolsover, Suite 255
Houston, TX 77005-2537

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
J. Albert Schultz
al@ionwerks.com
2472 Bolsover, Ste 255
Houston,  TX 77005-2537

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Miniaturization of mass spectrometers is restricted almost exclusively by the ability of small vacuum pumps to remove gas loads during operation of the instrument. Our answer to this dilemma is a specialized interface that focuses a parallel beam of ionized gas molecules through an orifice that is at least 10 times smaller than ever before achieved in a mass spectrometer inlet. Our recent patent application describes this interface. Not only can we use this interface to radically reduce the pumping requirements within the mass spectrometer, but it should also enable an unprecedented cooling and focusing of the ion beam. This in turn will enable attaining mass resolutions of over ten thousand in a phase I instrument which uses a linear time of flight tube of only 10 cm. A small overall instrumental footprint (probably 1.5 cubic feet including pumping and electronics) should be attainable in a phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA will use the instrument for spaceport leak detection and hazardous gas detection.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include on board environmental monitoring including fire detection in vehicles and aircraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X6.03-9257
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Launch Site Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Prediction and Control of the Vibroacoustic Environment During a Launch Sequence

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frendi
146 Manningham Drive
Madison, AL 35758-7418

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kader Frendi
frendi@eng.uah.edu
146 Manningham Drive
Madison,  AL 35758-7418

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The complexity of the current launch platforms makes their maintenance and operation very costly. In order to successfully design the next generation platforms, it is necessary to understand the complex, multi-disciplinary environments that exists during a launch sequence. The proposed research and development effort will use state of the art techniques in the various fields involved to compute the virboacoustic environment during launch. The physical insight gained from these models will help guide the design of a new cost-effective launch platform. In particular, the problem of unsteady turbulent flows will be addressed using a newly developed turbulence modeling approach known as partially averaged Navier-Stokes (or PANS). Using PANS nearfield results, the acoustic farfield will be obtained through the use of acoustic analogies. In addition, various passive and active control techniques will be assessed to effectively reduce noise levels in the vicinity of the launch platform.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
It is well-known that a very harsh vibroacoustic environment exits during launch. This environment could be responsible for structural fatigue and failure, debris entrainment and impact on launch vehicles and damage to payloads. Therefore a good understanding of the various physical phenomena taking place during launch is necessary in order to design cost-effective, safe and reliable future launch systems. It is this goal that we strive to achieve through the proposed research work. The benefit to NASA will be significant in both cost, efficiency and most of all safety.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed research and development effort will benefit greatly the commercial launch area and companies such as Boeing and many others will reap te benefit. The outcome of the proposed work will reduce the complexity of the current launch plateforms and hence reduce the launch cost. In addition, many small and cost effective launch sites will be developed around the country. The single most important element that will be gained from the proposed effort will be increased launch safety, which is priceless.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Simulation Modeling Environment
Airport Infrastructure and Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X6.03-9295
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Launch Site Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanotube Adsorption for the Capture and Re-liquefaction of Hydrogen Biol-Off During Tanker Transfer Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Pl
Rockledge, FL 32955-5327

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Scaringe
rps@mainstream-engr.com
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge,  FL 32955-5327

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal discloses an innovative, economically feasible technique to capture and re-liquefy the hydrogen boil-off by using carbon nanotube adsorption prior to liquefaction. The hydrogen boil- off involves an average of 10,300 SCFM of hydrogen vapor at pressures below 17 psia for a period of an hour. The configuration disclosed in the proposal significantly reduces the size of the liquefaction equipment and this translates into a substantial reduction in cost for the system. Preliminary calculations have indicated that a payback period of less than 12 months (based on the current cost of hydrogen and the use rate at KSC when shuttles return to flight). The Phase I effort will also experimentally demonstrate the performance of a carbon nanotube coated (CNC) adsorption bed in Phase I. This proposal discloses a patent-pending approach which makes this technology feasible, safe and affordable. The Phase I effort is significant, in that an extensive demonstration of the performance, cost, durability, and simplicity of the CNC adsorption bed as well as a demonstration of the economic benefits of the hydrogen capture system for NASA/KSC will both be achieved before proceeding to Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our marketing studies have clearly identified that in addition to the obvious NASA/KSC application for recovering 1.5 million gallons of hydrogen per year[1] with an annual savings of about two million dollars, there is a tremendous market potential for a high-capacity, safe, hydrogen storage method which can be combined with fuel cells. There are also other NASA and DoD spaceflight applications where the safe, and possibly long-term, storage of hazardous gasses or propellants is desired.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Manufacturers of liquefied hydrogen and other commercial users of hydrogen would have recovery needs similar to NASA, however the much bigger commercial market is using the increased hydrogen storage capacity of the carbon nanotube coated adsorption bed for hydrogen fuel cells, such as those proposed for future new vehicles. The nanotube coated adsorption technique would have other commercial applications as the U.S. tends more toward clean-burning hydrogen as a fuel source.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fluid Storage and Handling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X6.03-9788
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Launch Site Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous, Cryogenic Leak Detector for Improving Launch Site Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
INNOSENSE LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kisholoy Goswami
kisholoy.goswami@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For detecting leakage of cryogenic fluids in spaceport facilities and in spacebound vehicles, this project proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an all-optical sensor that can be fitted into narrow orifices around plumbing junctions. Fast response time and complete reversibility in the detection range of 1 ppm to 100% for hydrogen will be demonstrated in Phase I. This technology will support NASA goal of reducing vehicle and payload cost, and increase safety of ground and flight operations by measuring hydrogen in real-time and in situ. The sensor's thermal shock resistance when exposed to cryogenic fluids will also be tested in Phase I. A prototype device will be engineered, field-tested and delivered to NASA in Phase II. Successful discussions have been conducted with industrial partners for commercialization support including Phase III follow-on funding for this project. One major U.S. aerospace company has expressed strong interest in the proposed technology by providing a letter of support. A technical team having 70 years of cumulative experience in developing commercially viable products has been assembled for this project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA and its contractors such as Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, and other companies in the international arena will benefit from this project. Currently, NASA is relying on mass spectrometers. The all-optical sensor system is designed to decrease pay load while monitoring multiple leak locations in situ and in real time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The present $1.2 billion worldwide gas sensing market needs small sensors to measure leaks in valves, as well as reliable personal units for general hydrogen gas safety monitoring. The transition from fossil fuel into a hydrogen economy could push the $120,000,000 annual hydrogen sensor market today into annual sales as high as $1,800, 000,000 by 2010 for hydrogen safety sensing according to current available estimates. Hydrogen feed stock sensors, needed to manage gas flow and purity, will further increase the demand for hydrogen sensors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Launch and Flight Vehicle
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Optical
Photonics
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Microgravity
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.01-9069
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Chemical Propulsion Systems and Modeling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Oxygen-Methane Thruster

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orion Propulsion, Inc.
105 A-4 Commerce Circle
Madison, AL 35758-1863

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tim Pickens
tpickens@orionpropulsion.com
105 A-4 Commerce Circle
Madison,  AL 35758-1863

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Orion Propulsion, Inc. proposes to develop an Oxygen and Methane RCS Thruster to advance the technology of alternate fuels. A successful Oxygen/CH4 RCS Thruster will also be new reaction control engine that integrates readily with integrates readily with primary propulsion by using the same propellants. Orion has a developed a preliminary design of an Oxygen / Methane (O/M) RCS Thruster, and our purpose is to contribute to NASA Space Exploration goals by increasing the technology readiness of oxygen/methane rocket systems. Orion has demonstrated the current development status of our thruster with some 40 firings at sea level. The objective of the Phase 1 R&D would be to improve credibility of its design by testing another prototype test article, which is equipped with a flight type nozzle and propellant valves. These tests would be performed in a environmental chamber at reduced pressure to simulate space vacuum conditions. Although, the O/M Thruster test article would be constructed of stainless steel, its interior would be coated with a refractory metal alloy. This treatment enables the test article to sustain higher temperatures and enables longer tests. The expected result of a Phase 2 effort would be a flight-ready prototype thruster for delivery to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The O/M RCS Thruster could be used in any NASA or Commercial Space launch vehicle or spacecraft that uses oxygen and methane for primary or maneuver propulsion. The simple configuration and conventional manufacturing techniques contribute to cost, weight, and risk reductions. NASA and commercial space operators could thereby benefit from these improvements. The O/M RCS Thruster will be particularly useful to space exploration such as mars where methane would be available via appropriate in-situ mining results.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military and commercial space operations could also benefit by using oxygen / methane propulsion, thereby improving the benefits of higher production volumes for the thruster. The more application of common rocket engine systems by NASA, military, and commercial operators extend the mutual benefits to all of them.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.01-9200
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Chemical Propulsion Systems and Modeling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient and Accurate Computational Framework for Injector Design and Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Kellers Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ashvin Hosangadi
hosangad@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville,  PA 18947-1020

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CFD codes used to simulate upper stage expander cycle engines are not adequately mature to support design efforts. Rapid and accurate simulations require more versatile grid frameworks to handle complex geometries of multi-element injector configurations. Turbulence models require upgrades to better predict fuel/air mixing with swirl and to predict heat flux. The innovation proposed initiates work towards developing a mature, high-fidelity simulation tool. Geometry complexity and numerical accuracy problems are addressed via a multi-element UNS grid adaptation strategy that builds upon techniques developed for valving problems and scramjet injectors. Turbulent mixing and heat transfer are upgraded by including PDE's that solve for temperature and species variance (yielding local values of Prandtl and Schmidt number), as well as swirl corrections. Finally generalized preconditioning that accounts for stiffness resulting from a large range of Mach numbers, and generalized thermodynamic formulations for real fluids will be matured to yield robust numerics with improved solution convergence. The tools and technology to be developed here would directly impact design efforts for future long duration lunar and Mars missions that require more durable long-life, light weight system components, and address methodology to operate with novel hydrocarbon fuels that may be harvested in-situ.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There currently is a need for high fidelity CFD software that can support the design of thrusters for Reaction Control and Orbital Maneuvering systems; current tools are not adequately accurate or robust enough to provide solutions within the rapid turnaround timelines demanded in a design cycle. The proposed Phase I effort will result in a commercial CFD tool that will address some of these deficiencies by developing a more versatile computing framework with more advanced physical models. The framework would also be general enough to model novel hydrocarbon propellants such as Methane that may be harvested in-situ. We anticipate that this tool will be used in conjunction with current design procedures to either refine preliminary designs or rectify potentially anomalous behavior in existing designs. We also anticipate technology developed here to be transferred to other codes used at NASA MSFC after validation and demonstration of improvements they offer.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential customers for this commercial product are companies currently involved in designing propulsion components for future space systems including Boeing, Pratt and Whitney/Rocketdyne, and Northrup Grumman. The design of systems for long duration lunar and Mars missions will require light weight components that have to operate with increased durability. We anticipate our product being licensed by the larger prime contractors to provide simulation support. The ability to handle hydrocarbon combustion in a high-pressure environment will allow us to market this product to the oil and natural gas industry. The high cost of oil is motivating the energy industry to reconsider oil sources that are more expensive to extract. There is also renewed interest at improving efficiency and design of combustors using novel fuel compositions. Thus, the ability to model real fluid, combusting flows at high pressures and temperatures would make this software of interest to the broader energy industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Simulation Modeling Environment
Feed System Components
Thermodynamic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.01-9692
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Chemical Propulsion Systems and Modeling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Zubrin
zubrin@aol.com
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable propulsion. In the N2OP engine, the combination of liquid nitrous oxide on solid paraffin as a rocket propellant allows for the development of compact lightweight high performance stages using densely packed propellant tankage. This is because N2O/paraffin hybrids have a very high oxidizer/fuel mixture ratio and because paraffin has a much higher regression rate than typical hybrid hydrocarbon fuels. Propellant slumping can be prevented by molding the paraffin into a 3% by volume graphite sponge matrix. Currently, space launch missions require cryogenic or extremely toxic propellants which are limited in their storage times, reducing their capability for rapid response launch. The much more storable solid propellants have higher cost, and lower performance while still being a large explosive hazard. The N2OP propulsion system also is compatible with ocean temperatures, allowing launch by floating in water. The achievable Isp for this propellant combination using autogenous pressurization is about 235 seconds at sea level and over 310 s in vacuum, making its performance fully adequate to support operation of a safe, fully storable, highly-responsive multi-stage launch vehicle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The N2OP is an extremely attractive technology for enabling fast response space launch missions, it would have many other applications as well. Commercial applications would include the delivery of small geostationary, medium, and low altitude satellites into orbit, apogee kick, and also for high efficiency re-assignment maneuvers and end of life superboosting for geostationary satellites. The N2OP engine could be used for onboard spacecraft propulsion or for dedicated upper and transfer stages. As an additional advantage, the same N2O that powers the N2OP can be used in N2O monopropellant thrusters for spacecraft RCS, thereby eliminating hydrazine and reducing costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A high specific impulse safe, nontoxic long term storable stage would find many customers among commercial, military, and scientific satellites, launch vehicles, or sounding rockets who would value it as a very cost-effective alternative to the current choices of low performance toxic hypergols, cryogenic LOX, or solid propulsion. Smaller N2OP propulsion systems could meet the needs of the amateur experimental rocketry market. The use of N2OP technology for military missile propulsion is also highly attractive, as such systems would be much safer than solids during manufacture, transport, and front line storage, and potentially be much cheaper as well.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.02-7746
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Chemical Propulsion Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Oxidation Resistant CMC Materials Technology for Lightweight and Environmentally Durable Propulsion Components

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Surmet Corp
33 B St
Burlington, MA 01803-3406

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Uday Kashalikar
sjha@surmet.com
33 B Street
Burlington,  MA 01803-3406

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Surmet will demonstrate a novel processing method to develop environmentally resistant C/SiC composites for turbomachinery. The need to reduce the weight, size, and costs of current systems make the use of SiC ideal in these high temperatures and extreme environments. Traditional processing of SiC materials are inherently limited in terms of component thicknesses and overall sizes that can be processed, as well as uniform densification. Also, pure SiC matrices are subject to attack in the environments expected for these components, e.g., hydrogen rich steam and oxygen rich environments. Surmet proposes a protected C/SiC composite from preceramic polymer as a solution to NASA systems' weight, environmental resistance, and cost requirements. A number of specimens will be fabricated to demonstrate mechanical strength, thermal capability, and environmental durability of these materials. The Phase II program will demonstrate repeatability in properties and produce relevant CMC components that will be tested under simulated service conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Preceramic polymer based SiC CMC's provide affordability and potential for scale-up in size. After resolving the major shortcoming of current PIP based CMC's ? poor environmental resistance, these material will find a number of airborne and space based applications, including space optics, advanced earth-to-orbit propulsion systems, and hypersonic vehicles. Specifically, rocket turbomachinery components such as nozzle ramp (active cooled structures), turbine blades, thrust chambers, resulting from this technology will produce substantial improvement in propulsion system performance and cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
After this environmentally durable CMC technology is demonstrated in government aerospace applications, it will find a number of military, commercial and industrial applications. These include: a) turbine, combustion chamber and recuperator components in gas turbine engines for unmanned combat aircraft as well as commercial aircraft, b) automotive/diesel engine components such as turbocharger rotors, rocker arms, etc., c) tribological applications such as brake materials, capstans, etc, and d) industrial applications such as pump vanes for handling and distribution of corrosive chemicals and erosive slurries.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.02-9038
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Chemical Propulsion Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc.
140 Intracoastal Pointe, Suite 301
Jupiter, FL 33477-5094

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Philip Pelfrey
ppelfrey@fttinc.com
140 Intracoastal Pointe, Suite 301
Jupiter,  FL 33477-5094

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Florida Turbine Technologies (FTT) proposes to conduct research necessary to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model for hydrostatic bearings operating in a compressible fluid. The innovation of the resulting model is to account for the extreme density, compressibility, and non-uniform pressure variations found in highly turbulent rocket engine liquid hydrogen turbopump hydrostatic bearings as well as the variations resulting from 3-D effects such as tangential and/or axial injection, which are ignored in the pneumatic hammer instability criteria currently used throughout industry. The ability to accurately predict the stability of highly turbulent, highly compressible liquid hydrogen hydrostatic bearings incorporating 3-D effects is essential for NASA to achieve IHPRPT objectives through the use of smaller, faster turbopumps. This project will enable the accurate prediction of bearing stability, resulting in higher performing bearings that enable smaller operating clearances for improved turbopump and system-level performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Pneumatic hammer instability due to the compressibility of cryogenic liquid hydrogen is a major concern for NASA rocket engine fuel turbopumps. Current turbopumps, such as the IPD, and future turbopumps are sacrificing performance based on 35 year-old "rule-of-thumb" stability criteria. A validated, physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model will enable higher performing turbopumps, which result in greater system level performance.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FTT is using the synergy from multiple programs to create a comprehensive advancement in technology for the benefit of many programs. Leveraging existing and planned bearing technology programs, development will include not only hydrostatic bearings applicable to rocket engine turbopumps, but also rolling element bearings and air bearings applicable to ARMY NLOS/UAV's. In support of this, FTT is developing small expendable turbine engine product lines for commercial applications in the 30 to 300 lbf thrust class.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Feed System Components


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.02-9183
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Chemical Propulsion Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Resonating Nitrous Oxide Thruster

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AeroAstro, Inc.
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn, VA 20147-3373

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joshua Elvander
josh.elvander@aeroastro.com
12 Farnsworth Street, Fourth Floor
Boston,  MA 02210-1224

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AeroAstro proposes decomposing nitrous oxide (N2O) as an alternative propellant to existing spacecraft propellants. Decomposing N2O can be used as either a high Isp, hot-gas monopropellant or as a low Isp, cold gas for ACS thrusters. AeroAstro further proposes to use an innovative technique to achieve N2O decomposition: gasdynamic resonance. Gasdynamic resonance will elevate the N2O to the activation temperatures required for exothermic decomposition, allowing monopropellant operation without the difficulties of a catalyst. One of the challenges of long-duration space exploration systems is finding a propellant for microspacecraft that is safe, reliable, robust, and performs better than current propulsion systems. N2O can replace both hot-gas propellants such as hydrazine and cold-gas ACS systems such as nitrogen or isobutane. N2O is non-toxic, has a low freezing point (-91<SUP>o</SUP>C), and stores as a liquid. N2O is also a byproduct of the catalysis of ammonia, a main effluent of waste-water recycling systems for long-duration manned space missions. The anticipated results of this effort are data demonstrating the operating parameters of resonating N2O, and a dual-mode thruster design capable of both hot-gas and cold-gas operation. Phase II activity will evolve the design of the dual-mode thruster and demonstrate operation over a range of conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A microspacecraft propulsion system based on decomposing nitrous oxide (N2O) could support long-duration, manned space exploration by providing inspection and diagnostic services to the space station, crew exploration vehicle and other long-duration space transportation systems. The storable, non-toxic, stable nature of the propellant and its exhaust products reduce risk to crew and hardware and allow for easy handling and transfer. N2O has potential as a pseudo-ISRU propellant because it is the byproduct of the catalysis of ammonia, which is isolated during wastewater recycling. N2O can operate as either a hot-gas or cold-gas propellant, expanding system capability while reducing mass.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AeroAstro expects that decomposing nitrous oxide (N2O) thrusters can replace hydrazine monopropellant thrusters and several types of traditional cold gas thrusters. Such N2O systems would drive down propulsion system costs and reduce overall system mass by removing the need for tank/line heaters and separate systems for cold and hot propellants. This could enable a new class of microspacecraft that can afford the propellant to perform a variety of missions, such as monitoring high-value geosynchronous communications satellites for anomalies, assist in on-orbit testing of communications payloads, imagery for marketing purposes, docking and refueling, responsive rendezvous, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Micro Thrusters
Monopropellants
Mobility


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.02-9590
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Chemical Propulsion Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mars McLOX Rocket Propulsion System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Zubrin
zubrin@aol.com
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Methane and Carbon Monoxide/LOX rocket (MCLOX) is a technology for accomplishing ascent from Mars. Current Mars in-situ propellant production (ISPP) technologies produce methane and carbon monoxide in various combinations, but with neither generally produced in pure form. While separation and purification of methane fuel is possible, it adds complexity to the propellant production process and discards an otherwise useful fuel product. The MCLOX makes such complex and wasteful processes unnecessary by burning the methane/CO mixtures produced by Mars ISPP systems without further refinement. Despite the decrease in rocket specific impulse caused by CO admixture, the improvement offered by concomitant increased propellant density provides a net improvement in stage performance, and this mission advantage is amplified further by the increase of the total amount of propellant produced and the decrease in mass and complexity of the required ISPP plant. For these reasons the development of the MCLOX rocket is important to achieve maximum benefit from Mars ISPP systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MCLOX propulsion would be uniquely suitable for a Mars sample return or a manned Mars mission using indigenous propellant. Because it can use the mixtures of methane and CO that are produced by the most readily available ISPP systems without further distillation, it minimizes the mass and complexity of such systems and maximizes their useful propellant leverage. MCLOX engines could also be used to take off from the Moon or asteroids, and can be used to fulfill any function required for high-energy space storable propulsion.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MCLOX has many commercial applications, since it can also work with pure methane fuel. An upper stage driven by such LOX/methane propulsion would be non-toxic, space storable, and offer the highest specific impulse of any chemical stage other than the much more expensive and bulkier LOX/H2 systems. As such, the MCLOX upper stage would find many customers among commercial, military, and scientific satellites, upper stages, and launch vehicles who would value it as a cost-effective alternative to the current choice of toxic hypergol, lower performing LOX/RP, or cryogenic LOX/H2 propulsion.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Fluid Storage and Handling
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.02-9732
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Chemical Propulsion Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Manufacture of Combustion Chambers Using Ductile, High Strength MMCs (1000-803)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824-4000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Karin Karg
kkarg@tritonsystems.com
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford,  MA 01824-4000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Triton Systems, Inc. (Triton) proposes to develop a cost-effective manufacturing approach to fabricate combustion chambers for a rocket technology demonstrator engine. The proposed manufacturing process combines Triton's success in fabricating high strength, ductile, discontinuous fiber reinforced aluminum (FRA) composites and rapid prototyping techniques used in the aluminum casting industry. The ability to insert Triton's FRA technology into boost and orbit transfer components supports critical propulsion goals by improving the thrust-to-weight ratio and reducing hardware costs. Significant weight savings will be achieved with Triton's lightweight FRA technology compared to the current nickel superalloy. Hardware costs savings are anticipated with the use of a proven, affordable and high quality casting process to fabricate FRA materials. An added benefit is the ability to incorporate design changes for improved efficiency and/or research and development efforts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Triton's proposed approach will support critical next generation launch requirements such as weight savings, improved thrust to weight ratios and reduced hardware and manufacturing costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications include: engine components, electronic packaging, space structures, machine components, engine blocks and brake components.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Composites
Metallics
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.03-9246
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High-Power Electric Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Accelerated Testing of High Temperature Permanent Magnets for Spacecraft Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Electron Energy Corporation
924 Links Avenue
Landisville, PA 17538-1615

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jinfang Liu
jfl@electronenergy.com
924 Links Avenue
Landisville,  PA 17538-1615

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High temperature permanent magnet materials play an important role in NASA's space missions in electric propulsion, energy generation and storage and other applications. We propose to devise accelerated testing methods to test and predict the service life of SmCo based ultra high temperature permanent magnets in a high vacuum environment at high temperatures in excess of 400 degrees C. The proposed research will enable designers to appropriately design and use high temperature permanent magnets to optimize their performance. The proposed efforts will measure outgassing rates through total mass loss methods based on ASTM standards at temperatures from 300 to 700 degrees C at vacuum levels of 10 exp-5 Torr or higher. The microstructure and chemical composition variations at the near-interface region after exposure to high vacuum and high temperatures will be analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and auger electron spectroscopy or energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Magnetic properties will be measured and modeled with finite element analysis. These methods will enable prediction of reliability and performance of high temperature magnets over long space missions through short-term test methods.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include uses for electric propulsion of NASA's Jupiter Missions and other missions. These potential applications consist of high power Hall Effect Thrusters and ion thrusters supporting NASA's NSTAR and NEXT programs. During space re-entry, integral and addressable magnetic characteristics in the flight surfaces could permit use of the plasma layer for heat rejection, power generation, or aerodynamic control. Advanced Stirling and Brayton cycle engine technology for nuclear power driven systems will benefit from advanced understanding of magnet characteristics in high temperature high vacuum environments. High temperature magnetic bearings and rotary generators for kilowatt and Megawatt power gas turbine systems for planetary moon and Mars missions will also benefit from this research. Furthermore, high temperature magnets in a vacuum environment could be used for energy storage / attitude control flywheels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Traveling wave tubes have been used in NASA's space exploration, satellite communication, missiles, combat aircraft and other defense applications. Higher temperature magnets useable in vacuum could significantly improve the performance of the traveling wave tubes and can improve manufacturability of TWT's which are baked to over 400 degrees C in a UHV environment. Other applications for high temperature and high vacuum resistant magnets would include equipment for ultra-high vacuum equipment and electronic materials processing. Such applications can include magnets used in the chamber of sputtering systems in Halbach arrays and for supporting the move towards UHV sputtering. Some specialty molten electronic material mixing equipment requires magnets to operate at 550 degrees C with very low outgassing or valuable process material would be poisoned. Vacuum gauges and manipulator devices that need to survive bake outs up to 400 degrees C in high vacuum would also benefit from these proposed studies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic Thrusters
Launch Assist (Electromagnetic, Hot Gas and Pneumatic)
MHD
Micro Thrusters
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Superconductors and Magnetic
Energy Storage
MHD and Related Conversion
Thermodynamic Conversion
Thermoelectric Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.04-8890
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroassist Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Gas-Kinetic Computational Algorithm for Simulation of Aeroassist Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zona Technology, Inc.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive, Suite 100
Scottsdale, AZ 85258-4578

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lei Tang
tangl@zonatech.com
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive, Suite 100
Scottsdale,  AZ 85258-4578

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I project develops a unified computational algorithm for simulation of hypersonic flows in both continuum and transitional regimes based on a gas-kinetic BGK-Burnett solver. Different from the macroscopic Burnett approach, the proposed gas-kinetic BGK-Burnett solver is unconditionally stable for all Knudsen numbers. Whereas it is almost impossible to correctly set up boundary condition for the Burnett equations, this can be easily done in the proposed BGK-Burnett solver with the Maxwell boundary condition, re-emitting the particles from the boundary according to the accommodation coefficient. More importantly, this BGK-Burnett solver not only allows a single algorithm for both continuum and transitional flow regimes but also is more suitable for integration with either DSMC or direct Boltzmann solver in the rarefied flow regime. This is because in current hybrid CFD/DSMC approach, the inconsistency from the fluxes estimated from CFD and DSMC may cause an artificial flow across the interface between CFD/gas-kinetic zones.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA current mission focuses on human lunar and martian exploration. The design of crew exploration vehicles requires the proposed computational tool, which is able to handle the flows beyond the continuum regime and thereby accurately predict wake heating, single/multiple rocket plume effects on the vehicle aerodynamics and heating.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed gas-kinetic computational algorithm can significantly enhance the capability of aerospace industry to predict the aerothermal loads on a space vehicle. It can also be used to analyze aerobrake systems and to predict leakage flows past seal teeth in gas turbine engines, etc. Such a computational tool is lacking in the market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fundamental Propulsion Physics
Simulation Modeling Environment
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.04-8914
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroassist Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Reduced Mass TPS Designs for Human-Rated Aeroassit Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Materials Research and Design
300 E. Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087-1858

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hans Jensen
hans.jensen@m-r-d.com
300 E. Swedesford Rd.
Wayne,  PA 19085-1858

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses Item #2 of Topic X7.04 Aeroassist Systems and proposes innovative heat shield thermal protection systems (TPS) designs for human-rated aeroassist vehicles returning to Earth from the Moon and Mars. The proposed designs 1) utilize concepts with and without outer ablator materials, 2) employ outer refractory composite material rib-stiffened aeroshells with low emissivity foils on their internal structure to trap the heat and act like a high thermal resistance material, similar to multi-layer insulation but which have the potential to be less complex and less dense, and 3) make use of re-usable refractory composite materials that will be non-parasitic and structurally functional within the heat shield, thereby offering the promise of significantly reducing TPS mass fraction. The following will briefly describe the base heat shield used in Apollo Command Module and discuss the two alternative concepts and why they are advantageous.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Design of any heat shield will benefit from the successful completion of the proposed program. However, of immediate and direct relevance are the TPS elements, especially the base heat shield of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. Designs evolving from this effort will be of use to both of the current CEV teams, specifically the Northrop Grumman/Boeing team and Lockheed Martin.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications for this heat shield technology would include TPS for military and civilian hypersonic vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Reuseable
Thermal Insulating Materials
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.04-8963
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroassist Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible Transpiration Cooled Thermal Protection System for Inflatable Atmospheric Capture and Entry Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrews Space, Inc.
505 5th Ave South, Suite 300
Seattle, WA 98104-3894

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dana Andrews
dandrews@andrews-space.com
505 5th Ave South, Suite 300
Seattle,  WA 98104-3894

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Andrews Space, Inc. proposes an innovative transpiration cooled aerobrake TPS design that is thermally protective, structurally flexible, and lightweight. This innovative design will also meet launch volume constraints and satisfy terminal aerobraking requirements. The approach will focus on transpiration cooling of a flexible material and will consider ablative and insulative technologies as key features of the TPS design. The application of aerobraking to reduce velocity for planetary capture and landing has long been assumed for use on Mars missions and has been suggested for Earth reentry. The major hurdle to inflatable aerobrakes becoming reality is the development of a lightweight and structurally flexible Thermal Protection System (TPS). By combining well understood insulative and ablative TPS with an innovative flexible transpiration cooled TPS, a realizable inflatable aerobrake system can be developed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of the anticipated Phase II materials test will significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with flexible TPS for inflatable aerobrake development. This success will improve the likelihood of securing government or private funding for the development of a fully operational ballute system to address the needs of NASA and commercial markets. Once inflatable aerobrake technologies are well-understood and an integrated system flight-tested, such an aerobrake could become the design of choice for further use on Earth and Mars missions, maintaining the best combination of design margin, usage flexibility, weight, and cost. Single-use aerobrakes can be used for return of Space Station cargo modules to the Earth's surface as well as for crew return. They can be used for the deceleration of payloads to Mars and other planetary surfaces. Aerobrakes can also be used for Earth and other planetary orbit capture, with potential multi-use capability in those modes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Outside of NASA, reliable and capable aerocapture will be needed for commercial cargo return to Earth or for hardware return for refurbishment. As on-orbit business opportunities grow, so will the need for recovery and return capability. An additional need is for return of end-of-life spacecraft and launch vehicle stages from LEO, allowing reuse of stage or spacecraft hardware.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Control Instrumentation
Airframe
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Cooling
Thermal Insulating Materials
Ceramics
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Thermodynamic Conversion
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X7.04-9051
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aeroassist Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Computational Model for High-Altitude Aeroassist Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology
6210 Kellers Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Wilmoth
wilmoth@craft-tech.com
124 Burnham Place
Newport News,  VA 23606-2611

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A hybrid continuum/noncontinuum computational model will be developed for analyzing the aerodynamics and heating on aeroassist vehicles. Unique features of this model include (1) the ability to model rarefied flows with localized continuum features at high altitudes, (2) the ability to model both ablative and non-ablative thermal protection systems, and (3) the ability to model multiple firings of reaction control jets. The model will permit analyzing high-speed, nonequilibrium flows about entry and aeroassist vehicles based on extensions to three-dimensional Navier-Stokes and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes. Extension will include effects of liquid and solid particulates along with gaseous species, which should significantly enhance the ability to analyze complex ablation effects. The coupling of these tools to include modeling of multiple reaction-control-jet firings will provide essential data for assessing the aerothermodynamic performance for a wide range of vehicle designs over a wide range of vehicle altitudes and flight conditions. The improved accuracy offered by our proposed hybrid modeling approach offers significant benefits in the design of vehicles for both unmanned planetary missions and manned missions to the Moon and Mars.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed hybrid computational model has potential application to the design and analysis of a broad class of NASA vehicles that experience flight through Earth or other planetary atmospheres under extreme heating conditions. Examples of these vehicles include those being designed to use aerocapture to achieve a low-cost orbit around Neptune and Titan. The model has particular relevance to the design of manned vehicles for return to Earth from lunar and Mars missions that will likely use ablative heat shields for thermal protection such as the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed hybrid computational model has potential application to design and analysis in a variety of fields concerned with nano-processes, with DOD interest in missile detection and tracking, and RV discrimination, and with various processes that occur in an gaseous environment including (1) solid state materials processing involving laser ablation, (2) solid sampling analysis through plasma spectrochemistry, and (3) solid hydrogen particle ablation occurring in air breathing supersonic combustion.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Simulation Modeling Environment
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X8.01-8233
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Health Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Condition Based Maintenance of Space Exploration Vehicles Using Structural Health Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Acellent Technologies, Inc.
155 C-3 Moffett Park Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1331

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amrita Kumar
akumar@acellent.com
155 C-3 Moffett Park Drive
Sunnyvale,  CA 94089-1331

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Acellent Technologies proposes to develop an autonomous and automated diagnostic system for condition based maintenance (CBM) of safety critical structures for space exploration vehicles. The proposed system will provide real-time information on the integrity of critical structures on launch vehicles, improve their performance, and greatly increase crew safety while decreasing inspection costs. The system will encompass a gamut of functions from sensing hardware through diagnosis and prognosis all the way to presentation of the asset condition with recommended maintenance actions. Additionally the system will be developed for qualification and reliable use with space vehicles from the time of manufacture through launch. The biggest payoff of IVHM is development of system determining health prior to vehicle operation. Technologies will be developed to reliably instrument and monitor damage in critical structures such as rocket motors. The system development will be based on Acellent's SMART Layer technology that utilizes a network of sensors and actuators to query and monitor the integrity of a structure. In Phase I, a prototype CBM system for rocket motors will be developed and preliminary qualification tests conducted in collaboration with ATK-Thiokol. Phase II will focus on complete system development and interface with the rocket motor IVHM system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
System self-assessment support platform technologies for self-assembly, in-space assembly, in-space maintenance & servicing, and high energy space platforms such as highly reliable autonomous deep-space cryogenic propellant refueling systems. These technologies/methodologies have the potential of significantly increasing safety, reliability, affordability, and effectiveness of NASA missions. Recent structural failures, such as those associated with the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and damage due to foam impact on Discovery, have reiterated the requirement for onboard systems that provide comprehensive, reliable, real-time integrated assessment of systems health including as a subset SHM. This requirement is especially true for long-term space deployments in which structural integrity and systems' reliability is essential due to decreased opportunities for remedial action, mission abort, or crew rescue. The proposed system developed in the Phase I and Phase II effort can ensure safety and reliability of these mission critical structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since nearly all in-service structures require some form of inspection and maintenance procedures to monitor their integrity and health condition to prolong life span or to prevent catastrophic failures, the potential applications of the proposed system are very broad. In the future, this system can potentially be used to monitor all types of aircraft, spacecraft and civil infrastructures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Airframe
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Structural Modeling and Tools
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Database Development and Interfacing
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Composites
Metallics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X8.01-8278
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Health Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Architecture for Integrated System Health Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metrica, Inc.
8620 North New Braunfels, Suite 603
San Antonio, TX 78217-6363

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Debra Schreckenghost
schreck@traclabs.com
8620 North New Braunfels, Suite 603
San Antonio,  TX 78217-6363

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Managing the health of vehicle, crew, and habitat systems is a primary function of flight controllers today. We propose to develop an architecture for automating many of the response actions in problem situations and coordinating these actions with human response activities. Our approach is to develop a basic module that automates (1) Planning what response actions to take, (2) Executing these planned actions, and (3) Monitoring the effects of these actions to ensure they are successful. These modules will be organized into layers, operating at different levels of abstraction and with different time constants and time horizons. The architecture will support both hierarchical coordination between layers of control and peer-to-peer interaction among modules within a layer. This proposal is innovative in combining centralized planning for hierarchical coordination with distributed negotiation techniques for peer-to-peer coordination to provide flexible contingency response. The successful completion of a Phase II project will deliver a system health management architecture to NASA that improves system safety and makes more effective use of human time and capabilities when problems occur.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The need for increased crew autonomy for exploration missions will require automating aspects of systems health management so the crew can respond effectively with less reliance on Earth. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) requires (1) detecting and diagnosing problems, (2) taking immediate action in response to problems to minimize impacts to safety and mission, (3) determining how to recover from a problem, and (4) implementing the recovery. Yet most ISHM technologies address problem detection and diagnosis, leaving impact assessment and problem recovery to humans. The health management architecture we propose to develop addresses this technology gap by automating routine response actions in problem situations and coordinating these actions with human response activities. Example applications include health management for vehicles in the Constellation Program, including Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial products for managing failures focus on alerting limit violations and diagnosing root cause of problems, leaving problem response to human operators. By automating aspects of problem response and supporting coordination of these actions with human response, the software developed under Phase II of the proposed project is targeted toward a commercial market with few competitors. Potential markets for this software include industries where timely problem detection and response is essential to the safety of personnel and the productivity of the plant. Example applications where these criteria are important include chemical process plants, the nuclear industry, and control of naval ships and submarines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X8.01-8593
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Health Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacecraft Power Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEMOmetrics Corp
28 Constitution Road
Boston, MA 02129-2008

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Rodriguez
john@nemometrics.com
28 Constitution Road
Boston,  MA 02129-2008

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Spacecraft Power Monitor (SPM) which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). NEMO transforms the power distribution network in an spacecraft into a multiple-use service, providing not only power distribution but also a diagnostic monitoring capability based on careful measurement and analysis of power usage and start up and shut down transients. In depth analysis of this data enables real time assessment of system and component functioning and identifies potential system and component faults and failutes. We will use NEMO's ability to track load operation to verify that the systems and components of a spacecraft are operating properly This "spacecraft power monitor" or SPM, based on NEMO, will notify astronauts or ground support personnel when unexpected sequences occur. It can also generally track the health and diagnostic condition of key loads on the system. The system is light weight, small and inexpensive because the system requires only a sensor at the mains power input and uses existing power wiring to carry data. Phase I will involve ground measurements of spacecraft components. Phase II will involve measurements and analysis of an integrated system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications for the Spacecraft Power monitor will include spacecraft for the Mars project plus other near earth spacecraft. NEMO promises also to provide monitoring and support for crew members in commercial, general and military aviation. During Phase I, specific initial system(s) for commercial application will be identified and SPM for an integrated spacecraft will be developed and built during Phase II. NEMO technology can also be applied to electronic health system monitoring on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and on ground test and support systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nonintrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO) is also applicable to wheeled vehicles including autos, trucks and military vehicles and to ships and hovercraft. It also can be used for energy monitoring and conservation in buildings and other industrial facilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Intelligence
Testing Facilities
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X8.01-9614
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Health Management Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electronic Prognostics for Vehicle Health Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ridgetop Group, Inc.
6595 N Oracle Rd, Suite 153B
Tucson, AZ 85704-5645

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douglas Goodman
info@ridgetop-group.com
6595 N Oracle Rd, Suite 153B
Tucson,  AZ 85704-5645

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
All electronic systems are prone to wear-out and eventual failure and this has direct implications for Vehicle Health Management for NASA with its long space missions. The accurate prediction of an impending failure can provide significant savings in functionality and mission success.[1] Accurate and timely failure prediction can support the mitigation of catastrophic faults in spacecraft systems as well as autonomous control and dynamic repairs to faults. Electronic prognostics provide advanced warnings of impending electronic module failures. The specific innovation proposed will provide tools for setting and determining the advanced warning time for prognostic-enabled electronic systems, also referred to as defining the remaining useful life (RUL). The testbed will be a high efficiency, DC-to-DC Power Converter commonly found in advanced power systems. Such power converters are commonly found in a wide range of electronic systems to adjust power levels, yet are subject to failures. The innovation would help prevent data loss and support uninterrupted operation. The reason for funding is that NASA has a stated requirement for autonomous and automated solutions to systems health management systems and electronic prognostics are required to support this objective.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is large potential for prognostics in the commercial sector, expected to exceed $200M by 2010. Ridgetop has segmented the market to focus on high reliability applications, such as automotive, banking systems, industrial process control and commercial aerospace applications. Through work on this SBIR, Ridgetop will improve its market position for Electronic Prognostics and be able to capitalize on a large market. Ridgetop has initiated commercialization activities stemming from its prior work in Prognostics with the introduction of the Sentinel Silicon<SUP>TM</SUP> Library and Sentinel PHMPro<SUP>TM</SUP> products. Prognostics, to the extent that it can leverage existing diagnostic backbones such as JTAG, I2C[2] and CAN buses, supports Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) and Prognostics/Health Management (PHM) strategies for critical industrial applications. For CBM and PHM applications, the value to preserving operational readiness is paramoun,t and these applications are not expected to be cost-sensitive. In addition, prognostics can support remote diagnostics/prognostics. The value proposition to customers is that early detection of impending failures can be made remotely, via the web, and corrective actions can be quickly employed to preserve overall system integrity.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ridgetop has had detailed discussions with customers in the Automotive Industry, including Daimler Chrysler, Delphi, and Bosch, who have expressed a strong interest in adopting advanced prognostics as part of their automotive product offerings. To the extent that Ridgetop configures the solution to meet the needs of the NASA program, it will provide ample opportunity to refine and adjust product featuers and additional steps in product development that may be necessary to make it more widely saleable to mil/aero customers (and later to commercial customers). Ridgetop's Prognostics products presently consist of the following elements: Ridgetop PHMPro<SUP>TM</SUP> Development System, Prognostics Physics-of-Failure Library ? Some Library items already available Ridgetop Prognostics Development Software ? From NAVAIR Project Precursor Event to Module Failure Calculation (To be developed in this SBIR) Ridgetop PHMPro<SUP>TM</SUP> Implementation Toolkit Sensor Array Hardware ? Sensors already available for current, voltage, and temperature Prognostics Processing Unit with improved False Alarm Algorithms (using Bayesian Network processor from HRL Laboratories) Interfacing software to system Ridgetop Consulting Services

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Electromagnetic Thrusters
Control Instrumentation
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Electrostatic Thrusters
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Instrumentation
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Biochemical Conversion
Energy Storage
MHD and Related Conversion
Nuclear Conversion
Photovoltaic Conversion
Power Management and Distribution
Renewable Energy
Thermodynamic Conversion
Thermoelectric Conversion
Wireless Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X8.02-8057
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Modular Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Broad Application of a Reconfigurable Motor Controller

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barrett Technology
625 Mount Auburn St.
Cambridge, MA 02138-4555

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Townsend
wt@barrett.com
625 Mount Auburn St.
Cambridge,  MA 02138-4555

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An ultra-miniature (<50 grams) high-performance brushless-motor controller, code named 'Puck', has been developed by Barrett for Earth-based mobile-manipulation use where efficiency, low mass, and robustness are critical attributes. Application of a distributed intelligent system will enable these Pucks to be used liberally across a variety of NASA's future satellite, articulated-machine, and robotic applications requiring low-level robust brushless commutation directed by high-level task intelligence. In addition to supporting space-vector control of brushless motors, each Puck carries a virtually unburdened 32-bit DSP running at 80 MHz with plenty of memory and high-speed serial communications to neighboring Pucks. So even as machines increase in degrees of freedom - and therefore complexity - the excess computational power provided by the Pucks increases proportionately, working in tandem to overcome increasingly complex controls issues. While another Barrett proposal submitted to NASA is focused on developing the hardware for a space-qualified Puck controller, this proposal focuses on a control architecture that leverages the distributed DSPs. Phase I will build an architecture that best leverages a distributed network of Pucks, such as a solution of computationally-intensive kinematics equations (e.g. Jacobian matrix), and local tasks, such as estimating precise realtime velocities and supporting series-elastic-actuator (SEA) strain-gages.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed architecture for modular, scalable, distributed servomotor electronics designed for use in multi-axis and wheeled robots presents a significant opportunity to address important orbital, interplanetary, and moon/Mars robotics applications involving integrated systems for mobility and manual dexterity. The construction of mining facilities and habitat on the moon and Mars and the servicing of orbiting spacecraft without excessive exposure to human astronauts are two immediate areas that are directly impacted by this proposed research and development. The SBIR supports the increasing importance of complex machines requiring articulated servo-driven machines for all aspects of NASA exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As the military and commercial sectors continue to ramp up the use of robotics, especially lightweight mobile platforms, the proposed distributed network of motor-controller modules would reduce system weight and control complexity of robotic systems including search & rescue robots, scout robots, advanced wheelchairs, and in-house robotic assistants. Furthermore, brushless DC servomotors are rapidly replacing brushed motors as the technology of choice as both the cost decreases and power increases of Neodymium-Iron magnets over Samarium-Cobalt. The torque density and reliability of permanent-magnet motors have always exceeded those of brushed motors, but the large size and poor power efficiency of the support electronics generally outweigh the benefits except where power conservation is not important and when the controllers can be located off the machine. Providing a power-efficient module that integrates all of the electronic and optical functions into a volume smaller than most motor position sensors suddenly alters the decision point in favor of brushless motors. Most servo-driven machines use multiple servomotors in concert. Each of these systems would benefit from an intelligent means to distribute motion-control intelligence as described in this proposal.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X8.02-8477
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Modular Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Assembling Wireless Autonomous Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Payload Systems, Inc.
247 Third Street
Cambridge, MA 02142-1129

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joe Parrish
parrish@payload.com
247 Third Street
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1129

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Payload Systems Inc. and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory propose Self-assembling, Wireless, Autonomous, Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM) as an innovative approach to modular fabrication and in-space robotic assembly of large scale systems. Fabrication of modular components yields fabrication savings associated with large production volume and automated integration and test. In-space assembly permits staged deployment on an as-needed, as-afforded basis. It also decouples stowed launch geometry from deployed operational geometry. The SWARM concept uses formation flown spacecraft, containing multiple universal docking ports, to dock with modular elements and maneuver them to dock with other, similar elements. In the process, systems can be assembled that are much larger than what can be fit or folded into a launch vehicle fairing, or what can be launched on a single vehicle. Furthermore, such modularity will allow jettison of failed components, upgrade of obsolete technology, and amortization of design costs across multiple missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Clearly the prime commercial application for the SWARM system is for modular spacecraft system development within NASA's scope of activity. The SWARM system is wholly novel in its capabilities and flexibility for multiple operational regimes, including terrestrial laboratory testing, parabolic flight aircraft, and spaceflight, making it a relevant development product for the evaluation of operational strategies and design of modular spacecraft and self-assembling systems capable of on-orbit servicing, maintenance and reconfiguration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This product would have immediate relevance to developers of intelligent modular spacecraft systems, who could purchase a series of modules to assemble a complete spacecraft bus model or, at a lesser scale, component elements (e.g., docking ports). Also because it is inexpensive relative to other associated flight systems, we believe that there could be multiple sales opportunities for the system in the commercial satellite market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Modular Interconnects
Guidance, Navigation, and Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X8.02-9494
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Modular Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptable and Reconfigurable Modular Systems (GSFC) - Plug and Play, Distributed Avionics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroSat Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127-4107

