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NASA 2001 SBIR Phase 2 Solicitation

PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.01-8284 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013715 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02027
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intent Inference Algorithm

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase II SBIR effort, Metron designs and develops an intent inference algorithm, an algorithm that infers the intent of the pilot of an aircraft that is being tracked by a surveillance system. Data describing the environment around the aircraft, for instance, the location of nearby aircraft, weather, Navaids, alternate airports, turbulence, and operational data are used to determine plausible routes for travel. Operational data and domain knowledge from pilot and air traffic controller interviews are used to identify how pilots react to these elements in the National Airspace System (NAS). The algorithm imbeds operational data and domain knowledge into human decision-making computer models; these models are then used to predict the future motion of the vehicle and to identify intent. The outputs of the algorithm are an inferred intent, a level of confidence in the intent, and a continuous predicted path.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
We are designing our algorithm to be used in real-time applications of systems that track aircraft
en route in the NAS and for future cockpit displays that require the intent of a nearby aircraft to
be inferred. Such a functionality for the cockpit is a required part of a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information,
or CDTI.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Jimmy Krozel, Ph.D.
Metron, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Metron, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.02-8103 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013896 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02001
PROPOSAL TITLE: Affordable Composite Fan Containment Case with Integral Toughening Elements

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed program will develop and demonstrate an affordable manufacturing approach to fabricate the latest generation of damage tolerant composite fan case designs. These designs embed a grid of stiffener ribs within the composite laminate to limit damage propagation that is initiated during the fan blade containment event. This grid blunts the crack growth and restricts damage within a "safe zone" that permits structural viability of the case after the blade is contained. The proposed work package will demonstrate that advanced braiding concepts can be used to fabricate these composite-toughening elements in a cost-effective manner. This economically viable fabrication method will allow widespread application of the toughened design concept and enable weight efficient, safe containment system designs for high bypass turbofan engines.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This technology can be applied to the design of all jet engine fan containment cases.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mike Braley
A&P Technology
4595 East Tech Drive
Cincinnati , OH   45245 - 1055

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
A&P Technology
4595 East Tech Drive
Cincinnati , OH   45245 - 1055


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.02-8674 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013325 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02002
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sensitive and Specific Detection of Early Warning Fire Signatures

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An airborne fire is one of the most dreaded emergencies, as all pilots will acknowledge. Isolated at high altitudes, a fire-induced loss of systems can disable the aircraft beyond control. The space shuttles and the International Space Station face an even worse predicament. While an aircraft can land on a short notice, spacecraft are totally vulnerable. Existing fire sensors detect smoke or flame, indicating that the fire is in a relatively advanced stage, but these systems produce false alarms 199 times out of 200. Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to develop a fire onset detection system (FODS) that will: (a) detect fire at a very early stage, without false alarm, by performing trend analysis on key chemical markers and temperature, and (b) provide a continuous status update for intelligent decision making by the crew. In Phase I, IOS established the feasibility of FODS by detecting 50 ppm of carbon monoxide. In Phase II, the project team will develop and test a compact FODS prototype. This prototype system will have the capability to react to several fire markers simultaneously with a high level of reliability.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
IOS's early-warning fire detection system will improve the aircraft industry's ability to detect in-flight fires. In 1997, the Federal Aviation Administration estimated that the incorporation of fire detectors in Class D cargo holds would result in a savings to the airlines of $458 million in incident and accident reductions over the lifetime of the aircraft that existed at that time. The dramatic reduction in false alarm, and increase in the sensitivity that IOS?s system offers will nearly double these savings. The system will also have applications in manufacturing facilities, buildings, and on ships.
Other possible applications include: a) environmental gas sensing; b) flammable gas detection in the fire hazard areas; and c) evaluation of gas mixtures in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.
Another potential application includes chemical and biological warfare agent detection by remotely tracing vapors of the explosives and chemicals. The market for chemical and biological warfare agent detectors could reach nearly $400 million in 2002, rising to $490 million by 2007.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Vladimir Rubtsov
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance , CA   90505 - 5217

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance , CA   90505 - 5217


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.02-9278 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012721 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02018
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Crashworthy Aircraft Seat Design

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is concerned with the prevention of hazardous and accident conditions in transport aircraft and is interested in the mitigation of passenger injuries in accident conditions. Aircraft seats can significantly contribute to the safety of the passengers by restraining them and providing protection in the event of crashes.

An innovative transport aircraft passenger seat concept for superior occupant protection, meeting all structural requirements used in typical seat designs was developed in the Phase I program. This was accomplished with the use of new energy-absorbing structural members and precise control of seat deformation characteristics. Foster-Miller developed an innovative design using the integrated advanced dynamic finite element modeling technique for the seat, occupants, restraints and energy absorbing elements. Results from certification tests on an existing seat design were used to validate the analytical model.