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeff Summers
jsummers@microsatsystems.com
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton,  CO 80127-4107

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In order to execute the President's Vision for Space Exploration, NASA must find ways to reduce spacecraft cost, complexity, and integration and test time while increasing mission. Modular, reconfigurable satellite technologies are being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center for increasingly ambitious missions involving humans and robots. Development is on-going at both GSFC and the Air Force Research Lab investigating high speed spacecraft data network architectures based on commercial Ethernet protocols. The advantages of an Ethernet network protocol include supporting FPGA implementation, broadcast capability, and most importantly extensive support by commercial standards and infrastructure. MicroSat Systems Inc. is proposing development of an Ethernet version of its modular, plug and play Intelligent Power/Data Ring avionics architecture. MSI's revolutionary architecture provides a modular, plug and play network of standardized attachment nodes distributing power and data management functions. Since the IPDR network implements a common set of standardized nodes for every interface versus customized cards, the system cost and integration time is reduced to 40-60% of comparable centralized systems. During the Phase 1 MSI proposes to develop a concept and analyze the benefits of Ethernet protocol in the IPDR architecture and quantify those benefits in a breadboard test environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These efforts will lay the ground work enabling large quantity, rapid production of low cost satellites and satellite components. Successful completion of the Phase I will generate the impetus for more extensive inclusion of the Ethernet protocol into the emerging spacecraft standards effort within the DOD and NASA. In the near term MSI would consider demonstrating this technology on either the TacSat 3 or 4 flight experiments. Longer term, MSI currently plans to integrate the IPDR architecture as a standard feature in all its future small satellite products. For NASA applications, MSI is aggressively pursuing the "ST-X" series of experimental spacecraft and, following its first flight, plans for inclusion of its IPDR bus product in the RSDO database.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These efforts will lay the ground work enabling large quantity, rapid production of low cost satellites and satellite components. Successful completion of the Phase I will generate the impetus for more extensive inclusion of the Ethernet protocol into the emerging spacecraft standards effort within the DOD and NASA. In the near term MSI would consider demonstrating this technology on either the TacSat 3 or 4 flight experiments. Longer term, MSI currently plans to integrate the IPDR architecture as a standard feature in all its future small satellite products. This would include potential application on all the TacSat series experiments and other responsive satellite procurements through the DOD.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Modular Interconnects
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Architectures and Networks
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Highly-Reconfigurable
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X9.01-7492
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization & Space Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar In-Situ Fabrication: The Manufacturing of Thin Film Solar Cells on the Surface of the Moon

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nano EnerTex
4131 Grennoch
Houston, TX 77025-2303

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Laura Ignatiev
lignatiev@netscape.net
4131 Grennoch
Houston,  TX 77025-2303

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The utilization of space resources can enable sustained affordable exploration of the Moon and beyond in the nation's Exploration Initiative. The availability of low-cost, abundant indigenous electric power is critical to the aggressive implementation of space resource utilization. This power-rich space environment can be achieved by the generation of electrical power from thin film photovoltaic solar cells produced on the surface of the Moon from lunar resources. This concept of operation offers a specific advantage in the capability of continuous power growth by addition of solar cells, manufactured in situ, to an expanding power grid. Such an effective power system on the Moon would lower operational risks of future robotic and manned missions through higher reliability. In addition, such architecture has the capability to deliver power at a decreasing cost per kWh beyond the first 100 kWh or so. We propose the development of the key thin film silicon solar cell technologies needed to demonstrate the fabrication of thin-film solar cells on the surface of the Moon, and to present a preliminary design of a roving vehicle to support these operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This in-situ thin film solar cell fabrication approach to electrical energy generation on the Moon yields a much more cost-effective power system than one transported from Earth, and also results in steadily reduced energy costs due to the continual fabrication of additional solar cells without the need for substantial resupply of materials from Earth. Current projections comparing Earth manufactured and delivered solar cell arrays with in-situ manufactured arrays indicate a clear cost benefit at emplacement of a > 100kW PV power system. Furthermore, the harsh lunar radiation environment, and dust induced mechanical erosion will result in severe performance degradation of traditional earth manufactured solar cells, requiring additional mass to the Moon. The proposed project overcomes these limitations and provides an affordable, power rich environment for exploration and utilization of the Moon and beyond. This unique in-situ resource utilization program which also stresses manufacturing it the space environment is projected to yield major benefit not only through cost-effective supply of energy in space, but also through the generation of an energy?rich environment in space

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Thin film silicon solar cells are currently not a terrestrial production item, with both crystalline and amorphous silicon solar cells capturing most of the market. However, developments under this program may prove viable for silicon-on-glass solar cells that could be cost effective terrestrially. Nano EnerTex will be evaluating the terrestrial possibilities for such terrestrial thin film silicon cells. In addition, efforts in the development of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells, which have major benefits in energy reduction for lunar fabrication, may also have direct terrestrial application through low-cost, efficient thin film solar cells. This possibility will also be evaluated for commercial opportunities, and could be of further benefit to NASA through the availability of cost-effective solar cells alternative to silicon that could be used in the space environment.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization
Photovoltaic Conversion
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X9.01-8054
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization & Space Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrochemically Modulated Gas/Liquid Separation Technology for In Situ Resource Utilization Process Streams

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroCell Technologies, LLC
410 Great Road, Suite C-2
Littleton, MA 01460-1273

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Karen Jayne
kjayne@microcell-tech.com
410 Great Road, Suite C-2
Littleton,  MA 01460-1273

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this phase I program MicroCell Technologies, LLC (MCT) proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an electrochemically modulated phase separator for in situ processing and refining in future space missions. Two-phase (liquid and gas) flow can be a vital part of many life support and or thermal management systems which will be supported using in situ resources on spacecraft and on future habitations on the Moon and Mars. In this phase I program, we propose to demonstrate the use of an innovative electrochemically modulated gas/liquid separation system for use in 0-g conditions. In phase I, we propose to develop a supported ionic liquid membrane electrode assembly and demonstrate the separation of CO2 from water. The phase II program will optimize this system, as well as adapt this technnology to selectively separate other gases of interest for ISRU applications such as nitrogen and oxygen in a two-phase flow. In phase II we will also develop innovative reactor designs to minimize size and weight for space applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of an electrochemically modulated gas/liquid separator has significant commercial potential for NASA. We propose in phase I to demonstrate the feasibility of separating two-phase flow through the development of a supported ionic liquid membrane electrode assembly. The goal of this research in phase I and phase II is to provide an efficient means to incorporate the advantages of ionic liquids into an electrochemical device. The resultant MEA can be easily incorporated into conventional electrochemical cells, membrane separation device, or innovative designs. We foresee that this technology has the capability to become a platform from which many separation schemes can be achieved. This directly addresses NASA's need for downstream processing of product streams resulting from different ISRU technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology has significant commercial application in sequestering atmospheric C02 for conversion to methanol via fixation. Thus this technology is important to the commercial production of renewable fuels which is becoming increasingly important to the Nation

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Life Support
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Liquid-Liquid Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X9.01-8156
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization & Space Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ceramic Oxygen Generator for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NexTech Materials, Ltd.
404 Enterprise Dr.
Lewis Center, OH 43035-9423

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Sabolsky
sabolsky@nextechmaterials.com
404 Enterprise Dr.
Lewis Center,  OH 43035-9423

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR Phase I proposal (Topic X9.01), NexTech Materials, Ltd. proposes to develop a high efficiency ceramic oxygen generation system which will separate O2 from the CO2-rich (95%) Martian atmosphere through a solid-oxide electrolysis process at 750-850?aC. The CO2 electrolysis process will produce O2 and CO. The O2 may be used for life support and as an oxidant (for a fuel cell power system), and CO may be collected and used directly as fuel (or converted to methane for use as a fuel). The electrolysis system is based on the Tubular Monolithic Ceramic Oxygen Generator (TM-COG) platform, whereby multiple oxygen separation cells are connected in series across both faces of a porous, flat-tube support. The design allows for simplified gas manifolding, sealing, and current collection and permits a high degree of cell stacking efficiency. In Phase I of the project, a prototype TM-COG module will be fabricated and the performance will be evaluated. The Phase I work will establish a foundation for work in Phase II, where a breadboard prototype TM-COG system will be produced and delivered to NASA that will be capable of producing 125 grams per hour of oxygen (or 1 kg per eight-hour day).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Breathable oxygen is typically concentrated from air using bulky, loud concentrators or short-lived, expensive filters, or is supplied in bottles of high-pressure gas or cryogenic liquid. Replacing filtration technologies with the TM-COG system will extend mission life for spacecraft and space stations. Also, the ability to in situ generate oxygen from the electrolysis of CO2 gas streams or atmospheres has obvious applications for manned and unmanned exploration of Mars. The electrolysis process will produce both oxygen for human consumption (or engine/generator consumption) and carbon monoxide for direct use as fuel or as a reactant to form methane fuel.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Laboratory, medical, and other hi-tech applications require high purity oxygen (>99.9%) and these industries account for 10-12% of the US and Western European market place. All of these markets typically use high-pressure or cryogenic cylinders, which carry annual maintenance costs as much as $300-1000 apiece and are very expensive to transport. Replacing these cylinders with a rugged in-house technology, like the TM-COG design, would have significant financial and convenience benefits. The TM-COG system is also applicable to air filtration and oxygen separation at biologically and chemically contaminated industrial and military sites, where continuous filtration without filter change would be beneficial.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Portable Life Support
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Ceramics
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X9.01-8468
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization & Space Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hydrogen Plasma Reduction of Lunar Regolith for In-Space Fabrication

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811-1558

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John O'Dell
scottodell@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville ,  AL 35811-1558

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Tools for extracting resources from the moon are needed to support future space missions. Of particular interest is the production of raw materials for in-space fabrication. In addition, oxygen and water for habitat and propulsion purposes is needed. The only practical source for these materials is the decomposition of lunar soil, regolith. Proposed herein is an innovative hydrogen plasma reduction technique for the production of nanosize metal powders and water from lunar regolith. This technique is characterized by its high temperatures and rapid quenching. Due to the extremely high temperatures involved, material injected into the plasma flame can be vaporized and dissociated very rapidly into elemental form. Rapid quenching of the vapor prevents the growth of nucleated products while providing insufficient time for them to recombine with the oxygen. This allows the possibility of producing nanosize metal powders and the generation of water vapor. The result of this program will be the development of a lunar regolith hydrogen plasma reduction method for producing nanosize metal powders for in-space fabrication and water vapor for life-support, habitat, and propulsion use.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA commercial applications for the technology include production of nano-size metal powders for in-space fabrication and water for life-support, oxygen production, habitat use, and hydroponics. Applications for the nano-size metal powders that will be produced include solar cells production, photovoltaics, rapid prototyping feedstock, and structural applications. Potential NASA commercial applications for nano-size metal powders include in-situ powder metallurgical products, ultra-thin protective coatings, high surface area/volume ratio catalysts, composite additives, sintering aids, porous structures in microfiltration membranes, additives for solid and hybrid rocket fuels that provide a more efficient combustion process, electrically-conductive adhesives and polymers, component materials for crew vehicles and habitats, semiconductor devices, and high-power electronics for electric vehicles. Potential applications for the plasma technology to be developed include high rate lunar plasma coating production of nano-grain-size parts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications for nano-size metal powders include powder metallurgical products, ultra-thin protective coatings, high surface area/volume ratio catalysts, composite additives, sintering aids, porous structures in microfiltration membranes, additives for solid and hybrid rocket fuels that provide a more efficient combustion process, electrically-conductive adhesives and polymers, component materials for aerospace vehicles, lighter and more reliable satellite structures (decreasing launch cost), smaller, faster, more powerful semiconductor devices, high power, high temperature microwave electronic devices offering improvements to radar and wireless communication, and high-power electronics for electric vehicles. Potential applications for the plasma technology to be developed include high rate plasma coating production of nano-grain-size parts and hazardous waste disposal. Commercial applications for an improved plasma gun will be significant for this $1 billion industry.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
In-situ Resource Utilization
Metallics
Organics/Bio-Materials
Combustion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X9.01-8819
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization & Space Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Oxygen Production from Lunar and Martian Regolith

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840-4027

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Hennings
brian.hennings@lynntech.com
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station,  TX 77840-4027

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In situ oxygen production is of immense importance to NASA in the support of the NASA initiative to sustain man's permanent presence in space. The oxygen produced can be used as breathable oxygen, as a source of fuel for Moon or Mars based vehicles (for either return to Earth or as a basis for further space exploration), or as a source of oxygen for fuel cell or other power generating devices. Lynntech proposes to use plasma technology to liberate the oxygen bound in the oxides of regolith to produce oxygen in situ on either the moon or Mars. Lynntech's innovative solid feedstock plasma reformer is simple, robust and unaffected by variations in the composition or particle size of the regolith. Lynntech has previously demonstrated the principle of plasma reformation on a variety of projects and has preliminary results demonstrating the technology proposed here. Lynntech is currently developing plasma reformers for the US Air Force capable of producing several SCFM of hydrogen from JP-8 as well as multi-fuel (gas/liquid) capable reformers. A small (< 10W) plasma reformer has also been demonstrated for the production of hydrogen on Titan for NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With little or no modification, Lynntech's plasma-based oxygen generation system could be used to produce oxygen from the Martian atmosphere. The atmosphere on Mars consists largely of CO2 (~95%) and is saturated with dust. Preliminary experiments with a Lynntech reformer indicate that CO2 can be reformed to solid carbon and gaseous O2. The dust in the atmosphere does not harm our system; rather it contributes to the oxygen content of the product stream, as it is broken down into constituents, similar to the CO2. Another NASA application for a space-bound plasma system is in the production of hydrogen from hydrocarbon rich atmospheres (such as the methane saturated Saturn moon, Titan), either for buoyancy, power or propulsion. Lynntech has already successfully demonstrated a 10-Watt methane reformer that produces hydrogen from 100K to 300K and weighs less than 500g for the production of make-up hydrogen for a balloon operating on Titan.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The plasma-based system can also be used in several ground-based, non-NASA commercial applications as well. One of these is solid waste processing. With only small modifications, the plasma system proposed could be used to reform solid waste into high value components (i.e. hydrogen and carbon for most hydrocarbon chains, such as plastics and organics). The high value constituents are contingent upon the feedstock, and thus are as diverse. Alternatively, the plasma system could be used to process liquid or gaseous waste streams also. One particularly attractive area is the reformation of used and dirty hydrocarbon wastes from automobiles. These wastes include motor oil, greases, transmission and brake fluids, which can be reformed into products such as hydrogen and nano-structured carbon materials. The process is immune to changes in the feedstock, and mixtures of hydrocarbons can be fed directly to produce a 90+% hydrogen stream prior to clean-up.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X9.01-9045
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization & Space Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar In-Situ Volatile Extraction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Technology Applications, Inc.
5700 Flatiron Parkway, #5701A
Boulder, CO 80301-5733

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Nieczkoski
snieczk@techapps.com
5700 Flatiron Parkway, #5701A
Boulder,  CO 80301-5733

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A method of extracting volatile resources from the Lunar regolith is proposed to reduce the launch mass and cost of bringing such resources from the Earth to enable sustainable human space exploration. Thermal energy is applied to excavated soil releasing the solar wind volatiles and any water resources believed to exist in the Moon's polar regions. The in-situ resource extraction and separation system will be designed to integrate with TAI's planned in-situ collection and purification system to complete an end-to-end facility for producing high density fluids for propulsion, life support, and power generation. Regolith excavation and subsequent volatile production rates are derived from the baseline consumption of resources given in the point of departure mission information for proposals. A method of extracting volatiles in a fluidized, vacuum-isolated chamber will provide an energy-efficient process through effective recuperation of thermal energy. Several hundreds of times the excavation and extraction system mass in volatile product will be processed in the proposed concept per year of operation. The system design will be scalable for initial testing on the Moon and eventual operation on Mars.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The regolith excavation and extraction system concept addresses the operational hurdle of robotically excavating extraterrestrial surface regolith to sample and manufacture cryogenic propellant and life-support products. The proposed excavation system is approximately the size of the Mars exploration rover and is intended to be developed for scalable autonomous operation on the Lunar surface to prospect and excavate the upper-surface layer of fine-grained regolith material. The development of high-vacuum sealing approaches for containment of regolith from a frequently accessed extraction chamber will have significant applications for Lunar surface operations involving crew activities and automated mechanical capabilities where dealing with the abrasive material is unavoidable.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include advancement of soil vapor-extraction processes for removal of contamination from Earth-based chemical spills and landfill remediation. Recovery of toxic volatiles entrained in soils will enable efficient, low-power containment and compact, lightweight designs for portable treatment facilities.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X9.01-9561
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Utilization & Space Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lunar Materials Handling System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Berggren
mberggren@pioneerastro.com
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood,  CO 80215-5516

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LMHS conveys solids to the ISRU vessel, provides a gas-tight pressure/vacuum seal, and minimizes wear related to abrasive particles. Lunar and Mars ISRU scenarios require that equipment be operated over many cycles with minimal consumption of expendables and with minimal leakage in order to maintain high overall process leverage. ISRU processes can be demonstrated in the laboratory to establish basic feasibility with respect to reagent leverage. Reagent leverage is defined as the mass of commodity produced divided by the mass of reagents consumed. However, the process leverage component related to equipment wear and loss of gasses, reagents, or product through seals and valves is more difficult to establish from laboratory testing. The LMHS increases equipment life and minimizes process losses, thereby increasing overall leverage and reducing uncertainties in ISRU process evaluation. The LMHS is based on a seal arrangement by which lunar regolith can be introduced into and removed from reaction chambers operating under a wide range of batch operating conditions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of the Lunar Materials Handling System is to advance in situ resource utilization on the Moon and then Mars. A number of regolith processes to extract oxygen, metals, and metal oxides require a reliable, robust, reusable materials feed and discharge system to achieve high overall process leverage. A tight sealing system reduces process reagent losses. A highly reliable, reusable materials handling system reduces consumables requirements and improves process reliability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential terrestrial applications of LMHS include improved materials handling and seal systems for hazardous materials or waste processing and nuclear materials processing. Improved containment of process materials would reduce costs and reduce operating risks.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05 X9.02-7764
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface Mobility/Mechanisms
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long-Life, Oil-Free Polymeric, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Nastec, Inc.
1801 East Ninth Street, Suite 1111
Cleveland ,OH 44114 - 3103
(216) 696 - 5157

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Richard C.   Klein
dickc123@earthlink.net
1801 East Ninth Street, Suite 1111
Cleveland, OH  44114 -3103
(216) 696 - 5157

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Multi-roller traction drives have several advantages relative to geared units for aerospace and commercial drive applications. Among these are zero backlash, low torque ripple, compactness, light weight, and unlike gears, the potential to operate without liquid or grease lubrication. Current traction drives are made from heat treated bearing steels and require special traction fluids which limited their use to terrestrial applications. Space applications such as planetary vehicles operate in hostile environments. Innovations in material technology for non-lubricated operation will be required in order to benefit from the inherent advantages of traction drives relative to gears. Phase I work of this proposal will provide the basis for alternative nonmetallic materials to be substituted for bearing steel. These materials must have low wear but high traction characteristics. The proposed effort under Phase I will be used as a basis for a Phase II effort, in which one or more prototype systems will be designed, built and tested for space exploration applications. Applications include robotic arms, speed and torque balanced drives for scientific instruments and zero torque reaction drives for planetary vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA space applications for these drives include: Moon and Martian rover transmission drives, robotic arms, construction vehicles and equipment, and essentially any application needing either drive speed increasers or reducers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If successful, many more Earth-based uses of these drives may occur, since fabrication of bearing steel drives are very expensive and this has inhibited their use. Alternate affordable processing and manufacturing technologies for final net shape forming roller geometries without final machining or heat treatment will enable much cheaper drives to be made. We will also conduct design and life analysis using non-metallic materials to quantify the benefits of polymer drives. These drives may find uses in automobiles, power lifting equipment, windmills, etc.
NASA's technology taxonomy has been developed by the SBIR-STTR program to disseminate awareness of proposed and awarded R/R&D in the agency. It is a listing of over 100 technologies, sorted into broad categories, of interest to NASA.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Aircraft Engines
Human-Robotic Interfaces
In-situ Resource Utilization
Manipulation
Manned-Manuvering Units
Mobility
Tools
Tribology


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X9.02-9593
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Surface Mobility/Mechanisms
PROPOSAL TITLE: Universal Brushless-DC Motor Controller for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barrett Technology
625 Mount Auburn St.
Cambridge, MA 02138-4555

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Townsend
wt@barrett.com
625 Mount Auburn St.
Cambridge,  MA 02138-4555

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this SBIR is to adapt an initial prototype ultra-miniature high-performance brushless-DC-motor controller, code named 'Puck', for use by NASA across a wide range of motor drives. The Puck was recently developed by Barrett for terrestrial mobile-manipulation uses where efficiency, low mass, and robustness are critical factors. While quite small (<50 grams), the controller can pump from milliamps to several amps continuous. Several features of this controller make it a candidate for NASA's wide range of needs for servomotor control in the demanding environments of extra-terrestrial and interplanetary exploration. One of the key enabling design strategies that led to the Puck is elimination of transmission lines through total integration of power conditioning, rotor-position optics, and commutation into a single tiny module. The module is small and energy efficient enough to make casting within high-heat-conduction plastic feasible. Pure conduction cooling, a distinct advantage for NASA applications, is unusual for motor amplifiers which are generally cooled by natural convection or forced air. The hermetically-sealed packaging also excludes lunar or Martian dust from affecting robustness. The primary strategy for this technology to avail for NASA will be to minimize the effects of radiation while enabling self-diagnosis, self-repair, and ultimately easy change-out.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This innovation's potential benefits to NASA are widespread. The success of this ultra-miniature motor control technology will be a breakthrough necessary for successfully implementing many projects at NASA, including mobile robotic systems, crew vehicle motors, and motorized cargo system mechanisms for robotic lunar and Mars missions. Their inherent modularity and replace ability will allow for easy maintenance and a reduced number of spare parts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The military and commercial sectors are continually ramping up the use of robotics, especially lightweight mobile platforms. A large majority of these systems are now and will continue to be driven by brushless-DC motors. The commercial availability of a powerful yet miniature motor controller enabled by this innovation will have an enormous impact on future robotic mechanism designs and will greatly increase the practicality of mobile robotics. Furthermore, preparation for space qualification will boost the utility of these motor control modules. Radiation hardening and design for temperature extremes will enable these electronics to be used in telerobotic slaves for nuclear-remediation activities as well as in robots that can be deployed robustly in homeland-security search-and-rescue missions.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Mobility
Manipulation
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Thermal Insulating Materials
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Optical
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Radiation Shielding Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X10.01-8573
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long-Life Validation and Flight Qualification of Nuclear Space Systems Hardware Prior to Flight Use
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency Three Phase Resonant Conversion for Standardized Architecture Power System Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Colorado Power Electronics, Inc.
120 Commerce Drive, Unit 3
Fort Collins, CO 80524-4731

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Geoff Drummond
geoff@copwr.com
120 Commerce Drive, Unit 3
Fort Collins,  CO 80524-4731

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A low-cost, standardized-architecture power system is proposed for NASA electric propulsion (EP) applications. Three approaches are combined to develop a system that will meet current and future NASA needs and exceed currently available power processor unit (PPU) performance in terms of electrical efficiency, specific mass (kg/kW), and cost. The approaches include the use of (a) high-efficiency, 3-phase, dc-dc converters to minimize cooling requirements, mass, and parts count and maximize reliability and efficiency, (b) modularized and standardized sub-system design and fabrication techniques to accommodate power output scaling and re-configuration for specific ion thruster designs without the need to re-qualify hardware, and (c) attention to cost and manufacturability issues that will allow the implementation of electric propulsion systems on future NASA missions without the hidden costs of "hard-to-build" and "hard-to-scale" designs that are currently available. The innovations proposed herein will allow NASA to obtain the flexibility and performance it needs in power processors for electric propulsion systems while ensuring that their cost and difficulty of fabrication is low.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary market for this technology is for space power conversion were low cost power processing is required. Present technology includes PPU designs with real costs that are much greater than $200k per kilo watt of power. The previous designs show poor reuse of modules and power hardware. Additionally the present PPU designs fail to provide a base structure that can accommodate growth and change in module power. The new design will use lower loss elements to simplify fabrication and reduce cost. The proposed "next generation design" will accommodate the addition and subtraction of modules while conserving PPU mass. The extraordinary wide output impedance range of the converter will increase utility by allowing one PPU design to power several different thruster types. A successfully completed Phase II program will result in Phase III programs where brass-board PPUs will be provided for NASA missions utilizing NSTAR and possibly NEXT thrusters. A Phase III brass-board program will be used to flush out all remaining issues related to 3PRC flight use. Once complete, CPE and its sub-contractor Aerojet will be set to fabricate high quality flight hardware at the minimum cost.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA uses for the proposed idea are commercial applications for space power were low cost and high efficiency are desired. Again the same advantages apply here. The most notable being the wide utility and range. This wide range converter will reduce the number of different model types required to satisfy current and future EP thruster needs. One immediate non-NASA application is for Aerojet thrusters that are being developed for geosynchronous satellite use.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Electrostatic Thrusters
Highly-Reconfigurable
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X10.02-8043
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Critical Technologies for In-Space Application of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development and Evaluation of Mixed Uranium-Refractory Carbide/Refractory Carbide Cer-Cer Fuels

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
New Era Technology
3720 NW 43rd Street
Gainesville, FL 32606-6190

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Travis Knight
travis@confman.com
3720 NW 43rd Street
Gainesville,  FL 32606-6190

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new carbon-based fuel is introduced with outstanding potential to eliminate the loss of uranium, minimize the loss of carbon, and retain fission products for many hours of operation in hydrogen environment at temperatures in excess of 3,200K. The proposed fuel is a Cer-Cer made of mixed uranium-refractory carbide particles such as (U, Zr)C or (U, Zr, Nb)C dispersed in a refractory carbide matrix such as ZrC. For efficient operation in NTR applications for Isp of 1000 sec. or more, a fuel temperature of 3000 K or greater is necessary. Various fuel materials have been tested for NTR applications with most based on carbide fuel technology because of their improved thermal properties enabling the design of very small, high power density cores. Fuel designs from dispersed microspheres in graphite, to composite mixed carbides with graphite, to solid solution mixed carbides have been tested. Fuels bearing graphite are not tenable because of the high reactivity of free carbon with the hot hydrogen propellant. Solid solution, mixed carbides are most often brittle but otherwise perform well under the high temperature flowing hot hydrogen environment. The life limiting phenomenon for their use in NTR applications is the loss of uranium due to vaporization from the fuel surface at temperatures in excess of 2800 K. Though the proposed Cer-Cer fuel is relatively at lower level of technology maturity, its unique potential for elimination of uranium loss and retention of fission fragments at very high operational temperatures would amply justify the proposed research program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The success of the proposed research program will bring about a nuclear fuel with optimum performance characteristics for use in NTP and Bimodal Propulsion systems. Results of more than 50 years of research including more than 20 years of research by the group headed by Professor Samim Anghaie at University of Florida have culminated to the development of the uranium-carbide Cer-Cer fuel concept that is described in this proposal. The main idea behind the development of the proposed uranium-carbide Cer-Cer design is to come up with an NTP fuel that features the highest performance potential in the areas including operational temperature margin, stability in hot hydrogen, retention of fission products, and mechanical properties. The proposed Cer-Cer fuel possess fundamental physical and chemical properties comfortably above the best carbon based fuels such as (U, Zr, Nb)C and (U ,Zr, Ta)C, and the best cermet fuels such as (U, Zr)CN or stabilized UO2 coated with tungsten in W/Re matrix/clad. With the renewed interest in the development of the NTP and Bimodal propulsion systems, it is time to reevaluate the fundamental properties of materials with highest performance potential as we know them in 2005. Considering fundamental materials properties as we have known them, the proposed uranium-carbide Cer-Cer uniquely combines all the right properties to make the best and most robust fuel for the NTP and Bimodal Propulsion applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For terrestrial ultra-high temperature gas-cooled GEN IV and advanced light-water reactors, uranium-refractory carbide Cer-Cer fuels offer a revolutionary improvement in core safety performance, increased efficiency and reduced cost. The proposed Cer-Cer fuels with high enrichments can be used in space based reactors and in terrestrial reactors permitted to burn stockpiled highly enriched uranium (HEU) from as a means of HEU disposal. Using uranium-refractory carbide Cer-Cer fuels in commercial nuclear power plant could potentially result in greater efficiency, reduced cost, and increased safety margin through: ? Higher burnup possible leading to fewer outages and associated costs for fuel replacement. ? Less thermal energy is stored in the core as a result of the higher fuel thermal conductivity. ? Reduced probability of fuel melt or fuel pellet and clad mechanical interaction in an accident scenario ? the higher thermal conductivity reduces the fuel centerline temperature and the higher fuel melting point both give an increased margin to fuel melting. Lower coefficient of thermal expansion reduces the probability of partial or full fuel pellet contact with clad. ? Eliminated or at least significantly reduced core melt probability that is identified as the potential maximum public health risk for light water reactors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nuclear (Adv Fission, Fusion, Anti-Matter, Exotic Nuclear)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X10.03-8601
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Critical Technologies for Space-Based Nuclear Fission Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-Time Micro-Miniature Dosimeter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6657

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Fielder
submissions@lunainnovations.com
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg,  VA 24060-6657

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The new Presidential directive to place humans on Mars and establish bases on the moon will require advances in nuclear thermal propulsion and power generation. Nuclear thermal propulsion has a combined advantage in power density, ISP and low fuel/mass ratio over other propulsion means for these missions. To meet the needs of reactor safety, health monitoring and performance, light-weight, real-time, in-core neutron and gamma monitoring sensors need to be developed. Luna is proposing to develop a real-time miniature gamma and neutron dosimeter. This hybrid sensor will measure gamma and neutron dose independently, as well as temperature, along a single optical fiber at the same location. The transducer will be less than 5mm long and 1mg in mass. This dosimeter will enable real-time determination of reactor power level, health and remaining fuel as well as shielding effectiveness. The design will be based on EFPI measurement techniques developed by Luna and demonstrated in high-radiation and temperature environments. During the Phase I, Luna will demonstrate feasibility of the proposed dosimeter in a nuclear reactor. Phase II will optimize the sensors and demodulation system for performance and cost, considering space hardening constraints, and demonstrate the system in high radiation and high temperature environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the sensor development will be focused on nuclear thermal propulsion needs, the sensor can also be directly utilized for monitoring nuclear power reactors as well, both terrestrial and extraterrestrial. Potential NASA applications include: 1. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for Mars manned missions 2. NTP for deep space probes 3. Lunar surface power reactors 4. Future long duration deep space probe power reactors 5. Future Spacestation power reactors 6. Mars surface power reactors

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1. Terrestrial nuclear power generation reactor monitoring for improved performance, safety and reliability. 2. Nuclear turbo generator monitoring 3. Spent fuel and storage facility monitoring 4. Real-time facility radiation exposure monitoring

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nuclear (Adv Fission, Fusion, Anti-Matter, Exotic Nuclear)
Propellant Storage
Particle and Fields
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
High-Energy
Suits
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Radiation Shielding Materials
Nuclear Conversion
Thermodynamic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X10.04-7882
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Heat Rejection Technologies for Nuclear Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601-5688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Anderson
bill.anderson@1-ACT.com
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster,  PA 17601-5688

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop heat pipe and loop heat pipe (LHP) working fluids for what is known as the intermediate temperature range, from roughly 500 K to 700 K. Currently, there are no working fluids in this range that can be used in NASA applications, due in part to unknown physical properties and insufficient life test data. The overall objective of the proposed Phase I and Phase II programs is to validate one or more fluids for use in the intermediate temperature range. This will include life tests, determination of the physical property data required to design heat pipes and LHPs in this temperature range, and the design, fabrication, and testing of suitable heat pipes and/or LHPs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application is the development of intermediate temperature heat pipes/LHPs for low-mass space radiators, such as the radiators currently being designed for Project Prometheus, as well as radiators for the lunar and Mars surfaces. One design that is being examined uses a Brayton cycle to generate electricity. The radiator could operate in the intermediate temperature range of 450 K to 750 K, where there are currently no commonly used working fluids for loop heat pipes and heat pipes. The proposed program would develop fluid/wick/envelope systems for these temperatures, and validate them with long-term life tests.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Electronics cooling is a second application, for both NASA and commercial electronics, particularly for SiC devices. The benefits of SiC over silicon include its wide bandgap energy, high breakdown electric field, and high thermal conductivity. Some of these SiC devices operate in the range of 450 K to 750 K. Heat pipe or LHP cooling of SiC devices will require the intermediate temperature systems that will be developed in the proposed program.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Nuclear Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X10.04-9170
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Heat Rejection Technologies for Nuclear Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Radiators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601-5688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Anderson
bill.anderson@1-ACT.com
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster,  PA 17601-5688

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop titanium Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) that can be used in low-mass space nuclear radiators, such as the radiators currently being designed for Project Prometheus, as well as radiators for the lunar and Mars surfaces. LHPs are two phase heat transfer devices that can be embedded in radiator panels. Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) has completed a radiator trade study that showed that radiators with titanium LHPs have the highest specific power in the temperature range from 300 to 550 K, increasing the specific power over heat pipe radiators by more than 1/3. The Phase I program will develop titanium/water LHPs that can operate in the low to intermediate temperature range (300 to 500K), as well as the lower portion of the intermediate temperature range (450 to 550 K). The Phase II program will develop alkali metal LHPs that can operate in the intermediate to high temperature ranges (700 to 1000 K and higher).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LHPs for space nuclear radiators are the immediate NASA application. With Project Prometheus, NASA is examining space nuclear power systems for a number of missions. Other potential applications include power systems on the Moon and Mars. One possible design that is being examined in Project Prometheus uses a Brayton cycle to generate electricity. The radiator could operate in the intermediate temperature range of 350 K to 550 K. With water as the working fluid, titanium LHPs would reduce the radiator mass when compared with the alternate known compatible material, which is Monel. Other proposed systems operate at higher temperatures, and required alkali metal LHPs. An advantage of titanium is that its CTE is suitable for attachment to carbon-carbon or GFRC radiator fins.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Titanium is an ideal LHP material where low mass and high strength are important. An additional benefit of titanium is that it is compatible with heat pipe and LHP working fluids over the broadest possible temperature range. Titanium components have been used with working fluids that include sodium, potassium, cesium, water, ammonia and nitrogen. ACT plans to use the technology developed in this program to provide commercial LHPs at higher and lower temperatures, when low mass and high strength are important.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nuclear (Adv Fission, Fusion, Anti-Matter, Exotic Nuclear)
Cooling
Nuclear Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X10.04-9670
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Heat Rejection Technologies for Nuclear Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Engineered Thermal Control Material Systems for Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Prometheus Needs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Material Systems Engineering, Inc.
2309 Pennsbury Ct.
Schaumburg, IL 60194-3884

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mukund (Mike) Deshpande.
m.deshpande@amseng.net
2309 Pennsbury Ct.
Schaumburg,  IL 60194-3884

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
identified needs for the thermal control and ESD functions of the Prometheus Program's hardware for the heat rejection system for the planned nuclear system. These efforts can also serve uniquely the (CEV) radiator systems needs. The TCMS for the radiators of the both CEV and Prometheus missions need to operate at higher temperatures and provide the space environment stable low ratio of (&#945;s/&#949;T) performance in high radiation orbits involving intense UV, electrons and protons. The CEV application also needs it to withstand typical launch environments. None of the state-of-an-art material systems that are currently in use are designed for the needs of the space environment stable operation at elevated temperatures, and hence, can not meet the same. This proposal identifies the next generation solid state chemistries and processing requirements that can provide the multifunctional space stable performance at higher temperatures and also provide the required unique ESD performance when these very large thermal control areas get exposed to very low temperatures. The proposed efforts will synthesize the candidate new nano engineered passivated pigments and evaluate its space environment stability with use of recently developed next generation dielectrically engineered binders that can employ nano-cluster chemistry to cure into interconnecting percolation paths along with abilities to tailor CTE, thermal shock and thermal cycling performance. Based on results in the phase I study, the candidate solid-state chemistries based products and their processing will be scaled up in Phase II efforts to provide the next generation "robust" validated TCMS products. The primary aim of this SBIR will focus on evaluating the feasibility of new solid state chemistries that can deliver space environment stable (&#945;s/&#949;T) while being exposed to the elevated temperatures of the order of 600 C.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The suggested and developed new generic solid state chemistries for the TCMS through this SBIR can also benefit the current state-of-the-art TCMS to enhance their multifunctionality. The use of such in envisioned materials can uniquely and timely help CEV radiator which is also expected to operate at high temperatures. These efforts can also enhance NASA's ability to carry out earth science, and space science missions in all earth orbits and in the planetary orbits as well as in the several sun earth connection study orbits, where the exposure to high temperatures can be one of the main degrading species. The motivation to use the new material technology will be high because of increased survivability in the space environments, along with the increased life due to the designed temperature insensitive degradation. This would translate in the increased durability for these missions. Above all, we shall provide designers with new TCMS options as a tool to build more reliable and survivable hardware for NASA exploration missions. The technology of high temperature survivable TCMS materials is generic and will diffuse itself in many other NASA applications that thrive for the long life due to its increased durability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Like NASA, the commercial industry has planned several satellites for the broad band communication activities. The FAA and NASA are also planning commercial space based radars for air traffic control and distant planet observations. Such radar platforms are also planned by DOD for the battle-field management, and such platform structures are expected to be large and sizable, where charge accumulation can be an over riding concerns. These planned candidate radar application assets and their fleets of such integrated space systems may require putting assets in the mid-earth orbits (MEO) for over all optimization and minimization of mission costs. Such mission and fleet designs can be possible and can be economic only if the "robust" material technologies are made available that can perform at high temperatures without failure. Currently no material technology exists that can mitigate high temperature induced degradation effects. Many future NASA planetary, the commercial and some of the DoD platform hardware devoted to radar applications are expected to operate at higher temperatures and thus will significantly benefit form the new concept material systems being developed through this SBIR.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Thermal Insulating Materials
Ceramics
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Nuclear Conversion
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X10.05-9714
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Computational Material Science Tools for Space Nuclear Systems Design
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Computational Tool for the Prediction of Long Term Stability of Refractory Alloys

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CompuTherm, LLC
437 S. Yellowstone Dr., Suite 217
Madison, WI 53719-2902

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fan Zhang
fan@chorus.net
437 S. Yellowstone Dr. Suite 217
Madison,  WI 53719-2902

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's missions of space exploration require significant power sources both for propulsion and for on-board power. This motivates the development of high temperature structural materials to maximize the thermodynamic efficiency of power conversion systems. Refractory alloys are essential due to their high operating temperature capability that in turn enables high thermal conversion efficiency. The overall objective of the proposed study is to provide NASA with a simulation tool that can be used to improve the performance of current available refractory alloys and accelerate the development of new refractory alloys with desired properties for space nuclear applications. The tool will include: (1) A thermodynamic database for the multi-component RM-TM-IE system, in which RM represents refractory metals including Nb, Mo, Ta, W, and Re; TM represents transition metals including Ti, Zr, and Hf; and IE represents interstitial elements, such as C, N, and O. (2) A mobility database for the multi-component RM-TM-IE system; (3) A computer software package with needed functions for thermodynamic calculations, kinetic simulations, and user-friendly interface. In Phase I, the tool will be developed for the Nb-Zr-C sub-system to examine the feasibility. In Phase II, its applications will be extended to multi-component RM-TM-IE refractory alloy systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The computational tool developed in this project will include thermodynamic database, mobility database and computer software. The databases will provide NASA a knowledge base for refractory RM-TM-IE alloys. Thermodynamic calculation and kinetic simulation will provide scientists/engineers of NASA with phase equilibrium and microstructural evolution information of refractory alloys. Such information is useful for NASA in the selection of alloy composition and processing conditions to obtain desired alloy properties, therefore beneficial to NASA in the development of new structural materials and improve current existing ones for space nuclear systems. The application of the software package developed in the project is not limited to refractory alloys. Instead it can be used to calculate phase equilibrium and microstructural evolution for other alloys if thermodynamic and mobility databases are available for the alloys. This provides NASA a facility to work on other alloy systems beyond RM-TM-IE refractory alloys.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The computational tool developed in this project has many potential non-NASA applications. It can be used by researchers at universities and research institutes who work on high temperature materials. Companies work on the development of structural materials for high temperature applications, such as engine materials will also find this tool useful. The software package with a user-friendly graphic interface is an easy-to-use tool. It will allow users to perform calculations with a few clicks of the mouse, without requiring extensive experience or knowledge of thermodynamics and kinetics. This will make thermodynamic calculations and kinetic simulations of refractory alloys available to a wide range of users. The software package works for other alloys as well if corresponding thermodynamic and mobility databases are accessible. The simulation tool developed in this project can also be used as a consulting tool, provide services to academic and industrial customers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nuclear (Adv Fission, Fusion, Anti-Matter, Exotic Nuclear)
Database Development and Interfacing
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Computational Materials
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.01-7498
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Health
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Radiation Protection System Enabled by Hydrogen Enhanced Nano Fibers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nano EnerTex
4131 Grennoch
Houston, TX 77025-2303

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ali Zomorrodian
lignatiev@netscape.net
4131 Grennoch Ln
Houston,  TX 77025-2303

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The need for radiation protection in humans is critical to the success of the nation's continued presence in space. A new radiation protection system will be developed from the recently defined unique hydrogen uptake properties of polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes. The PANI nanotubes have preliminarily shown up to 6% uptake of hydrogen yielding 11-12% total hydrogen content with low total density. The polymeric nature of polyaniline also makes for good structural stability and form stability for shielding elements fabricated from the polymer. The effort in this proposal will identify the compositional stability of the hydrogen-rich PANI system, will advance hydrogen uptake in PANI to > 15%, will test PANI nanotubes for radiation stability and radiation shielding, and will develop design scenarios for the integration of the PANI radiation protection material as cloth or molded parts for space suits and flexible/inflatable habitat applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Nasa benefits will acrue from the advancement of high hydrogen content nanofiber cloth for integration into space systems including space suits, spacecraft, and habitats through both their radiation absorption properties, and their conductive properties. Such efforts will not only result in the design and development of a critical radiation protection system, but also a radiation protection system that can be integrated for use in various physical forms and in a variety of human environments in space

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The loading of hydrogen into H-PANI, and the possible extraction of that hydrogen under specific conditions may allow for the H-PANI to be used as a hydrogen storage medium. Such a possibility has extensive commercial perspectives as it could significantly impact the 'Hydrogen Economy" proposed to expand the clean energy needs of the country. The storage of hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles and other hydrogen needs is of critical interest in today's economy. In addition, however, there will be further benefit for NASA as a result of possible simplification of hydrogen storage from the cryo-storage scenario currently popular in NASA

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Biomedical and Life Support
Portable Life Support
Suits
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.01-7517
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Health
PROPOSAL TITLE: Foam-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Radiation Shields

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague St
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Babcock
jason.babcock@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima,  CA 91331-2210

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
New and innovative lightweight radiation shielding materials are needed to protect humans in future manned exploration vehicles. Radiation shielding materials are needed for large structures such as the space station, orbiters, landers, rovers, habitats, and spacesuits. Materials currently used are heavy, bulky, and ineffective in shielding humans against cosmic radiation, especially over long periods (months or years). One means of solving the problem of heavy radiation shields is to use lightweight polymeric shields that do not produce dangerous secondary radiation when irradiated, but these are typically not mechanically sound in structural applications. Ultramet has developed a versatile method for producing metal and ceramic foams that would function well as reinforcement phases in polymeric shields. This material is amenable to complexly shaped and large components and has been demonstrated under other programs to provide good particle trap capacity and exhibit no damage under extreme variations of temperature, high porosity, and low density. Ultramet proposes to fabricate high-efficiency polymer matrix composite radiation shields that will withstand repeated exposure to cosmic radiation. Initial shielding performance will be demonstrated through simulated cosmic radiation testing at Eril Research, and the program will benefit from collaboration with Northrop Grumman, a potential end user of the technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radiation shielding for astronauts and the communications electronics, sensitive instruments, and life-support systems upon which they rely is the primary application. High strength-to-weight, impact-resistant materials are important for many other NASA applications, including spacecraft structures and support struts, acreage airframe skins, and other complexly shaped components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The composite materials to be developed combine innovative foam materials, rapid infiltration of polymeric matrices, and the potential for the production of complexly shaped and/or thick-section polymer matrix composites. In addition to the NASA applications, which are also of commercial interest in spacecraft such as communications satellites and future human space travel, higher temperature capable polymers used as the matrix in the composite have been evaluated as replacements for metal components in the cooler sections of turbine engines. These materials could also supplant some of the composite components that comprise more than 25% of the structural weight of such advanced aircraft as the Joint Strike Fighter, F-22 Raptor, and Airbus A380. These components can also be used in recuperators, ducts and other hot gas path components, process industry parts requiring high temperature capability and corrosive environment resistance (e.g. hot gas and liquid handling equipment) for extended periods, furnace structures, and high temperature filter elements.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ceramics
Composites
Radiation Shielding Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.01-8223
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Health
PROPOSAL TITLE: Characterizing and Manufacturing Multifunctional Radiation Shielding Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108-3728

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Rubenstein
ericr@AFRinc.com
87 Church Street
East Hartford,  CT 06108-3728

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project addresses two vital problems for long-term space travel activities: radiation shielding and hydrogen storage for power and propulsion. While both problems have been studied for many years, there is currently no satisfactory technology for providing adequate non-parasitic shielding. Even in low-Earth orbit, astronauts must be closely monitored for radiation exposure, and some missions simply cannot be performed due to the current inability to adequately shield astronauts (e.g. Mars or surface Lunar bases). The overall objective of the proposed project is to implement a new manufacturing technique for the fabrication of monolithic sorbent modules for hydrogen storage and radiation shielding. We will evaluate the resulting process for quality control in terms of shape and size consistency. We will work with Boeing on component and system characterization of elemental composition, mechanical strength, and other functional properties. AFR will explore, in partnership with ATMI, an alternate commercialization strategy, described in the proposal. During the process and product assessment, we will coordinate possible commercial ventures with Boeing and ATMI. Previously, a prototype system was operated at two accelerators, demonstrating both operational effectiveness and the ability to significantly reduce the energy of high energy particles (48 GeV Ti ions and various energy protons).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main NASA applications for the proposed technology is dual-use hydrogen storage and radiation shielding systems on board spacecraft, space station, and also smaller versions used for innovations in spacesuit design, possibly a specially modified Hard Upper Torso (HUT). The primary purpose of this effort is to develop a piece of hardware for NASA that can ultimately be an important component of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), providing at the same time energy-storage functionality. The systems developed as a results of the proposed study will be useful to NASA in at least two respects: 1) radiation shielding for people and electronics, and 2) fuel storage for propulsion or electrical power generation. The multi- functional material in the current study significantly boosts the hydrogen storage ability of compressed gas cylinders and provides excellent radiation shielding characteristics, and results in a mass reduction for spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial areas that are under exploration are primarily related to fuel cell systems, with automobiles and other transportation vehicles of particular interest. The main application of the developed carbons would be in gas-storage systems (automobiles, trucks, buses, locomotives, spacecraft, submarines, UAV's, etc.), with additional applications including radiation shielding in other aerospace environments (satellites, military/astronomical detectors sensitive to obscuring background radiation, high-altitude, long-duration aircraft, etc.). AFR has also been approached by a firm specializing in hazardous gas packaging for their interest in storing gases at less than atmospheric pressure. In such an application, our sorbent has the potential to double or triple the amount of gas in a cylinder, with concomitant gains in savings and efficiency. Other uses of carbons with well-controlled pore structure include carbon molecular sieve membranes for gas separations, ultracapacitor electrodes, and catalysts. AFR is actively working with Maxwell Technologies, our industrial partner, to bring our ultracapacitor electrode technology to market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Biomedical and Life Support
Suits
Radiation Shielding Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Energy Storage


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.01-8848
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Health
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Space Radiation Dosimetry System for Manned Exploration Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Landauer, Inc.
2 Science Road
Glenwood, IL 60425-1586

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Akselrod
makselrod@landauerinc.com
723 1/2 Eastgate
Stillwater,  OK 74074-6413

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel radiation dosimetry system is proposed for manned exploration spaceflight and ground-based measurements of space radiation, including HZE particles, high energy protons, neutrons, &#61543;-rays and electrons. The system consists of small, rugged passive integrating detectors without batteries and a compact reader. The significance of the proposed technology to NASA is that it will overcome major limitations of the current instrumentation which makes it unsuitable for long duration missions to the Moon and Mars. The innovation is the use of a new concept of Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detector (FNTD) sensitive to high-LET charged particles. The detector is made of novel single crystals of aluminum oxide doped with carbon and magnesium (Al2O3:C,Mg). A completely optical readout technique is based on well proven principals of fluorescent confocal microscopy. The same detector is also used as an Optically Stimulated Luminescence Detector (OSLD) sensitive to low-LET radiation. A reliable "3-in-1" instrument-reader will operate in track-measurement mode for FNTD, low-LET mode for OSLD, and reset/anneal mode. The dosimeter will measure absorbed dose and dose equivalent from all significant types of space radiation and can be easily reset for reuse during spaceflight. FNTD is able to withstand vacuum and temperature cycling from -200 to 600 ?C.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed radiation dosimetry system will satisfy NASA's need for space crew personal dosimetry during long duration exploration missions. The fluorescent detectors are small and multiple detectors could be worn by crew members at different locations on the body and could also be used for dosimetric mapping of the spacecraft. The detectors can be read out and erased at any time such that they could be exposed during EVA or readout immediately following a larger Solar Particle Event. For unmanned space missions, the onboard reader could be adapted for use in a fully autonomous mode. Al2O3:C,Mg detectors could have applications in radiobiology research in heavy ion experiments at the Brookhaven NSRL facility or HIMAC as a highly stable, inert substrate/detector for culture cells with ability to trace individual particle trajectories. New concepts in microdosimetry can be tested using needle-shape implantable detectors. Detectors and a reader can also be used in place of CR-39 PNTD and TLD in the ground-based investigations of the radiation shielding materials at heavy ion accelerators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Landauer anticipates a significant demand for portable instruments capable of measuring absorbed dose and dose equivalent using a combination of FNTD and OSLD modalities. Dosimetry of fast neutrons remains a significant challenge in personnel monitoring at nuclear power, fuel processing, and waste facilities, around high energy particle accelerators, etc Hospitals that use high energy linear accelerators for radiation treatment experience problems with dosimetry of uncontrollable amount of photo-neutrons produced by linacs. Universities and National Laboratories need new instruments for radiobiology research funded by NIH and NSF. Landauer also anticipates using the instrument internally for its dosimetry service.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
High-Energy
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.01-9057
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Health
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Payload Systems, Inc.
247 Third Street
Cambridge, MA 02142-1129

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Liping Sun
sun@payload.com
247 Third Street
Cambridge,  MA 02142-1129

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility (CTC-REF) to enable radiobiologists to investigate the real-time radiation effects on cells/tissues at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Up to 18 bioreactors with various types of cells/tissues can be placed in the radiation target area for either short- or long-term radiation exposure. Samples can be taken and fixed automatically at desired time points on site during exposure to the ion beam. Specimens within the bioreactors can also be moved from the target area to nearby biology laboratories for investigation of delayed radiation effects using a culture transport system that maintains the proper culture environment during specimen transport. The concept for CTC-REF is an evolution and extension of the hardware already developed by Payload Systems for other space life sciences applications. The main advantages of CTC-REF over currently available hardware are: higher sample throughput, automatic sampling and fixation during and after radiation exposure, and accommodation of long-duration, low dose radiation experiments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed CTC-REF could improve the efficiency and throughput of radiobiology studies at NSRL significantly with a fully automated culture protocol operation including sample fixation, culture subcultivation, etc. The CTC-REF will support both short and long term radiation exposure studies.. A variety of cell/tissue cultures, including mammalian, plant, microbial cells, and tissues, both in suspension and attachment culture modes could be supported in CTC-REF, making CTC-REF a universal tool for NASA radiobiology research at the cell/tissue level.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Automated bioreactors are used throughout the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. The technology that is utilized by CTC-REF sits in a unique niche, between low-volume, high throughput automated systems used primarily in drug discovery, and large volume systems used in actual bioproduction. The underlying technologies in the proposed work therefore can be used in a wide range of ground-based biotechnology and pharmaceutical applications, including the optimization of cell/tissue culture processes and media, selection of cell strains, high throughput drug screening at the cell/tissue level, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.01-9538
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Health
PROPOSAL TITLE: Graphical User Interface for High Energy Multi-Particle Transport

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Visual Editor Consultants
PO Box 1308
Richland, WA 99352-1308

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Randolph Schwarz
randyschwarz@mcnpvised.com
PO Box 1308
Richland,  WA 99352-1308

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Computer codes such as MCNPX now have the capability to transport most high energy particle types (34 particle types now supported in MCNPX) with energies extending into the teravolt energy range. The efficient use of these types of Monte Carlo tools is very important for modeling the effects of space radiation on humans, spacecraft and equipment. This proposal would develop a graphical user interface for high energy multi-particle transport. With this innovation, users of the MCNPX code would have access to a powerful graphical user interface for efficient creation and interrogation of their input files, which would significantly reduce the amount of time required to create and debug input files.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This will benefit users within NASA who need to do high energy physics calculations. The improvements proposed in this document can substantially reduce the amount of time to create a computer model. Inside NASA, this will benefit anyone doing high energy radiation physics calculations including radiation-hard/resistant electronics, radiation shielding materials, particle and fields, shielding for manned space missions, nuclear propulsion, and medical physics analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MCNPX is available to users around the world; any enhancements to the graphical user interface will make all users of the code more effective in creating their geometries and performing their calculations. Visual Editor Consultants does not sell the Visual Editor; it instead releases this code to the Department of Energy code center (RSICC) to make the code available to interested users. It is believed that this provides the maximum benefit to the user community and enhances the international reputation of both Visual Editor Consultants and Carter Monte Carlo Analysis, Inc. Outside NASA, this will benefit the fusion research, accelerator research and general high energy physics research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Nuclear (Adv Fission, Fusion, Anti-Matter, Exotic Nuclear)
Particle and Fields
High-Energy
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Radiation Shielding Materials
Nuclear Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.01-9875
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Health
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Hardware Optimization Technology, Inc.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124-9515

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tony Shulthise
tshulthise@SHOT.com
7200 Highway 150
Greenville,  IN 47124-9515

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) and other irradiation venues is proposed by SHOT, Inc. Full and efficient utilization of NSRL requires the automation of precise sample positioning and sample exchange that is otherwise performed manually at the cost of hours of beam time and risk of personnel. The device and system will consist of a multiplicity of sample holders providing an environmentally controlled enclosure. Samples to be irradiated will be translated into the ion beam, one at a time, within the controlled environment. Samples to be accommodated include, but are not limited to, cell cultures, small animal (flies, worms, fish) cultures, mice, rats and small samples of shielding or electronic materials. Operating software will be compatible with that in use at the irradiation venues, specifically NSRL, and will be used to establish environmental control settings, to record environmental conditions, and to control and record the insertion of samples into the ion beam. Three objectives will be met in Phase I research: (1) user requirements and engineering requirements will be established in detail, (2) a preliminary design including assembly and component 3-D renderings will be completed, and (3) this design will be subjected to design review by internal and external advisers and potential users. An optional objective, if matching funding is available from the State of Indiana, is the production and testing of a Specimen Holder Assembly prototype. Phase II research will consist of (1) finalizing requirements and design documents for official preliminary review, (2) building and testing prototypes of components for final overall design approval, and (3) assembling and testing a first system at SHOT and assembling, installing and testing a final product at NSRL and placing it into use for the benefit of the user community.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications are well-defined. Space radiation health research requires the study of model organisms and cells exposed to high-energy, highly charged (HZE) particle irradiation. The model radiation beams are available at a small number of venues internationally and specifically at NSRL at Brookhaven National Laboratory. For the efficient exposure of these specimens, including laboratory rodents, the proposed robotic environmentally controlled sample holders and changers are needed to minimize the exposure of personnel to background radiations in the cave and minimize beam time required per experiment. Improved efficiency and biological statistics will lead to improved reductions of uncertainty in space radiation health.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications are also well-defined. At least a dozen facilities are in use or planned at which space radiation health research and particle radiotherapy research requires the study of model organisms and cells exposed to protons or HZE particle irradiation. As in the case of NASA applications, the proposed robotic environmentally controlled sample holders and changers are needed to minimize the exposure of personnel to background radiations in the cave and minimize beam time required per experiment. SHOT intends to use its sales force to address this need by marketing the proposed innovation in the international particle radiobiology community.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.02-7623
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Health Countermeasures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Handheld Microfluidic Blood Ananlyzer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741-7511

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Mitchell
dmitchell@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf, Suite 400
Austin,  TX 78741-7511

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nanohmics proposes to develop a handheld blood analyzer for micro- and hypo-gravity missions. The prototype instrument will combine impedance analysis with optical spectroscopy techniques to provide a reliable means of performing a complete blood count (CBC) using microliters of sample. An advantage of this hybrid strategy is that a complete blood cell count can be achieved using a microfluidic approach that is controlled via a commercially available personal digital assistant (PDA). Recent advances in the handheld computing market have led to small, powerful, devices that are able to interface and control the microelectronics necessary to operate and collect data from the microfluidic chip and maintain a low power budget. The instrument will exploit both the optical and impedance properties of the whole blood to gain discrimination of the individual components and indices (RBC, WBC, Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, WBC differential, and RBC indices). The large amount memory and processing power afforded by the PDA will allow the device to store the blood profiles of many individuals and track their changes from test to test.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A handheld blood analyzer would find great utility in numerous NASA missions where there is presently no convenient, rapid, or portable method of elucidating complete blood counts. The Instrument will be crucial to future missions to the Moon and Mars where health diagnostics willl be a major concern in the absence of conventional laboratory facilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a handheld blood analyzer would find great utility in numerous applications where there is presently no convenient, rapid, or portable method of elucidating complete blood counts. For example, the instrument developed in the Phase II program could be operated as a diagnostic aid in field hospitals. At the Department of Defense (DOD), there is a great interest in the development and testing of any handheld devices for immediate testing of health status. There is currently no capability to rapidly and reliably determine complete blood count with a man-portable system. Various deployments for this device could be imagined for impoverished nations without permanent laboratory facilities or adequate power supplies to run traditional instrumentation. Given the low power budget of today's microelectronics one can envision a self-sustaining solar recharged unit. Additionally, the instrument developed in the Phase II program could be used in small clinics as well, where the demand for compactness and cost-effectiveness will prohibit the implementation of a complete diagnostic laboratory

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Pilot Support Systems
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Organics/Bio-Materials
Biophysical Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.02-7626
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Health Countermeasures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Transcutaneous Noninvasive Device for the Responsive Delivery of Melatonin in Microgravity.

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Technova Corporation
1232 Mizzen Drive
Okemos, MI 48864-3480

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Serban Peteu
serbanpeteu@aol.com
1232 Mizzen Drive
Okemos,  MI 48864-3480

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our goal is develop a smart, transcutaneous device for individualized circadian (sleep) therapy by responsive release of melatonin, in microgravity. Additionally, this concept ?shown in figure 1?is modular and multifunctional by design. So, with minimal changes, we envision being able to use same device for the controlled release of other medicines and nutrients, in space as well as on Earth. For space-travel, a variety of countermeasures must be developed to oppose the harmful effects of longterm flights and exposures to other gravitational fields. Furthermore, each astronaut responds to a certain medicine or combination of medicines in a unique manner. Circadian disruption, or acute (chronic) degradation of sleep quality or quantity, is a known risk during space-flight. Techova will develop a unique device for the responsive delivery of melatonin, integrating (i) inherently conductive polymer-based valves, (ii) nano- and micro-structured sensors and (iii) non-invasive virtually pain-free micro-needle arrays. Our team builds upon previous research critically needed to develop this novel transdermal release device. The ability to monitor the progression of circadian (sleep) disruption and respond to the unique changes in the body chemistry of each individual (patient) offers an unprecedented opportunity to deliver specific, personalized medical care during space flight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The chronic reduction of sleep duration in space result in fatigue and jeopardize astronaut performance. American, Russian and European studies of sleep in space found that daily sleep is reduced to an average of 6 hours, or more during critical operations. Astronaut sleep in space is also physiologically altered (Anon., 2004). During Phase 1, we will establish the merit, feasibility and fabrication of a working prototype of a new transcutaneous device for controlled release of melatonin circadian (sleep) therapy. During Phase 2? we will prepare an integrated electrochemical sensor to monitor the level of melatonin in the interstitial fluid (ISF) and thus guide the individualized regimen in a closed loop control with personalized algorithm. At same time, a NASA-associated collaborator will be recruited to test this responsive device on small animals. A simple model, like glucose closed loop (responsive) control for diabetic rats, will be used both in Earth gravity and in simulated microgravity. Professor Mark Prausnitz (Georgia Tech) and Professor Moshen Shahinpoor (University of New Mexico) will assist to ensure a smooth transition to Phase 2.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Back on Earth, a major technological limitation of all commercially available controlled release systems, including the transdermal wearable patches, is that they are not responsive to an individual's need for drug therapy. Rather, these systems operate with a predetermined regimen, based on population averages. However, every individual has unique needs for therapy and develops a unique reaction to a particular regimen. Thus, drug administration based on averages often results in over- or under-dosing, outside of the optimal therapeutic window. An additional challenge for current drug delivery systems is that of compliance. Over 2/3 of patients are "non-compliant" ? they do not take medication on time and in the correct dose. This lack of compliance leads to an estimated 125,000 deaths annually, in the U.S. alone. It is expected that the responsive therapeutic systems developed with our technology will overcome these issues with its capability to provide reliable, accurate, smart dosing. Integrated Sensing Systems Inc. and Environmetal Robots, Inc. have shown an interest in our technology and are ready to partner with us to refine, optimize and commercialize the prototype. Michigan Development Corporation awarded us $15,000 matching funds for Phase 1.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Organics/Bio-Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.02-9111
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Health Countermeasures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Parallel Detection of Multiple Biomarkers During Spaceflight

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt St
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Hall, PhD
DHall@RMDInc.com
44 Hunt St
Watertown,  MA 02472-4699

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Maintaining the health of astronauts during extended spaceflight is critical to the success of the mission. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) proposes an instrument to monitor astronauts' physiological responses to stress, microgravity, radiation, infection, and pharmaceutical agents through detection of multiple biological markers. This will be accomplished under conditions of microgravity, within the weight, size and power requirements of space missions, and with minimal human intervention. One representative biomarker of interest is 8-oxo-dG that serves as an indicator of oxidative DNA damage from radiation, chemicals, inflammation, and by-products of metabolism. Upon repair of the damaged DNA, 8-oxo-dG is excreted into the urine where it may be conveniently monitored. However, serious obstacles to detection and quantification arise due to the low amounts present and the complex chemical composition of urine. Current techniques suffer from at least one of the following shortcomings: they are slow and labor-intensive, require complex instrumentation and a highly-trained operator, cannot be easily multiplexed to monitor many analytes, consume large amounts of reagents, and are not compatible for use under microgravity. We will overcome these limitations by incorporating all analytical steps into a single microfluidic chip. Our system will utilize affinity purification and electrochemical detection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This proposal focuses on biological markers of oxidative stress such as are formed upon exposure to radiation. Our goal is to produce an instrument that can monitor the daily biological effects of radiation on astronauts as a function of changes in exposure due to solar flares or extravehicular activity, for example. In addition, the amount of protection afforded by antioxidants present in the diet or given as nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals can be monitored. The operating principles of our instrument are general and will be applicable to a wide variety of biological markers and pharmaceutical agents of interest to NASA

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Measurement of biological markers of oxidation is important because they have been linked to many degenerative conditions such as smoking, aging, cancer, atherosclerosis, and other diseases. The use of antioxidants to counter these conditions has been widely proposed but clinical data demonstrating their effectiveness is limited and often contradictory. Our instrument would be useful for these studies because it could provide sufficient throughput for the large number of subjects necessary at reasonable cost, superior accuracy compared to the standard ELISA assay, and convenient analysis of multiple biomarkers and antioxidants.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.02-9113
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Health Countermeasures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt St
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Louis Strong, PhD
lstrong@rmdinc.com
44 Hunt St
Watertown,  MA 02472-4699

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
RMD proposes to develop a MEMS based complete blood count (CBC) instrument that can be used aboard a spacecraft. We will produce a microfluidic scale combination cell counter-flow cytometer for CBC analyses that can be communicated to ground bases by telemetry. The blood analyzer will utilize innovative optical and fluidic designs on a modular platform that enable compactness, high sensitivity and cell discrimination, combined with robust service. No operator intervention is required. Modules that require direct contact with blood will be economical and disposable. These fluidic designs will be fabricated by microstereolithography and initially tested as two separate components. A first component will constitute a hydrodynamic focusing injector and cell impedance meter. A second component will monitor forward and side scattered light from hydrodynamically focused cells using novel signal collection designs and micrometer scale, Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. New, custom formulated photopolymers will be evaluated for microstereolithography use and electroless deposition of metals will form the basis for fabricating microelectrodes. During Phase II, the cell impedance transducer and microoptic modules will be integrated into one credit card size package that plugs into a handheld microelectronics board containing detectors, pump, microprocessors, and an automated cell lysing stage.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability to monitor physiological changes of astronauts during space flight requires portable, low power and light-weight instrumentation. Inexpensive, point of treatment instruments are needed to monitor astronauts health and to gauge the effectiveness of countermeasures to oppose deleterious physiological responses due to microgravity, exposure to ionizing radiation, and a reduced exercise regimen. A critical and time sensitive measurement for the assessment of hemostasis is the complete blood count (CBC). The MEMS-based blood analyzer will provide the same information as a CBC.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A MEMS-based CBC analyzer will find many point-of-care applications where economy, speed, and minimal user intervention are required. Such uses include: blood hemoglobin and reticulocyte analysis for directing transfusion therapy in patients suffering major blood loss, monitoring anemia in surgical patients; screening platelets in patients with clotting disease; monitoring WBC in outpatients undergoing blood replacement therapy. The timing of apheresis collection of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) is critical for effective transplantation in cancer patients. A point-of-care CBC analyzer also benefits patients who must travel long distances daily to monitor their blood composition for information related to harvesting PBSCs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Optical
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.02-9634
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Health Countermeasures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Monitoring Microbes in the Spacecraft Environment by Mass Spectrometry of Ribosomal RNA

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
BioTex, Inc.
8058 El Rio St.
Houston, TX 77054-4185

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
George Jackson
bill@biotexmedical.com
8058 El Rio St.
Houston,  TX 77054-4185

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The unique stresses in the spacecraft environment including isolation, containment, weightlessness, increased radiation exposure, and enhanced microbial contamination have resulted in a compromise of the immune system in every human or animal that has ever flown in space. Identifying and monitoring the microbial population in the spacecraft environment has therefore been identified as a key maintaining crew health on extended missions. While molecular methods are rapidly supplanting phenotypic identification of micro-organisms, the most successful rapid approaches have employed organism-specific nucleic acid "probes" or primers for PCR amplification. Identification by nucleic acid hybridization therefore implies a priori knowledge (or at least suspicion) of a putative organism. Such assays (including DNA microarrays) are therefore limited in generality by the number of probes or primers on hand. Sequencing of DNA is more general but time consuming and problematic in microgravity. This project describes an "open" or exploratory system with no such limitation which is also superior in speed to DNA sequencing. By leveraging the wealth of publicly available ribosomal RNA sequences for thousands of bacterial strains, and rapid mass spectrometry of novel, mass-modified RNA fragments, the system can identify bacterial species in complex organism mixtures and report their relative abundances. The technology is amenable to high-throughput automated analysis of over 200 samples in less than 2 hours and is compatible with any sample type from which total DNA can be isolated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Development of the technology will allow NASA to achieve its goals of successful human space exploration and characterize the microbial population in spacecraft as it changes over time. The technology can be readily expanded to identification of viruses and eukaryotes as increasing sequence information on these organisms becomes available. In addition to maintaining crew health, development of the technology will also further NASA's exobiology goals. Because the technology is "exploratory", the genetic affinity of organisms never encountered before can be rapidly determined. In Phase II, collaboration with developers of miniaturized biological mass spectrometers and a novel, convection-based PCR device will allow development of a prototype system of reasonable size for spaceflight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA's unique goals, the development of new microbial diagnostics has broad overlap and technology transfer implications for other applications. The method will find application in a variety of markets including clinical diagnostics, biodefense and monitoring of large populated facilities such as airports and government buildings, municipal water supplies, and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Nucleic acid diagnostics sales are currently estimated at over $2 billion annually and projected to increase 10-fold in the next 5 to 10 years. Finally, biological mass spectrometers are increasingly common, steadily improving in terms of resolution and accuracy, and will eventually become miniaturized and portable.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.03-8109
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Medical Care
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Foul-Resistant Nano-Pervaporation Membrane for Medical Grade Water Generation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
T3 Scientific LLC
1839 Noble Road
Arden Hills, MN 55112-7834

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chung-Yi Tsai
Andy.Tsai@t3sci.com
1839 Noble Road
Arden Hills,  MN 55112-7834

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Extended-duration spaceflight requires self-sustained patient care capable for the treatment of emergency medical conditions, thus requiring medical grade water to reconstitute pharmacological substances when needed. Conventional method to produce medical grade water is either energy inefficient or too complex, requiring high pressure and using considerable consumables. We propose a novel foul-resistant nano-pervaporation (NVP) membrane with minimized mass, volume, consumables, and power consumption for producing medical grade water in both micro-g and sub-g environments. Our proposed concept is based on a near-room-temperature pervaporation process. The nano-pore selectively adsorbs liquid water and excludes other undesirable constituents in the portable water, such as particles, microbes, virus, and volatile organic compounds. The permeated water vapor is subsequently condensed allowing the heat of evaporation to be recovered. This smart system uses space vacuum to obtain low vapor pressure, together with a build-in heat recovery, aims at minimizing the required power. This membrane is foul-resistant. It only requires a low pressure gradient to achieve high water flow rate, minimizing the driving force for fouling. Also, without any moving part, the system enjoys low maintenance. The NPV process shows potentially the lowest amount of power consumption, mass/volume, and consumables among possible technologies for producing medical grade water.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications for the proposed nano-pervaporation (NPV) membrane and process include medical water generation and water recovery applications. This proposed NPV membrane could be an enabling technology for NASA manned space program, allowing potential extended mission duration with less consumables compared to the base-line technologies, such as distillation and reverse osmosis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications for the proposed nano-pervaporation membrane and process include dehydration of esterification reaction (e.g. biodiesel production), dehydration of azeotropic mixtures (e.g. ethanol/water), and dehydration of heat sensitive compounds (e.g. pharmaceuticals).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.03-8133
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Medical Care
PROPOSAL TITLE: Portable Programmable Multifunction Body Fluids Analyzer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Liquid Logic, Inc.
2 Davis Drive, PO Box 13169
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3169

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vamsee Pamula
vkp@liquid-logic.com
2 Davis Drive PO Box 13169
Research Triangle Park,  NC 27709-3169

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Liquid Logic proposes to develop a very capable analyzer based on its digital microfluidic technology. Such an analyzer would be: &#61656; Capable of both simple and complex biological assays &#61656; Small, lightweight, power efficient, and easy to operate &#61656; Fully programmable and remotely reprogrammable Under NIH funding we have demonstrated clinical chemistry blood diagnostic testing on our lab-on-a-chip platform. Our vision is to develop a portable diagnostic analyzer that performs the same tests as central lab-based analytical equipment with even broader functionality by integrating hematology, pathology, molecular diagnostics, cytology, microbiology, and serology onto the same platform. These diverse tests would be multiplexed to use the same very small body fluid or solid sample. We believe that digital microfluidics is uniquely capable of meeting NASA's requirements because: &#61656; We will be able to address a larger breadth of tests than conventional microfluidics on even smaller sample volumes &#61656; Our technology miniaturizes both the assay and the associated equipment &#61656; Our droplet-based technology provides positive control of each droplet &#61656; Our lab-on-a-chip can be designed for multiple uses, reducing or eliminating the need for disposable components &#61656; Our platform could be integrated with implanted or automated minimally invasive sample extraction techniques

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA requires a small, lightweight, broadly capable, easy-to-use device for body chemistry assessment for its crew, especially for long missions. Current technologies, even microfluidic technologies, can not deliver the breadth of capability required and rely on disposable components, relatively high power consumption, and manual sample preparation. Droplet-based digital microfluidics technology can likely provide the basis for a portable analyzer that can meet all of NASA's requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A broadly capable and robust portable analyzer would be a commercial success in such diverse applications as bioterrorism detection, food processing and security, medical diagnostics, and research. NASA's contribution to the timely development this powerful platform technology would be quite direct, as many of the requirements and subsystem developments, even a large number of the precise sample materials of interest, would be the same in these other markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Teleoperation
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Data Input/Output Devices
Human-Computer Interfaces
Biochemical
Optical
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X11.03-9545
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Autonomous Medical Care
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microwave Powered Gravitationally Independent Medical Grade Water Generation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Umpqua Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Akse, Ph.D.
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An innovative microwave system is proposed for the continuous production of medical grade water. This system will utilize direct absorption of microwave radiation to rapidly heat potable water well above normal autoclave conditions, achieving equivalent microbial lethality in much shorter times. High thermal efficiencies will be gained by placement of the microwave antennae directly in the flowing water stream allowing very efficient volumetric coupling of microwaves. The sterilized water stream will then pass through a regenerable endotoxin filter to achieve water for injection (WFI) purity standards. This filter will remove endotoxins by selective adsorption. The combined system will enable the energy efficient and practical production of WFI aboard spacecraft or planetary habitats under microgravity or hypogravity conditions with a low equivalent system mass (ESM). In the Phase I research, sterilization chambers and endotoxin filters will be designed, assembled, and tested. The Phase II program will deliver a fully instrumented, computer-controlled system with a low ESM whose performance is well documented. This technology will form the basis for multiple applications in commercial sterilization markets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application of the advanced microwave based medical grade water system will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future long duration exploration objectives such as a lunar mission, lunar base, Mars transit or Mars base. The primary application will be in support of medical and experimental use of pharmacological preparations, which must be reconstituted on-site. Secondarily, this device can be used to produce WFI for use during medical emergencies. It is anticipated that numerous other uses will be found for this system within NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology may be employed in small-scale systems for efficient production of sterile water in the laboratory, or in a range of larger scales to meet various industrial requirements. Lightweight and portable systems for production of WFI could also be rapidly deployed at remote locations, and during humanitarian emergencies or military actions, where logistics must be minimized.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.01-7647
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Air and Thermal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrochemical Reactor for Producing Oxygen From Carbon Dioxide

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroCell Technologies, LLC
410 Great Road, Suite C-2
Littleton, MA 01460-1273

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kimble
mkimble@microcell-tech.com
410 Great Road, Suite C-2
Littleton,  MA 01460-1273

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An electrochemical reactor is proposed by MicroCell Technologies, LLC to electrochemically reduce carbon dioxide to oxygen. In support of NASA's advanced life support processes and human exploration missions, recovering oxygen from carbon dioxide is important since oxygen resupply is not a viable option. The proposed process is based on using a low temperature molten salt to selectively adsorb carbon dioxide from the ambient and reducing it to an oxide ion and carbon monoxide. The oxide ion is subsequently oxidized to oxygen. This carbon dioxide removal and oxygen generator may be used by NASA to provide oxygen for cabin crew life support or for propellant generation on Mars as a part of the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) process. During the Phase I project, we will demonstrate the electrochemical reactor using pure carbon dioxide and using low concentrations of carbon dioxide in air.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications of the proposed technology include carbon dioxide reduction on board International Space Station and for long duration exploration missions to Mars. Elements of the proposed technology may be used in other electrochemical reactor schemes for generating propellants as a part of NASA's In Situ Resource Utilization program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications of the proposed technology may be found in processing or sequestering carbon dioxide from the ambient environment. Additional commercial applications may be found in sensors for carbon dioxide in air detection using components of the base technology developed here.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Propellant Storage
Feed System Components
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.01-8524
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Air and Thermal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Gravity Independent Compressor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SunDanzer Development, Inc.
742 E. 46th Street
Tucson, AZ 85713-5004

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Bergeron
david@sundanzer.com
742 E. 46th Street
Tucson,  AZ 85713-5004

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop and demonstrate a small, gravity independent, vapor compression refrigeration system using a linear motor compressor which effectively addresses the efficiency, lubrication, scalability, and/or longevity issues limiting current space flight refrigeration systems. Unlike previous and currently used thermoelectric, Stirling, oil-free reciprocating and diaphragm compressor systems, the linear compressor will provide very high efficiency, excellent capacity modulation, nearly unlimited scalability, and very long life all due to the hydrostatic bearing of the linear compressor and use of the reverse-Rankine cycle. The linear can also readily be developed as a single unit two-stage compressor for higher lift applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We see this linear motor compressor technology as having excellent application potential within NASA as the prior art is very limiting in efficiency, and life expectancy. Once developed, this technology will be far superior to the current thermoelectric and oil-free reciprocating technology used in many micro-gravity applications by NASA today. Current applications include food refrigeration and freezing (ISS), scientific sample cooling and freezing (ISS and Shuttle), and crew cooling (Shuttle). Developing applications include water heating and cooling and vapor compression enhanced water distillation. We also feel that once the linear motor refrigeration technology is ready, new applications will develop that were not practical with the prior art.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The world-wide market for a low-cost, high efficiency variable capacity compressor for refrigeration is counted in the low ten's of millions per year. Further, higher cost units will have a niche in specialty markets, such as solar and will lead the way for initial commercialization. Almost every major refrigerator compressor manufacturer is seeking to provide variable capacity via variable speed reciprocating type compressors. The only exception is LG in Korea, which is using a linear compressor in its side by side refrigerator freezer model. If we are able to achieve good performance and low production cost on this linear compressor, the market would be extremely large.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Thermodynamic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.01-9563
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Air and Thermal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchanger With Zero Interpath Leakage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-0071

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Izenson
mgi@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-0071

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future manned spacecraft will require thermal management systems that effectively and safely control the temperature in inhabited modules. Interface heat exchangers will be required that isolate the heat transfer fluid in the spacecraft thermal bus from the circulating water used to cool inhabited modules. We propose to develop an innovative heat exchanger that provides two completely independent physical barriers between the two fluids in the interface heat exchanger. This isolated flow path heat exchanger incorporates two key innovations: (1) an innovative and simple core construction that separates the two fluids while providing a large heat transfer area, and (2) innovative materials that enable efficient heat transfer between the two fluid streams. The proposed heat exchanger is lightweight, efficient, and simple to fabricate. Phase I proves the feasibility of our approach through laboratory demonstrations of the key technologies. In Phase II we will design, build, and demonstrate performance of a full-scale interface heat exchanger sized for a specific NASA application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The central thermal bus interface heat exchanger on the International Space Station represents a potential path for the high pressure ammonia from the central thermal bus to leak into the circulating water systems used to cool inhabited modules. The proposed heat exchanger will have direct application to future station upgrades. The existing interface heat exchanger could be replaced with the technology developed in this program, eliminating the safety risk of a single-point failure. The technology will also be needed for future spacecraft like the Crew Exploration Vehicle, which will also require interface heat exchangers for the thermal control system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The isolated flow path heat exchanger will be attractive for any process where mixing of two heat-exchanging fluids is unacceptable. These applications include fuel processors for fuel cells used for portable and automotive applications, solar heaters for domestic hot water, and thermal/chemical systems used for residential and/or transportation applications. In addition to its clear safety advantages for these applications, the proposed heat exchanger will be inexpensive, compact, and lightweight.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.01-9587
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Air and Thermal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Umpqua Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Atwater
jatwater@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the conversion of carbon dioxide to water via the Sabatier process. This will close the hydrogen loop which currently requires 50% resupply. This technology will also produce elemental carbon as a secondary product, which may be employed as an adsorbent or catalyst carrier for removal of atmospheric trace contaminants, thus further lowering the resupply burden for manned spacecraft. ECR plasmas produce extremely high temperatures confined within relatively small spatial dimensions and can be generated under low power (10-150 W) conditions. The plasma is heated by the resonant absorption of electromagnetic energy, a much more efficient way to achieve plasma conditions, compared to traditional methods. The ECR method of plasma generation confines the plasma using magnetic force, and therefore, can be employed in microgravity, hypogravity, and Earth gravity. The primary problem associated with conventional fixed bed catalytic methane pyrolysis reactors is severe catalyst fouling and bed plugging due to the deposition of the carbon product. The proposed ECR Plasma based process will circumvent these problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application of this technology will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future long duration exploration objectives such as a lunar mission, lunar base, Mars transit or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Advanced Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed for propellant and fuel production from Martian atmospheric CO2.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ability to efficiently produce hydrogen from natural gas is a critical need for society at large. The concept of a 'Hydrogen Economy' has been widely recognized as an excellent means to combat global warming induced by the atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. In the Hydrogen Economy, clean-burning H2 is substituted for CO2 generating fossil fuels (petroleum and coal). However, the ability to do so is entirely contingent upon the development of economical means for hydrogen production and storage. Using our innovative methane pyrolysis approach, hydrogen can be economically recovered from natural gas.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomedical and Life Support
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.01-9869
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Air and Thermal
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solid Oxide Electrolysis for Oxygen Production in an ARS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paragon Space Development Corp.
2700 E. Executive Dr., Suite 100
Tucson, AZ 85706-7151

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christine Iacomini
ciacomini@paragonsdc.com
2700 E Executive Dr., Suite 100
Tucson,  AZ 85706-7151

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Paragon Space Development Corporation proposes an innovative, efficient and practical concept that utilizes Solid Oxide Electrolysis for regenerative air revitalization. The concept is innovative because it safely eliminates handling of hydrogen, and works irrespective of gravity and pressure environments with no moving parts and no multi-phase flows. The innovation is efficient because it requires no expendables while being compact with minimal impact on mass. The innovation is practical because it evolves from the well-established, current state of the art in oxygen production for the regenerative air revitalization system slated for the International Space Station. The approach proposed addresses the crux of the innovation in Phase I through modeling and experimentation to immediately identify the most feasible approach to its implementation. Phase II will encompass more detailed experimentation to optimize the subsystem design resulting in a fully functioning regenerative oxygen subsystem for advanced life support. The consequence is significant because solid oxide electrolysis is an inherently suitable technology (and possibly the only technology) for enabling 100% oxygen regeneration from carbon dioxide and water vapor, two byproducts of crew activity that must be managed regardless.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The capability of solid oxide electrolysis to electrolyze carbon dioxide, oxygen, water or a combination of any of these enables the technology to be applied across several in situ resource utilization and life support applications on both the Moon and Mars, making this a truly cross-cutting technology investment. Additional applications include: - Oxygen generation for life support and propellant consumables using carbon dioxide from the atmosphere of Mars and water vapor from lunar regolith reduction processes. - Portable oxygen generation and/or regeneration for advanced extravehicular activities in space, on the moon or Mars. - Regenerative fuel cell applications such as making fuel cell reagents during the Martian day with solar power and switching to fuel cell mode to supply power at night.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Solid Oxide Electrolysis innovation proposed for advanced life support systems will enable more efficient, compact systems to be used in terrestrial applications. Examples include: - Oxygen regeneration subsystems for the DoD and Home Land defense life support systems in chemical warfare agent shelters. - Oxygen regeneration systems for the Navy and ocean research institutions developing submersibles or underwater research stations. - Emergency fuel cell systems for both applications stated above since solid oxide electrolysis cells can be operated as a fuel cells.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Portable Life Support
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.02-7528
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dust-Tolerant Reusable Connection Mechanisms for Lunar Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason Herman
Herman@HoneybeeRobotics.com
460 W 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Dust, especially lunar dust, has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. In addition to posing contamination and health risks for human explorers, the interlocking, angular nature of lunar dust and its broad grain size distribution make it particularly detrimental to mechanisms with which it may come into contact. All Apollo lunar missions experienced some degree of equipment failure due to dust, and it appears that dust accumulation on exposed material is unavoidable and difficult to reverse. However, experience also indicates that material selection, location, and crew action can mitigate the detrimental effects of dust. It remains the case that significant development is called for in the area of devices and structures that tolerate or mitigate the presence of lunar dust. Thus, Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop both active and passive methods for tolerating and mitigating dust accumulation on reusable connection mechanism interfaces. Techniques such as baffles, brushes, and fluid-washing will be explored more thoroughly as they relate to mechanical connections. Dust-tolerant connection strategies will be an enabling step for much of the technology that Honeybee is currently developing for lunar drilling and sample and instrument manipulation in particular, and as a necessary precursor to interfaces for transferring electricity, fluids, and other utilities in general.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Dust tolerant interconnections will be key components to future exploration missions and would find extensive applications in systems designed to operate in the lunar and other dusty environments. Future mission scenarios involving erectable structures, diverse EVA-compliant tools, EVA-to-rover or EVA-to-robot interfaces, and other in-situ assembly or interconnection activities, will all call for such connections. Reliable dust-tolerant mechanisms and mitigation techniques will greatly increase the operational lifetime of mechanisms in situ on the Moon and Mars and will therefore help reduce mission costs and risk.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The connection methods developed in this effort will have application in the construction and military reconnaissance/surveillance fields, particularly in harsh and/or remote environments. Specific applications include reusable military camp equipment and structures, remotely operated vehicles and other equipment, and very deep drilling. The potential environments include deserts and other dry-climate locations, down-hole geothermal and oil wells, and various mines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Erectable
Modular Interconnects
Suits
Tools


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.02-8626
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Gigahertz Optical Data Transmitters for Laser Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Applied Technologies, Inc.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801-1721

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kevin Zou
kzou@bostonati.com
6F Gill Street
Woburn,  MA 01801-1721

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Wireless optical communication systems have gone through considerable development in the past few years, as optical components have experiences important technologic advances and price decreases. Thus data communications are increasingly using wireless optical systems at higher speeds. These systems are being used as an alternative to cabled media, mainly due to their simpler deployment and reconfiguration. The high data rate and large information throughput available with laser communication are many times greater than in RF systems, furthermore WDM technology can also be used in free space laser communication system. To provide optical wireless communication between crew and the base of NASA advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) systems, Boston Applied Technologies Incorporated (BATI) proposes an innovative laser communication system based on our recent breakthrough of high performance light intensity and polarization management devices. The laser communication devices developed at BATI have the advantage of significantly reduced size and complexity, small power consumption, high extinction ratio, and solid-state ruggedness. Rather than using two laser transmitters, the proposed laser communication system can establish a two-way optical link using a single conventional laser transmitter.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The goal of this program is to develop an advanced laser communication system using electro-optic light modulation for optical wireless communication between crew and the base with the capability to integrate audio, video, and data on the same data stream. This system has many critical advantages in term of weight, power, platform stability and the number of laser source. This proposed system can also provide a communication link between an earth observing balloon or airplane and the ground.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A similar system can provide a communication link between a satellite and the ground. The success of this program will have great impacts in military, space, industrial, and consumer sectors. The proposed system may provide a viable approach for the "the last mile" application.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.02-8812
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mutlifunctional Fibers for Energy Generation/Storage and Thermal Controls in Extravehicular Mobility Unity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127-4107

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Berland
bberland@itnes.com
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton,  CO 80127-4107

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ITN Energy Systems, Inc., in collaboration with Hamilton Sundstrand, proposes to design and develop multifunctional fibers for use in energy generation, energy storage, and thermal control controls for extravehicular mobility units (EMU). Next generation spacesuit concepts, such as the Chameleon Suit , offer the ability to dramatically extend extravehicular activity (EVA) mission time and space beyond anything currently available today. Revolutionary advances in technologies, including energy generation and storage as well as climate controls, are required to eliminate the reliance on expendables that currently limit missions with today's EVA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MFF technologies are well suited for next generation EMU concepts, such as the Chameleon Suit. The integration of advanced technology components has the ability to drastically increase mission time and space by enabling the space suit to become an active part of a system that interacts with the local environment rather than acting as a passive barrier. This transition, however, requires the complete removal of reliance on expendable technologies for power, thermal control, life support systems, etc. ITN's MFF are an ideal solution to many of these challenges. The integration of these functions directly into the suit enables greater responsiveness in the suit. For instance, current suits only allow the body to interact with the environment aver about 1/2 to 1/3 of the roughly 2 square meters of available surface area. MFF offer greater potential to increase suit capability with minimal impact on the mass and volume, flexibility, and other desirable functions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The desire to create clothing that increases the user's ability to interact with the environment without sacrificing comfort, style, or functionality also has many applications in commercial markets. The growth of wearable electronics for health monitoring, communications, or entertainment functions also require power and comfort control that could benefit from the proposed technologies. One can imagine similar integration of functions for military markets where MFF are integrated into tents, micro air vehicles, high altitude air ships, tactical satellites and other remote sites that require power for communications and data management.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Suits
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Energy Storage
Photovoltaic Conversion
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.02-9671
SUBTOPIC TITLE: EVA Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Time and Relative Distance Inertial Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Todd Hester
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Precise location information is critical for crewmembers for safe EVA Moon and Mars exploration. Current inertial navigation systems are too bulky, fragile, and expensive for this purpose and therefore cannot meet NASA requirements. To address these requirements, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes a novel Time and Relative Distance Inertial Navigation System (TARDIS), a compact, cost-effective solution providing EVA crewmembers and monitoring personnel with location and orientation to home base. With this information, TARDIS will generate a 3D navigation track of the astronaut's movement, which the astronaut can compare to a preplanned path, as well as key reference points, such as the base camp, rover, and destination. TARDIS builds on POC's smart inertial sensor cluster technology, integrating compact dedicated microprocessors with inertial microelectromechanical systems in a purely digital six-degree-of-freedom inertial navigation system in an extremely small volume. This is coupled with a Kalman filter for optimal position estimation. Spatial operator analysis (SOA) derives the relative orientation of an EVA crewmember's arms and legs to specify current activity (bending, walking, sitting, climbing). In Phase I POC will prove the concept by demonstrating a scaled-down working model with a limited number of sensors. In Phase II POC will demonstrate a complete working prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Not only is TARDIS ideal for monitoring the overall position and orientation of EVA crewmembers during Moon and Mars exploration, it could also be adapted for use within low Earth orbit to provide specific real-time kinematic information to ground controllers over the existing RTDS. This would greatly enhance the efficiency and after-action review data of EVA repair and deployment missions and be a major advancement in EVA safety technology. Furthermore, since TARDIS would be integrated into the existing spacesuit, it could also be used during water tank training missions to provide optimal ergonomic data.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The small size and low cost of the TARDIS system make it an ideal navigation module for the automotive and general aviation markets. The self-contained inertial system will provide location data without GPS coverage, which is essential when cars travel outside of GPS coverage zones such as in mountainous areas, forests, and tunnels. The small size and low cost of TARDIS mean that it could also be integrated into firefighter or search-and-rescue uniforms to provide precise overall location and arm and leg kinematic models under hazardous conditions, which could then be transmitted to monitoring personnel outside the hazard zone.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Suits


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.03-8217
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Contingency Response Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Effervescent Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Microgravity Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite 130
Littleton , CO 80127-4107

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Butz
jimb@adatech.com
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite 130
Littleton ,  CO 80127-4107

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fire suppression systems provide an essential safety function onboard spacecraft. The transition away from halon-based systems has presented an opportunity for efficient and cost-effective alternative approaches. ADA Technologies proposes to develop a fine-water-mist fire suppression system suitable for use in microgravity. The ADA design features a single pressure tank with a patented effervescent-gas spray nozzle to generate droplets of a size that is optimum for fire suppression. The proposed work will modify ADA's current fine-water-mist device to allow for operation in reduced and micro-gravity environments. Design modifications will focus on providing a uniform mixture of water and atomization gas to the effervescent nozzle. The resulting extinguisher will be compact, simple, and rugged, with pound-per-pound better suppression capability than carbon dioxide fire extinguishers. ADA is teaming with the Colorado School of Mines to employ their expertise in micro-gravity combustion and related fire suppression test facilities. In Phase II, the designs will be refined and upgraded to improve their manufacturability, reduce weight and volume, and lower unit costs. The project team is collaborating with an aviation safety hardware supplier to market the systems to the commercial aircraft industry and is exploring industrial applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This novel fire suppression technology has applications to manned spacecraft as well as commercial aircraft, both areas of NASA responsibility. Since the ADA fine-water-mist system is modular, it can be installed in a wide range of aircraft types and sizes, and should be useful in private aircraft as well. Fine-water-mist fire suppression technology has been shown to be effective against a wide range of fire classifications, so that continued development will also offer cost and performance benefits to NASA ground facilities and test operations across the US. In earlier projects at ADA, this technology has proven effective in specialized applications, including extinguishing oxidizer fires and suppression of hydrogen deflagrations, both of which are of interest to NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The loss of halon as a major resource in fire suppression has lead to the development of a number of alternative technologies. Fine-water-mist has been applied to flammable liquid storage, shipboard magazines, and combustion turbine installations in recent years. A modular system such as the ADA design has the potential to fill many niches in fire suppression with an alternative that is cost-effective, efficient, and rugged. Testing at ADA has shown that fine water mist has unique properties that make it ideal for many fire threat scenarios. Under a STTR project, ADA is partnering with the Colorado School of Mines and a supplier of aircraft fire suppression systems to provide protection to the US Air Force for a specialized aircraft. ADA will also apply its commercialization process to this technology to extend it to fire threat scenarios in commercial and industrial markets. An early step in this process is identifying partner firms with an existing presence in target markets and working closely with them to create a quality, cost-effective product to address market needs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Airport Infrastructure and Safety


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.03-8408
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Contingency Response Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Light-Curing Structural Tape for In-Space Repair

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111-1522

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ronald Allred
adherenttech@earthlink.net
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque,  NM 87111-1522

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has numerous requirements for in-space repair capabilities to aid future missions beyond earth orbit. A subset of these requirements is adhesive patch materials that provide permanent or temporary repair of a wide variety of surfaces with minimal surface preparation. Prior work on light (UV and visible) curing composite matrix resins for rigidizing inflatable spacecraft shows that there is an opportunity to use similar technology for in-space repair kits. Light curing provides a controlled, clean, low power rigidization technology to harden repair patches. Rapid cure at low temperatures (-20?aC) has been demonstrated with these specialty resins. They are also low outgassing, 100 percent solids materials with no hazardous ingredients. Repair kits for light-curing tape can be tailored for a wide range of applications. This concept for !?structural duct tape!? provides a means of producing glass fabric repair patches impregnated with safe, visible light-curing resins that cure rapidly with low power using hand held light emitting diode (LED) arrays or similar light sources. The tape will be housed in a light and radiation resistant, easy to use dispenser. A companion battery powered LED array will complete the kit. Surface cleaning materials can also be included.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These in-space repair kits will provide a means to repair a variety of materials under a wide range of conditions including in vacuum at low temperatures. These epoxy-based composite patches will have good adhesion characteristics and may replace multiple repair technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This novel repair technology is expected to find large consumer and industrial markets. The convenience of forming structural repairs with a rapid, safe, low power system will find applications with professionals and do-it-yourselfers alike.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tools
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Composites


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.04-9861
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Environment Monitoring and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Process and Tool Support for Ontology-Aware Life Support System Development and Integration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Margaret Lyell
mlyell@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville,  MD 20855-2785

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Recent advances in ontology development support a rich description of entities that are modeled within a domain and how these entities relate to each other. However, even with ontology information, interoperability of a (sub-) system with other systems remains a serious issue. Interoperability issues may arise when two sub-systems that had not been designed as a unit must now work together. Interoperability issues also arise when extensions to a sub-system result in conflicts with the remainder of the system. In this work, we target (sub-) systems pertinent to advanced life support that are developed using software agent technology. Our innovation is to develop an ontology-aware meta-model to support designers and developers in exposing the information that must be captured in order to achieve the goal of 'designing for interoperability, extensibility, and re-use'. Additionally, the meta-model will be integrated into the agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) design process. Even beyond development of the meta-model and methodology for coupling into the design process, we propose to develop tool support so that the meta-model can be easily utilized within the design process. The success of this innovative meta-model, process, and tool, will support agent-based software re-use and rapid, trouble-free integration of upgraded sub-system components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
IAI's proposed effort is relevant to any NASA applications that involve agent ?based system design. Our work involves not only ontology-aware meta-model development and improvements on the agent ?oriented design process to include ontology inputs, but also tool development. As such, it supports NASA needs for quickly developing, verifying, extending, and integrating agent systems built for any application that requires autonomy. A compelling example of such applications is the Advanced Life Support system for space exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Recently, IAI has released its commercial software agent platform, CybeleProTM. As a result of the work we are proposing to do in this SBIR effort, IAI will be able to develop a new ontology- aware, interoperability supporting tool for design and development of software agent systems. We plan to develop this tool (MASI) so that it can be used in conjunction with our soon-to-be-commercialized DIVA tool that supports agent protocol development and verification. We will package MASI as a 'plug-in' Eclipse, a popular freeware integrated development environment. MASI will be part of and enhance our CybeleProTM. product line.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Requirements and Architectures


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.05-9569
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Food Provisioning and Biomass
PROPOSAL TITLE: Transmission and Distribution of Photosymthetically Active Radiation (PAR) for Biomass Production in Exploration Missions [7216-050]

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Sciences, Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Takashi Nakamura
nakamura@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Center
Andover,  MA 01810-1077

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a plant lighting system which collects, transmits and distributes photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for biomass production in planetary and transit missions. In this system, solar light or electric lamp light is collected by reflector optics and focused at the end of an optical fiber cable. The light is filtered by a selective wavelength filter to reject the non-PAR spectra to minimize heat generation within the plant growth chamber. The PAR spectra are transmitted to the plant growth chamber where the light is uniformly distributed over the plant growth area at optimum intensities. Key features of the proposed system are: (1) the PAR can be transmitted via a flexible optical fiber cable to plants away from the light source; (2) only the PAR will be transmitted to the plant, minimizing the thermal loading in the plant growth chamber, while the non-PAR spectra can be converted to electricity by means of low band-gap PV cells; (3) the low profile light diffuser makes more volume available for plant growth; and (4) the electric light source can be chosen for the best system efficiency and can be placed at the location best suited for thermal control.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed plant lighting system can be used for the plant growth chamber on-board spacecraft such as Mars transit vehicle, or for the plant growth facility of a Lunar or Mars colony. The proposed system will deliver PAR to the plant growth chamber at a high efficiency with little parasitic heating. This system can be combined with both a solar collector system (reducing power demand) and an electric light source (for when sunlight is not available) to maximize system specific productivity (ESM of product divided by plant system ESM).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed plant lighting system can be used for household, commercial, or industrial lighting. In addition, industry and educational institutions that are currently using electric lamps for plant lighting will likely deploy the proposed system. The inherent advantages of this system, e.g., energy efficiency, low plant chamber heating, and compactness of the lighting panel are well suited for such commercial applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomass Production and Storage
Biomedical and Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.05-9623
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Food Provisioning and Biomass
PROPOSAL TITLE: ElastiGlass Barrier Film and Food Processing Techniques for the 3-to-5 Year Shelf-Stable Food Package

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451-1016

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Kovar
bkovar@infoscitex.com
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham,  MA 02451-1016

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current interests within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) foresee extension of exploratory space missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Realization of these targets will require development of a range of advanced technologies including life support systems. Food represents one of the most crucial components of life support, as the ability to supply safe, nutritious and organoleptically pleasing meals to space flight personnel for the duration of their mission will be of paramount importance in maintaining crew functionality and morale. In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, Infoscitex Corporation will develop an advanced barrier film, ElastiGlass, which will enable 3-to-5 year shelf life, with the added benefit of reducing the logistic burdens associated with waste handling, and minimizing package weight and storage space requirements. Follow-on efforts will focus on the development of food preparation and packaging processes that will ensure near zero oxygen content within the sealed food pouch. Specific benefits of ElastiGlass thermostabilized food pouches will include: increased shelf-life (3 to 5 years), reduced weight, reduced waste, zero metal content, and optical transparency.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed food packaging solution will find use in any application where extended food shelf-life is of interest. The technology will be of significant interest for manned expeditions to the Moon, Mars, and other bodies within the solar system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed food packaging solution may find interest in military field-feeding operations (i.e. MRE and UGR). The zero metal content of the packaging solution may increase interests within the DoD, as the increased energy content of the packaging will increase potential energy output of waste-to-energy conversion technologies currently under consideration. Civilian applications may include emergency response food stockpile and personal emergency food supplies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomass Production and Storage
Biomedical and Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.05-9790
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Food Provisioning and Biomass
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanomaterials-Based Water and Moisture Impermeable Barrier for Food Packaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
INNOSENSE LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505-5245

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Uma Sampathkumaran
uma.sampathkumaran-1@innosense.us
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance,  CA 90505-5245

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this project is to develop flexible food packaging materials with an effective barrier against oxygen and moisture. This technology will build on sol-gel core competency of the company, which has been expanded under NASA funding. In this Phase I project, InnoSense LLC (ISL), in collaboration with Professor Melvin Pascall at Ohio State University, will demonstrate the potential of ISL's nanomaterials-based barrier technology in NASA space exploration. The Phase I project would demonstrate: (a) that flexible thin film barrier layers can be deposited onto polymeric substrates and can be adhesively bonded to a polypropylene layer for flexible food packaging applications, (b) achievement of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) < than 0.001 g/m2-day and oxygen transmission rate (OTR) < than 0.001 cc/m2-day for the flexible thin-film barrier. The focus of Phase II will be optimization of the barrier architecture, and the evaluation of prototype flexible pouches for their mechanical and barrier layer properties after retorting, a process typically used to package reheatable foods in flexible packaging applications. To assure success of this project, ISL has assembled a technical team with a cumulative 60 person-years of experience in specialty coatings, polymers and packaging areas.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For long duration space exploration missions, crew members will find food whose natural characteristics are well preserved more appealing for consumption. Packaging materials that offer an effective barrier against oxygen and moisture for maintaining food quality also offer a secondary benefit ? boosting of the short-term behavior and morale of the crew. Appealing food has a proven effect on physiological factors such as appetite, alertness, relaxation, and cognitive skills. Cognitive skills and alertness are crucial during an extravehicular engineering task. Another area of importance that would be met by the proposed packaging materials is in solid waste management within the spacecraft. Currently waste is collected and stored in bags that act as environmental barriers to prevent the escape of noxious odors into the crew habitat. These issues are addressed by ISL's flexible, nanomaterials-based water and oxygen impermeable barrier technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Current consumer trends bode well for companies able to develop packaging materials that keep food natural while tasting good. The overall demand for packaged food items experienced a rise of nearly 14% annually to 3,200 units worldwide in 2003. Simmons Market Research Bureau data show that over half of adults (51%) like the trend toward healthier eating, and this trend?combined with tremendous consumer demand for convenience and the desire for more flavorful foods, including premium and gourmet offerings?is driving foodservice and retail sales across many breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack food categories in many retail and foodservice venues. Other application areas of the ISL technology include conformal barriers for flexible electronics, in particular display applications like OLED market, transparent conducting oxide and electrochromic oxide thin film technologies. Military applications include flexible electronics, hard coatings, electromagnetic shields and anti-static surface layers.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Thermal Insulating Materials
Biomass Production and Storage
Biomedical and Life Support
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Portable Life Support
General Public Outreach
K-12 Outreach
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Microgravity
Composites
Optical & Photonic Materials
Organics/Bio-Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Energy Storage
Photovoltaic Conversion
Renewable Energy


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.05-9849
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Food Provisioning and Biomass
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Ethylene Sensor for Plant Health

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Pilgrim
jpilgrim@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-8136

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future long-duration manned space flights will rely upon onboard production facilities to grow and produce food throughout the mission. Because the lives of the mission participants will depend upon successful agricultural and horticultural practices, it is imperative to provide them with sophisticated diagnostic tools with which to assure success. Continuous real-time monitoring of gaseous species in the ambient environment is required. There are several gases vital to this application including ethylene, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. Vista Photonics proposes to develop a rugged, real-time, 15 parts-per-billion (ppb) gaseous ethylene analyzer, ultimately compatible with space flight. The sensor technology developed on this project will be further capable of high-performance detection of additional trace gases including moisture and plant respiratory oxygen and carbon dioxide.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Detection of multiple gaseous species in plant production facilities onboard spacecraft. Detection of SMACs critical to spacecraft habitability. Monitoring trace species in air revitalization processes and waste handling facilities. Measurement of terrestrial trace atmospheric species during airborne measurement campaigns. Leak detection during space vehicle launch operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Contaminant monitoring in process gas streams in the chemical and microelectronics industries. Medical diagnosis through detection of biogenic gases in human breath that correlate to specific pathologies. Environmental monitoring and regulatory compliance in agriculture, power production, and occupational safety.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Air Revitalization and Conditioning
Biomass Production and Storage
Biochemical
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.06-9638
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Habitation Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Intelligent Ventilation Noise Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keehoon Kim
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address NASA needs for quiet crew volumes in a space habitat, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Adaptive Intelligent Ventilation Noise Control (AIVNC) system to reduce acoustic noise and vibration inside the crew living quarters. The proposed AIVNC is based on multifrequency active patches as a thin-skin-type actuator inside the ventilation system, and an intelligent adapting module instantly and continuously suppresses broadband noise in crew rest areas. The AIVNC active adapting module provides actuation signals to the multifrequency active patches by means of real-time intelligent adaptation to time-varying noise sources. The AIVNC multiple-modal actuation array targeting different frequency ranges enables users to perform fast active adaptation for acoustic noise suppression in a space habitat with an easy retrofit capability. In Phase I POC will demonstrate both the feasibility of AIVNC by testing active actuation patches, and an intelligent adapting model including an optimized system configuration and methodology. In Phase II POC plans to implement AIVNC into a fast, compact, standalone board with a complete actuator subsystem for precise acoustical control.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As an effective means of controlling structural/acoustic noise, POC's AIVNC adaptive active control technology will have myriad NASA space applications in addition to habitat noise suppression. The AIVNC system can be incorporated, for example, into the acquisition, targeting, and pointing stabilizer to reduce structural and acoustic noise/vibration, including aerodynamic noise such as future civil tiltrotor noise, and both rotary and fixed-wing aircraft noise for UAVs; space applications such as SBL, ABL, space-based mirrors; high-altitude balloon experiments; and advanced high-energy lasers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our AIVNC technology can address a wide range of large, exceptionally rich, and diverse markets in the aerospace industry, including cabin and cockpit noise cancellation and fuselage vibration. Because of its flexibility and adaptability, an intelligent active control system based on AIVNC technology can be implemented into any noise or vibration controller. It will allow aeroacoustic noise in civilian aircraft and exterior noise during takeoff and landing to be suppressed, and will reduce fan discharge noise propagation.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Pilot Support Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.07-7968
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Water and Waste Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pilot-Scale Oxidation Catalysts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Environmental and Life Support Tech.
6600 E. Lookout Drive
Parker, CO 80138-0770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cliff Jolly
cdjels@aol.com
6600 E. Lookout Drive
Parker,  CO 80138-0770

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Catalytic oxidation of contaminants in air and water remains a key unit operation available to NASA. Its advantages include production of high-quality effluents, good microbial control, and extremely low expendable rates. Extensive research by both NASA and industry demonstrates an order of magnitude more activity for catalysts supported on carbon versus any other support. Carbon supported noble metal catalysts have previously shown susceptibility to physical degradation (due to shear forces and metal leaching) and chemical degradation (by oxidation of solid carbon). Previous studies have demonstrated that at small (bench) scale, physically robust catalysts can be manufactured that could provide a significant advancement in performance. The purpose of this effort is to accomplish several innovations that will allow the catalysts to be produced at a scale that is suitable for direct integration into NASA's water processor hardware.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology has immediate application to provide post-processing capabilities in numerous water recovery systems under development. The technology is highly desirable for integration into both physical/chemical and biological processes. The technology also has applications in contaminant removal from air streams, and has the potential to allow much lower operating temperatures and consequent energy savings in TCCS applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A great deal of effort is being committed by industry to develop advanced catalyst support technology. This technology has been identified by two major industrial polymer and specialty chemical manufacturing companies as having high potential for application to at least five processes with annual product sales in excess of $100M each. Industry partnership documentation is included in this proposal.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Waste Processing and Reclamation
Portable Life Support


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.07-8928
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Water and Waste Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Technology for Simultaneous TOC Reduction and Biofouling Prevention

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840-4027

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Tennakoon
charles.tennakoon@lynntech.com
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station,  TX 77840-4027

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Long-duration space missions such as the upcoming Moon and Mars missions require reliable systems for the preparation of potable water through efficient recycling, and prevention of biofilm growth on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and water lines. Lynntech, Inc. proposes a novel technology to simultaneously reduce the total organic carbon (TOC) content of biological water processor (BWP) processed water, and control biofilm formation on water lines, surfaces and membranes within the water reclamation unit utilized on board spacecraft and within future planetary habitats. This technology is based on Lynntech's proprietary electrochemical on demand oxidizer generator, which does not require consumable chemicals. The on-demand produced oxidizer can be added to the primary processed water from the BWP unit. Using this innovative approach in the form of a compact TOC and microbial count (MC) reduction module which will be situated in line with the BWP unit, Lynntech aims to achieve an order of magnitude reduction in the TOC content within the BWP processed water. The residual oxidizer/disinfectant and reduced TOC will prevent the formation of biofilms on the RO membrane and water lines and will reduce the equivalent system mass by lowering the load on equipment downstream to the BWP, enabling a reduction in their size and weight. Phase I work will concentrate on providing proof-of-concept for the technology while Phase II will involve the fabrication of a prototype TOC and MC reduction module and its integration with the Integrated Advanced Water Recovery Test System operational at NASA-JSC.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The directly relevant NASA application includes a compact TOC and MC reduction module, which can be integrated into the water reclamation systems on board future planetary and lunar habitats, to more efficiently provide clean drinking water. Possible additional NASA applications include low microbial count water to support future hydroponic crop system growth, and for disinfecting spacecraft and habitat surfaces.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
TOC and MC reduction modules can be used for biofouling remediation and prevention by incorporation into water processing and supply plants where RO membranes are used. Home drinking water disinfection. Disinfection of fresh produce directly using H2O2 generated in situ.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.07-9070
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Water and Waste Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microgravity Compatible Gas-Liquid Separation using Capillary Pressure Gradients

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Umpqua Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Atwater
jatwater@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek,  OR 97457-0102

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An innovative microgravity and hypogravity compatible Gas-Liquid Separator (GLS) is proposed. This novel GLS consists of an ordered array of variable sized water repellant granular particles that result in a spatial surface energy density gradient within the GLS. The resultant capillary pressure causes gas and water to flow toward different outlet GLS positions. The device contains no moving parts and is compatible with deployment in a variety of NASA ALS and ECLSS applications. Preliminary experiments, conducted in a vertically oriented quasi two-dimensional system, separated an air-water mixture using the proposed technology. The capillary pressure gradient within the GLS caused a flowing gas-water mixture to separate into a gas-enriched stream and a water stream. The gas-enriched stream exited at the bottom of the GLS, counter to the buoyancy force, and the water stream exited at the top of the GLS. This flow response clearly demonstrates microgravity compatibility. The Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of this innovative GLS technology. The Phase II program will deliver to NASA a full-scale GLS with test documentation that will allow evaluation of the technology for specific ALS or ECLSS applications. This technology demonstrator will also form the basis for multiple commercial applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA application is as Flight Hardware for an ISS retrofit or future long duration missions. The GLS technology has potential applications wherever two-phase gas-liquid flows occur, such as in physico-chemical or biological water treatment systems; water production via the Sabatier, Bosch, or Reverse Water Gas Shift reactors; oxygen generation assemblies; condensing heat exchangers; input streams to chemical sensors; and internal and external thermal control coolant loops. In addition to these ECLSS and ALS applications, the technology may also be employed to perform gas-liquid separations for In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) systems where water is produced from Martian atmospheric CO2.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Gas-Liquid Separation systems for use with microfluidic devices may be incorporated into a variety of Microelectromechanical (MEMS) and Microelectrochemical (MECS) systems. In microscale systems, capillary forces predominate, and buoyancy, which can be used for gas-liquid separations in larger scale systems, is often not effective. Potential MEMS and MECS devices incorporating the novel GLS technology include fuel cells, microreactors, and microscale sensors. Macro-scale applications include GLS systems for the removal of extremely small bubbles from turbulent two-phase flow regimes, and for phase separation in textile and chemical production industries where foaming is often a serious problem.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomedical and Life Support
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X12.07-9723
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Life Support: Water and Waste Processing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor (DMP WaPR)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corp
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yonghui Ma
may@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53717-1961

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor offers significant improvements over existing water purification technologies used in Advanced Life Support systems such as bioreactors, catalysts, and membrane based systems. Evaluation of water contaminated with bacteria and plasma-treated indicates that, prior to any optimization of the DMP reactor, contamination levels can be reduced by up to 99.9%. Organic contaminant concentrations (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene) can be reduced below the detectable range. The DMP reactor is more energy efficient than other Advanced Oxidation Techniques and does not contain expendable materials or produce toxic side products. The atmospheric-pressure plasma is initiated and sustained through a large number of micro-discharges between a rotating pin-array electrode and a stationary electrode. The plasma breaks down organic compounds via the generation of OH? and H? free radicals through interaction at the gas-liquid boundary. The DMP reactor uses non-equilibrium, low temperature, atmospheric-pressure plasmas for the volume-plasma-processing of liquid-phase compounds (water-based solutions). This Partial Discharge (PD) plasma is considered a highly localized electrical discharge produced across an insulating medium, typically between two electrodes. Characteristics of a PD are highly dependent upon electrode geometry and operational parameters and, therefore, require significant research for optimization into a NASA ALS setting.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The DMP WaPR has direct applicability to NASA ALS needs including substitution for the current Catalytic Reactor. This substitution would eliminate the need for high pressure and temperature controls within the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and, therefore, should decrease system mass, volume and power, and increase system reliability. Such a technology and capability substitution would be applicable to the crew exploration vehicle (CEV) and other early exploration developments. Additionally, the DMP WaPR is a highly efficient and scaleable technology for scale-up to Lunar and Mars long duration missions with no expendable materials. Its scalability also makes it an excellent candidate for a wide range of life support applications from temporary habitats and small payloads to large-scale habitats.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The scalability of the DMP WaPR allows for easy use for household, office, industrial, laboratory or hospital, and food processing industries' Point-Of-Entry (POE) or Point-Of-Use (POU) water purification at relatively low energy expenditure with high purification results. Additionally, this technology could be used for medium and large scale applications such as municipal water treatment systems and portable to semi-portable water purification systems for the military (e.g., field use by the Army, Navy and Marines for hospitals), Homeland Security, and disaster relief, and submarine, ship, and aircraft potable supplies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Waste Processing and Reclamation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X13.01-7946
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Human Factors Engineering
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Automated Evaluation and Critiquing Aid for User Interface Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SIFT, LLC
211 N. First St., Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401-1476

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Miller
cmiller@sift.info
211 N. First St., Suite 300
Minneapolis,  MN 55401-1476

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We will leverage our prior work on Adaptive Information Management (AIM) to provide a core reasoning capability usable in a diverse set of tools to aid and assist in the review, design, evaluation and management of user interfaces (UIs). We have a task-linked information representation and associated algorithms for reasoning about the information needs of a set of user tasks, the information presentation capabilities of a set of devices and formats, and the degree of match between the two. These have served as the basis of multiple, successful AIM systems in the past, but within highly restricted domains. The proposed project will explore methods and required modifications for moving our core representation in innovative direction-?making it more interactive and subject to user guidance, applicable to a set of contexts of use rather than a current usage "slice", and capable of providing aiding across a broader set of domains. Substantial modifications to our core task representation and several new critiquing modules will likely be needed. Their design will open the doors for a variety of types of Multi-modal Aids for Interface Design (MAIDs). In particular, the proposed project will focus on designing a tool to evaluate human-designed procedure execution displays against users' tasks needs, and provide design feedback and advice.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA market for a tool for the evaluation of procedure execution interface designs includes manned mission contexts, such as Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) missions; ground operations; maintenance; and space station operations. The tool will enhance crew effectiveness, efficiency, autonomy, and safety by improving procedure execution support through the use of well-formed supporting displays generated under user control but with substantial knowledge and expertise applied to review, support and critiquing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our MAID tool will facilitate the design and integration of procedure execution displays in a wide variety of military and commercial applications, including aviation, power generation, refinery operations, manufacturing operations, and medical domains. It will greatly reduce the costs of creating such displays, and will improve their usability. We have current contacts with multiple larger commercial organizations who could make use of such tools-- most notably the Abnormal Situation Management consortium of companies collaborating in oil and gas refinery safety research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Training Concepts and Architectures
Pilot Support Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X14.01-8338
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space-Based Industries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simulating Emerging Space Industries with Agent-Based Modeling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spaceworks Engineering, Inc.(SEI)
1200 Ashwood Parkway, Suite 506
Atlanta, GA 30338-4747

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
A.C. Charania
ac@sei.aero
1200 Ashwood Parkway, Suite 506
Atlanta,  GA 30338-4747

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) calls for encouraging commercial participation as a top-level objective. Given current and future commercial activities, how should the government satisfy this objective? How can simulation of future companies determine the most likely to emerge? This innovation seeks to answer such questions envisioning a diverse set of four possible future space companies (orbital habitats/hotels, orbital tourist delivery, propellant depots, lunar excursion tourism, and lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization), examining their business case in spreadsheet-based models (both deterministically and probabilistically), modeling them in a higher fidelity agent-based modeling (ABM) environment (that is new to the aerospace industry but has been used by the authors of the proposal), determining the impact on a company's financial bottom-line, and finding potential cost savings to the government of using those products and services in future space exploration activities. Phase I will entail basic research of each of the four of case studies (or companies) as they are referred to here, spreadsheet-based modeling and analysis of each case study, and preliminary definition of the behaviors required for agent-based modeling. Phase II will entail development of a high fidelity, agent-based model of each company, their competitors, and their customers (commercial and the government).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The effect of government actions can be modeled to provide clarity as to the appropriate actions to meet the commercialization objectives of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). This innovation could also be helpful to any innovative program acquisition activity that the government wishes to develop. Examples of this include venture capital arms of the government similar to the Central Intelligence Agency's In-Q-Tel or the nascent NASA Headquarters-based Innovative Programs Office currently being managed by Brant Sponberg.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There is potential within this innovation for the commercial industry to be able to guide its strategic decisions based upon quantitative analysis. They will be able to judge the impact of future scenarios given potential actions on the part of competitors, customers, and the government.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Software Development Environments
General Public Outreach


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I X14.01-9184
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space-Based Industries
PROPOSAL TITLE: Telerobotic Satellite Servicing for Space System Life Extension and Performance Enhancement

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AeroAstro, Inc.
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn, VA 20147-3373

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brook Sullivan
brook.sullivan@aeroastro.com
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn,  VA 20147-3373

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
By examining the occurrence rates and types of actual on-orbit failures, a failure servicing industry can be projected. Similarly, by examining the lifetimes of working or recently retired spacecraft, a lifetime extension servicing market can be characterized. By examining actual historic servicing opportunities and combining this information with consideration of operational uncertainties, it is possible to define a set of servicers that range from low to high in mass, required servicing capability, lifetime risk to the serviced spacecraft, and potential economic return. This knowledge in turn will show how a set of increasingly capable servicers can establish an economically viable on-orbit telerobotic satellite servicing industry. Development of servicer design requirements will serve to identify key technologies. The applicability of these commercial capabilities to Exploration related assets and missions will also be examined.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include failure mitigation and lifetime extension of high value assets for both current and Exploration related orbital assets. Extension of these initial capabilities could include on-orbit assembly of Lunar or Mars bound vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA commercial applications include failure mitigation of such mission-threatening anomalies as incorrect initial orbit delivery, deployment anomalies, ORU failure, and others. Lifetime extension services include relocation services, retirement services, refueling, critical component replacement, ORU level upgrades and others.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Manipulation
Teleoperation
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems



PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S1.01-8252
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detection and Reduction of Biological Contamination on Flight Hardware
PROPOSAL TITLE: Constant-Energy Synchronous Probe for Surface Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
EIC Laboratories, Inc.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062-2612

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Job Bello
bello@eiclabs.com
EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey Street
Norwood,  MA 02062-2612

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During the next decade, NASA intends to send robotic exploration missions to Mars and other planets. Missions are planned to obtain samples from Mars and return them to earth for studies and to other planets to gather evidence for the existence of life. An important goal of NASA in these missions is to ensure that technologies are in place to safeguard against terrestrial microbial contaminations of the planets from robotic space vehicles and also to prevent nonterrestrial microbial or other foreign compound contaminations of the Earth from collected samples and returned space vehicles. Thus, each mission will require that space vehicles (landers and orbiters) be sterilized and sanitized for microbial and organic contaminations before launching to space and when returned to Earth. Sensitive detection techniques are thus needed to validate the effectiveness of the sterilization process. We propose to develop a handheld surface-monitoring instrument based on constant-energy synchronous fluorescence (CESF) spectroscopy. Like conventional fluorescence, CESF has excellent sensitivity but with the added feature of narrower spectral bandwidth resulting in improved selectivity. The instrument that will be developed in this program will have the unique capabilities of in situ quantification and identification of microbial and organic contaminations of surfaces.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The CESF surface detection instrument will be useful to NASA in the identification of contaminated parts in spacecrafts and robotics. The instrument will also find applications in the validation of cleaning protocols of space vehicles and robotics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
One commercial target of the CESF surface detection instrument will be in the cleanliness validation of manufacturing equipments in the food industry, chemical industry, and the pharmaceutical industry, where safeguards must be in placed to prevent contaminants (microbial or foreign chemicals in nature) from entering the finished products. Another application of the instrument will be in environmental monitoring, such as in situ detection and identification of oil spills or other hazardous chemicals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S1.03-8998
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide-Bandwidth, Ultra-Accurate, Composite Inertial Reference Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Technology Associates
1300 Britt Street SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123-3353

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Darren Laughlin
laughlin@aptec.com
1300 Britt Street SE
Albuquerque,  NM 87123-3353

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to develop a new inertial sensor by combining two sensing phenomena in a single device. ATA has patented an advanced inertial sensing technology based on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Numerous researchers have patented and developed micro-electromechanical sensors (MEMS) that measures inertial angular motions. We believe that a composite sensor based on the best characteristics of both of these technologies is a promising new advancement. Our innovation is denoted the Hybrid Sensor (HYSENS) owing to its origins in two distinct inertial angle rate sensing principles. The MHD technology offers wide bandwidth, high sensitivity, with reasonable size and power. The MEMS offers small size and power. Initial analysis done by ATA and our MEMS technology partners indicates that it is possible to achieve performance goals that are at or near the state-of-the-art for inertial reference sensors. The proposed composite sensor fulfills the need for lightweight, compact, high-precision, high-bandwidth (0-2KHz) inertial reference sensors for use onboard spacecraft with optical communications payloads. The predicted noise performance for HYSENS is less than 0.1 microrad. Volume for this advanced sensor is expected to be under 2 cubic in; its weight under 150 grams; and its power draw under 200 mW.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate NASA application for which the HYSENS is proposed is in the context of an inertial reference sensor for long range optical telecommunication. In this application, the inertial reference sensor is used as a feedback sensor to guide the telecommunications receiver or transmitter to the correct orientation that allows a small laser beam to be received at the opposite terminal of the link. There are many other NASA applications in which a precise, small, and low-cost inertial attitude sensor is a requirement. Ones that come immediately to mind are precise pointing and stabilization of large aperture imaging telescopes. Spacecraft attitude determination and control is another area of widespread application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Department of Defense (DoD) also has many applications in which HYSENS will fit a broad range of applications. DoD is actively pursuing transformational communication technologies that need space, airborne, and ground nodes (transmitter/receiver sets) to acquire and stabilize laser communication links. A small, low-cost, but accurate inertial reference is a priority technology for these systems. High energy laser (HEL) systems for military missions in a number of categories are being actively pursued, many of which require a high quality inertial reference sensor. Defense technology for protecting aircraft against man portable air defense missiles (manpads), for instance, is benefited by precise, low-cost inertial reference sensors. More mundane applications such as stabilization of video cameras on helicopter or ground vehicles are also a user of inertial reference sensors.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Laser
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S1.03-9149
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Miniaturized Adaptive Optic Device for Optical Telecommunications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Crystal Research, Inc.
48501 Warm Springs Blvd., Suite 103
Fremont, CA 94539-7750

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Suning Tang
tang.suning@cresearch.net
48501 Warm Springs Blvd., Suite 103
Fremont, CA 94539,  CA 94539-7750

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To advance the state-of-the-art uplink laser communication technology, new adaptive optic beam compensation techniques are needed for removing various time-varying atmospheric disturbances on an uplink laser beam. The net effect of atmospheric wavefront turbulence produces degraded laser beam quality and limited data transfer rates and communication range. Crystal Research, Inc. proposes to develop a new type miniaturized adaptive optic device that is capable of removing all significant atmospheric turbulence distortions. The proposed device is based on electro-optic phase modulation in a single crystal substrate through electro-optic effect. By avoiding actuator systems associated with moving mirrors, the proposed innovation not only significantly reduces cost, size, weight, and power consumption, but also greatly enhances the system performance and reliability. The superior parameters of the proposed device could enable meeting the stated NASA mission goals of boosting data transfer rates in optical communication by a factor of 10-100 relative to the current state of the art. The new capabilities of the proposed adaptive optic device could lead to important advances in deep space and other optical communication systems. In Phase I, we will fully exploit the advantages and feasibility of the proposed concept by demonstrating critical component technologies in laboratory breadboard experiments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed adaptive optic device has the potential to become the device of choice for such NASA applications as uplink optical communication technologies, satellite to ground, networking formation flying spacecraft, and several others. All of these applications currently desire to equip with cost effective high performance adaptive optic devices. The capabilities enabled by the proposed device could significantly expand the use of optical communication solutions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to uplink optical communications, the proposed adaptive optic device could be modified for optical imaging sensors, airborne laser systems and commercial LIDAR. Because of better performance parameters in a miniaturized structure, they could, for example, replace such current solutions as deformable mirrors and MEMS mirrors. This represents a very significant commercial market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S1.03-9511
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range Optical Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Counting at 1064 nm

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Lightwave, Inc.
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury, NJ 08512-3509

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Itzler
mitzler@princetonlightwave.com
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury,  NJ 08512-3509

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The need for higher performance fiber optic telecommunications receivers has provided the impetus for substantial progress during the last decade in the understanding and performance of InP-based linear mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs) for the wavelength range from 1.0 to 1.7 um. However, these advances have not been paralleled in the performance and availability of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) based on similar design and materials platforms. Moreover, the vast majority of the activity in this field has been focused on optimizing devices for telecommunications wavelengths in the vicinity of 1550 nm, and there has been very little work on devices for use at 1064 nm. For this SBIR program, we propose to apply innovative design concepts for the development of high performance SPADs optimized for 1064 nm applications. In particular, we will implement a novel bandgap engineering approach to tailor the SPAD avalanche gain properties to realize higher single photon detection efficiency while maintaining the very low dark count rates that are made possible by optimizing the absorption region design for the detection of 1064 nm photons. We will also apply design concepts that we have innovated during the course of developing state-of-the-art 1550 nm SPADs that involve optimization of the device electric profile for photon counting as well as epitaxial layer compositions. These efforts will culminate in 1064 nm large area detectors (with active area diameters up to 500 um) that demonstrate feasibility in meeting SPAD performance targets including 50% detection efficiency, bandwidth of 500 MHz, saturation levels of 50 Mcounts/s, and non-gated operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are two primary NASA applications for the high performance InP-based 1064 nm SPADs to be developed during this proposed SBIR program. First, free-space optical communications to support space missions requires receivers based on single photon detection, and improved SPADs developed in the context of this program will benefit NASA efforts to demonstrate and deploy high-speed laser communication links between spacecraft and earth terminals. Second, active remote sensing optical instruments require higher performance SPADs to improve the performance of existing direct detection doppler lidar systems that make use of aerosol backscattering at 1064 nm.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial applications that will benefit from the development of high-performance large-area 1064 nm SPADs. Range-finding and ladar applications present opportunities that encompass both single element detectors for remote sensing and ranging and high performance photon counting detector arrays to obtain three-dimensional imaging. Just as NASA is pursuing free space optical links at 1064 nm, commercial FSO systems will be able to leverage improvements realized from the development of large area 1064 nm SPADs for photon-starved free space links such as those required in satellite communcations. As with NASA remote sensing applications, there are commercial applications for improved SPADs in various types of lidar systems for measuring atmospheric properties such as wind and weather patterns, air pollution, and general trace gas analysis. Finally, high-performance photon counting capability in the near-infrared is desirable for the detection of low light output fluorescence, photoluminescence and photoemission processes. Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biomedical applications, and the availability of higher performance SPADs at 1064 nm will be critical to enabling techniques at this wavelength.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Perception/Sensing
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S1.04-7756
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Entry, Descent and Landing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Ground Mapping LADAR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Systems & Processes Engineering Corp
101 W. 6th Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701-2932

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brad Sallee
sallee@spec.com
101 W. 6th Street, Suite 200
Austin,  TX 78701-2932

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
System & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a miniature solid state surface imaging LADAR, for imaging the landing areas providing precision surface profile and range to impact. The LADAR utilizes an advanced hybridized detector Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) single chip solution that supports an integrated detector and ROIC configuration enabling a single chip LADAR receiver solution capable of operating at multiple wavelengths. This single chip receiver is combined with multiple laser diodes to give a miniature flash LADAR with high frame rates, 3mm range accuracy, low power draw and small data frames (100x smaller than typical LIDARS). The LADAR provides the range and amplitude of the first three targets encountered in each pixel, giving the ability to detect subpixel rocks and craters without overwhelming data rates or image processing. The integrated Micro Channel Plate (MCP) allows ultra high receiver sensitivity, with high gain and wavelength flexibility by changing the photo cathode materials. The use of a MCP with CMOS chip anode pickup pixels, allows the chip to be vertically integrated using a standard CMOS process, the pickup anode on the top layer, the sample and holds and amplifiers below.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Terrain Hazard Detection for Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems. The MGML system will provide a real-time three-dimensional terrain mapping capability to allow for terrain hazard detection approaches during parachute descent and powered terminal descent. The MGML system will be an enabling component of future planetary surface and airborne explorations. Autonomous Vehicles Performing Remote Spacecraft Inspections. The use of a MGML by astronauts in extravehicular activity (EVA) or by autonomous vehicles performing spacecraft inspections greatly increases operational safety while improving collision avoidance between the imaging platform and spacecraft being inspected. A display of the three dimensional shape, not distorted by perceived shadows or patterns, allows detection of unspecified changes in objects being inspected under diverse or changing lighting/viewing conditions to be easily interpreted. The MGML is compact, low power, and produces a depth map of the scene, which supports a free flying, remotely controlled imaging platform for various NASA remote inspection applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many DOD UGV and UAV applications for the MGML system for collision avoidance and to accurately locate and identify objects. Commercial applications for 3D imagers on UGV include robots utilized for bomb identification and disposal, 3D imaging for Police Tactical Units and robots, and 3D imaging for Fire Departments, Search and Rescue, Underground Workers, Construction and Mining. The discrimation capability of the MGML system will provide for the capability to allow for detection.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Mobility
Manipulation
Perception/Sensing
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Laser
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Optical
Manned-Manuvering Units
Photonics
Ceramics
Composites
Computational Materials
Metallics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S1.04-8947
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Entry, Descent and Landing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hypersonic Free-Flight Measurement of Aeroshell Forces and Flowfields

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Complere, Inc.
P.O. Box 541
Pacific Grove, CA 93950-0541

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
F. Kevin Owen
kevin@complereinc.com
P.O. Box 541
Pacific Grove,  CA 93950-0541

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A Hypersonic Gun Tunnel and laser based high speed imaging systems will be used to generate a unique, free flight, aerodynamic data base of potential Mars aeroshell configurations. These experiments will provide reliable bench mark data for CFD code validation and help aerocapture modeling and optimize aeroshell payload and design. The experiments will be conducted at hypersonic Mach numbers in air and in simulated Martian atmospheric test gases and will cover the hypersonic continuum flow regime. The innovative test results will help improve aerocapture analysis and prediction techniques that will lead to reduced deceleration propellant launch weight, increased payload, and improved delivery accuracy. These improved measurement capabilities will greatly enhance U.S. commercial and military competitiveness in aerospace vehicle design and production, and help regain and stimulate a viable customer-testing base, which will help preserve and improve our national wind tunnel testing infrastructure. These new capabilities will provide significant test data improvements, which will greatly enhance our ability to understand the physical flow phenomena associated complex flows over advanced aerospace vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of improved high speed imaging systems for free-flight aerodynamic and non-intrusive flow field measurements for hypersonic flows will contribute to the National Space Program by providing test techniques and data that will help establish a sound technological foundation for the cost effective design of future aerocapture space transfer vehicles. Reliable experimental methods will be essential to the success and cost effectiveness of future space missions. These novel capabilities will have a direct impact on the testing of new military and commercial concepts designed to improve efficiency and performance. These new instrumentation techniques will provide improved measurement accuracy with which to assess the effects of subtle design changes for aerothermodynamic improvements which could otherwise be masked by conventional wind tunnel test techniques. They will help to provide NASA with superior test capabilities at competitive cost and so help attract a viable customer testing base which will be required for cost effective facility operations and vehicle development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
During the twenty-first century, industries will thrive in orbit and in space colonies, with research laboratories and manufacturing plants taking advantage of the microgravity environment and new sources of raw materials. If U.S. companies do not lead these activities, others will, putting the U.S. at a commercially competitive disadvantage. To encourage private investment, we must reduce payload and mission costs. Improved aerocapture technology will help achieve this. To maintain a commercial edge, we must improve aerocapture technology for orbit insertion since it provides significant economic advantages over conventional chemical propulsion methods by reducing vehicle mass and mission pay load cost. The improved experimental techniques developed with SBIR support will contribute to cost-effective aeroshell design techniques for aerocapture entry vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Optical
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S1.05-9677
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sample Return Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microelectromechanical System-Based Internally Unpowered Leak-Pressure Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Evgeni Poliakov
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA need for a miniature pressure-leak sensor, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Microelectromechanical System-based Internally Unpowered Sensor (MEMIUS). Fabrication of MEMIUS involves integration of a small MEMS piezoresistive sensor with proprietary miniature electronics and a novel wireless power transfer mechanism for device power-up and data read-out for a miniature footprint (2 cm x 2 cm x 1 cm, < 20 g weight). MEMIUS can be applied to both nonshielding and metal alloy shielding containers by utilizing inductive coupling with a small, efficient antenna, or a dual-band sensor antenna mounted on metal with a feed-through capacitor. MEMIUS represents an accurate pressure-leak sensor (~0.01 mbar) with no-battery on board electronics. It operates at low-temperatures with remote and efficient wireless power transfer capabilities at variable distances (1-10 m). These specifications are critical to the NASA search for an extremely rugged power efficient pressure sensor less than 5 cu. cm operating from -70 deg. C to +20 deg. C. The proposed MEMIUS thus solves the problems of weight, size, power efficiency, shielding, and electro-magnetic interference. The Phase I effort will demonstrate MEMIUS feasibility, and confirm its ruggedness and sensitivity. In Phase II POC will develop an advanced MEMIUS prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications of the MEMIUS wireless sensor system for NASA will be in situ monitoring of spacecraft structure and integrity, and gas monitoring of in-flight and on-the-ground systems. Since MEMSs can be easily redesigned, other applications include high-temperature and pressure analysis of propulsion systems and chemical mixtures, GPS, and acceleration assessment. Coupled with wireless and external power-up, MEMIUS will be particularly valuable in enhancing the reliability of manned aerospace platforms. Other NASA applications of MEMIUS are automation and diagnostics of satellites and rockets, and sensor networks for analysis of new materials/substances.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MEMIUS compact pressure-leak sensor has significant applications for commercial aircraft, ships, automobiles, gas turbines, the oil and gas industry, and industrial machine processing. Because of its robustness and small size, MEMIUS will be useful in medical sensing (blood pressure analyzers or gas-monitoring capnography), for environmental control (at nuclear waste or chemical sites), and even in home safety systems or to monitor appliances. The successful demonstration of wireless power transfer will lead to a new generation of sensor networks, greatly enhancing sensor capabilities, especially for recently adopted unified data/voice/image telecommunication networks.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manipulation
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Wireless Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.01-7624
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette, CO 80026-2786

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HUGH MASTERSON
HMASTERSON@BNONLINEAR.COM
450 COURTNEY WAY,UNIT 107
LAFAYETTE,  CO 80026-2786

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The present proposal describes the development of an adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), or "Snapshot" spectrometer which can "instantaneously" capture a full 3D data cube. The technology is applicable to hyperspectral imaging for remote sensing of extra-terrestrial planetary bodies and deep space objects. The snapshot capability of the technology makes it possible to capture transient events otherwise inaccessible with conventional pushbroom or whiskbroom imagers. The adaptive component of the innovation is a liquid crystal spatial light modulator which replaces the standard computer generated hologram in this technology. As such it can be rapidly tuned at KHz rates for optimal performance in real time improving the signal to noise ratio and data cube image reconstruction.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential benefits to NASA of the proposed technology lie in the areas of planetary hyperspectral imaging remote sensing, deep space hyperspectral imaging, transient event solar physics and earth based hyperspectral imaging.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications include: Chemical imaging in microbiology, medical science, thermal imaging and remote sensing

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.01-7983
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact High Sensitive Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Instrument

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Applied Technologies, Inc.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801-1721

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Qiushui Chen
qchen@bostonati.com
6F Gill Street
Woburn,  MA 01801-1721

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a versatile tool for in situ substance characterization. Existing LIBS instruments are not compact enough for space applications. Major obstructs for miniaturization are from: high voltage Q-switch based pulse laser, inefficient light collection system and bulky high sensitive array-detection. Based on a revolutionary low-voltage Q-switch technology and high efficient laser delivery and light collection scheme, Boston Applied Technologies proposes to develop an ultra-compact high sensitive LIBS instrument for NASA application. The laser featured fast and dual-pulse Q-switch with low switching voltage, ultra reliable fiber-ring cavity design, and high efficient laser-diode pumping. The low switching voltage also brings the advantage of reducing the complexity of the electronic driver design, which is a big chunk in existing electro-optical or acoustic-optic Q-switching lasers. The required ablation energy can be significantly reduced due to high efficiency of the proposed system. The resultant LIBS instrument will be compact, cost-effective and reliable. It will be capable of withstanding operation in space and planetary environmental extremes, which include temperature, pressure, radiation, and impact stresses.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This very compact LIBS instrument can be space qualified for versatile in situ substance characterization at key places in the solar system, and the return of materials from them for later study on the Earth. It is well suited for many NASA's planned and potential solar system exploration missions, especially for life (water)-finding on other planets and mineralogy analysis of surface and subsurface materials.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This versatile instrument has wide range applications such as environmental hazards analysis, explosive material identification for security, and geochemistry characterization on the Earth etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ablatives
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.01-8127
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized, Low Power Cryogenic Inlet System with Sampling Probes for Titan

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thorleaf Research, Inc.
5552 Cathedral Oaks Road
Santa Barbara, CA 93111-1406

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Holland
pholland@thorleaf.com
5552 Cathedral Oaks Road
Santa Barbara,  CA 93111-1406

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniature, low power cryogenic inlet system with sampling probes for Titan. This addresses a key technology gap for planetary studies, mainly how to acquire and prepare complex cryogenic samples of astrobiology interest for in situ analysis while meeting challenging mass, volume and power constraints. Although miniaturized mass spectrometers and other low power instruments are under development by NASA for in situ measurements, the great potential of such instrumentation for exploration of the Solar System will not be realized without complementary developments in the technology for collecting and preparing samples for analysis. Our proposed approach is designed to collect surface samples at Titan's 94K (-179C) cryogenic temperatures using probe designs both for surface penetration and for collecting dust or particles. The samples, which are presumed to include hydrocarbons, nitriles, tholins and other materials, can then be pyrolysed or otherwise thermally processed to prepare them for chemical analysis by GC/MS, GC/IMS or other techniques. The goal of our proposed SBIR Phase I effort is to demonstrate feasibility for a miniature, low power cryogenic inlet system with sampling probes, and to develop a detailed design for fabricating prototype instrumentation in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future missions to the surface of Titan are likely to depend on Aerorover platforms for mobility. Since aerorover exploration vehicles depend on buoyancy in the atmosphere, this will severely limit payload and stresses the importance of developing new miniaturized, very low mass and power technology for future Titan missions. Thorleaf Research believes it will be possible to develop the proposed cryogenic inlet system with pyrolyser probe at a mass of about 100g, only a few percent of the mass of the Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser system of the Huygens probe. This will provide key enabling technology to help meet needs for future NASA New Frontiers (or other) missions to Titan. Our sampling inlet system will be especially useful when coupled to miniature GC/MS and GC/IMS technology, currently under development at NASA/JPL and NASA/ARC. The modular design also ensures it can be used with other detectors of interest to NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Analysis of commercial instrumentation markets shows that two of the three major growth areas for analytical instrumentation are real-time analysis and environmental monitoring, with projected annual growth rates of more than 15%. Our modular design approach for the low power cryogenic inlet system with sampling probes will help it be adapted for measurement needs in scientific, energy exploration and environmental monitoring applications. Thus, technical developments in the proposed program could have a significant market impact.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Instrumentation
Biochemical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.01-9065
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cavity-Enhanced Gas Analyzer for In-Situ Sampling of Biogenic Gases and Their Isotopes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Manish Gupta
m.gupta@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project concerns the novel application of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy to quantify biogenic gases (CH4, CO2, and NH3) and their isotopes (13C/12C and 18O/16O) on Mars and other future planetary missions. These species and their isotope ratios are of critical importance to NASA, because they have been implicating in biological activity and can provide decisive evidence for a biosphere on other planets. In Phase I, we will demonstrate technical feasibility by building a miniature, lightweight Off-Axis ICOS spectrometer and employing it to accurately quantify biogenic gases and their associated isotopes at concentrations approximating the expected Martian atmosphere. The prototype will be tested under both mechanical vibrations and thermal fluctuations to validate its robustness. Final Phase I work will entail developing a gas sampling strategy suitable for Mars and designing a complete analyzer system. In Phase II, Los Gatos Research will build and deliver this analyzer with a fully-integrated electronics package that satisfies NASA's size, weight, and power requirements for Mars deployment. The proposed instrument will be the first sensor capable of measuring the concentrations and isotopes ratios of critical biogenic gases in a compact, lightweight, and low-power package.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR effort addresses key objectives outlined in NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap, with an emphasis on studying the climate and biosphere on Mars. The proposed analyzer will address these objectives by measuring the CO2 isotope ratio to help develop atmospheric mixing models, while searching for short-lived, biogenic species (e.g. CH4 and NH3). Recent observations have led researchers to speculate that biogenic or thermogenic CH4 seeps must be present on Mars, and their source can be convincingly determined by measuring the CH4 isotope ratio. Similarly, since NH3 is an indicator of life, there also is substantial value in its measurement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Besides its application to NASA, a compact, ultrasensitive gas isotopes analyzer also has significant commercial application. Through a series of strategic partnerships, LGR is developing a suite of analytical instrumentation to measure isotope ratios for medical and petrochemical applications. The proposed work is essential in making these instruments more compact, rugged, and cost competitive, and will thus enlarge the potential market size significantly.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.01-9144
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long Wave Mid-Infrared Source for Trace Gas Sensing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aculight Corporation
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011-8803

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Angus Henderson
angus.henderson@aculight.com
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell,  WA 98011-8803

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Tunable laser spectrometers are used by NASA for investigations of planetary atmospheric constituent gases. The availability of widely tunable long-wavelength (3 to 12?Ym) lasers operating at room temperature would allow such spectrometers to a wider range of gas species detection sensitivity increased by orders-of-magnitude relative to near-infrared lasers currently used in these applications. Aculight proposes to demonstrate a novel mid-infrared laser technology capable of room temperature operation at any wavelength between 2 and 17?Ym. We will demonstrate, for the first time, continuous wave optical parametric oscillation in the new nonlinear material, orientation-patterned Gallium Arsenide (OP-GaAs) and show that it can be pumped by low cost, compact fiber-based sources developed for the telecommunications industry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The key target applications for the laser technology to be developed are in gas sensing and spectroscopy. Future missions to Mars and other planets will carry applications to detect various atmospheric gases including biomarkers indicating the past or present existence of biological activity. Practical mid-infrared lasers will enable more sensitive detection of a wider range of gas species. Such lasers will also be applicable in earth science investigations of tropospheric and stratospheric constituents, in monitoring of air quality in spacecraft habitats and in lidar measurements of wind.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A widely tunable long-wavelength laser source would open up the possibility for a wide range of new spectroscopic and sensor applications which are not possible using existing cryogenically-cooled mid-infrared laser technologies. It meets demand in the spectroscopic market which is currently met only in the near-infrared by external cavity diode lasers. A low-cost mid-infrared source could be applied to industrial process analysis applications such as trace water vapor measurement in semiconductor manufacture. Government agencies including the Department of Energy and Department of Defense would use such lasers for atmospheric chemistry studies, combustion diagnostics and infrared countermeasures.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.01-9647
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy Standoff Detection System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Naresh Menon
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance,  CA 90501-1821

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA need for robotic platform-mounted instruments that can chemically analyze extraterrestrial surfaces, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new integrated standoff Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman Spectroscopic (LIBRA) system to perform rapid material analysis from a distance of >20 m. Dual LIBS and Raman measurements ensure high specificity in chemical analysis. While LIBS identifies trace elements, Raman spectroscopy enables the robotic rover to distinguish complex materials such as hydrous and anhydrous gypsum that indicate the presence of water on a planet. This system features embedded chemical fingerprinting software for real-time analysis of material signatures, and has a software interface to NASA robotic platforms. Through POC's compact excitation laser and high-resolution spectral detection subassemblies, LIBRA has unprecedented specificity of material identification in an energy efficient (<10 W), compact (<0.03 cubic meter volume), light (<2 kg) hermetically sealed package that is ruggedized (no moving parts) and optimized for robotic exploration. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate LIBRA system feasibility by assembling and testing a proof-of-concept laboratory prototype, and investigate issues of space qualification. In Phase II a fully functional prototype system will be developed and its standoff detection capability from robotic platforms will be demonstrated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A combined LIBS and Raman spectroscopy platform in a compact and space deployable platform can be adapted to many extraterrestrial exploration efforts. The proposed instrument contains no moving parts, and is designed to identify trace chemicals in air, soil, rock, or dust. This makes it a universal instrument for rovers even on Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A highly sensitive, portable, and accurate standoff detection system will be extremely useful for environmental monitoring of toxicants and for detecting contraband and lethal chemicals. First responders and border security and customs personnel will benefit greatly from an accurate standoff chemical detection system that will enable them to determine the lethality of substances.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biochemical
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.01-9733
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rugged Optical Atmospheric Humidity Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Pilgrim
jpilgrim@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-8136

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Trace species measurement on unmanned atmospheric research craft suitable for interplanetary travel is a demanding application for optical sensing techniques. Yet optical techniques offer many advantages including high-precision, fast response, and strong species selectivity. Balloonsonde, kite, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), or glider deployment demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight and power requirements. Vista Photonics proposes to develop rugged, compact, battery-powered optical sensor technology capable of selectively determining humidity to 10 parts-per-billion (-100 <SUP>o</SUP>C frost point). The enabling technology for meeting stringent NASA mission requirements is a new rugged, compact, and lightweight optical path length enhancement cell that recovers the theoretical sensitivity of established high-performance optical absorption detection techniques. The proposed spectrometer will be capable of detecting multiple species while incurring little additional weight or power penalties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-performance detection of multiple atmospheric species in planetary atmospheres on and beyond Earth. NASA applications for manned planetary exploration include real-time monitoring of species important to plant production processes, air revitalization, and water reclamation onboard spacecraft. Assurance of spacecraft habitability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Detection of contaminants in microelectronics and chemical process/feedstock streams. Assurance of occupational safety, environmental monitoring. Noninvasive health monitoring by breath based diagnostics where a specific component indicates a particular pathology. Detection of toxic industrial chemicals in homeland security applications for high-value installations and mass transit.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.02-8048
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme High Temperature/High Pressure Environment
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRS Technologies, Inc.
2820 East College Ave, Suite J
State College, PA 16801-7548

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Alberta
ed@trstechnologies.com
2820 East College Avenue
State College,  PA 16801-7548

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High temperature power electronics have become a vital aspect of future designs for power converters in spacecraft, battle zone electric power, satellite power conditioning, and well drilling. The performance of these applications would benefit significantly from materials designed for high temperatures and harsh environmental conditions. NASA's Venus mission has some of the most stringent requirements with an operating temperature of 486C. Power systems must operate efficiently at these temperatures to eliminate the need for onboard cooling systems. The removal of these cooling systems will save space, reduce weight, and improve reliability. Currently, BaTiO3-based X7R capacitors are re-rated for use above 125C, and are rendered inoperable at temperatures approaching 300C. NPO-type dielectrics tend to operate at somewhat higher temperatures, but have low dielectric constants and become unreliable above 400C. TRS Technologies is pleased to respond to NASA's need for high temperature capacitors with this Phase I SBIR proposal. In this SBIR program, TRS Technologies and its subsidiary, Centre Capacitor, will develop a new family of high temperature capacitors based on high Curie temperature ferroelectrics that operate at temperatures far beyond conventional dielectric formulations. These new higher temperature (~490C) materials will be suited for the advanced power electronics required for Venus exploration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application for these high temperature capacitors is in planetary exploration. The capacitors will be specifially designed to withstand the harsh temperature and pressure conditions that Venus probes and rovers are expected to encounter. The technology developed will also be adaptable to other space and Earth science missions requiring high temperature operation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA applications, high temperature capacitors are expected to find use in electric vehicle inverters, oil well drilling, satellite power conditioning, jet engine electronics and avionics, and military and industrial distributed power conversion systems. The particular capacitors developed in this program will be fairly specific to NASA's planetary exploration needs; however, the technology and IP developed will be immediately applicable to these other markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Ceramics
Multifunctional/Smart Materials
Energy Storage
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.02-8148
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme High Temperature/High Pressure Environment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aerogel Insulation for the Thermal Protection of Venus Spacecraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Owen Evans
oevans@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough,  MA 01532-2501

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of NASA's primary goals for the next decade is the design, development and launch of a spacecraft aimed at the in-situ exploration of the deep atmosphere and surface of Venus. The success of this mis-sion, called VISE (Venus In-Situ Explorer), is reliant on the development of effective thermal insulation solutions capable of protecting spacecraft for extended periods of time from the extreme heat and pressure associated with the lower atmosphere of Venus. Materials intended for exterior application must also be inert towards the sulfuric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid present. Aspen Aerogels, Inc. proposes to develop a revolutionary aerogel composite intended to provide unprecedented thermal and chemical pro-tection to a Venus spacecraft. This unique material is expected to be thermally stable to 2000oC under inert conditions, enabling the possibility for use as a high-temperature heat shield in a Venus deceleration module. This flexible and conformable material will also find use as a thin lightweight thermal protection solution for a Venus pressure vessel. The remarkable thermal properties and ultra low density will afford a significant mass savings over conventional MLI insulation, increasing the operation lifetime and volume of the scientific payload significantly. These materials will also be inert towards the corrosive environ-ment of the Venus atmosphere at high temperatures and pressures, allowing these materials to be utilized in both exterior and interior applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The outstanding thermal stability of the proposed aerogel composites will allow use in the thermal protection of spacecraft subjected to high heat loads or the extremely low temperature of deep space. Heat shields composed of this flexible low density material can protect spacecraft during aggressive orbital entry (aerocapture/aerobraking) while imparting a significant mass savings over conventional ablative heat-shields. The extreme hardness of these aerogel composites should also provide protection from high velocity impacts from micrometeriods, as well as thermally insulating equipment against the frigid temperatures of deep space. These materials are expecting to have better insulating properties than conventional materials and should find use in a number of applications important to NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
These materials will find use in a number of thermally demanding and corrosive environments including, but not limited to: thermal insulation for jet engines, automotives, nuclear reactors, petrochemical refineries, and electrical turbines.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Thermal Insulating Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.02-8160
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme High Temperature/High Pressure Environment
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature All Silicon-Carbide (SiC) DC Motor Drives for Venus Exploration Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Arkansas Power Electronics International, Inc.
700 W Research Blvd
Fayetteville, AR 72701-7174

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Lostetter
alostet@apei.net
700 W Research Blvd
Fayetteville,  AR 72701-7174

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to prove the feasibility of creating high-temperature silicon-carbide (SiC) based motor drives for extreme environment exploratory robotic missions (such as Venus landers). SiC digital control ICs will be developed for controlling power electronics systems (such as motor drives) and integrated with SiC power switches into a multichip power module (MCPM) capable of reliably operating within extreme environments such as the surface of Venus without shielding. Avoiding complicated advanced active thermal management strategies not only improves reliability, but significantly reduces the complexity, weight, and volume of the overall electronics systems. SiC power electronics offer other potential advantages over silicon as well, including 1/10th the switching losses, 10? the power density, 10? the breakdown voltage, and switching frequencies into the 10s of GHz range. All of these advantages offer the potential to develop highly miniaturized, highly reliable, low weight extreme environment power electronics drive systems that can be integrated directly with DC motors or actuators.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Venus robotic atmospheric probes and landers would require DC motors and/or actuators in order to perform a wide variety of functions; from moving and controlling robotic arms and hands, to driving soil sample drills, to providing traction for surface propulsion. The majority of these motor systems would be external to the protection of the probe or lander core unit. The ability to integrate the motor drive electronics directly with the motors in this environment, without the protection of the core electronics shielding system, has the potential to significantly reduce the complexity and weight while improving the reliability of the mechanical robotic components. The development of this technology could also benefit NASA in a wide range of other applications, including significantly reducing the size and weight of power electronics converters for the power managements systems required in satellites or spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Within a few years time, SiC power devices will be available for use in a wide-range of applications for industrial, commercial, and military purposes. The ability to operate in harsh environments or at high temperatures makes the technology immediately attractive for military motor drive applications (such as for electric-hybrid vehicles or jet turbine units), industrial deep earth geological exploration (such as deep well seismic sources), low-weight, high performance applications (such as DC-DC converters for spacecraft and satellites), and commercial electric vehicles (such as in conjunction with high-temperature fuel cells). Any power electronics application that would see improvement with higher switching frequencies, increased efficiency, or reduced size and weight would benefit from the use of SiC technology. Due to this potential, the State of Arkansas has committed to providing state matching funds at a rate of $1 state to $3 federal throughout the complete duration of this project (Phase I ? Phase III).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.02-8956
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme High Temperature/High Pressure Environment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extreme Environment High Temperature Communication Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
InnoSys, Inc.
3622 West 1820 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84104-4901

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Larry Sadwick
sadwick@innosystech.com
3622 West 1820 South
Salt Lake City,  UT 84104-4901

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a communications system capable of operation at extreme temperatures and pressures in hostile and corrosive environments such as found on the surface of the planet Venus. Although already explored by various orbiters and short-lived atmospheric probes and landers, Venus retains many secrets pertaining to its formation and evolution and also the ability to further probe and investigate Venus' surface is of significant scientific value. However the measurement of data and collection of information in an extreme environment is of limited use or value unless the data and information can be sent out of the environment. This proposed project will address vital communication needs of the future in situ exploration of Venus and atmospheric probes for giant planets. The technology to be employed in the proposed extreme environment communications system is based on a proven class of electronic devices called solid state vacuum devices (SSVD<SUP>TM</SUP>s). S-band (~ 2 to 4 GHz) power amplifiers and transmitters along with S-band receivers will be designed and built in this proposed SBIR project to enable essential and critical communications between vehicles and probes located on Venus' surface and systems in orbit around Venus.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential NASA applications of this SBIR project and, in general, for SSVD <SUP>TM</SUP> are significant and, in addition to extreme high temperature communications needs discussed in this proposal, includes both "near room temperature" and rugged high to extreme high temperature communications, electronics, integrated circuits and related systems along with high temperature electronic devices, circuits and sensors, energy conversion, operation amplifiers, control and process circuits, pressure sensing, motor and robotic controllers and drivers, power supplies and related applications, radar, high temperature and radiation insensitive imaging systems, small scale integrated circuits, microwave and millimeter communications for terrestrial, space and planetary exploration applications and sub-millimeter wave and terahertz power sources for exploratory and communications applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications are vast and include: harsh environment communications and electronics, low frequency to millimeter wave sources for communications and other applications; power supplies and converters; control, monitoring and sensing applications for harsh environments in terrestrial, automotive, avionics, and aeronautics, geothermal, oil exploration, nuclear, industrial controllers, and distributed control systems; imaging; sensors and detectors, impedance transformers; wireless communications for harsh environments; fuel combustion; high temperature, vacuum and MEMS packaging; and other applications needing three dimensional microfabrication/micromachining; in addition to security, and defense and military systems. There are additional applications ranging from DC to RF to millimeter-wave to terahertz power amplifiers to extreme environment and temperature communications, electronics and sensors. Other markets include high temperature micro-heaters to macro-heaters, high ratio planar transformer design, and new component development. Many of these requirements include, among others things, light weight, compactness, power efficiency, and most of all, cost effective manufacturing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Teleoperation
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Wireless Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.02-9266
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme High Temperature/High Pressure Environment
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Battery for In Situ Exploration of Venus

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mobile Energy Products, Inc.
3820 S Hancock Expressway
Colorado Springs, CO 80911-1231

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. David Pickett Senior Scientist
dpickett@electroenergyinc.com
3820 S. Hancock Expressway
Colorado Springs,  CO 80911-1231

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of batteries capable of operational temperatures of 380?C and 486<SUP>o</SUP>C with a specific capacity 200 Wh/kg for use as a power source on the Venusian surface and for planetary probes in similar high temperature atmospheres and where ambient pressures of 90 atmospheres are to be expected. These conditions are well beyond most conventional battery technologies, except those experienced by thermally activated batteries that use a Li(Si)/FeS?2 couple. This proposal provides for the novel approach of using proven expertise from thermal batteries to develop high temperature space batteries. The approach will be to first determine the optimum cell chemistry from potential candidate systems and test via cells. Next, verification of cell performance at temperatures will be made. Design of a robust battery/cell container using super nickel alloys such as Inconel 718 will be made. Stress and dynamics analyses will be made on the final mechanical design that will be verified by test.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful completion of this development of high temperature batteries will have significant positive impact on many different NASA missions, where batteries must operate at high temperatures due to environmental conditions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The R&D conducted under this program will have the potential to make improvements to thermal batteries, low temperature thermal batteries, high temperature batteries for borehole and terrestrial applications, and other specialty high temperature batteries for space applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.02-9617
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme High Temperature/High Pressure Environment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Venus Lander Experiment Vessel

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ceramic Composites, Inc.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401-8907

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Duston
cduston@techassess.com
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis,  MD 21401-8907

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's program for Solar System Exploration will augment the current remote sensing approach to solar system exploration with a robust program that includes in situ measurements at key places. This requires robotic explorers capable of operation and survivability in high-temperature/high-pressure environment to service the needs of the future in situ exploration of Venus as well as atmospheric probes for giant planets. This program will design a Venus probe thermal management system capable of sustaining operation for 20 hours or more. To support the design, new thermal management technologies will be evaluated and considered for use the harsh Venusian environment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary applications for this high temperature and high pressure probe design technology are limited to NASA probes being sent to Venus or deep atmospheric probes to giant planets. Project Prometheus is seeking radiators capable of operating at 1000 K and may face similar needs for lightweight insulating systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While the system may have limited application, the components included within the program have great relevance here on earth. The use of lightweight moderate and low temperature insulation may find use in defense and commercial flight vehicles. The use of a lightweight, recycling, thin cooling layer may find use in automotive and electronic applications, and the use of phase change materials in power electronics cooling is already being studied. Low mass vacuum vessels may be useful as Dewars for liquid gas storage and chambers for chemical processing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Cooling
Thermal Insulating Materials
Tankage
Fluid Storage and Handling
Ceramics
Composites
Metallics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.04-8023
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Operating Temperature, Radiation-Hard MIM Thermophotovoltaic Converters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spire Corp
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730-2396

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steven Wojtczuk
swojtczuk@bandwidthsemi.com
One Patriots Park
Bedford,  MA 01730-2396

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spire Corporation proposes to investigate InGaAs thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells optimized for high temperature operation (~150C) and radiation hardness against the 1.64MeV neutron flux likely from plutonium dioxide general purpose heat sources. We propose to develop a temperature-dependent TPV cell model and select an optimum bandgap for 150C operation with a 1100C heat spectrum, using a cell design with a thin (~1 micron vs standard ~3 micron) base that improves tolerance to diffusion length degradation from radiation. In order to increase photon absorption in this thin cell, we propose to epitaxially grow a monolithic 15 period InGaAs/InAlAs Bragg mirror to reflect about 90% of the incident usable (2 ~micron wavelength) photons back through the cell. The proposed advantage of the Bragg over a standard back metal mirror reflector is that the dielectric mirror has some ability to use strain exerted at the interfaces of the different mirror materials as a threading-to-misfit dislocation filter to further enhance the cell efficiency. We also propose to examine polyimide along with standard SiN for MIMs (monolithically integrated multijunction module) edge passivation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Deep space missions to the outer planets may use radioisotope heat sources to supply power to the probe. Thermoelectrics have been used in the past, and thermophotovoltaic technology has been proposed as a higher (~3-4X) efficiency replacement for these thermoelectric converters.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Co-generation to deliver heat and electrical power from thermophotovoltaics has been proposed as a potentially important technology for isolated rural dwellings in locations such as Alaska, where a large part of the population is remote and off the power grid.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Thermoelectric Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.04-8129
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Quantum Dot Spectrum Converters for Enhanced High Efficiency Photovoltaics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
DR Technologies, Inc.
7740 Kenamar Court
San Diego, CA 92121-2425

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Theodore Stern
tstern@drtechnologies.com
7740 Kenamar Court
San Diego,  CA 92121-2425

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This research proposes to enhance solar cell efficiency, radiation resistance and affordability. The Quantum Dot Spectrum Converter (QDSC) disperses quantum dots into the transparent silicone layer that normally functions as coverglass adhesive. The Quantum Dots (QD) act as a fluorescent spectrum converter for solar cells, to allow the use of the 20-50% of the solar spectrum unavailable to today's highest efficiency solar cells. By selecting QD's of particular compositions and sizes, we customize absorption and emission spectra to down-convert UV photons, including multiple exciton generation, and up-convert IR photons in a multiple photon process. This approach overcomes the fundamental 'red-loss' and 'blue-loss' limitations, allowing more efficiency from conventional single- and multi-bandgap photovoltaic devices. We also explore the use of a QDSC in a non-tracking fluorescent concentrator for enhancing flux and shielding for solar cells and in thermophotovoltaic systems as a means of enhancing efficiency while eliminating selective emitters. These approaches address the topic need for significantly improved efficiency and radiation hardening for deep space missions ? the QDSC can significantly enhance conversion efficiency of qualified, high-efficiency cells, while its implementation in a luminescent or thermophotovoltaic concentrator allows solar cells to be shielded from adverse radiation and thermal environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The enhanced photovoltaic efficiency and spectrum management that will be provided by the Quantum Dot Spectrum Converter have broad application to NASA's missions. Many missions, including those for SEI, have high power requirements, and to avoid excessively large and high mass solar arrays there is a need for higher efficiency photovoltaics using qualified solar cells and near term enhancement technology. Spectrum management and enhanced shielding can be particularly applicable to planetary missions. For Mars missions, solar arrays are more useful if they can efficiently convert the large and changing red spectral component of diffused and filtered sunlight. The shielding approaches available with the Quantum Dot Luminescent Concentrator and the Quantum Dot Enhanced Thermophotovoltaics would assist in inner-planet missions, where thermal shielding is a significant problem, and outer planet missions, where trapped particulates play a significant role in radiation dosages. Improving the practicality of thermophotovoltaics and infra-red photovoltaic conversion also allows broader application of nuclear power and direct thermal conversion and storage

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential to commercialize a Quantum Dot Luminescent Concentrator (QDLC) for residential and industrial use on earth will be large once the technology is proven to be both efficient and durable. Since the QDLC is a non-tracking plastic concentrator, it can be a very low cost, efficient sunlight collection means. The absorbed and re-emitted sunlight can be used in a commercial application for day-lighting purposes, or to power miniaturized, high efficiency solar cells. Either way, the high intensity "business end" of the QDLC is fed by a low cost, large area component. The economics of solar energy utilization becomes much more favorable if the large area collection components are made inexpensively; this is the fundamental idea behind concentrators, except that high-concentration ratio systems suffer from the need to accurately track the sun, forcing large apertures to be titled around on ungainly pointing and tracking systems. For commercial spacecraft, solar arrays with minimum area, mass and cost are needed for direct broadcast, cell phone and broadband spacecraft which have increasingly high power needs. The enhancements provided by the Quantum Dot Spectrum Converter (QDSC), and the QDLC could meet this critical need in the near-term and remain within the acceptable risk of new technologies adapted for commercial spacecraft use.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion
Thermoelectric Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.04-9840
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermo-Acoustic Convertor for Space Power

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sunpower, Inc.
182 Mill Street
Athens, OH 45701-2627

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Wood
wood@sunpower.com
Sunpower, Inc., 182 Mill Street
Athens,  OH 45701-2627

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sunpower will introduce thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine (TASHE) technology into its existing Stirling convertor technology to eliminate the moving mechanical displacer. The displacer function will be performed by a thermal buffer tube and supporting thermoacoustic components containing no moving mechanical parts. Sunpower's linear alternator will be retained, except re-sized to accommodate the power of the TASHE. TASHE technology has evolved independently, spearheaded by efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory and typically packages components (heat exchangers, thermal buffer tube) in a physically different layout than typical Stirling convertor technology. The innovation here is to recognize the similarity between components and repackage the thermoacoustic components as closely as possible to the proven layout used for Sunpower's engines. In this way it will be possible to make direct comparisons of size, weight and efficiency between thermoacoustic and displacer-type Stirling convertors. The research will help NASA assess the relative benefits of thermoacoustic and displacer-type Stirling convertors for space power applications and may lead to technology uniquely suited to some missions where displacer-type technology is unacceptable for whatever reason. In Phase 1 we will optimize the concentric TASHE design to provide as much electrical output as possible from a single GPHS (nominally 220 W of heat delivered to the convertor). This design will use the same temperature levels currently used for the ASC convertor of 850 C hot end and 90 C reject. This will provide a direct comparison of size, mass, and efficiency differences between TASHE and displacer type convertors designed for the same application and using the same temperature levels. During Phase 1 we will also scale up this basic TASHE to a higher output power (~400W), and higher temperature levels, to provide a conceptual design of a high efficiency TASHE suited for Venus exploration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting TASHE convertor will give NASA mission planners the option of utilizing a very high reliability convertor of reasonable efficiency which may be well suited to severe environments or where reliability is of primary concern.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the space applications which this proposal directly addresses, there is a significant potential market for commercial small-scale power generation, particularly in light of increasing attention to the environmental cost of fuel consumption and the new stringency of fuel emissions regulations in some areas of the world. Sunpower licensee MicroGen, for example, has determined a substantial European and worldwide market for household cogeneration devices. Additionally there are numerous opportunities for remote and mobile power generation applications, including the marine market, auxiliary power markets, remote power generation, standby emergency power generation, peaking generation, truck-mounted power, power for oil and gas fields and other exploratory and off-grid sites.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Thermodynamic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.05-7935
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Astrobiology
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Miniature Extreme Environment Powder Delivery System (M-PoDS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Apparati, Inc.
19270 Quinn Ct.
Morgan Hill, CA 95037-9320

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Bryson
cbryson@att.net
19270 Quinn CT
Morgan Hill,  CA 95037-9320

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This innovation is a low mass, low volume, gas based system that will acquire size selective powdered samples from the extreme ambient (such as Mars or Venus surface). Then it will transfer and deliver samples to the analytical instrument(s) that are situated in a controlled environment such as a robotic or lander platform where measurements can be made. This research will further develop a miniature sample acquisition, transfer and delivery system that will enhance NASA's capability of studying the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the planets. This system has a compact-robust construction and consumes very low power with no moving parts, which make this system very reliable for extreme environmental applications. It is a pneumatically operated system and has great potential for using in-situ resource (e.g. concentrated CO2 on Mars) for the operations. Size selective precision sampling, low cross-contaminations, possibility of high temperature sterilization are many of the unique features of this system. Proper development of this innovation (in the course of Phase I, II and III) will be key for the astrobiological, resource allocations and geophysical investigations that are addressed in NASA's defined Mars and Venus science missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Direct applications of this system are readily related to the defined NASA landed science missions for solar system explorations including: Astrobiology Field Laboratory (AFL) '13 for Mars, New Frontiers "Venus In Situ Explorer" for Venus and other low cost missions such as Discovery Missions or Mars Scout missions. All these missions will carry in situ instruments and will require varieties of powdered surface or sub-surface samples for analysis. This can also be a potential sample acquisition and containment system for future Mars Sample Return Missions. Many other potential NASA use of this innovation will emerge as it matures and publicizes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Many commercial analytical instruments such as Powder XRD, GCMS, LCMS and ToFSIMS can be integrated with this system for process monitoring (pharmaceutical, cement, mining, biotech etc.) in a controlled environment. This can also be a complete tool for size selective field collections and assisting online or isolated offline investigations of bioaerosols, hazardous, unstable, suspicious materials (national security screening and terrorist threat assessment), geological materials, drugs and other particulate matters. The sample handling system that we propose is easily cleanable and can transfer multiple powder samples with minimal cross contamination. Analytical investigations of toxic or unknown material that is thought to be a threat can be facilitated with this system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Manipulation
Biomolecular Sensors
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.05-8993
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Astrobiology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Photonic Crystal Fiber-Based High Sensitivity Gas Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Micah Yairi
m.yairi@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Los Gatos Research, Inc. proposes to develop a lightweight, compact, rugged, near-infrared gas-sensing spectroscopy instrument to accurately measure the abundance of various gases indicative of the presence of life. These gases include carbon dioxide, ammonia, and methane. This instrument will be the first low-cost, remotely operable all fiber-based Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy sensor capable of measuring gases such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane with sufficient precision to indicate the presence of biological activity on non-Earth bodies, particularly Mars and Europa. The proposed prototype sensor includes the novel use of hollow photonic crystal fibers, which further enables accurate measurement of even small samples of gas (approximately 1 microliter). The project will also leverage Los Gatos Research's prior work developing rugged, autonomous gas sensors for extreme environments that NASA is currently using.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR effort addresses key objected outlined in NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap, with an emphasis on studying the climate and biosphere on Mars and Europa. The proposed photonic crystal fiber-based gas analyzer will address these objected by being able to measure carbon dioxide, oxygen, methane, and ammonia. These gas measurements will help to understand atmospheric dynamics and help identify indicators of life. The small gas sample size of this system enables it to analyze trace gases released in real-time from small samples of dissolved or broken surface samples which might contain evidence of life.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A compact, sensitive, real-time gas analyzer also has significant commercial application. Through a series of strategic partnerships, LGR is developing a suite of analytical instrumentation to measure gas concentrations for medical and petrochemical applications. The proposed work is essential in making these instruments more rugged (no moving parts) and more compact (all fiber-based), and will thus significantly enlarge the potential for expanding into this greater than $100 million market.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors
Biochemical
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.05-9082
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Astrobiology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Single Molecule Instrument for Surface Enhanced Raman Optical Activity of Biomolecules

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt St
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rajan Gurjar, PhD
RGurjar@RMDInc.com
44 Hunt St
Watertown,  MA 02472-4699

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Stereochemistry is an essential element of our organic life. Only certain enantiomers are useful as drugs for the human body. Raman Optical Activity (ROA) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) provide stereochemical information down to bond levels. Many biomolecules like proteins and DNA can be studied for understanding their structural chemistry and structure related dynamics. These methods do not require material in the crystalline form and hence can be very useful tools. However, ROA signals are even weaker than the Raman signals. Phase I and Phase II work will focus on enhancing Raman optical Activity (ROA) signals in amino acids and biomolecules, which includes measurement of vibrational circular dichroism by using surface enhanced process involving nanoclusters. The use of nanoparticles is known to enhance Raman signals by several orders of magnitude. Our goal is to achieve similar gains in ROA signals. To achieve it, we will use a sensitive detection system in combination with improved surface enhanced chemistry and microfluidics-based single-molecule detection techniques. This will result in improved precision of measurement and shorten measurement time, which currently takes several hours to days.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's main interest in determining helicity of biomolecules is for their extra-terrestrial life search programs. Indication of prevalence of Laevo or Dextro type biomolecules, their structure and isotope identification can lead to useful clues whether life existed elsewhere in the outer space. Surface enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA) tool will be very useful especially for unknown biomolecules whose racemic mixtures cannot be easily identified and separated by phase separation techniques. Moreover, trace identification to the order of parts-per-trillion, or structure identification when crystalline structure is non-existent are also some of the important issues which ROA can address.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Research can lead to better methods to measure and quantify ROA. Many chemical and drug industries employ spectrometer systems to measure circular dichroism. So far, the focus was on measuring electronic or linear dichroism on large number of molecules due to ease of measurement. However, with ROA, a single molecule can be studied. Other benefits include not having to rely of phase separation techniques, which are not easily available for every molecule. Our efforts will pave the way for obtaining improved ROA signals using existing spectrometers with little modification. Knowledge of specific enantiomers can help drug research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Biomolecular Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.06-7742
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Flexible Electronics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enabling Technologies for Fabrication of Large Area Flexible Antennas

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MesoScribe Technologies, Inc.
25 Health Sciences Drive
Stony Brook, NY 11790-3350

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Huey-Daw Wu
hwu@mesoscribe.com
25 Health Sciences Drive
Stony Brook,  NY 11790-3350

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
MesoScribe Technologies, a high tech start-up from SUNY-Stony Brook, proposes to apply a breakthrough new direct writing technology to meet the objectives set-forth in the NASA SBIR topic S2.06 Advanced Flexible Electronics. This technology is based on revolutionary advances to modern day thermal spray materials processing enables deposition of wide range of electronic materials onto large areas at low processing temperatures and, for most part, requires no post-processing. MesoScribe will develop large area patterning capability to demonstrate electronically steerable L-band, phased array antennas to meet NASA's goals. During phase I the maximum dimensions for considerations will be ? x ? m. This is based on the capabilities of our current motion system and not a limitation of the process itself. The antennas will be designed, modeled, fabricated and characterized for performance attributes. The flexibility of the system will also be assessed through appropriate bending experiments. In parallel, conceptual strategies for large area fabrication will also discussed for future consideration. Finally, MesoScribe will also demonstrate our unique ability in terms of direct fabrication of antenna elements on large space based objects that would provide a robust means for multi-functional integration of electromagnetics with space structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a large area, flexible phased array antenna will provide enhanced capabilities for NASA's Earth science remote sensing applications and future missions to the Moon, Mars, Titan and Venus. Electronically steerable L-band antennas will enable detection of surface and subsurface topology and the increased aperture will enable repeat-pass interfermetric Synthetic Aperture Radar missions to be conducted at higher altitudes. Antenna fabrication on flexible membrane structures is critical to reduce mass, launch vehicle stowage volume, and overall cost in comparison to rigid radar systems. A variety of potential applications may result from this technology, if developed to fruition. Applications include: space-based radar systems, unfurlable antennas to minimize volume on space flights, very large area antennas (10?100+ m2) for long-distance and low-signal detection, conformal antennas on space craft and space structures, rectifying antennas (rectennas) for microwave power transmission, power harvesting and sensors, and harsh environment (space) sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Applications for flexible electronics have wide-spread appeal within the Department of Defense and consumer electronics industry. Successful project development and implementation will enable significant breakthroughs in distributed sensors and distributed electromagnetics fabricated on flexible polymer substrates. Applications include antennas, communication modules, health monitoring sensors, RFID's, and integrated sensor arrays.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Erectable
Inflatable
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.06-7942
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Flexible Electronics
PROPOSAL TITLE: ZnO HEMTs on Flexible Substrates for Large Area Monolithic Antenna Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AMBP Tech Corp
275 Cooper Avenue, Suite 112
Tonawanda, NY 14150-6643

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nehal Chokshi
nehalchokshi@ambptech.com
275 Cooper Avenue, Suite 112
Tonawanda,  NY 14150-6643

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AMBP Tech will implement Zinc Oxide high mobility material technology it has developed specifically for flexible electronics into a direct write process onto large area polymer membranes. The implementation of this technology will form the core components of transmit/receive components of a synthethic aperture radar flexible antenna that can operate in the L-band and enable imaging of the earth from GEO and MEO orbits. The core issues that will be addressed in the Phase I program will include the demonstration that the high mobility material translates to high frequency response transistors suitable for power and signal amplification in transmit/receive modules, development of a low temperature ohmic contact forming process, exploration of advance FET ZnO device layer architectures, and most importantly the demonstration of the direct write capability of the LAMBD technology. In Phase II, AMPB Tech will integrate these process modules with other metal and dielectric direct write technologies to realized monolithic transmit/receive modules directly on a polyimide substrate and demonstrate a small 2D Synthethic Aperture Radar Antenna Array.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The clear goal of the proposed SBIR effort is to develop a direct write process of high performance semiconductors onto flexible substrates over very large areas so that the monolithic cost effective fabrication of large area SAR for earth sensing remote applications. AMBP Tech will also integrate the high performance semiconductor writing process with other direct write technologies to realized the actual Transmit/Receive modules directly on the polymer flexible substrates. In addition to keying the realization of the SAR antenna arrays, the technology developed will also have direct applications in peripheral SAR functions such as using the TFTs for Aperture health monitoring and monitoring the deployment of the flexible structure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA applications of the proposed research will include manufacturing tools and offering services that enable the direct writing of high carrier mobility ZnO based transistors. This will service compound semiconductor manufacturers as well as enable us to work with fabless houses to implement novel device designs for a variety of applications. The end customer applications that this technology will clearly serve will be flexible electronics backplanes for flexible displays.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Solar
Perception/Sensing
Erectable
Inflatable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Substrate Transfer Technology
Ceramics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.07-7613
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Risk Modeling and Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Risk Analysis Using Modeling and Simulation of Organizational Structure and Behavior

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Safeware Engineering Corporation
1520 Eastlake Ave. E., Suite 101
Seattle, WA 98102-3717

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grady Lee
lee@safeware-eng.com
1520 Eastlake Ave. E., Suite 101
Seattle,  WA 98102-3717

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Most major accidents do not result simply from proximal, physical events, but from the gradual drift of an organization to a state of heightened risk. Risk often increases so gradually that no one notices, as safeguards and constraints are relaxed due to conflicting goals. When a mishap occurs, it is almost inevitable that some event will trigger an accident. A comprehensive risk analysis method must include organizational decision-making, system complexity, technical innovation, evolution over time, and non-linear, indirect, and feedback relationships. A new risk analysis approach addressing these issues has been developed at MIT. This approach asserts that organizational structure and behavior can be modeled, analyzed, and engineered. It is based on the STAMP (System-Theoretic Accident Modeling and Processes), STAMP-based hazard analysis (STPA), and system dynamics modeling. When it was applied to a risk analysis of the NASA independent technical authority (for the NASA Chief Engineer's Office), it became apparent a simplified methodology and tool support could benefit such a risk analysis effort. Safeware Engineering Corporation proposes to develop an innovative modeling methodology and software tool support for the application of this rigorous new risk analysis approach as the next step toward development of an organizational risk management tool.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The techniques upon which this proposed research is based have already been used with success in a risk analysis of the NASA Independent Technical Authority. Safeware Engineering's proposed research would simplify the method of conducting the analysis and provide software tool support, allowing for broader use within NASA. The risk analysis methodology produced by the proposed research, as well as the tool to be developed in phase II, could potentially apply to any NASA project with a need to identify and mitigate the risks associated with complex technical management and decision-making.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
If successful through Phase 2, the project will result in a commercial quality risk analysis software tool based on an innovative new risk analysis approach. Rather than relying on the experience and ad hoc observations of risk analysis experts, analysts and managers will be able to produce a concrete model of their organization and its behavior. Experiments to evaluate new policies and organizational structures will be carried out using simulation and analysis tools, where it is impractical or impossible to experiment on a real organization.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Computer System Architectures
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S2.07-8521
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Risk Modeling and Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Accounting for Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty in Early System Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Biomathematics
100 North Country Road
Setauket , NY 11733-1300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott Ferson
scott@ramas.com
100 North Country Road
Setauket,  NY 11733-1300

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed work extends Probability Bounds Analysis to model epistemic and aleatory uncertainty during early design of engineered systems in an Integrated Concurrent Engineering environment. This method uses efficient analytic and semi-analytic calculations, is more rigorous than probabilistic Monte Carlo simulation, and provides comprehensive and (often) best possible bounds on mission-level risk as a function of uncertainty in each parameter. Phase I will demonstrate the capability to robustly model variability (aleatory uncertainty) and incertitude (epistemic uncertainty) during early design. The demonstrated methods will (1) allow rapid, rigorous, and more complete exploration of alternate designs in the mission- and engineering-constrained trade space; (2) provide a rigorous rationale for risk-based margin determination that is robust to surprise; (3) facilitate the incorporation of qualitatively described risks in quantitative risk analysis; (4) support the integration of physics and non-physics based risks in mission-wide risk analysis; and (5) permit sensitivity analysis at the mission, system, subsystem, and component levels that identifies the importance of specific uncertainties to uncertainty at higher levels and allows the rapid exploration of alternate strategies and designs. This suite of capabilities is not currently available to systems engineers and cannot be provided by more traditional probabilistic risk assessment methods.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application envisioned for the extended PBA technology at NASA is the analysis of uncertainty and risk in subsystem, system, and mission design in an Integrated Concurrent Engineering environment like that used by Team X at JPL. The methods, algorithms, libraries, and software developed will be of use in a wide variety of commercial activities that involve physics- or non-physics-based systems design, reliability assessment, or risk analysis. Applications where NASA may use the technology while serving as a vendor include: (1) Uncertainty and risk analysis during commercial spacecraft subsystem component, subsystem, system, and/or mission early design, (2) Integrated analysis of qualitative and quantitative uncertainty during commercial operations and organization design, restructuring and/or risk and reliability analysis, (3) Commercial organizational and/or mission risk reduction modeling, (4) Incorporation of quantitative uncertainty and risk analysis in commercial system optimization and constraint satisfaction operations, and (5) Development of quantitative system-wide, mission-wide, and/or organization-wide probabilistic risk-based margin determination metrics and management procedures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful completion of Phase II research and development will result in a library of functions for performing Probability Bounds Analysis in Microsoft Excel, a software add-on implementing those functions, a software application that guides engineers in constructing uncertain input parameters using available information, and methods for applying these technologies in an Integrated Concurrent Engineering early design environment. Potential commercial applications include: (1) A Microsoft Excel application for analyzing risk using PBA and uncertain numbers. Highly successful commercial risk analysis applications based on Excel exist (e.g., Crystal Ball), but all rely on Monte Carlo simulation and are thus limited in comprehensiveness and applicability to near real time design environments. (2) A commercial software application implementing PBA technology using quantitative and qualitative uncertainty information to perform system optimization, constraint satisfaction, and organizational risk reduction modeling. (3) Methods and software for developing system- or organization-wide probabilistic risk-based margin determination metrics and management procedures. This product could be implemented as a book with accompanying software, or as a training workshop.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S3.01-7996
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Formations for Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fault-Tolerant Precision Formation Guidance for Interferometry

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SySense, Inc.
300 East Magnolia, Suite 300
Burbank, CA 91502-1156

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Chen
robertchen@sysense.com
300 East Magnolia Suite 300
Burbank,  CA 91502-1156

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A methodology is to be developed that will allow the development and implementation of fault-tolerant control system for distributed collaborative spacecraft. The objective is to ensure that the cluster of spacecraft continue to meet high precision performance objectives in the presence of system faults and uncertainty. The proposed innovation is the development of a fault-tolerant control system for distributed spacecraft. The development process begins with fault-tolerant control system architecture and then the analysis of its performance. The essential elements of this proposed fault-tolerant control system architecture are: The fault detection filters and parity equations that generate residuals (the difference between the actual measurement and the estimated value) with important geometrical properties that enhance fault detection and identification. The residual processor that takes these corrupted residuals and announces a fault with a given probability of false and miss alarm in minimal time. A fault reconstruction system that estimates the fault magnitude once the fault has been identified. A distributed control system that reconfigures based on the particular fault and the fault magnitude.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The methodologies presented here are applicable to a broad range of navigation, and control systems. In particular, autonomous systems operating in clusters or groups in a high precision, high accuracy, or safety of life operation. In addition to satellites or deep space probes, this technology is directly applicable to other areas of autonomous systems including Autonomous Formation Flight for drag reduction in which multiple vehicles fly in formation to reduce total drag. Another example is the development of autonomous control systems for UAV's operating in the National Air Space.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Fault tolerant autonomous systems have a wide range of applications. The designs presented and developed could be utilized to implement real time, fault tolerant control systems for a variety of vehicles including automated farming, autonomous flight of UAV's, and automated landing systems. Real time formation control, autonomous aircraft operating in the national air space are all potential applications that would benefit from this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S3.01-8932
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Formations for Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Field-Effect Modulated Electro-Osmotic Pumps for High Precision Colloid Thrusters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Gasdaska
chas@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick,  MA 01760-1023

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ability to precisely control the position of satellites is a critical enabling technology for space missions involving interferometric arrays. One proposed mission, LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), would use an array of 3 satellites whose relative position is monitored and controlled to an accuracy of 10 nm. Precise station-keeping such as this demands precise, high stability thrusters supplied with propellant flows on the order of microliters/min and producing micro-newtons of thrust. These requirements are difficult or impossible to meet with traditional thrusters and feed systems such as cold-gas thrusters or monopropellants. The proposed program will evaluate the use of electro-osmosis to supply and control the flow of ionic liquid propellants to micronewton colloid thrusters. In addition, the use of a gate electrode to control the surface charge and therefore the magnitude and direction of flow will be examined as will the use of AC fields to limit electrolysis effects. Phase I will provide basic information on the electro-osmotic behavior of ionic liquids using simple test devices and electrospray emitters. Phase II will involve detailed design work to fabricate a practical propellant feed system using electro-osmotic pumps.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A successful development program would lead to a feed system which is easily scalable for producing arrays of electrospray emitters and should provide more uniform thrust and finer control then current systems relying on a single control valve and manifold to feed multiple emitters. Achieving uniform flow in a single valve system is difficult. Individually addressable EOF pumps would allow for much more uniformity in output. This development would have immediate application for NASA space missions, especially those based on interferometric arrays where precision station-keeping and finely controlled thrusters are essential.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond space applications, there are numerous commercial applications. Microfluidic devices will become ubiquitous as applications in medical (drug dispensing), biological (DNA microarrays, biohazard testers) and analytical (microscale chromatography, microreactors and mixing reactors) fields expand. The use of microscale reactors for analyzing reactions or performing chemical combinatorial analysis will increase driven by the need for faster reaction analysis while minimizing waste streams. For all of these applications a small robust pump with no moving parts?such as the electro-osmotic pumps proposed for development under this program?would be highly desirable. The size of the market is such that there should be opportunities for both large companies mass-producing microfluidic devices along with niche players concentrating on small volume applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Micro Thrusters
Feed System Components


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S3.02-7486
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Contrast Astrophysical Imaging
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Wavefront Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xinetics, Inc.
115 Jackson Rd
Devens, MA 01434-4027

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark Smith
MarkSmith@xinetics.com
115 Jackson Rd
Devens,  MA 01434-4027

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is expending a significant amount of effort to develop large imaging telescope systems to explore the Evolution of the Universe (SEU). Adaptive optics will play a large role in these efforts because of the need to produce high quality imaging with lightweight optical systems. Adaptive optics allows the spacecraft designer to sacrifice traditional requirements with regard to weight and stiffness in order to make the spacecraft as light as possible. However, the adaptive systems must be compact and lightweight also. Normal AO systems utilize a series of discreet components to satisfy the correction requirements. These would consist of tip/tilt mirror and deformable mirrors. Xinetics has engaged in developing a series of integrated adaptive optical components that will improve the optical quality of traditional wavefront control systems while simultaneously reducing system volume, weight, and cost. The proposed effort is the result of a strategic vision to develop small robust wavefront control systems designed to be employed in spaced based optical systems. Xinetics proposes designing and building a 1024-ch integrated wavefront corrector using Photonex module technology and Xinetics cofired ceramic actuators.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology applied to systems such as Eclipse and TFP where compact lightweight optical systems with adaptive optics will be a necessity. This also has far-reaching implications to other imaging platforms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are currently many systems investigating the use of adaptive optics. Many tactical and strategic applications such as Airborne Laser, MTHEL, and JHPSSL would greatly benefit from this technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S3.02-7676
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Contrast Astrophysical Imaging
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultraflat Tip-Tilt-Piston MEMS Deformable Mirror

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Boston Micromachines Corp
108 Water Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4696

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Bierden
pab@bostonmicromachines.com
108 Water Street
Watertown,  MA 02472-4696

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
It is proposed to develop a process for producing arrays of hexagonal mirror segments with deviation from flatness smaller than 1nm RMS over a 600?m segment span, using novel microfabrication techniques. Each segment will be rigid enough to withstand actuation (piston, tip, and tilt) by a triad of flexure-based electrostatic actuators that have already been demonstrated by the project team. The base for the mirror will be a conventionally surface micromachined silicon film, augmented by a thick epitaxial layer of silicon. Subsequently, this layer will be polished, annealed to relieve stresses, and then coated with a thin film of protected silver. The combined result of thickening, polishing, and annealing will produce segments that are flatter, by more than an order of magnitude, than any micromachined mirror segments that are available today. Preliminary data demonstrate some promise that these processes can be combined effectively. Such an array of mirror segments would constitute a significant technological milestone and an essential component for the visible nulling coronagraph instruments planned for the terrestrial planet finding (TPF) mission. The project team has considerable experience in fabricating micromirror arrays for laser communication, astronomical imaging and visions science applications and BMC is a world leader in the production of commercial high resolution wavefront controllers. The project leverages a existing successful relationship between BMC and JPL.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will be a useful tool for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission. It will be particularly suitable for insertion in the High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at JPL. One built-in capability of HCIT is to test alternative coronagraph concepts developed under industry and university contracts. The modularity of HCIT allows integration of guest user modules such as the proposed ?DM through a program scheduled to commence in FY2004. The proposed mirror will be designed specifically to be compatible with HCIT. It is expected that success of this work will lead to further evaluation of MEMS DMs in science and technology missions that precede and follow TPF. All but one of the seven precursor missions calls for active optics. It is expected that deformable mirror technology will play an ever-increasing role in astronomical imaging systems, as competing requirements for increased resolution and lighter weight primary mirrors push the technology forward.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The processing technology developed in this program will allow the future development of deformable mirrors for non-NASA applications as well. Ultra-flat highly reflective mirror surfaces are required for a number of commercial applications. Examples of these applications include high power lasers and optical lithography. Leaders in both of these markets are currently exploring the use of adaptive optics to enhance performance of their optical systems. There is currently no commercially available deformable mirror capable of producing the high quality wavefront that could be achieved using the proposed mirror technology.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S3.04-8120
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Large-Aperture Lightweight Cryogenic Telescope Components & Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flextensional Microactuators for Large-Aperture Lightweight Cryogenic Deformable Mirrors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRS Technologies, Inc.
2820 East College Ave, Suite J
State College, PA 16801-7548

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xiaoning Jiang
xiaoning@trstechnologies.com
2820 East College Ave, Suite J
State College,  PA 16801-7548

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TRS Technologies proposes large stroke and high precision single crystal flextensional piezoelectric microactuators for cryogenic optic devices such as large aperture deformable mirrors, etc. for future NASA space telescope missions. Single crystal piezoelectrics are attractive because they exhibit 3 to 5 times the strain of conventional piezoelectric ceramics, have very low strain hysteresis, and retain excellent piezoelectric performance at cryogenic temperatures. Flextensional single crystal piezoelectric microactuators could be used to further reduce the actuator weight in the deformable mirror, while maintain the large stroke and excellent cryogenic properties. Flextensional single crystal piezoelectric microactuator (<3x3x3 mm) with stroke > 10 um will be developed and tested. The initial DM modeling considering the flextensional actuator performance and the polymer membrane face sheet will be conducted in Phase I. At the conclusion of Phase I the feasibility of flextensional single crystal piezoelectric microactuators for membrane deformable mirror will have been demonstrated for large dynamic range wavefront correction at temperature ranged from 4K to 300K. In Phase II flextensional microactuator array and the DM membrane deformable mirrors will be prototyped and characterized.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flextensional single crystal piezoelectric membrane deformable mirror technology offer capability of greater dynamic wavefront correction at broader temperature range, which is desired for many future NASA missions such as JWST, SIM, SAFIR, TPF and others. Apart from the adaptive optics applications, large stroke, high precision flextensional single crystal microactuators are also good candidates for vibration control and smart structures in space applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flextensional single crystal piezoelectric microactuators are also attractive for many DOD adaptive optics programs such as DM technology for directed energy applications. Apart from the adaptive optics applications, large stroke, high precision single crystal actuators are also good candidates for fiber optic steering, MEMS microwave tuning, vibration control and smart structures, electromechanical MEMS optical switch, and micro/nanopositioning for photonics and biomedical tooling, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manipulation
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)
Kinematic-Deployable
Attitude Determination and Control
Instrumentation
Ceramics
Composites
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S3.04-9501
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Large-Aperture Lightweight Cryogenic Telescope Components & Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Scaling Actively Cooled SLMS Mirrors to the Meter-Class for Cryogenic Telescopes (SPIRIT, TPF-1, SPECS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Schafer Corporation
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824-4191

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Goodman
wgoodman@schaferalb.com
2309 Renard Place SE, Suite 300
Albuquerque,  NM 87106-4267

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I and II projects will describe and implement a maturation plan for Schafer's SLMS<SUP>TM</SUP> technology, with the goal of producing large diameter, high-precision optics that are superior to traditional glass and beryllium mirrors. We will design and manufacture a spherical SLMS<SUP>TM</SUP> from 2 segments that have been bonded together. We will use a proprietary cryo-compatible joining process to bond the segments. We shall show traceability of the fabrication approach to a 0.5-meter diameter bonded optic to be produced in Phase II, and a 1.5-meter diameter optic that could be produced in Phase III. The 1.5-meter primary mirror would weigh <125 pounds, less than one-half the weight of the projected 250 pound weight for an advanced ULE mirror at nominally the same cost. SLMS<SUP>TM</SUP> have been passively cooled in vacuum with little figure change at GSFC (80 K)1 and MSFC (~25 K)2, and actively cooled (internally and externally) to 80 K in vacuum using LN2 at MSFC3. Cryogenic damping measurements of our silicon and silicon carbide foam materials conducted by JPL have shown that the modulus and damping performance are temperature insensitive4. Thus, SLMS<SUP>TM</SUP> offers the Government a credible optics road map for future Origins and Universe Mission telescopes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Potential Applications for SLMS<SUP>TM</SUP> technology is Cryogenic and EUV/Visible Ambient Telescopes. Missions of interest are (for cryogenic) SAFIR, SPIRIT, SPECS, TPF interferometer and (for ambient) DMP, SCOPE, MTRAP, SUVO, NHST and TPF coronagraph.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential applications for SLMS<SUP>TM</SUP> and technology are the telescopes for Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Imaging missions, Space Based Lasers and Relay Systems for High-Energy Laser Systems, Telescopes for Remote Sensing, and Telescopes for Telecommunications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.01-8740
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Infrared & Sub-mm Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Polarimeter on a Chip: Antenna-Coupled Microbolometers and Polarimeters for Submillimeterwave and Millimeterwave Focal Planes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
STAR Cryoelectronics LLC
25-A Bisbee Court
Santa Fe, NM 87508-1412

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robin Cantor
rcantor@starcryo.com
25-A Bisbee Court
Santa Fe,  NM 87508-1412

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future missions to study astrophysical sources at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths require focal planes of 1000's of detectors that must operate at the background limit from cooled telescopes in space, couple efficiently to optical systems spanning wavelengths from 1 cm to 0.1 mm, allow precise measurements of polarization, and interface with a suitable readout technology. These properties are critical, for example, for missions to decode completely the temperature and polarization of the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background radiation, such as the Einstein Inflation Probe (EIP, or CMBPol). Achieving these goals will require a revolution in detector technology, and scalable approaches that are compatible with planar microlithographic fabrication are therefore essential. The most promising schemes include antenna-coupled bolometers cooled to ~100 mK. We propose to develop the superconducting transition-edge hot-electron microbolometer (THM), which overcomes many of the limitations of current bolometer technology. Using superconducting transmission-line circuitry for focal-plane processing of the RF signal, we propose to integrate these detectors into a polarimeter on a single, monolithic circuit. The innovation directly addresses Topic 4 "Exploration of the Universe Beyond Our Solar System," subtopic S4.01 "Infrared and Sub-mm Sensors and Detectors."

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has placed CMBPol on its roadmap to detect the imprint of the gravitational waves from inflation on the CMB polarization. This task, however, is very challenging. Sensitivity improvements of at least a factor of 10 over the Planck mission are required. The joint NASA, NSF, and DOE Task Force on CMB Research has outlined a plan for carrying out this ambitious mission, and the development of detectors is a key component of that plan. The detectors proposed here can meet the requirements for the CMBPol mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include industrial IR cameras for process monitoring, structural inspection, and other real-time thermal applications, as well as homeland security applications such as quantum cryptography.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Instrumentation
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.01-8859
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Infrared & Sub-mm Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: A 32x32 Direct Hybrid Germanium Photoconductor Array with CTIA Readout Multiplexer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Technoscience Corporation
P.O. Box 60658
Palo Alto, CA 94306-2306

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jam Farhoomand
jfarhoomand@mail.arc.nasa.gov
P.O. Box 60658
Palo Alto,  CA 94306-2306

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to investigate the feasibility of developing a two-dimensional far infrared photoconductor array with the following key design features: 1- A top-illuminated, 2D germanium array (32x32 single or 64x64 mosaic) with the possibility of extension to very large formats. The quantum efficiency is enhanced by metalizing the bottom surface for a second pass. 2- A 2-side buttable 32x32 (64x64 mosaic) CTIA readout multiplexer using advanced cryo-CMOS process. The unit-cell design is optimized for far IR detectors, eliminates detector debiasing, and improves pixel uniformity. The readout is operational down to at least 2.0K. 3- A novel, direct hybrid design using indium-bump technology. This integrated design offers superior noise performance and effectively addresses the readout glow, detector heating, and thermal mismatch between the detector and the readout. This is the key discriminator of this project. The projected sensitivity of this array as well as >1 kpixel (64x64 mosaic) format meets the stated requirements of future NASA instruments. This effort fits well within the scope of the SBIR Subtopic S4.01 and will be a benefit to many large and small NASA projects such as SOFIA and SAFIR.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ace instruments developed under Origins Program such as SAFIR, science instruments for SOFIA, upcoming projects under Astrobiology Program, balloon-borne instruments for atmospheric research, and laboratory science instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerospace industry: In addition to the aerospace companies that are under contract to NASA and directly participate in the space program, there are those that independently manufacture infrared detector arrays in large formats. Some aerospace companies that would be interested in our product are Raytheon Vision Systems, Boeing, Rockwell, and Ball Aerospace. Science groups at universities and national labs: Astronomical science instruments for observations at ground-based observatories and instruments for basic research.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Instrumentation
Microwave/Submillimeter
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.02-7580
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Terrestrial and Extra-Terrestrial Balloons and Aerobots
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aerobot Sampling and Handling System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
460 W 34th Street
New York, NY 10001-2320

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paul Bartlett
Bartlett@HoneybeeRobotics.com
460 W 34th Street
New York,  NY 10001-2320

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Honeybee Robotics proposes to: ?Derive and document the functional and technical requirements for Aerobot surface sampling and sample handling across a range of aerial platforms, mission applications and exploration targets, like Mars and Titan. ?Create a preliminary design for a tether or boom deployed, reusable, low mass & volume surface and subsurface sample acquisition and handling system that can acquire ice and icy regolith samples and perform automated sample transfer. We will focus on designs relevant to environments and sample types on Mars and Titan. ?Demonstrate proof-of-concept, subsystem-level hardware that can acquire a subsurface ice or icy regolith sample deployed from a platform capable of simulating the horizontal and vertical motion of an Aerobot vehicle. The proposed innovations primary significance would be to: ?Provide mission planners with the performance specifications, necessary accommodations, concept of operations and the functional requirement information needed to develop new concepts and exploration applications for Aerobot platforms that have sampling and handling capabilities. ?Identify and address the critical challenges surrounding tether or boom deployed, very low-preload sampling systems targeted toward consolidated materials (e.g. ice or rock). ?Test and characterize the effectiveness of a variety of sample methods, relevant to Aerobot platforms, to acquire ice cores, chips, icy regolith and even liquid samples with integrity and volatiles retained. ?Demonstrate sampling at a safe distance and in a safe manner from the aerial platform. ?Demonstrate, with analysis and hardware, the basic feasibility of an Aerobot sampling and handling system. ?Provide requirement information and test data about an existing system, Honeybee's Touch and Go Sample System (TGSS), capability to acquire ice, icy regolith and even liquid samples from a platform with both horizontal and vertical motion during sampling operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An Aerobot-based sampling and handling system would be applicable to many future NASA missions, including those solicited by programs such as Scout, Discovery and New Frontiers to Mars, Titan, Venus, comets, asteroids, Jupiter's icy moons, and other planetary bodies. There are many compelling sites of high scientific interest to Aerobot missionplanners. These sites, which include Martian gully formations, ice-covered Martian polar caps and ice-filled craters, the rough Venusian highlands, the icy and varied terrain of Titan, and volatile-rich regolith on comets, would be better suited for exploration from an Aerobot platform. Many of these targets mentioned contain trace to large amounts of water- or methane-ice, so a device capable of ice coring and maintaining sample integrity, such as that proposed, is of great interest to the science community. In addition to ices, the sampling device could be used to sample materials like regolith or even soft rock outcrop, and a modified version could be developed to acquire and store liquid and/or slushy samples. Added benefits to employing an Aerobot platform are that the vehicle can both cover and analyze large distances more easily than a rover and provide aerial context for each sample and site analyzed. The feasibility of sampling from Aerobot platforms, and the requirements placed on the platforms in order to sample has not been adequately verified.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Military Applications An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a subsurface access capability could be used autonomously to acquire surface and subsurface samples where chemical, biological and radiological weapons and materials are suspected. This capability would allow the detection and characterization of potentially deadly Weapons of Mass Destruction before soldiers could be put in harms way. Such systems could be also be used to characterize soils for their qualities relevant to vehicle mobility and constructing fortifications. Certain systems could be modified to empace counter-mobility devices and Unattended Ground Sensors. Ice Penetration Technologies Bit and cutting head geometries and materials are critical elements in improving rate of penetration, specific energies for drilling and bit wear. Geometries and materials are also very sensitive to the types of rock, regolith, soils, ice and liquids targeted for penetration and acquisition. Development on the Athena Mini-Corer demonstrated that increases in penetration rate by as much as a factor of 60 could be achieved with improvements in bit geometry alone. The development of new materials and bit geometries for the Aerobot Sampling and Handling System, could likely produce spin-off penetration technologies suited for use in ice and other consolidated materials. Innovative refinements in cutting materials and geometries could provide improvements in ice climbing tools and other penetration technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Mobility
Manipulation
In-situ Resource Utilization


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.02-8822
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Terrestrial and Extra-Terrestrial Balloons and Aerobots
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hyperspectral Polarimeter for Monitoring Balloon Strain

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840-4027

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tony Ragucci
tony.ragucci@lynntech.com
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station,  TX 77840-4027

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's latest generation of superpressure, ultra long duration balloons (ULDB) extend the flight time for stratospheric experiments to levels previously unattainable with zero-pressure balloons, while maintaining established load and altitude capabilities. However, the co-extruded polyethylene film structure of these balloon gores must sustain pressure differentials of 240 Pa without loss of structural integrity for 100 days or more. At present, there is no in-situ means for monitoring the strain in balloon gores to determine if a failure is imminent or if corrective action is necessary. Lynntech proposes an optical device which utilizes the birefringence of balloon film, the natural linear polarization of scattered sunlight, and a new technology for producing hyperspectral images to monitor all balloon strain continuously, in-flight, from a single point of reference. The Hyperspectral Polarimeter (HP) will generate real-time strain maps of the balloon by monitoring the birefringence of the gore material, which is linearly proportional to the film strain. An interference spectrum is measured for each pixel of a detection CCD array, enabling the construction of a two-dimensional map of the overall balloon strain. This new, light, and compact technology will enable unprecedented capability for NASA to continuously monitor balloon film strain throughout flights.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Hyperspectral Polarimeter could be used for in-situ strain analysis on any NASA balloon, including not only the ULDB program but also Long Duration Balloons (LDB) and conventional, zero-pressure balloons, as well. All of these vehicles use thin-film birefringent materials for the balloon gore material, such as polyethylene, polyester, nylon, or some combination of these materials. The device could also be used for testing and evaluation purposes during film fabrication and balloon assembly. Additionally, the core technology of the hyperspectral polarimeter could be extended to design and engineering applications for any NASA device subjected to stress. The traditional technique of photoelastic stress analysis would be substantially enhanced by the precision and absolute quantification capabilities of the hyperspectral polarimeter.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Manufacturers of plastic films could benefit from the highly quantitative quality control analysis capabilities that the hyperspectral polarimeter provides. Applications include retail and commercial plastic bags, architectural sheeting, shatter-resistant glass, adhesive tape, vapor barriers, and air-filled packing material. The device could also be used as a tool for applications where photoelastic stress analysis would typically be used. This includes model machine and structural stress measurement where computational finite element analysis techniques typically fail, such as in threaded engagements and other close-tolerance applications. The precision and absolute quantification of birefringence that the hyperspectral polarimeter provides would enable a level of machine model analysis that is currently unavailable with state-of-the-art photoelastic stress polarimeters.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.03-7763
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Regenerator for High Frequency Low Temperature Operation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chesapeake Cryogenics, Inc.
301 Bay Dale Dr.
Arnold, MD 21012-2310

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Superczynski
bfsuper@earthlink.net
301 Bay Dale Dr.
Arnold,  MD 21012-2310

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The key element in producing an efficient low temperture cryocooler is the performance of the regenerator. It must have good heat transfer characteristics while providing low pressure drop, especially for compact high speed coolers. The axial thermal conductivity must be low to reduce losses but provide good radial conductivity for flow uniformity and maximum use of all material. At low termperatures, the heat capacity of the regenerator material must be high to achieve these low temperatures. The geometry of the regenerator material will be investigated to meet the requirements and minimize losses while providing the necrssary characteristics for efficient cryocooler performance. Altermative fabricaiton methods and materials, including rare earths will also be investigated to take advantage of the improved low temperature material properties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential NASA applications include all regenerative cryocoolers used for cooling sensors and detectors that are required to operate at tempertures in the range of 35K to 15K and 4K. It is expected that lightweight stirling and pulse tube coolers will have an increased coefficient of performance (COP) resulting in lighter weight and smaller size.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA commercial applications are a more efficient recondenser for MRI magnets, cooling of sensors for military use and cooling electronics for high speed computer controls and power devices. This regeneror technology would also apply to the thousands of cryocoolers used in vacuum systems in electronic chip manufacturing industry by providing an oil free vacuum more efficiently.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.03-8093
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Shielded ADR Magnets For Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Superconducting Systems, Inc.
90 Rumford Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453-3847

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shahin Pourrahimi
pourrahimi@superconductingsystems.com
90 Rumford Avenue
Waltham,  MA 02453-3847

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An important consideration of the use of superconducting magnets in ADR applications is shielding of the other instruments in the vicinity of the superconducting magnets. For example in a telescope application the magnetic field at about 1m away from the magnet may need to be in milli-gauss range. Shielding without proper technology and optimization can add unnecessary weight to the magnet system that can amount to a few times the weight of the superconducting magnet itself. This proposal discusses various approaches in shielding of Nb3Sn ADR magnets and suggests a program to develop the capability required to achieve effective shielding schemes that provide required shielding with minimum weight, and maximum reliability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program is designed to achieve high operational efficiency for superconducting ADR magnets in space, and to meet space launch requirements. The program will develop technologies for manufacturing of lightweight well-shielded superconducting magnets operating at 10K and low currents. In addition to direct benefits to cooling efficiency of space cryogenic systems, these technologies will have a positive impact on efficiency of superconducting magnets used in motors, actuator, imaging devices, high-power electric propulsion, and detectors with potential use in space applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The program will develop technologies for manufacturing of lightweight well-shielded superconducting Nb3Sn magnets operating at 10K. Currently many commercial superconducting magnets use NbTi wires and are cryogen-free. These magnets use commercial cryocoolers that can achieve cooling capacity of 0.5-1W at 4K. The input power requirement of these cryocoolers range between 3-5 KW. Operations at 10K can allow the input power to be reduced by a factor of 2-3. With the continuous rise in price of fuel, reduction in input power has a high potential to drive the cryogen-free superconducting market towards Nb3Sn magnets operating at 10K.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Instrumentation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.03-8320
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of an Anti-Vibration Controller for Magnetic Bearing Cooling Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Pl
Rockledge, FL 32955-5327

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel Mason
dkm@mainstream-engr.com
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge,  FL 32955-5327

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal outlines a program to develop a vibration-free reverse-Brayton cycle cooling system using specially-tuned magnetic bearings. Such a system is critical for the level of sensitivity required by future electromagnetic and gravitational wave detectors. The nature of magnetic bearings and their accompanying control systems make them ideal for applications that demand zero vibration, low-gravity, and maintenance-free operation. Further integration of these bearings into a reverse-Brayton cycle for cooling instruments is an ideal solution for use in high-sensitivity, long-term operations. In Phase I, Mainstream will develop a control algorithm designed to eliminate virtually all vibration and will be developed and tested on an existing machine operating under similar operating speeds and conditions. Design of the system and individual components will be finalized for immediate fabrication and testing in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of a vibration-free reverse-Brayton cooling cycle using magnetic bearings will significantly increase the lifespan, efficiency, and sensitivity of space-based detectors as well as reduce system size and mass. The use of magnetic bearings in future cooling systems is critical in achieving NASA's goal of larger, more powerful, more sensitive, and longer-term detectors and exploration missions. The technology developed during the Phase I program can be seamlessly integrated with Mainstream's existing magnetic bearing spacecraft programs including low-lift heat pump refrigeration compressors and space-based hyperbaric chambers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Vibration-free turbomachinery, and especially its use in cryogenic systems has tremendous potential in the military and industrial markets. Such technology is directly applicable to high-sensitivity surveillance as well as commercial medical, semiconductor, supercomputer, and telecommunications applications where high accuracy and efficient thermal control is a must.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Control Instrumentation
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.03-9359
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: 4 Kelvin Cooling with Innovative Final Stage of Multistage Cryocooler

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sunpower, Inc.
182 Mill Street
Athens, OH 45701-2627

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kyle Wilson
wilson@sunpower.com
Sunpower, Inc., 182 Mill Street
Athens,  OH 45701-2627

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Proposed for development is a proof-of-concept prototype for the final stage of a multistage cryocooler. This final stage comprises a high frequency pulse tube cold head that cools from an intermediate temperature of 10?20 K down to below the critical temperature of helium (5.2 K) using an alternate approach compared to conventional technology. This approach offers unique advantages that have never before been explored and will allow us to achieve high thermodynamic efficiency with compact size, using ordinary helium as the working fluid. The first and second stages that will eventually pre-cool the third stage cold head can be either existing commercial Sunpower Stirling cryocoolers or pulse tube technology now under development. If the third stage cold head proves successful all the pieces will be in place for developing a compact, efficient and reliable cryocooler.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA would benefit from a compact, efficient and reliable multistage cryocooler capable of cooling sensors for deep-space missions as envisioned under the NASA Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) or pre-cooling adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators designed to achieve temperatures below 1 K.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include cooling superconducting microelectronic circuits at 4.5 K, as envisioned by Hypres, Inc. for digital communication devices, cooling superconducting magnets in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines in the medical field and as a substitute for liquid helium systems or bulky Gifford-McMahon coolers in scientific instruments.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Cooling
Architectures and Networks
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Data Input/Output Devices
Microwave/Submillimeter
Thermodynamic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.03-9709
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: A 4-Kelvin Pulse-Tube/Reverse-Brayton Hybrid Cryocooler

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120-4925

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Maddocks
maddocks@cae.wisc.edu
1415 Engineering Drive, Rm 1339A
Madison,  WI 53706-1607

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's ability to perform cutting edge space science, including lunar and planetary exploration, requires the use of cryogenically cooled detectors and sensors for advanced scientific instruments and telescopes. For example, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of cryogenic IR focal plane arrays it is desirable to have on-focal plane, high-resolution, analog-to-digital data converters. Such A/D converters and supporting technology are currently in various stages of development. These and other detectors and sensors will require improvements in cryogenic system technology, including the development of lightweight, low vibration, highly-efficient, long-life cryocoolers if their useful lifetime is to be extended beyond a couple of years. To address these requirements, Atlas Scientific proposes to develop a 4K cryocooler that combines the efficiency of a recuperative, reverse-Brayton, low-temperature stage with the simplicity of a regenerative, pulse-tube, upper stage. The PT/RB hybrid is an innovative cooling system capable of achieving temperatures in the range of 4 to 10 K and is ideally suited to the requirements of many future space-based applications. The hybrid system addresses the issues of cryocooler vibration, reliability, and efficiency, while simultaneously providing an innovative approach to the challenge of interfacing a cryocooler with low-temperature detectors, sensors, and electronics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous future NASA applications. For example, to improve the ultimate signal-to-noise ratio obtainable from cryogenic IR focal plane arrays it is desirable to have on-focal plane, high-resolution, analog-to-digital data converters. Such A/D converters and supporting technology are currently in various stages of development. These and other detectors and sensors will require improvements in cryogenic system technology, including the development of lightweight, low vibration, highly-efficient, long-life cryocoolers if their useful lifetime is to be extended beyond a couple of years. There are many potential applications for the various components of the proposed cooler as well. A prime example is the use of the rectifying interface between the pulse tube and reverse-Brayton stages. This interface can be used in conjunction with a pulse tube or Stirling cooler to provide cooling for distributed loads or active shielding and re-liquefaction for zero-boil-off (ZBO) dewars such as will be required for the manned Mars mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include two important applications: first, reliquifying the boil-off from MRI machines, and second, cooling cryopumps for use in the semiconductor industry. Both applications currently represent substantial markets.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Propellant Storage
Cooling
Biomass Production and Storage
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation
Production


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.03-9774
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems for Sensors and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Effective Thermal Regenerator for Low Temperature Cryocoolers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-0071

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Weibo Chen
wbc@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-0071

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future missions to investigate the structure and evolution of the universe require highly efficient, low-temperature cryocoolers for low-noise detector systems. We propose to develop a highly efficient low-cost regenerator for regenerative cryocoolers with cooling temperatures in the range of 15 K and below. The proposed regenerator uses an innovative non-rare-earth material to achieve a volumetric specific heat of about 0.65 to 0.31 J/cm3-K at temperatures of 15 to 4.2 K. The large heat capacity will substantially reduce the thermal swing during periodic heat transfer and therefore improve the efficiency of low-temperature regenerative cryocoolers. The regenerator will be lightweight and easy to fabricate. In Phase I we will optimize the regenerator for a specific cooling application. We will use the resulting design and model to show that a regenerative cryocooler can achieve a very high efficiency. In Phase II we will build a prototype regenerator, measure its key performance parameters, and integrate it with an existing cryocooler to demonstrate its high thermal effectiveness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed regenerator can be used in cooling systems for space-borne science instrument operating at temperatures in the range of 10 K or below. Its superior thermal performance makes it especially suitable for the low-noise detector cooling systems for future observatory missions, such as the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), Constellation-X (Con-X), and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The military applications for the proposed regenerator include cooling systems on space-based surveillance, missile detection, and missile tracking systems. Scientific applications include cooling systems for communication satellites; superconducting instruments, digital filters, and magnets; MRIs; and SQUIDs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Fluid Storage and Handling
Instrumentation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.04-8021
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics and Optical Telescopes (including X-ray, UV, Visual, IR)
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Resolving Power Volume Diffractive Gratings for 400-2700 nm Spectral Range

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
OptiGrate, Inc.
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826-3230

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vadim Smirnov
VSmirnov@OptiGrate.com
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando ,  FL 32826-3230

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of this NASA SBIR Phase I proposal is to develop a novel type of high resolving power diffraction gratings based on volume Bragg gratings technology. The key innovation to be used for creation of these gratings is the patented technology on production of high efficiency volume diffractive elements in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass on which OptiGrate has an exclusive license from the University of Central Florida. Gratings with diffraction efficiency more than 90% and resolving power up to 20,000 will be demonstrated for the spectral analysis applications in the visible and near-IR spectra (from 400 to 2700 nm). These gratings will have 25- to 50-mm aperture with the spectral resolution down to 50 pm and less. This, to the best of our knowledge, will exceed parameters of all comparable gratings available nowadays. Moreover, PTR volume diffractive gratings are stable over time for decades, thermally-stable up to 400??C, their resistance to CW laser radiation exceeds 10 kW/cm^2, and laser-induced damage threshold is 10 and 40 J/cm^2 for 1- and 8-nm pulse width, respectively. Absorption of these gratings is only 0.1 cm^-1 at 1 um wavelength after exposure to 10 Mrad of gamma radiation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Unique properties of volume diffractive gratings in PTR glass can be uses for such NASA-based applications as high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, free-space optical communications (range finding, targeting, remote sensing, etc.), spectral sensing, LIDARs, LADARs, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Diffractive optics in PTR glass can be used as intracavity mode selectors or output couplers in high-power laser systems, spectrally and angularly controlled diffractive beam deflectors, beam steering elements, incoherent and coherent beam combiners for both solid-state and semiconductor lasers, adjustable attenuators and beam splitters for laser beams, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Laser
Optical
High-Energy
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.04-8169
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics and Optical Telescopes (including X-ray, UV, Visual, IR)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Picometer Mirror Mount

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nightsky Systems, Inc.
3916 Lauriston Rd
Raleigh, NC 27616-8612

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carl Blaurock
carl@nightsky-systems.com
3916 Lauriston Rd
Raleigh,  NC 27616-8612

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a 6DOF controllable mirror mount with high dynamic range and fast tip/tilt capability for space based applications. It will enable the actuation of large (~1m) mirrors over centimeter stroke with low bandwidth to correct deployment errors, provide sub-micron correction of thermal distorsion with picometer precision, and enable nanometer/nanoradian tip/tilt wavefront correction up to tens of Hz. The actuator will be designed to decouple the mirror from support resonances so that the mirror control system can suppress the system dynamic response. The mount will be optimized from a systems perspective, including thermal effects, total mass including the amplifiers and induced mechanical noise.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is planning many future observatory missions that would benefit from a successful FPMM demonstration. A short list includes the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interometer (TPF-I), Single Aperature Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR), Vision Mission ? Stellar Interferometer (VM-SI), Thirty Meter Space Telescope (TMST), Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI), and the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT). All of these missions pose the challenge of a large, lightweight aperature with extremely Secondary Mirror positioning requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
FPMM would be extremely beneficial to space telescopes that require agility. The demand for increased resolution is driving systems to larger aperature size, but this decreases modal frequency exponentially. Conventional control approaches that limit the bandwidth to a decade below the first flexible mode will be come the limiting factor on agility. FPMM could enable a larger aperature system with faster slew settle times than current systems. The Earth pointing community is one potential beneficiary.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.04-8389
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics and Optical Telescopes (including X-ray, UV, Visual, IR)
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Density Diffraction Imaging and Non-Imaging Grating Elements for EUV and X-ray Spectroscopy Fabricated by DUV Reduction Photolithography

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lightsmyth Technologies
860 W. Park, Suite 250
Eugene, OR 97401-3061

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dmitri Iazikov
info@lightsmyth.com
860 W. Park, Suite 250
Eugene,  OR 97401-3048

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a need for lightweight high-density (4000+ lines/mm) novel diffraction grating elements in modern telescopes to advance EUV and X-ray astrophysics. Current grating technologies (ruling and holographic beam interference) do not provide optimal solution for all grating requirements. In response to NASA request, we propose to apply state-of-the art DUV reduction photolithographic tools developed for modern semiconductor industry and LightSmyth's proven design expertise in the application of this technology to the development of grating devices with constant and varying line spacing (VLS). The proposal will focus on four major areas: (i) Development and demonstration of constant and VLS reflective diffraction grating elements for EUV and X-ray spectroscopy at glazing angle of incidence with straight lines. (ii) Development and demonstration of VLS reflective diffraction grating elements for EUV and X-ray spectroscopy at glazing angle of incidence with curved lines to produce focusing diffraction grating elements on a plane substrate. (iii) Design of in-plane and off-plane reflective diffraction grating elements for NASA's Constellation-X. (iv) Design of VLS blazed near-normal incidence focusing diffraction grating elements on plane substrate for EUV imaging spectroscopy to replace diffraction grating on toroidal substrate for Goddard Space Flight Center's NEXUS project.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Simple straight-line VLS gratings fabricated by DUV photolithography may be of high value for existing NASA projects, such as in-plane diffraction gratings for Constellation-X. More complex, focusing diffraction elements fabricated using proposed approach may be used for EUV and X-ray spectroscopy in space astrophysics (X-ray astronomy, solar corona astrophysics). Specifically, conceptual grating element design for NASA projects (off-plane gratings for Constellation-X and NEXUS) will be proposed. Grating elements for a lot of other on-going and future NASA projects may be addressed with the proposed technology as it matures, such as EUNIS (Extreme Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer) of GSFC, RAISE (Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment) of Southwest Research Institute and SUMI (Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation) of Marshall Space Flight Center by replacing traditional holographically and mechanically ruled gratins with the proposed light-weight, robust and inexpensive computer-generated diffraction gratings produced by DUV reduction photolithography.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial application include diffraction grating elements for spectrographs used in synchrotron radiation instrumentation, high-laser harmonics and plasma diagnosis.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Large Antennas and Telescopes
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.04-8886
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics and Optical Telescopes (including X-ray, UV, Visual, IR)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nonintrusive Optical Thermometers for Real-Time Control of Fabrication Processes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douglas Baer
d.baer@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View,  CA 94041-1518

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the proposed SBIR Phase I program is to develop an instrument that provides real-time, in situ measurements of substrate temperature in optical coating reactors. The instrument will employ an inexpensive diode laser, fiber optic components, and established laser interferometry methods to determine substrate temperature at multiple locations with a replicate precision of better than 0.1 degrees C in a measurement time of less than 0.2 seconds. The precision may be improved with increasing measurement time, if desired. The instrument (an "optical thermometer") will be demonstrated on optical substrates made of a variety of materials in state-of-the-art industrial reactors specializing in UV, visible, near-IR and IR optical coatings. The fast response of the sensor will enable coaters to use, for the first time, precise measurements of bulk substrate temperature to identify temperature nonuniformities during the coating process, refine and improve coating processes in real time, and minimize batch-to-batch variations through closed-loop process control.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA Commercial Applications include: temperature sensors for optical coating reactors, temperature sensors for semiconductor process (etch) reactors

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA Commercial Applications include: process control of optical coating reactors, control of semiconductor process (etch) reactors and other industrial processes

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.04-9332
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics and Optical Telescopes (including X-ray, UV, Visual, IR)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modeling, Calibration and Control for Extreme-Precision MEMS Deformable Mirrors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Iris AO, Inc.
2680 Bancroft Way
Berkeley, CA 94704-1717

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Helmbrecht
michael.helmbrecht@irisao.com
2680, Bancroft Way
Berkeley,  CA 94704-1717

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Iris AO will develop electromechanical models and actuator calibration methods to enable open-loop control of MEMS deformable mirrors (DMs) with unprecedented precision. Error budget analysis will establish feasibility of open-loop operation with nanometer-scale positioning accuracy and sub-nanometer resolution and stability. Although a number of MEMS based DMs have been demonstrated for adaptive optics applications, little work has been carried out to characterize their wavefront correction ability to precisions required by NASA space telescope missions. This proposal directly addresses this issue for a class of electrostatically actuated DMs with extremely high optical quality and low voltage-to-stroke ratios. High-precision, large actuator count DMs are critical for high-contrast astrophysical imagers, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder program. Existing non-MEMS DMs that approach NASA requirements feature high actuation voltages, low actuator densities and uncertain scalability beyond a few thousand actuators. MEMS DMs offer natural scalability, but do not yet meet the stringent precision and stability requirements for space telescopes applications. Better understanding of the electromechanical behavior, positioning error sources and calibration methods for these devices is essential to understand and improve performance, bringing MEMS DMs to mission readiness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Iris AO technology can be a key enabling component in a host of future NASA missions, including the space telescopes of the 'Origins' program including Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), Space Astronomy Far Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) , Life Finder, and Planet Imager. Other potential programs such as Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) and ultraviolet telescopes will also require adaptive optics. Finally, ground based telescopes, like the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), Keck, and Gemini North & South, require adaptive optics to remove aberrations caused by air turbulence.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Defense Industry: In addition to NASA systems, the proposed adaptive optics technology would find immediate application in several military communications and imaging products. Systems used in military surveillance such as in the Predator drone and Global Hawk would benefit from the high-resolution, light weight, and low power consumption afforded by Iris AO's MEMS. Biomedical: Deformable mirror technology and adaptive optics will find applitaion in retinal imaging and confocal scanning microscopes.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.04-9574
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optics and Optical Telescopes (including X-ray, UV, Visual, IR)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Edge Control in Large Segmented Optics Using Zeeko Polishing Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zeeko Technologies, LLC
3000 Kent Ave. D1-103
West Lafayette, IN 47906-1075

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Kelchner
john.kelchner@zeekotechnologies.com
3000 Kent Ave. D1-103
West Lafayette,  IN 47906-1075

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The fabrication of very large optical telescopes for space astronomy can be prohibitively costly due to the immense weight and size of monolithic primary mirrors. The cost of these telescopes can be reduced by the use of a segmented primary mirror. The next generation of large segmented mirrors must have little or no edge exclusion. The Zeeko Precessions polishing is a sub-aperture process that has been developed for the control of form and texture in the production of aspheric and other optical surfaces. The Precessions process is deterministic and provides dramatic reductions in production time due to its high removal rate and repeatability. Similar to other processes, the Precessions process can produce an edge effect due to the polishing spot changing when in extends beyond the edge of a part. Currently, the control software assumes no change in the spot size or shape when it moves beyond the edge. The primary goal of this Phase I project is to understand process differences at the edge and develop an approach to minimize them. Results from Phase I will provide better understanding of the polishing influence function which will serve as a foundation for a Phase II study on power spectral density (PSD) control and production of prototype optics that demonstrate advancement of the state-of-the-art in minimizing edge exclusion.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improvements to edge polishing technology provide critical input to NASA studies of the TPFC (Terrestrial Planet Finder - Coronagraph), TPFI (Terrestrial Planet Finder ? Interferometer), SAFIR (Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory) and TMST (Thirty Meter Space Telescope) missions. Reducing edge masks (i.e., gaps in the primary mirror) below the millimeter scale is a crucial technology needed to prove the feasibility of these future missions. In addition, many ground based extremely large telescope projects including the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope, formerly the CELT ? California Extremely Large Telescope) and the OWL (Overwhelmingly Large Telescope) could gain from the proposed research.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the large segmented telescope projects, other industries that require large high precision optical surfaces could benefit from the successful completion of this Phase I project such as the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Within this industry, next generation EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography) and the polishing of semiconductor wafers and photomask substrates could gain from the proposed research on edge/PSD control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.05-8185
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: MEMOCVD Growth of AlGaN Heterojunctions for Advanced UV Photodetectors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209-2531

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jianping Zhang
jp@s-et.com
1195 Atlas Rd
Columbia,  SC 29209-2531

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc. (SET) proposes to develop ultraviolet detectors for focal plane arrays based on wide-bandgap semiconductor materials. Direct gap III?N AlInGaN materials are the only materials capable of combining a high sensitivity for detecting UV radiation with a sharp cutoff for either visible blind (cutoff < 400 nm) or solar-blind (cutoff < 290 nm) operation. These solid state detectors are rugged, suitable in high temperature applications, have fast response times, and have spatial resolution when integrated with a silicon readout integrated circuit (ROIC). This Phase I effort will focus on the feasibility for fabricating high quantum efficiency UV detectors with the possibility to integrate multi-wavelength detection onto a single pixel. This will include heterojunction optimization that will be applicable for both single color and multi-color UV detectors. SET will perform MEMOCVD growth of high Al containing heterojunctions and will investigate the influence of material properties such as doping efficiency, donor and acceptor compensation, dopant diffusion and profile, and adatom surface migration and their influence on heterojunction performance in advanced UV photodetectors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA related applications for UV detectors include measurement analysis sensors, astronomy, combustion detection, flame detection and engine flame-out detection. Current UV detection technology includes silicon photodetectors and photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). Silicon based detectors are not suitable for operating environments with elevated temperatures or with background signals in the visible and infra-red as are commonly experienced in space based applications. They also don't have gain capability necessary for small signal detection. PMTs have limitations for operation in high temperature environments, and do not function in typical NASA or DoD required environments where vibration and shock specifications must be met. These applications present opportunities for GaN/AlGaN solar blind detectors to displace the current technology because of fundamental physical limitations with the existing technology. Compound semiconductor based detectors also open up the potential for multi-wavelength detection capability on a single pixel adding increased discrimination and detection capability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA and commercial applications for UV detectors include air quality monitoring, analysis instruments, missile defense, bioagent sensing, flame/combustion detection and jet aircraft engine flame-out detection. Depending on the application and the requirement for spatial discrimination, it is believed that there are commercial markets for both stand-alone UV detectors and for UV focal plane arrays that are integrated with a silicon readout integrated circuit. GaN/AlGaN based UV detectors are envisioned to replace UV enhance silicon photodiodes and PMTs in applications where these devices are limited by environmental operating conditions (high temperature, shock, etc.).

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Sterilization/Pathogen and Microbial Control
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.05-9707
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast Readout for Large Area Photon-Counting Infrared Detectors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
aPeak, Inc.
63 Albert Rd.
Newton, MA 02466-1302

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stefan Vasile
svasile@apeakinc.com
63 Albert Rd.
Newton,  MA 02466-1302

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Many NASA space and Earth programs in the infrared range 1060-1550 nm are limited by the detector performance that require long exposure time due to their low sensitivity and/or high noise. Efficient, single-photon counting in the infrared providing short exposure time and large area for increased photon utilization at the output aperture of the optical system would enhance the quality of observations in traditional applications such as lidar, imaging, optical communications, and space observations. We propose to develop readout circuits of infrared photon-counting detectors that will enable large-area detectors with extremely short integration time, will decrease their noise by one order of magnitude as compared to conventional detectors, and will result in higher detection efficiency for single-photons from 1064 to 1550 nm. In Phase 1 we will develop readout integrated circuits (ROIC) and demonstrate the performance enhancement of infrared photon counting detectors. Phase 2 will integrate the detectors and ROICs into a single package to result in large arrays with three-dimensional imaging capability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LADAR, LIDAR, planetary mapping, obstacle detection, 3d remote robotics, docking.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Night vision and three-dimensional imaging for surveillance, anti-collision devices, unmanned vehicles.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Manipulation
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical
Highly-Reconfigurable
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.05-9895
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensor and Detector Technology for UV, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Sensitivity Semiconductor Photocathodes for Space-Born UV Photon-Counting and Imaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SVT Assoc
7620 Executive Dr
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3677

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amir Dabiran
dabiran@svta.com
7620 Executive Dr
Eden Prairie,  MN 55344-3677

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Many UV photon-counting and imaging applications, including space-borne astronomy, missile tracking and guidance, UV spectroscopy for chemical/biological identification, and UV medical imaging, demand very high performance in detector sensitivity, speed, resolution, and background noise. This proposal is directed toward the development of innovative high-efficiency UV photocathodes based on the wide bandgap III-nitride semiconductors for reliable operation in space missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High performance photon counting sensor systems are essentials part of the enabling technology for future space-borne astronomy as well as many civilian and military applications. The same technology can be used to fabricate high-brightness electron emitters for applications in maskless electron lithography, metrology, and solid-state lighting. Large-format UV imagers are in great demand for space science and military applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Detection of light in the ultraviolet (UV) range (wavelength < 400 nm) has a wide range of applications, both commercial and military, particularly in those areas where the UV component of light needs to be analyzed in the presence of large visible and/or infrared (IR) backgrounds. The proposed work can also result in the development of high-brightness electron emitters for applications in metrology and maskless electron lithography.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical
Photonics
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.06-8895
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Gravity Wave Detection
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Power Electro-Optic Modulator for Space-Based Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ADVR, Inc.
2311 S. 7th Ave., Building #1
Bozeman, MT 59715-6500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Palassis
palassis@advr-inc.com
2311 S. 7th Ave., Building #1
Bozeman,  MT 59715-6500

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I effort will establish the feasibility of developing a fiber coupled, high power, electro-optically controlled, space qualified, phase modulator for the NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Specific to the LISA project is the use of three spacecraft, spanned by vast distances, to make gravitational wave measurements. A central aspect in maintaining system performance is inter-spacecraft communications which require the use of frequency modulated, high power 1.06 mm light. AdvR's proposed approach offers phase modulation of a high power continuous wave 1.06mm laser signal with modulation capability of 1.9 to 2.1 GHz and 10% modulation depth. The key innovation is the use of a waveguide embedded in a non-linear optical material suitable for high optical power handling combined with patented micro-electrode technology for high speed modulation. To operate properly in space, the phase modulators used for LISA must be rugged to survive the journey to space and must perform optimally in a radiation environment. To achieve this goal, the proposed phase modulator development will include a fiber-in-fiber-out design that meets the space qualification requirements for mechanical stability of the package and radiation damage resistance of the non-linear optical material.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Several current NASA applications will benefit from utilizing AdvR's waveguide based devices to advance their programs. Two applications for this type of device are discussed. A non-linear optical material-based fiber-in-fiber-out phase modulator that offers a high optical power handling capability and is able to be space qualified will be the basis of this Phase I effort under the direction of the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at NASA GSFC. The modulator offers benefits for the LISA mission by providing modulated sidebands to a carrier signal, necessary for inter-spacecraft communication. The high power phase modulator is also the basic structure behind a high power amplitude modulator that can be used for narrow pulse generation at the output of fiber amplifiers and fiber lasers targeted for atmospheric DIAL lidar under development by the Laser Remote Sensing Branch at NASA GSFC.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The fiber-in-fiber-out feature of the proposed high power modulator provides the primary basis for AdvR to enter the commercial market. As NASA demonstrates the benefits of having a fully fiber coupled system, the commercial market is likely to follow suit in a broader range of applications. Currently, there is no existing market for the proposed modulators outside of NASA, since no equivalent product exists. During the Phase I period, we will investigate market potential opportunities. As a result of the proposed Phase I, AdvR's general capabilities in non-linear optical waveguides and related devices will be advanced, such as packaging and enhanced performance. These capabilities are expected to be applied by AdvR to unrelated new opportunities, which will help to maintain AdvR's long term capabilities. The anticipated impact of the proposed innovation on AdvR is to provide a strong competitive position for successful market entry and a basis for offering a broad range of related products. Due to the lack of competitive alternatives for fiber-in-fiber-out, high power modulators, AdvR will be in a strong, competitive position to gain market entry. In addition to modulator sales, AdvR will be in a position to fabricate customized structures for sale to other laser OEMs.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S4.06-9618
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Gravity Wave Detection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space-Qualified Ultrastable Laser Source

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Fibertek, Inc.
510 Herndon Pkwy
Herndon, VA 20170-5225

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ti Chuang
tchuang@fibertek.com
510 Herndon Pkwy
Herndon,  VA 20170-5225

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the development and space-qualification of a 1.06 micron ultrastable fiber laser source that fully satisfies the requirements of this SBIR opportunity (Laser Technologies for Gravitational Wave Detection). Our recommended approach builds on extensive experience developing and using single-frequency laser sources in the near infrared, both for aerospace and commercial applications. Our technical approach is based on emerging technology, spawned by the telecom industry that is only now reaching the maturity level where space qualification can be undertaken. NASA requires ultrastable laser sources for a variety of ongoing and planned missions including LISA and GRACE.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA is planning space-based sensors, a critical component of which are single-frequency ultrastable oscillators. These missions include LISA (Laser Interferometric Space Antenna), upgraded GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiments), terrestrial and space-based distributed aperture telescopes, interferometric instruments such as SIM and TFP (Space Interferometer Mission and Terrretrial Planet Finder) and general space-based metrology, where ultrahigh wavelength stability is the dominant requirement. These missions require lasers with sub-kHz linewidth at wavelengths from 1.06 to 1.5 ?m. Several nearer-term missions also require single-frequency seed or local oscillator lasers with Mhz linewidth. These missions include global Doppler winds lidar and coherent sensing of atmospheric constituents including CO2 and water vapor.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Commercial Applications include Laboratory use sngle-frequency lasers: Development work on the future flight systems Ground based telescope utilizing adaptive optics Interferometry Spectroscopy instruments and science requiring an absolute wavelength standard. Dye laser replacement scientific lasers Injection seed laser with superior absolute wavelength stability.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Gravitational
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S5.01-7801
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Thrust and Propellantless Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computational Framework for Aerocapture Devices (Ballutes)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Analytical Mechanics Assoc., Inc.
303 Butler Farm Road, Suite 104A
Hampton, VA 23666-1568

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sasan Armand
armand@ama-inc.com
303 Butler Farm Road, Suite 104A
Hampton,  VA 23666-1568

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The individual software tools that make up the analytical capabilities for the design of entry vehicles using an aero-assist/aero-capture device have been fully developed. In fact the performance of such software against the flight data has been superb, and NASA has used the results to make real-time decisions on the entry vehicles. However, the couplings among such software for estimation of weight and performance has not been developed. In part, the couplings of areas such as the fluid-structure interaction and trajectory still remain undeveloped. Lack of coupling of such software for space application has been the result of the types of structures that have been flown to date, i.e. the entry vehicles have exhibited relatively large stiffness and the TPS has been an integral part of the vehicles. However, when inflatable decelerators are becoming an essential part of the future interplanetary missions, the influence of inflation or structural displacements of an inflatable decelerator on lift and drag should be considered. Furthermore, development of a computational environment that hosts a combination of important disciplines to provide answers in a timely manner should be given a priority. A successful coupling of such software is the essential ingredient for engineering of inflatable decelerators.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The system analysis and integration groups across NASA will be able to use the software developed under this proposal to more accurately estimate the weight and performance of entry vehicles during Phase A of a project. The initial and accurate weight and performance results will enable NASA to setup the design requirements for entry vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The aerospace companies will be able to either use or extend the capability of the software developed under this proposal to more rapidly and accurately analyze the entry vehicles and setup the design and operation specifications during Phases B and C/D of a project.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Structural Modeling and Tools
Aerobrake


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S5.01-7823
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Thrust and Propellantless Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Arc Suppression Coatings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Electrodynamics Applications, Inc.
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor, MI 48113-1460

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Morris
morris@edapplications.com
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor,  MI 48113-1460

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In order to support systems such as the Momentum Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) Tether, NASA has identified the need for advanced electrodynamic-tether materials. A recently identified concern with present tether materials, particularly illustrated by the arcing after the tether break during the TSS-1R mission, is the need for arc suppression in the event that the insulation is breached by orbital debris and/or micrometeoroids. This concern applies to any high voltage application, including solar arrays, electric thruster components, and various scientific instruments. A significant hazard in and of itself to the tether application, the impact of the debris may release ionized and neutral particles which can instigate electrical arcing to the surrounding plasma, further weakening or severing the tether. The research program proposed here will identify, develop, and test advanced coatings for electrodynamic tethers that will suppress arc generation should the coating be breached. The proposed mechanism for suppressing the arc is including in the coating an encapsulated or entrapped electronegative gas that is released during the insulation breach and arcing event.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The arc suppression encapsulant coating is directly applicable to all electrodynamic tethers such as MXER, etc. It also may be applied to mitigate arcing concerns resulting from meteorite impact, or other arc initiation mechanisms, anywhere on a spacecraft where there is a high voltage present and the arc mechanism is randomly distributed over a large area with low probability of frequent repeat arcing mechanisms in the same location, such as solar panels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A successfully developed arc suppression coating would be applicable to terrestrial high voltage insulation applications where the potential for an arc is a concern. This will be true regardless of whether the application is in a vacuum or in a standard atmosphere.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Tethers
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S5.01-8948
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Thrust and Propellantless Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Materials and Production Technology for Very Large Solar Sail Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kazak Composites Incorporated
10F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801-1721

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pavel Bystricky
pbystricky@kazakcomposites.com
10F Gill Street
Woburn,  MA 01801-1721

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar sails are an attractive means for propulsion of future spacecraft. One potential device for deploying and supporting very large solar sails is the CoilAble boom made by ATK Space Systems - Goleta (formally AEC-Able Engineering). CoilAble's have a long and reliable track record in space. KaZaK Composites is a major developer and supplier of pultruded composite structural members used in CoilAble booms. For solar sail applications, it is important to develop advanced technologies that create the lightest possible booms. KaZaK is already pultruding advanced solar sail test hardware made with IM-9 carbon fiber as a first step toward improving solar sails. This SBIR proposal will identify a replacement for the recently out-of-production IM-9 baseline carbon fiber, and pursue three additional lines of investigation aimed at creating significant improvements in next generation solar sail structures. Specifically, we will investigate methods for making 1) near-zero CTE pultruded members of unlimited length via materials hybridization, 2) very lightweight tubular structures, with and without cores, to reduce the weight of solar sail longerons, and 3) passively damped structures achieved by additives to the matrix of pultruded composite sail materials. Mast structural elements made with least one and possibly several of these technologies will be prototyped and tested in Phase I.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Because of KaZaK's close working relationship with a major spacecraft boom manufacturer, the proposed technology will be immediately applicable, once demonstrated and perfected, for improving the performance of spacecraft coilable booms in conventional space systems as well as solar sails. Passive damping of the type proposed could be applied to all vibration and noise sensitive space systems, such as payload shrouds. The same technology could be used to reduce aircraft and train cabin interior noise. The pultruded tubes with internal fins could be used as solar panel and other spacecraft component heat pipes for thermal control.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The low-cost, low density, and simplicity of the proposed passive damping technology, one component of the proposed work, will make it attractive to the automobile and commercial aircraft markets, where noise control in vehicle interiors is a major concern. A significant, proprietary sporting goods application for the damper is discussed in the proposal body. The proposed tube making technology has application in heat pipes of the type used in portable computers. Materials hybridized for zero-CTE has application in the electronics industry, scientific instruments and medical devices.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Solar
Kinematic-Deployable
Launch and Flight Vehicle
Composites
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Multifunctional/Smart Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S5.01-9078
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Thrust and Propellantless Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Comprehensive Solar Sail Simulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Satellite Systems
33 Witherspoon St.
Princeton, NJ 08542-3207

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephanie Thomas
sjthomas@psatellite.com
33 Witherspoon St.
Princeton,  NJ 08542-3207

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar sails as a propulsive device have several potential applications: providing access to previously inaccessible orbits, longer mission times, and increased payload mass. NASA has identified a need for better simulations of sail-enabled missions to reduce the cost and risk associated with sail development. PSS has a unique capability due to our previous work in sail modeling and high-fidelity simulation. The simulation must model maneuvering, navigation, trajectory control, propulsive performance, and operations, which represents wide range of capability. PSS meets this capability for solar sails by integrating sail shape models for disturbance computation with attitude and orbit dynamics, first in MATLAB and then in the proposed C++ real-time simulation. The real-time simulation will provide users the ability to duplicate their MATLAB models in an environment to which they can attach hardware and flight software. This innovative package will support mission development from the earliest stages of analysis through flight operations. The same solar sail simulation will be used for mission planning and operator training. ATK Space Systems will consult on the project and develop refined models of propulsive performance of real sails, considering wrinkles, crinkles, billow, and manufacturing-induced asymmetries.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The future roadmap of solar sails includes flight validation, Geostorm, Solar Polar Imager, L1 Diamond, Particle Acceleration Solar Observatory, Mercury sample return, and eventually an interstellar probe. The proposed simulation, with its basis in MATLAB, can grow with these missions for years and be used in all stages of mission analysis, development, and operation. Once a successful validation mission has flown, the market for solar sails could expand considerably, encompassing space weather stations, observatories, and low and high-AU interplanetary science missions. The trajectory optimization portions of the simulation apply to broad classes of missions and are not limited to sail applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Solar sails are of interest to numerous parties, including private organizations such as the Planetary Society. The European Space Agency has already expressed interest in the MATLAB tools, which will not require an export license for overseas sale. There is also a general lack of reliable, repeatable trajectory optimization tools on the market, which are needed for low-thrust missions in addition to solar sailing.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Solar
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Structural Modeling and Tools
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Autonomous Control and Monitoring


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S5.01-9321
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Low Thrust and Propellantless Propulsion Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMTC)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corp
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Martin Chiaverini
cramerj@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison,  WI 53717-1961

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC proposes to develop a High-Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMRE) to meet the demands of advanced chemical propulsion systems for deep-space mission applications. The HPMTC utilizes a unique propellant injector to generate a coaxial vortex flow field in the combustion chamber. Propellant mixing and burning are confined to the core vortex, while the cool outer vortex provides convective cooling to counter the effects of thermal radiation. The HPMTC will utilize an optimized combustion chamber geometry and propellant injectors to maximize performance and minimize wall heating. Avoiding severe thermal cycling of the chamber will provide very long engine lifetime and allow for simple, lightweight chamber designs. The coaxial vortices also provide an extended flow path longer than the geometric length of the chamber. The enhanced shear mixing can produce high combustion efficiencies. Phase I tasks include propulsion system analysis, thrust chamber fabrication, hot-fire testing with methane using both GOX and LOX, data analysis, scaling effects analysis, and development of plans for Phase II activities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Propulsion systems using the HPMTC chambers will exhibit lower initial cost, longer service life, and lower life cycle cost than any existing known or projected competing technologies for the same thrust level. In addition to deep space chemical propulsion applications, which demand very high reliability and long life, NASA applications include the current propulsion systems for ELV's, service life extension versions for the SSME, and application to CEV system development programs. The HPMTC is well-suited to RCS, OMS, and upper stage needs. Throttling technologies can be applied to mature versions of the HPMTC.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The HPMTC chambers are ideal for commercial applications where economics are more stringent in justifying pursuit of TC technology. For such cases, the low initial cost of the HPMTC main chamber, and the low cost of qualifying such hardware in a new size can be key. New commercial users seeking to develop reusable launch systems will be prime candidates to seek this new, higher-performance low cost approach to reliable, long life, low cost liquid rocket engines. We have been approached by several such private venture firms seeking this technology. A ready market in the private sector is known to exist.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S5.02-8284
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Accommodation and Mitigation of Space Environmental Effects
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radar Characterization of the Interplanetary Meteoroid Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Center for Remote Sensing, Inc.
3702 Pender Dr # 170
Fairfax, VA 22030-6066

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lars Dyrud
ldyrud@yahoo.com
3702 Pender Dr # 170
Fairfax,  VA 22030-6066

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a new modeling effort that will make substantial refinements and improvements to our existing models of the interplanetary meteoroid environment near Earth. Because of recent theoretical and observational advancements within the field of radar meteors, we believe that existing models for the interplanetary meteor environment that are based upon or validated with radar meteor observations (Such as the NASA Meteoroid Enviornment Model MEM) lack important theoretically underpinning, and can be improved. Specifically, we now understand that the plasma generated during meteor entry is highly unstable and turbulent, and the evolution of this plasma, is at all stages largely influenced by plasma processes such as wave and ambipolar electric fields. Yet this has not been taken into account in any detailed radar meteor scattering theory. We propose to use our existing and on-going plasma simulations and models to provide the input profiles of conductivity and permittivity for finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations which can then interrogate the structure using plane waves that replicate radar pulses over the range of used frequencies from HF to L-Band. Using this approach together with our models for how the meteor plasma varies as a function of both meteor parameters such as size, composition, and velocity, and, atmospheric parameters such as winds/electric fields, density, temperature and altitude, will allow us to understand and characterize the full range of radar derivable information from meteors. Achieving these proposed goals will close the existing information gap and resolve the conflicting observations we have on the interplanetary meteor flux. Our results will provide a revised model for the interplanetary meteoroid environment that will strongly support NASA's planned manned and un-manned missions near Earth and to the Moon and Mars.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential NASA applications are clear, that is we plan to provide and updated and more accurate model of the interpalterary meteoroid environment that is based upon state of the art meteor plasma and radar scattering simulations. These simulations will allow the conversion of radar meteor observations into an accurate model of the incoming meteor flux, which will then lead to an improved specification. A new meteoroids environment model will help NASA mitigate the meteor threat for manned and un-manned space applications. Additionally, such a model will also support NASA's scientific mission including understanding solar system evolution and meteor effects to atmospheric science both on Earth and throughout the solar system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An accurate and user friendly model of the interplanetary meteor flux will have potential applications among commercial space and satellite companies. Further, this model could be directly used to support meteor input for radar clutter, and meteor trail communication applications, as well as the companies that produce scientific meteor radars. It would also allow us to develop the data reduction schemes for our own meteor radar, allowing us to enter a new business.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
RF


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S5.02-9396
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Accommodation and Mitigation of Space Environmental Effects
PROPOSAL TITLE: MISTI Shielding and Dosimetry Experiment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
PR&T, Inc.
1997 Katie Ct.
Fallbrook, CA 92028-8117

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Pickel
jim@pickel.net
1997 Katie Ct.
Fallbrook,  CA 92028-8117

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Reliable on-orbit dosimetry is necessary for understanding effects of space radiation environments on spacecraft microelectronics performance and comparison of on-orbit results to ground-based testing and modeling. Understanding dosimetry at the micro-level is becoming increasingly necessary as microelectronic devices become more complex. Several innovative dosimetry approaches are under development by various groups to meet these needs. Spot shielding is commonly used to increase survivability of unhardened microelectronics in spacecraft design. The efficacy of spot shielding to reduce the TID effects has recently come into question, with spot shielded FPGA devices degrading faster than unshielded devices on an MPTB space experiment. A study is underway to understand this anomalous result and one product of the study will be a prototype space experiment board focused on testing spot shielding. Both the dosimetry issue and the spot shielding issue are critical to use of COTS microelectronics in space system design. We propose to combine the spot shielding experiment with emerging dosimetry approaches and develop hardware and software for a space experiment that provides real-time dosimetry from multiple dosimetry types. The experiment will be designed using an innovative low power experiment card with plans for integration on the Space Environment Testbed (SET) Carrier.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Demonstration of effective real-time dosimetry for spacecraft and resolution of the spot shielding anomaly would benefit all future NASA spaceflights by making the microelectronics more reliable.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All commercial space systems would benefit from the increased reliability of the microelectronics that would be engendered by the results of this work.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S5.03-8966
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Particles and Fields Measurements
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Power Mass Spectrometer employing TOF

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Instruments
19 Hammond, Suite 508
Irvine, CA 92618-1636

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dean Aalami
dean@spaceinstruments.com
19 Hammond, Suite 508
Irvine,  CA 92618-1636

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A low power Mass Spectrometer employing multiple time of flight circuits for parallel processing is possible with a new innovation in design of the Time of flight circuit. The novel scheme uses gate delays to measure time of flight and calibrates the gate delays using a precise clock. Sensor weight is about 1Kg and power consumption is 1.5W.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA's GSFC has an effort underway to miniaturize instruments for space plasma physics investigations with constellations of nano-satellites. The deliverable Mass Spectrometer will be suitable for flight or as an engineering unit to be flown on a nano-satellite. The low power multi-channel sub-nanosecond TOF subsystem is an essential part of a 3-dimensional mapping instrument to be used on a rover type explorer on a planet surface. The amplifier array electronics chip can be used in conjunction with any multi channel plate analyzer detector. High voltage power supplies are also an essential element of the Multi channel Plate analyzer bias voltage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Laser range finders use a time-of-flight and a low power TOF can be an essential part of a laser range finder. Range finders can have both military and commercial applications aboard aircraft, or automobiles of the future.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Particle and Fields


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.01-8020
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Large Format Narrow Band High Throughput Optical Filters for 0.5-2.7

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
OptiGrate, Inc.
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826-3230

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vadim Smirnov
VSmirnov@OptiGrate.com
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando,  FL 32826-3230

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the most efficient ways to create narrow band filter is the use of reflective Bragg gratings or which allow increasing of efficiency and decreasing of weight compare to conventional technologies. OptiGrate have proved the concept of high efficiency narrow-band mirrors in photo-thermo-refractive glass (PTR) glass for high power laser applications based on a unique technology for phase hologram recording. Bragg mirrors with more then 90% of diffraction efficiency and spectral bandwidth of 80 pm have been demonstrated. OptiGrate proposes development of reflecting Bragg gratings in PTR glass with spectral selectivity less than 0.1 nm and clear aperture up to 25x25 mm. To achieve spectral resolution of reflective Bragg grating below 0.1 nm, several problems should be solved which are uniformity of refractive index and photosensitivity of PTR glass across the aperture of 25 mm in a glass blank with thickness exceeding 10 mm. The unique hybrid filter based on reflective Bragg gratings and Fabry-Perot etalon will results in unprecedented spectral bandwidth combined with efficiency of more then 90%. Successful completion of these tasks would results in technology of narrow band filters with high diffraction efficiency for visible and near IR region of spectrum. A number of prototypes for wavelengths of NASA's interest will be delivered.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Unique properties of volume diffractive gratings in PTR glass can be uses for such NASA-based applications as high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, free-space optical communications (range finding, targeting, remote sensing, etc.), spectral sensing, LIDARs, LADARs, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Unique properties of volume diffractive gratings in PTR glass can be uses for such NASA-based applications as high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, free-space optical communications (range finding, targeting, remote sensing, etc.), spectral sensing, LIDARs, LADARs, etc.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
High-Energy
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.01-9518
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614-6236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vladimir Markov
vmarkov@metrolaserinc.com
2572 White Road
Irvine,  CA 92614-6236

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a resonant cavity. Such a structure can exhibit an ultra-narrow, high-throughput band in the middle of a wide low-transmission stop-band. During Phase I, we will demonstrate experimentally the proof-of-concept for the proposed filter with sub-angstrom bandpass and a tuning range of at least 10 cm-1 in the spectral region around 10 um. We will complete modeling of the functional characteristics, based on the specific features of photonic crystal structures with a resonant cavity, and develop a strategy for building a prototype of the instrument. Fine-tuning of the filter will be accomplished by varying the optical cavity length. The proposed filter is expected to have an acceptance angle of at least 1 degree and an aperture of about 1 inch. During Phase II, the compact prototype module will be demonstrated with an expected tunability range of 10 cm-1 and a bandpass range of 0.1 cm-1. A compact, rugged, monolithic filter architecture will allow this instrument to be incorporated in air- or space-based platforms and provide stable performance in harsh operating environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed narrowband tunable bandpass filter will find commercial applications in space-based and airborne multi-spectral imaging and remote sensing systems, including tropospheric chemistry study and atmospheric science. It will expand capabilities for high accuracy spectral measurements within the tunable narrow spectral regions necessary for resolving individual spectral features. Due to its high spectral resolution, wide tunability range, compactness, ruggedness and stability, the proposed filter will allow for innovative solutions in high-resolution spectroscopic instrumentation, especially when portable devices are of interest.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed narrowband tunable IR bandpass filter will expand the capabilities of NASA's Earth-Sun System Division for high spectral resolution and high accuracy measurements of tropospheric, atmospheric, and surface parameters from space and airborne platforms. These include remote sensing capabilities, measurements of climate and meteorological parameters, and terrain mapping.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Laser
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.02-7859
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact High Power Fiber Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sigma Research and Engineering Corp.
4801 Forbes Blvd
Lanham, MD 20706-4357

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
J. Marcos Sirota
marcos.sirota@sigmaspace.com
4801 Forbes Blvd
Lanham,  MD 20706-4357

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of the proposed work is the development of a portable and efficient pulsed laser system for LIDAR and ranging applications, which make use of the latest developments in fiber optic technology. Even though there have been significant advances in fiber lasers, there is still a need for development of a reliable fiber laser system generating nanosecond and sub nanosecond (100 ps ? 5 ns) pulses with enough energy for ranging applications. The potential applications of such a laser would be LIDAR systems that are flown in smaller UAV platforms where size and efficiency are key requirements. The proposed laser system follows the classical arrangement of a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA). The master oscillator consists of a microchip laser which is a commercially off the shelf (COTS) component. The power amplifier will be constructed using photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Due to the many developments over the last few years in the area of fiber optic technologies and components, Phase I work will start with an in-depth evaluation of all available technologies, which will lead to the design and development of a space-worthy high power nanosecond laser.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Altimeters flown on small UAV platforms where size and efficiency are crucial parameters, such as a photon-counting laser altimeter that can provide contiguous, high spatial resolution 3D topographic maps and images from a high altitude aircraft on a single overflight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other federal agencies such as NOAA and DoD have express the need of a compact pulsed all solid state laser for ranging, altimetry, and imaging applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination and Control
Laser
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.02-8499
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Precision Membrane Optical Shell (PMOS) Technology for Lightweight LIDAR Apertures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mevicon, Inc.
1121 San Antonio Rd, Suite B-100-B
Palo Alto, CA 94303-4311

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Flint
eric.flint@mevicon.com
1121 San Antonio Rd, Suite B-100-B
Palo Alto,  CA 94303-4311

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Precision membrane optical shell (PMOS) technology is an innovative combination of 1) ultra lightweight optically smooth membrane thin films, 2) advanced mold based fabrication techniques that transform the films into single surface load bearing structures through the introduction of optically relevant permanent curvature, and 3) discrete active boundary control that enables rigid body alignment and maintainment of optical prescriptions in face of environmental disturbances. Reflector areal densities of better than 2 kg/m2 (including alignment and figure control actuators) are projected. Current, measured surface figure is better than 1 to 3 microns rms at the 0.2m size, and we are poised for further improvements. Basic demonstrated manufacturing techniques are scaleable to 1.4m+ diameter single surface apertures. Materials are space proven, and stowage and deployment techniques exist that support eventual transition to space flight application. Mevicon Inc. and its team members, UAT, thus proposes the required further improvements of basic technology and the demonstration of applicability of Precision Membrane Optical Shell (PMOS) technology for ground and space based LIDAR receivers. The key resulting innovation is implementation of improved formation approaches to realize very low mass, low cost LIDAR apertures. Other NASA and DOD applications are expected as precision and aperture size increase.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential pay off of the proposed research can be summarized at the highest level as, "Less Mass, Less Cost". It is directly applicable to the needs of ground, air and space based LIDAR applications, as it could lead to significant cost reductions for optical primary mass, especially as aperture size grows to support increased standoff ranges. Farther term, we see potential synergistic applications in the area of 1) very large diameter stowable/deployable apertures to enable RF, mm, IR (Far, Middle, and Near (With suitable cooling), science, and 2) increasing larger diameter precision apertures to enable Laser Comm Transmitter apertures, visible wavelength spectroscopy, and potentially imaging astronomy. Potential uses as components in solar concentrators for orbital power generation and solar thermal propulsion, and as sun shields and telescope aperture opening shields are also envisaged.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology is dual use. Many of the same applications of interest to NASA are of interest to DoD for space and terrestrial applicaitons. Similar interest is expected from other national organizations and science community. Potential use in amateur astronomy is also possible.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Inflatable
Optical
Optical & Photonic Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.02-8619
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
nLight Photonics
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver, WA 98665-0990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mark DeFranza
mark.defranza@nlight.net
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver,  WA 98665-0990

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The focus of the proposed effort is maximizing the brightness of fiber coupled laser diode pump sources at a minimum cost. The specific innovation proposed is to challenge the historical choice of a 10mm width for the laser bars used in fiber coupled pump packages and to demonstrate that an alternative bar width can offer higher brightness and lower cost than the current state of the art. We intend to show that the choice of laser bar width, emitter size, and emitter spacing can have a dramatic effect on pump source brightness, and can further have a substantial impact in the package cost. We propose to demonstrate the capability for a 10X improvement in pump brightness and a 3X reduction in laser diode cost through this investigation. This innovation will allow for the design and fabrication of ultra high brightness, low cost fiber coupled laser pump packages operating at any wavelength over the span of 635nm to 2000nm. This innovation is relevant for any laser system which uses fiber coupled pump sources, specifically "Novel, high-power laser diodes capable suitable for pumping Holmium-based solid-state lasers" as described in Subtopic S6.02 Lidar Remote Sensing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The device could be used in all applications that require fiber coupled laser pump sources with high brightness and low cost. We anticipate that any NASA program which uses fiber lasers, LIDAR systems, and target designators that use fiber coupled laser diode packages would benefit from the improvements in brightness and cost that will come out of these efforts. This work is independent of the laser diode operating power and wavelength and the results can be applied to any diode product that nLight produces, over the wavelength range of 635 ? 2000nm.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Improvements in brightness and cost would benefit all fiber coupled laser diode packages that nLight produces. Commercial applications for these devices include direct material processing, LIDAR and target designators, medical instruments, and industrial laser soldering systems. This work is independent of the laser diode operating power and wavelength and the results can be applied to any diode product that nLight produces, over the wavelength range of 635 ? 2000nm.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Cooling
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.02-8985
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Power, High-Efficiency 1.907nm Diode Lasers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
nLight Photonics
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver, WA 98665-0990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Steve Patterson
steve.patterson@nlight.net
5408 NE 88th Street, Building E
Vancouver,  WA 98665-0990

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
nLight proposes to develop high-power, high-efficiency laser diodes emitting at 1907nm. Performance is expected to improve from the current state-of-the-art technology at 15C of 20% electrical-to-optical (E/O) conversion efficiency and 11.5W continuous-wave power (CW) to 25% E/O efficiency and 18W of CW power at the conclusion of Phase I. At the conclusion of Phase II, these values are expected to improve to 38% E/O efficiency and greater than 35W CW power. Quasi-CW power will be >>100W per laser bar. Such lasers meet the brightness and power requirements for the direct pumping of the quasi 4-level 5I7 to 5I8 transition in singly-doped Ho:YAG lasers. Compared to the diode-pumping of Thulium-sensitized Ho:YAG, direct diode pumping of Ho:YAG takes advantage of Holmium's much larger emission cross section, the absence of Ho:Tm up conversion, and Ho:YAG's large energy storage lifetime. Direct diode pumping of Ho:YAG also results in decreased system size, weight and complexity and an improvement in overall system efficiency when compared to pumping with a diode-pumped Th:YAG laser, all critical metrics for space and airborne platforms. This work could be extended to 18xxnm and 20xxnm quite readily with comparable power and efficiency performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This device has application in pumping a broad range of solid-state lasers of interest to the NASA community. The laser can easily be redesigned to operate at wavelengths from 18xxnm to 20xxnm without performance degradation, making it suitable for pumping other YAG, LuAG and YLF-based lasers. These lasers have application in LIDAR, atmospheric sensing and metrology. The improved efficiency and peak output power broadens their appeal into air and space born applications that where previously inaccessible due to the compromised size, cost and reliability of other pump configurations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Medical applications abound for the high-power lasers pumped by the 19xxnm lasers proposed. They are widely used in surgical and dental procedures. The diode laser's improved power, efficiency and reliability permit proliferation of these systems to more remote areas that would otherwise be inaccessible due to the size, cost, weight and reliability of the laser system.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Simulation Modeling Environment
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Cooling
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.02-9430
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pulsed Single Frequency MOPA Laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SVT Assoc
7620 Executive Dr
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3677

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sergey Zaytsev
zaytsev@svta.com
7620 Executive Dr
Eden Prairie,  MN 55344-3677

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Latest advances in semiconductor optoelectronics makes it possible to develop compact light weight robust sources of coherent optical pulses, demanded for numerous applications such as lidars. Recent improvements in heterostructure growth and processing technology, as well as new approaches in waveguide design make it possible to integrate single frequency laser diode, saturable absorber, and semiconductor amplifier in one compact device with high wallplug efficiency and long lifetime. In this Phase I project we will design a prototype device, fabricate it and study its basic parameters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Compact low cost single die photonic integrated circuits of MOPA type are required for short range lidar applications. Such lidars are in highdemand for unmanned space- and airborne vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Future cost reduction will open big markets for lidars in automotive applications. Such optoelectronics can greatly increase road traffic safety.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Pilot Support Systems
Laser
Optical
Photonics
Optical & Photonic Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.02-9846
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fault-Protected Laser Diode Drivers for Improving the Performance and Lifetime of Multiple-Millisecond, Long-Pulse LDAs for NASA LIDAR Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Science Research Laboratory, Inc.
15 Ward St
Somerville, MA 02143-4228

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rod Petr
rpetr@srl.com
15 Ward St
Somerville,  MA 02143-4228

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project will develop and deliver revolutionary driver technology with intelligent fault protection for driving long-pulse (> 2msec), quasi-CW laser diode arrays (LDAs) at high power with improved performance and lifetime. A critical issue with operating LDAs for long discharge pulses is localized diode heating leads to current and optical instabilities, which irrevocably damage emitters resulting in LDA failure. SRL has demonstrated that diode instabilities can be detected and eliminated. As a result, integrating SRL's proprietary fault diagnostics into diode drivers increases laser diode lifetimes by more than a factor-of-40 over unprotected drivers. In addition, in Phase 1, SRL will acquire data demonstrating that our fault-mode circuitry can be used as a diagnostic to a priory determine which LDA's will have long lifetimes. In Phase 2 we will deliver a fully engineered compact driver for powering NASA LDAs and screening their suitability for use in flight hardware. The Phase 2 driver will have specific power ratings up to 7 kW/liter, which is 4 times higher than existing laser diode drivers. The combination of fault diagnostics for increased laser diode performance and lifetime and compact packaging, makes the SRL driver an important technology for powering LDAs for NASA flight systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
LDAs are a critical component for NASA applications that use solid-state and fiber lasers. These solid-state lasers are used as lidars for earth science projects for a variety of important atmospheric measurements. They are also used for space exploration including; planetary mapping, hazard avoidance, rendezvous and docking and high bandwidth, high data-rate communication links. The LDAs that are used for NASA earth and space applications require improved reliability and lifetime. Recent experience has indicated that unanticipated reliability issues with LDAs in particular can severely impact on-orbit mission life and mission success. SRL's driver technology is intended to improve LDA reliability and lifetime.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Initially the customers for the government market will be system providers for NASA and the DoD. From SRL's discussions with Boeing and Northrop Grumman, we estimate the market size will be small initially as these two organizations are in the process of delivering pre-prototypes and prototypes. The BAE Systems market is more established and, starting in 2008, they plan to deliver approximately 100 laser systems annually that will integrate SRL's fault protected technology. SRL expects to sell drivers for $10,000 per unit that gives a total market of approximately a million dollars annually. This market is expected to increase by 20% annually as SRL's power supplies are integrated into additional systems and Boeing and Northrop Grumman prototypes become NASA and DoD hardware. The private sector market is $3.2 billion annually and is interested in LDAs pumping solid-state lasers for communications, industrial welding and cutting, and advanced lithography EUV sources.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Laser
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.03-8368
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth In Situ Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Portable, Solid-State Light Sources for Field Radiometric Calibrations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HOBI Labs, Inc.
8987 E. Tanque Verde #309-366
Tucson, AZ 85749-9399

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Dana
dana@hobilabs.com
8987 E. Tanque Verde #309-366
Tucson,  AZ 85749-9399

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Various Earth Science fields require well-calibrated field radiometers whose calibrations must be tracked and verified in the field. NASA has long recognized the need to monitor and maintain calibrations of in-situ radiometric instruments. However, the light sources that have been developed for calibration monitoring typically require high power, are bulky and difficult to use in the field, and do not work with all types of radiometers. We propose a next-generation portable, ultra-stable, lightweight and highly versatile light source based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Recent advances in LEDs include higher power, efficiency, and a wider range of wavelengths (from UV to IR). These advances, coupled with LEDs' inherent suitability for electronic feedback stabilization, make them excellent candidates for more compact and power-efficient calibration sources. During Phase I we will identify and test LED devices, measurement and stabilization techniques, and physical configurations for use in one or more calibration sources. In Phase II we will build prototypes and implement a program for test and evaluation in cooperation with recognized calibration laboratories. At the conclusion of Phase II we will be ready to produce and sell a commercial version.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include monitoring in support of MODIS and other ocean color satellites, and other radiometric sensor networks such as AERONET and SolRad-Net. Because of its smaller size and weight and lower cost, the proposed system could replace existing devices from these applications. These attributes will also make it attractive to a wider pool of radiometry users inside and outside of NASA. The approach and technology developed in this project could also potentially be applied to airborne and satellite radiometers for performing on-board self-calibration checks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A portable radiometric calibration monitor, especially one that is moderately priced and easy to use, will be useful in any of the numerous applications requiring field radiometers. These include ocean-color remote sensing and its related disciplines, marine and terrestrial environmental monitoring, global climate change studies, and agriculture?both for research and commercial production.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Testing Facilities
Optical
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
In-situ Resource Utilization
Photovoltaic Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.03-8764
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth In Situ Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Broadband Advanced Spectral System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Innovative Technical Solutions, Inc. dba NovaSol
733 Bishop St., Suite 2800
Honolulu, HI 96813-4085

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Detlev Even
detlev.even@nova-sol.com
733 Bishop St., Suite 2800
Honolulu,  HI 96813-4085

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NovaSol proposes to develop an advanced hyperspectral imaging system for earth science missions named BRASS (Broadband Advanced Spectral System). BRASS combines state-of-the-art, existing NASA detector technology and proven electronics with a novel spectrometer design to provide a compact instrument that covers the full wavelength range from 0.4 to 5 ?m. Applications for such an instrument range from vegetation characterization and environmental assessment to mineral mapping and measurements of trace gases and aerosols, fully supporting important research goals of NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The utility of broadband hyperspectral imaging has been demonstrated by the frequent deployment of NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). A simplified, single detector instrument expanding the wavelength range from 2.5 ?m to 5 ?m will provide an extended application range while improving the cost effectiveness of hyperspectral airborne data acquisition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
It is expected that the scientific community outside NASA, such as universities and other research organizations, will find widely accept BRASS as a very useful research tool.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.04-7965
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Alternative Millimeter Wave Oscillator using a Dielectric Puck in the Whispering Gallery Mode

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MMW Technology, Inc.
15665 Hawthorne Blvd Ste E
Lawndale, CA 90260-2683

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Smith
steve@mmwtechnology.com
15665 Hawthorne Blvd Ste E
lawndale,  CA 90260-2683

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A majority of millimeter wave based systems used for space exploration, communications and research, require a millimeter wave oscillator. These oscillators have been typically based on the Gunn Diode. Due to reliability issues and high DC power requirements, they are prone to failures. These failures could result in an unsuccessful space mission, a life-threatening situation and/or loss of invaluable data. An alternative to this technology is highly desirable. MMW Design Services is proposing to develop an alternative oscillator to the Gunn Diode using a Dielectric Puck operating in the Whispering Gallery Mode. This innovation has the potential to produce compact, low noise oscillators operating with a frequency from 20GHZ to 120GHz. Traditional Dielectric Resonating Oscillators operating in a fundamental mode are limited to 30GHz. A Whispering Gallery Mode DRO uses a similar puck but in a much higher order mode, thus extending the resonant frequency. The significance of this innovation is the improved performance of the oscillation at millimeter wave frequencies. Space exploration will reach new heights. Satellites will operate longer and more efficiently resulting in cost effective missions that extends beyond our current mission life capability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Developing a technology that is extremely reliable in order to replace a technology that is unreliable, results in endless economic and technical possibilities. NASA applications include replacement of the traditional, (but less than ideal) Gunn Diode Oscillators currently used in spacecraft, radiometers and data links. These oscillators could be fabricated with higher reliability by using the less expensive, technologically superior Whispering Gallery Mode DROs, thus extending the mission life, reducing power consumption and producing a higher system performance. NASA missions of earth studies and interplanetary exploration could receive very significant benefits from the development of this technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications would greatly benefit from the lower costs and higher performance of the Whispering Gallery Mode oscillators. Examples include 77 GHz Auto Radars, the developing 60 GHz point-to-point radios and the emerging 93GHz communications band. WGM Oscillators can be used to research and instrumentation in the generation of electrical energy from fusion and plasma stabilization, a possible substitute for fossil and nuclear-based energy sources. Benefits to the military include higher precision radar systems for armed force surveillance, weapon guidance and safeguarding American soldiers. The state of the art of these arenas could be pushed to allow system operation at higher frequencies with superior performance. A Whispering Gallery Mode DRO has the potential to revolutionize these industries

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.04-9636
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Reliability Oscillators for Terahertz Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
979 Second Street SE, Suite 309
Charlottesville, VA 22902-6172

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Porterfield
porterfield@vadiodes.com
979 Second Street SE, Suite 309
Charlottesville,  VA 22902-6172

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Terahertz sources based on lower frequency oscillators and amplifiers plus a chain of frequency multipliers are the workhorse technology for NASA's terahertz missions. The design and optimization of individual multipliers is fairly well understood. However, the complex interactions within a chain of nonlinear multipliers often limit the system performance. Specific manifestations of these interactions include rapid variations in power as the frequency or input power are tuned, including nulls and power surges that can damage individual components. These effects limit the useful bandwidth of terahertz sources, degrade system reliability and greatly increase the time and cost of developing systems for a particular application. Today, these problems are mitigated through the use of mechanical tuning or bias adjustments at each frequency, the laborious tweaking of each component in the chain until acceptable system performance is achieved, or reduction of the system bandwidth and/or power specifications. This proposal concerns the first systematic study of the complex interactions between cascaded nonlinear multiplier stages, with the goal of developing new multiplier and system designs that reduce these unwanted effects. The resulting terahertz sources will achieve greater efficiency, bandwidth, reliability and ease-of-use, as well as shortened system design cycles and greatly enhanced manufacturability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology will enable the development of more powerful and frequency agile terahertz sources to be used as local oscillators for heterodyne receivers. A wealth of molecular resonance lines occur between 100 GHz and 5 THz. These resonances allow astronomers and atmospheric researchers to study the chemistry and dynamics of the Earth's atmosphere, molecular clouds in star forming regions and the atmospheres of other planets. NASA leads the world in the use of terahertz technology for the study of atmospheric chemistry and astrophysics from aircraft, balloons and spacecraft. Proposed missions include SIRICE, an atmospheric probe; VESPER a probe that would study the atmosphere of Venus, and SIGNAL a Mars instrument to perform a constituent survey of the atmosphere. The Phase 1 effort will demonstrate a critical multiplier chain for the SIRICE Sub-Millimeter Radiometer and in Phase 2 additional prototypes for other frequency bands of SIRICE will be demonstrated.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Scientific applications of this terahertz technology include chemical spectroscopy, radio astronomy, plasma diagnostics, biomaterial analysis, electron spin resonance, and diagnostic instruments for particle accelerators. Other terahertz applications related to military requirements include compact range radars, covert communications systems, imaging systems, and chemical, explosive and bioagent scanners. Biomedical researchers envision the use of terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for the real time analysis of skin diseases such as skin cancer. Potential large-scale commercial applications of the proposed terahertz technology include portal security imagers and scanners, medical diagnostics for clinical use, last-mile data links, and industrial process control. Many of VDI's present customers are scientists and engineers that are developing these potential applications and VDI is building initial ties to larger corporations interested in exploiting the terahertz frequency band. Compact, reliable and manufacturable terahertz sources with improved power and bandwidth are critical for these emerging applications.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.05-8391
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ka-Band MMIC T/R Module

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Hittite Microwave Corp
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01863-4147

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mitchell Shifrin
mitchs@hittite.com
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford,  MA 01824-4147

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is specifically written to address the need for improved Ka-band T/R modules. The solicitation calls for investigation and development of core technologies that will significantly improve T/R module performance. Improvements needed include reduced power consumption, mass, and size. Hittite Microwave Corporation is a fabless semiconductor company that has been developing microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) for over 19 years. Hittite proposes three possible areas of focus for the SBIR program, transmitter power amplifiers, receiver integration or complete T/R functionality. By far the largest contributor to the size and weight of a T/R module is the power amplifier. Both GaN and MHEMT are new technologies that have the potential for substantial improvement over incumbent PHEMT technology. MHEMT is most suited to power levels below 4 Watts reverting to the higher power density GaN technology at higher power levels. Both MHEMT and advanced SiGeBiCMOS technologies such as IBM 8HP can be consider for receiver functions. Finally MHEMT strikes a good balance as a single technology platform for a moderate power level (<2 Watt transmit) T/R MMIC/module at 35 GHz. The proposal includes a technology summary as well as basic design considerations and examples of LNAs, PAs and phase shifters.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed program will lead to a family of MMIC-based products useful in the commercial communication bands for such applications as point to point digital radio links and systems operating in the frequency range of 30 to 40 GHz. Hittite expects to develop a market for MMIC products operating in those bands.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed program will lead to a family of MMIC-based products useful in the commercial communication bands for such applications as point to point digital radio links and systems operating in the frequency range of 30 to 40 GHz. Hittite expects to develop a market for MMIC products operating in those bands.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.06-7513
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Infrared - Sub Millimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solid-State Phase-Lockable 1-2THz Local-Oscillator Based on Intra-Cavity Frequency Conversion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801-1003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jack Salerno
jsalerno@agiltron.com
15 Cabot Road
Woburn,  MA 01801-1003

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal provides a breakthrough solution to realize a compact THz local-oscillator, which is phase-lockable and can tune 1-2 THz with flat output power in excess of 100 mW. The innovation is based on high efficiency intra-cavity difference frequency generation. A dual cavity optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is designed to generate two phase-locked optical beams with orthogonal polarizations, which share an EO crystal inside the OPO cavity for THz generation. The frequency difference of the two optical wavelengths can be tuned by changing the phase matching condition of either one of the sub-OPOs. The package size of the local oscillator can be designed smaller than 50x40x20 cm3. The power consumption is <20 W. In Phase I, the feasibility will be demonstrated in a prototype and the system design will be optimized. A fully functional phase-lockable THz local-oscillator with unprecedented performance is anticipated in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advanced solid-state, compact, low consumption phase-lockable 1-2THz local-oscillator source plays an important role in space communication and research, in particular for heterodyne receiver system laboratory testing and development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology offers a unique solution for an innovative phase-lockable 1-2 THz local-oscillator that is practical for space research and communication. Its phase-lock capability and wide tuning range provide capability for pumping a heterodyne mixer.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Architectures and Networks
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical
Photonics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.06-9139
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Infrared - Sub Millimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact High-Resolution Broad-Band Terahertz Fabry-Perot Spectrometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zyberwear, Inc.
2114 New Victor Road
Ocoee, FL 34761-9115

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Oliver Edwards
oliver@zyberwear.com
2114 New Victor Road
Ocoee,  FL 34761-9115

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our objective is to develop a compact scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometer, for satellite far-infrared astronomy and Earth remote sensing, that operates at wavelengths of 100 ?m and longer, with a resolving power of 10,000 and free spectral range of ~50 cm-1. The novelty of this innovation lies in obtaining this very large free spectral range simultaneously with a resolution equivalent to the state of the art for laboratory far-infrared spectrophotometers in a volume less than a liter and directly suitable for airborne and satellite instrumentation. The critical innovation lies in providing far-infrared Fabry-Perot mirrors of >99.99% reflectance to enable unprecedented system finesse. This mirror development and proof testing, and a systems analysis of an F-P spectrometer subsystem for satellite and aerial imaging are the subject of Phase I; Phase II includes design, fabrication and testing of the miniature spectrometer.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Far-infrared Fabry-Perot (F-P) spectrometers are widely used in satellite-based astronomy [1-3], in atmospheric monitoring [4], and as filters to suppress sidebands of heterodyne receivers [5, 6]. The far-infrared spectra of galactic sources are used to determine atomic and molecular abundances, temperatures and electron densities [7], and high resolution is needed in the study of molecular line shapes, which are important for kinematic studies. Far-infrared spectra are useful to measure abundancies of atmospheric gases such as H20, O3, CO, and N2O [4, 8]. Even non-polar atmospheric molecules such as N2, O2, and CO2 can be detected at submillimeter wavelengths due to weak transient dipole moments induced by collisions [4]. Other minor atmospheric constituents such as HNO3, NO2, HCl, HF, and OH may be detected also [4]. Applications include spectrophotometric instrumentation and scanning-narrow-band filters for imaging, in a very small, lightweigh, low power module.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
THz imaging and spectral analysis is rapidly becoming important in defense and security applications for identifying concealed threats and contraband (13, 14). New detector and source technology is permitting increasing productization of this part of the spectrum (15). THz radiation readily passes through packaging, envelopes, and clothing. Aside from permitting concealed weapon imaging without ionizing radiation, spectral/imaging analysis has been shown to be useful for rapid imaging of concealed drugs (16) and bioagents, and for dental (17) and medical (18, 19) challenges.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.06-9863
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Infrared - Sub Millimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Digital Correlation Spectrometer Chip with 1 GHz Bandwidth, 4096 Spectral Channels, and 4 W Power Consumption for Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Instruments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Spaceborne, Inc.
742 Foothill Blvd., Suite 2 B
La Canada, CA 91011-3441

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Constantin Timoc
ctimoc@aol.com
742 Foothill Blvd., Suite 2 B
LA Canada,  CA 91011-3441

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's future Earth-Sun System missions require the rapid development of small, low-cost remote sensing instruments for the analysis of chemical and physical properties of planetary atmospheres. The objective of the proposed project (Phases I and II) is to research, develop, and demonstrate the first space-qualifiable digital correlation spectrometer on a single chip which, if successful, will reduce the risk, cost, size, and development time of microwave spectrometers and will enable space-science observations measurements that were not previously possible. The innovative approach proposed for achieving the objective consists of a synergistic combination of the following: (a) a unique parallel architecture that will reduce the operating clock frequency, relative to a single-stream architecture, by a factor of 2 and consequently will lower significantly the power consumption, (b) novel differential analog and digital circuits that will improve robustness while operating in the presence of total dose natural radiation found in the space environment, and (c) an advanced 0.13 um CMOS fabrication process with cooper interconnect, available at relatively low-cost through the MOSIS fabrication facility from IBM, for manufacturing high-performance, low-power, reliable, and robust (total dose radiation and latch-up resistant) space-qualifiable chips.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed space-qualifiable digital correlation spectrometer chip is intended for use in NASA's passive microwave remote sensing spaceborne instruments for radioastronomy and planetary atmospheric research. The competitive advantage of the proposed space-qualifiable digital spectrometer is a factor of 80 times higher bandwidths and 30 times greater spectral resolution relative to the space-qualified digital spectrometer developed by this proposing firm on contract from NASA/JPL for the EOS/MLS instrument operational on the Aura spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial markets for the proposed digital correlation spectrometer are ground-based radioastronomy, atmospheric research performed from aircraft and balloons, imaging arrays for detection of weapons and explosives, radio spectrum surveillance, telecommunications, and medical imaging. In the commercial markets, the competitive advantage of the proposed digital spectrometer is a factor of 20 times lower cost relative to existing digital correlation spectrometers of similar performance.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Microwave/Submillimeter


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.07-7787
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency Microchannel Diamond Heat Sinks

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Diamond Materials, Inc.
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3908

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Anthony Ribaudo
anthonyribaudo@aol.com
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway,  NJ 08854-3908

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
While absolute power levels in microelectronic devices are relatively modest (a few tens to a few hundred watts), heat fluxes can be significant (~50 W/cm2 in current electronic chips; up to 2000 W/cm2 in semiconductor lasers). Microchannel diamond heat sinks created via microfabrication techniques make it possible to boost heat transfer rates well above what is possible with ordinary cooling devices. If nanodiamond particles are added in suspension to the circulating fluid in the microchannels, the heat carrying properties of the device would be increased even more. The devices we are proposing to fabricate would utilize diamond which has the highest thermal conductivity of any known material combined with a microchannel cooling system. These unique attributes would make microchannel diamond heat sinks prime contenders for the next generation heat sink. These devices could be utilized for efficient cooling in a variety of applications requiring high heat transfer capability including: semiconductor lasers, multichip modules in computers laser-diode arrays, radar systems, high-flux optics, etc. An added benefit for outer space applications is that besides having the highest known thermal conductivity, diamond is the best shielding material for micrometeorite protection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Diamond Microchannel heat sink would have a wide variety of applications where high heat transfer capability is required such as: semiconducting lasers, multichip modules in computers laser-diode arrays, radar systems, high-flux optics, etc. This type of device can be used in all NASA applications where enhanced heat transfer is a requirement, and could be especially useful when combined with micro-meteorite protection since diamond is the best shielding material as well as thermal conductor.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications could be much broader. Diamond can be used as a highly conducting substrate for powerful micro-chips, since diamond has the greatest thermal conductivity of all known materials at room temperature and higher. Hence, microchannel diamond heat exchangers would be ideal for providing efficient cooling of high-frequency electronic devices as well as highly integrated computer chips.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.07-8373
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Loop Heat Pipe with Multiple Evaporators and Multiple Condensers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TTH Research
14300 Cherry Lane Ct., Suite 215
Laurel, MD 20707-4990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Triem Hoang
thoang@tthresearch.com
14300 Cherry Lane Ct., Suite 215
Laurel,  MD 20707-4990

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cooling electronic components in the space environment still remains a challenge for thermal engineers. In the current design practice, copper straps are used to transfer the waste heat from various high-power dissipating components to the side walls of the electronic box. Another heat transport device then collects the waste heat from the box mounting plate and carries it the space radiators for rejection. As the heat load of next generation electronics increases at a very fast rate, a more efficient heat transfer mechanism at the box level must be developed. Loop Heat Pipes (LHP) become popular heat transport devices for space-based thermal control systems for they are highly reliable and maintenancefree. Almost all LHPs in service at the present time contain one capillary pump. Thus one LHP provides only a "single point" heat acquisition. In addition, when redundancy is required for the mission long lifetime, many LHPs are therefore needed to provide adequate cooling for the electronic components. Miniature LHPs with multiple evaporators and multiple condensers will solve the aforementioned cooling problem without complicating the integration process.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
With its operational reliability and robustness, the proposed miniature LHP system is perfect for space-based thermal control at the electronic box level. In addition, it can be used in applications such as high-power electronic cooling or even in personal protection equipment (helmets, clothing).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Terrestrial applications include: cooling of sport gears (shoes, ski jackets) and firefighters' protective clothing, laptop computer thermal management.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Instrumentation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.07-8779
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micro-Channel Embedded Pulsating Heat Pipes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Peregrine Falcon Corporation
1072 A Serpentine Lane
Pleasanton, CA 94566-4731

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hardesty
rhardesty@peregrinecorp.com
1072 A Serpentine Lane
Pleasanton,  CA 94566-4731

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the need for thermal control technology becomes more demanding Micro-Channel Embedded Pulsating Heat Pipes (ME-PHPs) represents a sophisticated and enabling solution. Currently laboratory tests indicate that a magnitude jump in thermal conductivity can be expected with ME-PHPs over conventional materials like aluminum and copper. ME-PHPs will give NASA and the spacecraft community a powerful tool for the thermal control of instruments, detectors, lasers, communication systems, MEMS and power systems. Especially those requiring tight thermal control to the micro Kelvin levels. By embedding heat pipes within a plane of a sheet or plate the heat exchanging media can be placed as close as physically possible to the warm source thus maintaining the narrowest possible temperature gradient. The thermal energy can then be easily transported to any other area within the plane of the sheet for dissipation purposes. ME-PHPs are stackable and scalable to any thermal load requirement.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ME-PHPs will be used pervasively for many NASA space borne applications on instruments, electronics, optical systems, detectors and communications systems. They will easily replace heatsinks, thermal planes, cold walls and some face sheets. In addition, they could be used for heat spreaders and will enhance current radiator designs. They can even replace existing conventional heat pipes as a lighter weight alternative. We also see ME-PHPs being able to provide thermal control in areas where it was not possible before because the ME-PHPs are complete systems. They can be mounted to a warm source with a form that would allow the condenser to radiant to space to dissipate the thermal load.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As with the NASA applications many satellite manufacturers and domestic equipment producers will use ME-PHPs to replace heat pipes, heatsinks, thermal planes, cold walls and some face sheets. They could readily be used for heat spreaders and will enhance current radiator designs. In commercial electronics they could provide the thermal control for laptop computers and other portable devices. They could also provide enabling thermal solutions for many airframe applications including radar and weapon systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.07-9233
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Conductance Thermal Interfaces Based on Carbon Nanotubes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare, Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755-0071

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jay Rozzi
jcr@creare.com
P.O. Box 71
Hanover,  NH 03755-0071

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a novel thermal interface material (TIM) that is based on an array of vertical carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for high heat flux applications. For high precision, spaceborne lasers and other high power devices critical to NASA's Science Mission Directorate, heat flux levels are projected to reach 100 W/cm2. The state-of-the-art in space-compatible thermal interface materials (TIMs) is limited to a maximum achievable thermal conductance of approximately 5 W/cm2<SUP>o</SUP>C. Preliminary testing of our innovative TIM approach has demonstrated thermal conductance values of 33 W/cm2<SUP>o</SUP>C, a nearly seven-fold increase. For an incident heat flux of 100 W/cm2, this corresponds to a temperature drop of only 3<SUP>o</SUP>C, compared with 20<SUP>o</SUP>C for current technology. Thus, the use of our innovative CNT-based TIM will enable increased reliability, decreased size, and increased performance of spaceborne thermal management systems for the SMD.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The goal of our innovative thermal interface material (TIM) is to increase the ability of the Science Directorate to answer the fundamental questions about space, the universe, and our solar system. Specifically, our innovation has broad applications to all thermal management systems including lasers, high-temperature radiators, and other high-power devices. Because of the high durability of our approach, our CNT-based TIM can be used in cryogenic applications as well. The net result will be an increase in the efficiency of space-based thermal management systems as a whole, which will ultimately increase functionality and decrease weight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A developed CNT-based thermal interface material (TIM) would have wide commercial applications particularly with respect to high-power electronics and laser systems. For ground-based laser and high-power systems, the heat exchangers, chillers, and other thermal management components make up the majority of the system size and weight. Our innovation could be a key element in reducing the footprint of these systems and increasing their applicability in communications, power facilities, and other challenging thermal management applications. Future applications may also include high-power microprocessors in rack-mounted servers and high-power electronics used for actuators, motor controllers, and power distribution.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Laser
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S6.07-9346
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency, Easy-to-Manufacture Engineered Nanomaterials for Thermoelectric Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Voxtel, Inc.
12725 SW Millikan Way, Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005-1687

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andrew Huntington
andrew@voxtel-inc.com
12725 SW Millikan Way, Ste. 230
Beaverton,  OR 97005-1687

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase I SBIR program, high thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) thermoelectric (TE) materials will be developed that have thermal efficiency properties far better than traditional bulk thermoelectric materials. The proposed TE materials improve performance by increasing electrical conductivity while reducing thermal conductivity. In the proposed work, TE devices will be fabricated from solidified quantum dot films that are formed from colloidally synthesized NQDs using consolidation and second phase precipitation. The overall goal of the program is to develop an advanced thermoelectric nanomaterial that will offer significant cost, flexibility, and performance benefits for NASA applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are used to provide electrical power in space applications where their long life and independence from available solar energy outweigh their relatively high cost and reliance upon radioisotopes. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs) can be used to chill spaceborne infrared detectors, and regulate the temperature of computers and other electronic gear. The sensitivity, reliability, linearity, and stability of electrical and optical components is critical to NASA missions and is reliant on proper thermal management. Nevertheless, the widespread use of TE components is presently limited by their inefficiency and cost. New thermoelectric materials will make a dramatic difference for the next generation of instruments for planned NASA missions, and with increased efficiencies will permit reduced power budgets. Thus, this research is highly significant to NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cheaper, more efficient TE materials would enable a variety of demanding cooling and power generation applications of relevance to everything from automotive engineering to consumer electronics. Thermoelectric generators could eventually be used to scavange waste heat, such as that produced by combustion in an automobile, and provide supplemental electricity. TECs are of particular interest to chip manufacturers, who face challenges in disposing of waste heat from increasingly miniaturized integrated circuits. Ultimately, TECs could provide maintenance-free refrigeration in a variety of consumer markets such as food storage and air conditioning that are presently served by mechanical compressors that rely upon moving parts, valves, and air-tight seals.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Cooling
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Thermoelectric Conversion


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S7.01-7622
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Geospatial Data Analysis Processing and Visualization Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Extraction of Crop Area Statistics from Medium-Resolution Imagery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GDA Corp.
200 Innovation Blvd., Suite 234
State College, PA 16803-6602

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dmitry Varlyguin
dmitry@gdacorp.com
200 Innovation Blvd., Suite 234
State College,  PA 16803-6602

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will focus on the strategic, routine incorporation of medium-resolution satellite imagery into operational agricultural assessments for the global crop market. Automated algorithms for rapid extraction of field-level crop area statistics from Landsat and Landsat-class imagery (including SLC-off L7 data, AWiFS, ASTER, and NPOESS/OLI) will be developed. For prototype development, the project will collaborate with the Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division of the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. The algorithms, based on Bayesian Probability Theory, will incorporate multiple lines of evidence in the form of prior and conditional probabilities and will implement an innovative approach to supervised image classification allowing for automated class delineation. The knowledge-based expert classifiers prototyped during Phase I will be tested and validated at selected pilot sites across the globe. The overall results of the project will enhance global agricultural production estimates by improving the timeliness and accuracy of field-level crop area estimates. It addresses the NASA SBIR subtopic by developing unique, rapid analyses for the extraction of crop area statistics from medium-resolution imagery. The developed technologies will support both the scientific and commercial applications of ES data and will be benchmarked for practical use against an international model for agricultural production estimates.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The effort will contribute to NASA's Applied Science Program within the Science Mission Directorate by addressing the goals of the Agricultural Efficiency and Disaster Management applications of national priority. The overall results of the project will enhance PECAD's global production estimates by improving the timeliness and accuracy of field-level crop area estimates, and provide a new method to test and utilize other Landsat-class imagery, including SLC-off L7 data, AWiFS, ASTER, and NPOESS/OLI. It addresses the NASA SBIR subtopic by developing unique, rapid analyses for the extraction of crop area statistics from medium-resolution imagery. The developed technologies will support both the scientific and commercial applications of ES data and will be benchmarked for practical use against an international model for agricultural production estimates.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Results of the proposed effort can be used to enhance economic opportunities for agricultural producers and commodities. The results of the project will aid in the provision of accurate and timely information on global crop production at a country or regional level, thereby helping producers make better marketing decisions. The results will allow for, among other things, the provision of early warning of unusual crop conditions or changes in the production outlook of a country or region, which, in turn, can assist the private marketplace in price determination and adjustment. One of the largest potential customers may include the commodity exchanges, U.S. Agribusiness, and U.S. Government agencies, particularly USDA. Other commercial applications of proposed algorithms may include land cover re-mapping activities, forest and agricultural monitoring and inventory, and assessments of agricultural/farmer compliance with environmental standards.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Expert Systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S7.01-8496
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Geospatial Data Analysis Processing and Visualization Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Feature Extraction from Hyperspectral Imagery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Visual Learning Systems, Inc.
1280 S. 3rd Street West, #2
Missoula, MT 59801-2391

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stuart Blundell
sblundell@vls-inc.com
P.O. Box 8226
Missoula,  MT 59806-8226

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to NASA Topic S7.01, Visual Learning Systems, Inc. (VLS) will develop a novel hyperspectral plug-in toolkit for its award winning Feature Analyst<SUP>REG</SUP> software that will (a) leverage VLS' proven algorithms to provide a new, simple, and long-awaited approach to materials classification from hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and (b) improve state-of-the-art Feature Analyst's automated feature extraction (AFE) capabilities by effectively incorporating detailed spectral information into its extraction process. HSI techniques, such as spectral end-member classification, can provide effective materials classification; however, current methods are slow (or manual), cumbersome, complex for analysts, and are limited to materials classification only. Feature Analyst, on the other hand has a simple workflow of (a) an analyst providing a few examples (e.g., pixels of a certain material) and (b) an advanced software agent classifying the rest of the imagery based on the examples. This simple yet powerful approach will be used as a new paradigm for materials classification. In addition, Feature Analyst uses, along with spectral information, feature characteristics such as spatial association, size, shape, texture, pattern, and shadow in its generic AFE process. Incorporating the best spectral classifier techniques with the best AFE approach promises to greatly increase the usefulness and applicability of HSI

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will greatly simplify the application of hyperspectral image processing and feature extraction for a wide variety of NASA related earth imagery applications including: 1. Forestry and Environmental solutions to support timber management applications, wildfire modeling, and land-use analysis. The US Forest Service has already purchased a site license of Feature Analyst and their use of hyperspectral data increases. 2. Civil Government applications for such activities as pervious-impervious surface mapping, creation and maintenance of GIS data layers for roads and structures, identification of urban green space. 3. Homeland Security solutions for the creation and maintenance of GIS data layers. The newly created Department of Homeland Security has a budget of over $30 billion. Identification and mapping of high-value assets (pipelines, power plants, etc), monitoring of borders, and development of 3D urban models for preparing disaster and emergency services.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to NASA based mapping applications from imagery the proposed technology will also potentially support the following non-NASA uses: 1. Medical imaging where hyperspectral imaging is used to detect tumors. 2. Manufacturing processes where hyperspectral imaging is used for product quality assurance and quality control.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
Computational Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S7.01-8850
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Geospatial Data Analysis Processing and Visualization Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: LiDAR and Hyperspectral Fusion for Landslide Hazard Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HyPerspectives, Inc.
2048 Analysis Drive, Suite C
Bozeman, MT 59718-6829

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Crabtree
crabtree@hyperspectives.net
2048 Analysis Drive, Suite C
Bozeman,  MT 59718-6829

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
HyPerspectives, Inc. and its researchers propose to use remote sensing technologies to answer specific scientific questions for researchers and decision-makers in the natural hazards community. We will employ both current and innovative data fusion techniques to fill key deficiency gaps limiting progress in the natural hazards discipline. By fusing high-resolution hyperspectral imagery and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data sets from the 2003 Yellowstone Optical and SAR Ground Imaging (YOGI) data collect, we will substantially improve methodologies for natural hazard decision support systems. This imagery fusion is considered innovative because it will further refine the identification and mapping of past events, such as landslides, while also providing quicker and simpler processes for forecasting and mitigating future hazards. Furthermore, the algorithms developed in Phase 2 will satisfy the needs of decision makers by including tools for fault detection, deformation, and geothermal monitoring. The proposed study is directly relevant to the NASA SBIR S7.01 solicitation because we will create automated tools utilizing innovative algorithms to speed up the processing of data that has known relevance to natural hazard planners and researchers. To achieve this, we will build on successful landslide detection techniques and incorporate new algorithms previously developed by HyPerspectives scientists.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many potential NASA applications for this SBIR. NASA scientists will be able to use ELF-Surface, an innovative tool for LiDAR and hyperspectral image fusion, hazard detection, and surface feature mapping. This tool will be usable with all LiDAR datasets including EAARL for coastal studies and space-borne platforms for remote sensing applications on Earth and other planetary bodies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA commercial application for this SBIR is a GUI module (ELF-Surface) for LiDAR and hyperspectral image fusion for the high-tech and causal user. This user-friendly GUI application will provide users with consistent, reproducible methodologies to serve the growing need among FEMA, USGS, State DOT, Utility Corporations, Federal, State, and local land managers and others interested in precise identification and reconstruction of surface features or decision-makers dealing with natural hazards.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Software Development Environments
Microwave/Submillimeter
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S7.02-8359
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Tools and Techniques Supporting the Practical Uses of Earth Science Observations
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Stream Processing Engine Approach to Earth Science Data Processing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Milcord LLC
1050 Winter St., Suite 1000
Waltham, MA 02451-1406

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alper Caglayan
acaglayan@milcord.com
1050 Winter St. Suite 1000
Waltham,  MA 02451-1406

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Timely processing of raw Earth science data for calibration and validation in a highly distributed and networked environment, and its storage at Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) for presentation to the global scientific community is critical in NASA's mission for Earth Sciences. Here we propose to develop a stream processing engine approach to earth science data processing. Our innovation is based leveraging the emerging stream processing engine technology. Traditionally stream processing applications have been built using customized DBMS., which tend to be costly, and hard to change by non-specialist end-users. Our proposed architecture offers several significant benefits. First, an SPE developed application enables the refinement of stream filtering, the rapid development of new stream filtering capability faster than any other database or middleware based solution using StreamSQL , thus improving the maintainability and adaptivity of the system especially by non-specialist end-users. Second, by design, SPE technology offers inherent fault tolerance against asynchronous data input with attendant drop-outs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
While we anticipate our proposed application innovation be widely relevant across NASA's missions, operating units, and technology interests, our plan in Phase I will be to focus on those applications that are directly relevant to our Phase I work. Our proposed innovation can serve the NASA Terra SDP Toolkit initiative, Raytheon ECS (EOSDIS Core System) Maintenance and Development Project, and Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC) computing facilities. In general, our application will enable the faster design, development and modification of Level 1 through 3 algorithms used in direct broadcast of NASA earth Science data. Ultimately, our application has the potential to be used by consumers of EOS products to access and manipulate data structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our innovation can serve several DoD applications. As a 'system of systems' the Army Battle Command System (ABCS) presents numerous opportunities to exploit synergies between SPE and spatiotemporal in a range of applications, with emphasis on Situation Awareness. At Air Force Research Labs we will explore opportunities in security event detection, incident response, and information filtering. NGA is also a priority target for information filtering, and the Navy and Coast Guard have a number of surveillance monitoring programs that will be targeted. In the civilian sector, NOAA, DOI, EPA, DOT, and DHS all have wide range of programs that intersect our geospatial and SPE technologies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Database Development and Interfacing
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S7.02-8952
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Tools and Techniques Supporting the Practical Uses of Earth Science Observations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Regional and Local Geoid Undulations for Computing Orthometric Heights from GPS Measurements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Earth Mapping International
299 Scenic Highway
Lawrenceville, GA 30045-8402

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bishwa Acharya
bishwa@earthmapping.com
299 SCENIC HIGHWAY
Lawrenceville,  GA 30045-8402

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal explains procedures of using regional and local geoid undulations to improve and convert the global positioning system (GPS) elevations (ellipsoidal heights) into orthometric heights. The Geoid Undulation Model (Geoid 2003) for the North America has reached the centimeter level accuracy. Although the GPS accuracy has reached to millimeter level, the elevation component (converted to orthometric height) has not been optimized to the same level of accuracy as X and Y. This research will select a test site in North Georgia covering a 2&#61616; x 2&#61616; of hilly as well as plain area. The test site will also include an urban area such as the City of Atlanta, and a large water body such as the Lake Lanier. The 2&#61616; x 2&#61616; area is divided into 1&#61616; x 1&#61616;, 5' x 5', and 1' x 1' grid elements to compute global, regional, and local geoid undulations. Gravity data will be observed and compared against the gravity data obtained from the GRACE program. Also, the accuracy of existing geoid undulation in Georgia will be compared with the developed geoid undulation model, which will incorporate local and regional level gravity anomalies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The following would be the potential NASA applications of this research: a. Improved geoid model (gravity field) for the regions where the geoid models are not precise. The new gravity data can be used in testing the gravity field of the earth and also to compare the accuracy of gravity data derived form space technology such as GRACE program. b. Gravity study and orthometric heights are critical for structural development; the research can be replicated to Moon or other planets if NASA's goal to build base station in the Moon by 2015 is implemented.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The precise geoid undulation is a must to optimize the accuracy/minimize the cost of obtaining elevation data using GPS technology. Establishing benchmarks (elevation stations) by conventional method (running a differential level loop from mean sea level or from known bench mark to the point of interest; for the land locked countries where conventional differential leveling is not only cumbersome and costly, but sometimes it is almost impossible to get permission from the neighboring country to run a level loop to the mean sea level) is time consuming and cost prohibitive. Given that EMI is successful in developing a methodology for computing local and regional geoid undulation, there is a vast market to commercialize this product worldwide. State Agencies such as (DOT, DNR) could update their elevation data utilizing the recent gravity data to improve the accuracy and consistency within the sate agencies.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S7.02-9256
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Tools and Techniques Supporting the Practical Uses of Earth Science Observations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Web Based Distributed Coastal Image Analysis System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065-1812

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Tasso Politopoulos
tpolito@americangnc.com
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley,  CA 93065-1812

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project develops Web based distributed image analysis system processing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to provide decision makers or non-specialists with high-quality, environmental scientific information and coastal predictive tools. The system provides the underpinnings for ecosystem-based environmental awareness and management in coastal regions, such as, sea surface temperature, sea surface height and ecological forecasts, etc. The Web Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is utilized to build remote intelligent components in advanced applications server (JBoss), which implement MODIS image processing to extract useful features to identify events of interest. The AGNC innovative neural network is employed as internal knowledge representation and classification engine to map image feature vector to internal numerical presentation. The initial prototype of the system is given as example demonstration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA potential applications include utilization of image based earth science and intelligent planetary missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR program will be beneficial to government/military/civilian applications in the following areas: automated environment event detection, image based coastal fault detection, image based environmental protection, image sensing/processing and Web based distributed image processing systems.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S7.03-8852
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless Technologies for Spatial Data, Input, Manipulation and Distribution
PROPOSAL TITLE: WISS - Wireless, Intelligent Sensor System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Theseus Logic, Inc.
12000 Research Parkway, Suite 436
Orlando, FL 32826-2944

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Hagedorn
hagedorn@theseus.com
12000 Research Parkway, Suite 436
Orlando,  FL 32826-2944

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Low power, robust communications protocols such as IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee have made the concept of smart sensor networks attractive across many applications. These systems promise portable, networked, wireless, sensor suites capable of monitoring and controlling environments as needed. Theseus Logic and MachineTalker will provide NASA with a rapidly deployable, wireless, intelligent, sensor system based on their proprietary enabling technologies, and their experience in wireless sensor systems for enhanced shipping container security. 1. Communications based on MachineTalkers<SUP>REG</SUP> that providing self configuring, self-healing ad hoc networks with minimum intervention. 2. Low power radio protocols such as the IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee standard. Gateways to reach a central monitoring/decision authority. 3. Secure communications with personal identification numbers (PIN) assigned to each sensor node to ensure data security. 4. Signal processing based on clockless logic providing on demand, ultra low power, data driven, processing and low noise/EMI that maintains performance of sensors and on-chip RF/analog circuitry. 5. A Simple Machine Management Protocol<SUP>REG</SUP> (SMMP<SUP>REG</SUP>) controlling both sensors and communications. This also manages power consumption of the system. 6. Multi-sensor data fusion to reduce false alarm rates. 7. A modular architecture allowing optimization of the sensor suite, and including features such as GPS location, and biometric identification.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Intelligent, wireless, sensor suites that are networked into local area and satellite communications will provide a capability for NASA to gather information and reliably distribute it from a broad range of systems including field personnel and robotic platforms. These sensor systems will provide location and time stamped data that is made secure with biometric identification of the users, and encrypted communication links. This will provide NASA with a new capability in terms of monitoring and controlling the environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wireless sensor systems are rapidly being deployed, in a broad range of markets such as Industrial Controls, Home Automation, Medical Telemonitoring, Homeland Security and Digital Battlefield. In all these situations the capability to reliably provide real time monitoring and control though secure systems is vital. Ad hoc communications systems are providing a new capability for first responders in emergency situations where the communications infrastructure has failed, or does not exist.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Highly-Reconfigurable


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S7.03-9993
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless Technologies for Spatial Data, Input, Manipulation and Distribution
PROPOSAL TITLE: Software Defined RF Transceiver for Wireless Sensor Network

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mobitrum Corporation
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 209
Silver Spring, MD 20910-4934

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ray Wang
rwang@mobitrum.com
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 209
Silver Spring,  MD 20910-4934

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The concept of a smart device capable of communicating and making its own local decisions for wireless sensing, monitoring control, data acquisition, tracking, and identification has already been implemented and tested by military and commercial world in recent years. Methods for improving wireless transmission efficiency, data rate, power consumption, security, flexibility, scalability, and availability have also been proposed and some are implemented and tested. However, the usage trends for wireless sensors are changing from a single sensing purpose to a wide range of multipurpose services such as geo-location, first response, identification, security, and multimedia. This is making the limited quantity of radio frequency spectra a scarce resource (expensive) and is forcing an optimization shift to software programmable capability that provides control of a variety of modulation technologies for wideband or narrowband applications, emergency, and security functions. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Software Defined RF Transceiver targeted for emerging wireless sensor with multiple capabilities from real-time data acquisition and monitoring to emergency response, geo-location via GPS, security, images, and RFID applications. The device will be designed to be low power, reliable, secure, high speed, low cost, and highly portable in a small self-contained form factor for easy plug-and-play.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed software programmable RF transceiver will enable NASA Space Transportation Test and Earth science for spatial data input, manipulation, and distribution activities. This transceiver will also improve the design and engineering collaboration to be more effective in the process of the data management. By developing programmable air interface techniques for transmitting large volumes of sensor data between sensors and central servers, operations and data transfer will become more effective. Mobitrum anticipates that NASA will benefit from: (1) Data analysis, processing, and visualization for Earth science observations (2) Rocket engine test (3) Remote test facility management (4) Field communications device for spatial data input and distribution (5) Sensor measurement and field verification (6) RFID (7) Condition-aware applications (8) Location-aware applications (9) Biometric identification (10) Data collaboration and distribution and (11) Wireless instrumentation for robotic manipulation and positioning for audio and visual capture and real-time multimedia representation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are tremendous business applications and deployments for cellular 4G networks on the mobile multimedia based on software programmable radio. Mobitrum anticipates the increasing popularity of mobile handheld that includes PDA/Cell phone will create opportunity to enhance mobility and service provisioning that are two key factors making handheld deployable throughout wireless networks. The software programmable RF technology can provide enhanced wireless data acquisition and control in a variety of applications such as the following: (1) Global cellular service, (2) Utility ? remote meter reading (3) Defense ? data communication links for test ranges and launch facility (4) Building automation systems ? real-time monitoring and control of security and surveillance systems, alarms, HVAC, etc., (5) Manufacturing and distribution ? industrial automation using RFID (6) Health care ? wireless monitoring equipment (7) Security ? location tracking (8) Converged handsets ? integration of cell phone, PDA, notebook, GPS navigation system, and broadcast radio and TV receiver.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Beamed Energy
Human-Robotic Interfaces
Integrated Robotic Concepts and Systems
Intelligence
Mobility
Manipulation
Perception/Sensing
Teleoperation
Control Instrumentation
Airlocks/Environmental Interfaces
Operations Concepts and Requirements
Simulation Modeling Environment
Training Concepts and Architectures
Testing Facilities
Testing Requirements and Architectures
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Feed System Components
Airport Infrastructure and Safety
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Pilot Support Systems
Biomedical and Life Support
Biomolecular Sensors
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
RF
Instrumentation
Production
Autonomous Reasoning/Artificial Intelligence
Computer System Architectures
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Database Development and Interfacing
Expert Systems
Human-Computer Interfaces
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Software Development Environments
Software Tools for Distributed Analysis and Simulation
Microwave/Submillimeter
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Tools
General Public Outreach
K-12 Outreach
Mission Training
Highly-Reconfigurable
Earth-Supplied Resource Utilization
In-situ Resource Utilization
Composites
Computational Materials
Radiation Shielding Materials
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Superconductors and Magnetic
Power Management and Distribution
Wireless Distribution
Aircraft Engines


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S8.01-7776
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Guidance, Navigation and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Guidance System for Relative Navigation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Optical Systems, Inc.
6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 410
Huntsville, AL 35806-2172

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Granade
granade@aos-inc.com
6767 Old Madison Pike, Suie 410
Huntsville,  AL 35806-2172

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA architectures and missions will involve many distributed platforms that must work together. This in turn requires guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) technology such as systems that determine spacecraft relative range and attitude. The proposed Hybrid Guidance System (HGS) will be such a system, providing increased relative navigation accuracy and robustness while reducing mass, volume, and power consumption by a factor of 2 to 4. The HGS's key innovation is integration of three proven and developed sensor technologies (laser-based retro-image pattern matching, laser range-finding, and correlation) into a low-power package. We will develop non-linear navigation estimation algorithms to fuse the sensor outputs together as well as to integrate the system output with other on-board navigation systems. The state estimate generation using three different techniques will increase the system's robustness through the ability to reject faulty measurements from one component of the system. Phase I of the SBIR will verify feasibility of the HGS design and the navigation algorithms and will culminate in a realistic mission simulation of vehicles using the HGS as part of an integrated GN&C system. The results of this simulation will serve as an excellent springboard to Phase II HGS prototype hardware and embedded software development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous potential applications for the HGS both for formation flying and for advanced rendezvous and docking within NASA. Formation flying?the synergistic, coordinated use of multiple spacecraft to achieve scientific or exploration objectives?is an important enabling technology to conduct next-generation scientific and surveillance missions for both NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD). The robust relative position, velocity, and attitude measurements achieved by the HGS would be a critical component for future formation flying missions that will have increasingly tight requirements for relative state accuracy. The HGS would be an excellent complement for the relative/differential GPS and radio frequency (RF) cross-link systems currently in-use. Advanced rendezvous and docking?including both crew-assisted rendezvous and docking operations and autonomous missions?is a vital technology area that requires maturation if the United States is to implement the president's Vision for Space Exploration. The HGS could provide highly-accurate relative measurements using three distinct, proven sensing techniques that would provide a significant increase in accuracy and fault isolation capabilities relative to today's sensors in a significantly smaller integrated package.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Formation flying is important for the Department of Defense (DoD) as well as NASA. The HGS measurements would enable next-generation surveillance missions involving formation flying with tight tolerances. For rendezvous and docking missions, the integration of these sensor technologies into a single sensor unit could enable advances in in-flight aerial refueling for DoD aircraft, particularly unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), where mass and power constraints are acutely present. Enhancing UAV capabilities is one of the major focus areas of DoD research and development funding. Finally, the commercial space market, fueled by prizes similar to the 2004 Ansari X-prize, has made orbital vehicles with R&D capabilities the next great priority for privately-funded spacecraft.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S8.01-8508
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Guidance, Navigation and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: SpeedStar: A Stellar Gyroscope

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
StarVision Technologies, Inc.
1700 Research Parkway, Suite 170
College Station, TX 77845-2304

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Jacox
mjacox@starvisiontech.com
1700 Research Parkway, Suite 170
College Station,  TX 77845-2304

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA science and exploration missions will continue to require observation and sensing platforms with enhanced guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) subsystems. In fact, GN&C technology improvements have the potential to enable new and revolutionary missions that will accelerate the exploration and scientific understanding of the solar system. Since, attitude determination and inertial rate measurement systems are a significant fraction of the spacecraft or platform resources there are opportunities to exploit recent technology advances in imaging and computing to produce an inertial measurement system (IMS) that has lower mass and power. A novel approach for high speed estimation of spacecraft attitude and rates from celestial observations has been conceived that could revolutionize the performance of platforms in many challenging environments including highly elliptical Earth orbits, libration point orbits, and lunar and planetary orbits.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The significant performance enhancements that will be enabled by development of the SpeedStar concept can be applied to many NASA missions. Any three-axis stabilized spacecraft can benefit from the mass, power, and performance advantages of a stellar gyroscope. Of particular interest are exploration and science missions that have observation platforms that required precise pointing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many Non-NASA commercial applications of the stellar gyroscope. The commercial satellite communications industry and the growing demand for satellite imagery on-demand will create the need for enhanced spacecraft inertial measurements systems. The SpeedStar concept will also have applications to responsive spacecraft for the military.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Attitude Determination and Control
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Optical


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S8.02-9168
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Command and Data Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Configurable Radiation Hardened High Speed Isolated Interface ASIC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NVE Corporation
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3617

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Myers John
jmyers@nve.com
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie,  MN 55344-3617

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NVE Corporation will design and build an innovative, low cost, flexible, configurable, radiation hardened, galvanically isolated, interface ASIC chip set that will reduce power consumption, enable high efficiency power conversion management, highly integrate existing discrete solutions, enable precision isolated data conversion and communication, save weight and footprint and be more immune to radiation than the existing optocoupler technology solution. The proposed chip set configurations will interface with many communication protocols and data signaling applications. This flexible configuration enables variant uses of the silicon, increases circuit and application flexibility, allows protected, isolated interfaces between systems, and increases overall system speed and reliability while reducing complexity. A key challenge is to successfully integrate NVE's commercialized Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) based post processing IsoLoop<SUP>REG</SUP> technology with radiation hardened or radiation tolerant under-layer circuits. NVE has shipped millions CMOS-based commercial units using this concept. GMR material, configured into magnetically sensitive resistors, is inherently radiation hard. Customers have tested the basic sense element to a dose rate of 1.1E+12 rads(Si)/sec. without failure. NASA Goddard (Robert Reed) tested commercial IsoLoop products to a fluence of 1x107 ions/cm2.and observed no upsets. James Lyke of AFRL/VSEE will advise and assist NVE on the program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project will prove the feasibility of large scale implementation of NVE's Isoloop technology for use in radiation-hardened applications. This market would be confined to commercial and military space and weapons based military programs. While the number of applications probably numbers in the thousands, the volumes are not huge, due to the relatively low volumes of military black boxes with radiation-hardened requirements. This specific commercial market potential is estimated to approximate $50M. If the project is successful, it could lead to a product that can solve this technological problem and expand and create new markets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are several other applications that could be explored. The first ones are commercial applications where radiation is an issue. One potential peripheral market is the medical instrumentation area, where radiation is used for sterilization of devices. Standard devices cannot be cleaned with this technique as the electronics will shift to the point of not operating. The second one is within the containment of nuclear power plants. NVE sensors have recently been employed within containment to perform eddy current-based scans of the heads. Existing circuit isolation is opto-isolators which is slow and prone to occasional error. The last market area that will be examined is the high temperature market (200 deg C+). This market is small but required in oil exploration.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Control Instrumentation
Telemetry, Tracking and Control
Ultra-High Density/Low Power
Guidance, Navigation, and Control
On-Board Computing and Data Management
Architectures and Networks
Autonomous Control and Monitoring
Data Acquisition and End-to-End-Management
Data Input/Output Devices
Portable Data Acquisition or Analysis Tools
Sensor Webs/Distributed Sensors
Highly-Reconfigurable
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics
Semi-Conductors/Solid State Device Materials
Power Management and Distribution


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S8.03-8696
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Long Range and Near Earth RF Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Power Amplifiers for Long-Range X-band Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vega Wave Systems, Inc.
1275 W Roosevelt Rd, Ste 112
West Chicago, IL 60185-4833

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alan Sugg
arsugg@vegawave.com
1275 W Roosevelt Rd, Ste 112
West Chicago,  IL 60185-4833

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR Phase I project, Vega Wave Systems, Inc. will develop and demonstrate a novel InGaP-GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor power amplifier for long-range X-band communications. The Phase I objective is to design and fabricate a new type of heterojunction bipolar transistor in order to achieve high device performance for power amplifiers (PAs). In addition, monolithic power combiners suitable for combining the output power of several HBTs will be designed and simulated. The transistor design is expected to result in a new approach capable of achieving high performance in an inherently low-cost device process. Prototype InGaP heterojunction bipolar transistors that have been optimized for communications applications at X-band frequencies will be designed, fabricated and delivered in Phase I. The devices will be characterized and modeling parameters will be extracted from the characterization results. Preliminary power amplifier and power combiner designs will be evaluated using the models obtained for the transistors. In Phase II the technology will be optimized for performance and extended to higher levels of integration by combining the outputs of several power transistors to deliver a monolithically-integrated amplifier that can achieve power output levels in excess of 10 watts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NASA applications of the proposed devices and monolithically-integrated circuits will include low-cost, compact, high-performance power amplifier communication modules. By using a power combiner and the new heterojunction transistor design, efficient power amplifiers with > 10 W output power levels can be implemented as a single low-cost monolithic microwave integrated circuit that offers inherent radiation hardness and robust performance over temperature, and is poised to allow power amplifier communication modules with excellent performance to be realized at low cost in a simple, robust fabrication technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial market segment being targeted is power amplifiers for cellular phone applications. The new heterojunction bipolar transistor and amplifier design will be applicable to a wide range of wireless communications products including base stations for cellular applications, wireless local area networks, and portable wireless devices. A summary of potential advantages in the new heterojunction bipolar transistor design for power amplifiers include: lower base resistance, lower cost, and improved linearity.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
RF
Microwave/Submillimeter
Radiation-Hard/Resistant Electronics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S8.04-7581
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Tank Bladders for Advanced Monopropellants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microphase Coatings, Inc.
170 Donmoor Court
Garner, NC 27529-2500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Simendinger, III
w.simendinger@microphasecoatings.com
170 Donmoor Court
Garner,  NC 27529-2500

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to RFP S8.04 Spacecraft Propulsion, innovations in propulsion technologies are needed to increase the capabilities of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) spacecraft. Towards this need, MicroPhase Coatings, Inc. (MPCI) proposes tank bladders compatible with advanced monopropellants. MPCI is well underway in development of polymer liners for lightweight propulsion tanks for containment of gelled inhibited red fuming nitric acid (IRFNA) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) under an Army Redstone Arsenal contract in collaboration with partner Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST). Most MPCI bladders are composed of FEP thermoplastic fluoropolymer into which glass flake is compounded for additional barrier properties. Glass flakes within the polymer matrix overlap to yield tortuous paths to chemicals that might otherwise migrate through a polymer matrix. When needed, we also incorporate auxiliary fluorinated silicate coating or even pure gold plate within the bladder interior. Fluoropolymers, glass, gold and silicate coatings are all materials well known for chemical inertness. MPCI's innovation is to combine the materials in a form that yields a flexible bladder which serves as an inert barrier for monopropellant containment and stability. The time is ripe to expand compatibility testing of MPCI's bladder technology to advanced monopropellants for SMD needs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flexible bladders will serve as inert barriers for monopropellant containment and stability, which will increase the capabilities of the SMD spacecraft. The bladders will be compatible with the advanced monopropellants used by NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Preliminary research indicates several different commercial opportunities for the development of the monopropellant containment technology. 1. The development of non-toxic materials for power generation continues to gain momentum. Several programs investigating the use of high concentration hydrogen peroxide are exhibiting promise for low cost and wide applicability. A containment strategy to prevent decomposition over time will be required to develop this technology. 2. Possible use for storage of Pyrophoric Materials that will combust when exposed to moisture or air. 3. Replace glass vials for very reactive materials that are scored and then broken in a glove box contained area). 4. Non-breakable containment vessels for highly reactive chemicals used in academic and industrial laboratories. 5. Potential for transportation industry for air, rail and ocean either as individual containment packaging or integral to the vessel design.

TECHNOLOGY TAXONOMY MAPPING
Chemical
Monopropellants
Propellant Storage
Tankage
Feed System Components
Biomass Production and Storage
Organics/Bio-Materials


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 05-I S8.04-9646
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Durable Catalysts for Ignition of Advanced Monopropellants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eltron Research, Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James White
eltron@eltronresearch.com
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder,  CO 80301-3241

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposed SBIR Phase I addresses the development of catalysts and technology for the ignition of advanced monopropellants consisting of mixtures of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and a combustible component. The catalysts will possess intrinsic activity for ignition and will also possess requisite thermal stability and erosion resistance. Minimal delay times will be achieved by the catalyst composition and enhanced surface area, which will accelerate rate limiting steps of ignition. Phase I will consist of the synthesis and physical characterization of catalysts, evaluation of catalyst activity, initial optimization of composition and preparation of catalysts, and testing in a combustion chamber. In Phase II, the preferred catalyst(s) will be optimized, synthesized in larger quantities, and subjected to more rigorous and extensive testing in a device. The goal of the proposed program will be to develop a catalyst exhibiting a low ignition temperature, but also possessing the favorable attributes described above. Successful development of such catalyst technology will lead to applications in a number of propulsion-related devices.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Successful completion of the proposed program will result in the availability of rugged catalysts for ignition of HAN/fuel mixtures and other monopropellants. Such materials will find application in thrusters, as well as in other devices, such as as liquid gas generators, emergency power units (EPUs), auxiliary power