The Phase II program will focus on the optimization and detailed design of this new aircraft seat, including the injury-reduction features. Testing and verification of designs based on the new approach will be conducted. Manufacturing issues and costs will be also addressed. The design will conform to the SAE certification standards for aircraft passenger seats. (P-020417)








POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This project is directly relevant in the design and manufacturing of high performance aircraft seats. This technology can be adapted in other fields such as automobiles and locomotives to protect passengers and train crew.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Kash Kasturi
Foster-Miller, Inc.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham , MA   02154 - 1196

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Foster-Miller, Inc.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham , MA   02154 - 1196


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.03-9314 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012685 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS4-02003
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Model Fusion for Gas Turbine Engine Diagnostics and Prognostics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I IAC, teamed with Pratt & Whitney and Luppold & Associates, developed and demonstrated a hybrid modeling approach to enhance diagnostics and prognostics performance on F-117 engines. The hybrid model fuses a physics-based model developed by Pratt & Whitney called STORM with an empirical model that uses neural networks to monitor and quantify unmodeled and/or mismodeled engine phenomena that corrupt STORM?s diagnostic outputs. The resulting hybrid model is called the enhanced STORM or eSTORM. In Phase I eSTORM was demonstrated to work extremely well for limited conditions when processing simulated engine data.
In Phase II IAC proposes to develop a standalone system for real time implementation of a full F-117 engine eSTORM. The system will cover the full C-17 flight envelope. The system will include interfaces to accept data from the C-17 aircraft bus and will be capable of on-wing operation. The system will be demonstrated using real F-117 inputs running in a test bench environment. Though developed explicitly for an F-117 application, the hybrid modeling concept developed on this Phase II is generic and can be used for eSTORM development on all Pratt & Whitney military and commercial engines.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
IAC worked closely with Pratt & Whitney in development of the initial eSTORM system in Phase I. Pratt & Whitney will support IAC in Phase II to provide engine expertise and proprietary engine models. Though developed explicitly for an F-117 application, the system to be developed on Phase II is generic and can be used for eSTORM development on all Pratt & Whitney military and commercial engines. If Phase II is successful Pratt & Whitney would transition the technologies developed to all their product lines

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Tom Brotherton
Intelligent Automation Corporation
13029 Danielson Street, Suite 200
Poway , CA   92064 - 8811

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Intelligent Automation Corporation
13029 Danielson Street, Suite 200
Poway , CA   92064 - 8811


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.03-9855 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012144 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS4-02005
PROPOSAL TITLE: Object-Oriented, Network-Based, Health Management System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The safety and efficiency of transportation will be enhanced by revolutionary systems that provide on-line health management of vehicle systems. Creare's Online Health Management (OHM) Toolkit facilitates the assembly of a such a system, through the creation of a distributed network-based data processing structure, which is completely described by semantic metadata. This approach enables the system to intelligently interpret diagnostic and prognostic information and to dynamically generate online reports for a wide range of users.
The object-oriented paradigm employed by Creare's software, provides numerous advantages over current custom written systems, including reduced development time and cost, reduced learning curves, reduced bandwidth requirements through distributed processing, and increased data availability through data buffering and web-based report delivery.
In Phase I we demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by developing and testing prototype software. We accomplished this by building on Creare's previously developed, patented, and award-winning RBNB? middleware software. We augmented this enabling technology with an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) for configuring online health-monitoring systems.
During Phase II of this project, we will complete development of the software to produce a commercial-grade package. We will then test the OHM tools by creating health-management systems for a number of demonstration applications.


POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Health management systems can enhance the safety and cost effectiveness of a broad range of vehicle, machinery, and processing systems. As a result, our software tools, which enable the creation of online-health management systems, have a broad range of potential applications, in the military, transport, medical, and industrial fields. However, the revolutionary potential of our application is as a next-generation web tool that moves beyond the simple formatting capability of HTML tools, to interpreting and processing capabilities enabled by semantic data descriptions. We envisage explosive growth of this new technology once the the required data management infrastructure is widely implemented and the use of semantic metadata becomes standard. Our software toolkit addresses both of these requirements, through our buffered data management middleware, and our integrated metadata schema.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Anthony Dietz
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.04-8757 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013242 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02004
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Simple, Small, Low Power Instrument to Measure Aircraft Icing Severity

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft icing severity depends on two key cloud parameters, liquid water content and droplet size. Proposed is a simple instrument using multiple hot wire elements to measure cloud droplet size (median volume diameter) and liquid water content.

The unit utilizes three hot wire sensor elements each of a different geometry, all exposed to the same airflow. By virtue of their different sizes/shapes, the elements have different measurment efficiencies with respect to droplet diameter.

Liquid water content is determined by the total amount of water measured by all three elements. Droplet median volume diameter is determined by the response differences between the three elements. The range of droplet measurement includes super large droplets SLD).

The proposed instrument has no moving parts, no optics and emits no electromagnetic radiation. It is a first principles device capable of complete calibration. Its response time is under one second.

Total frontal area of the instrument is less than four square inches. Less than 500 watts of power are required for operation in continuous icing conditions. The operational airspeed range is compatible with operational jet and turboprop transport aircraft.

Applications include icing research and operational cockpit warning for icing and SLD conditions.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
1. GA and Commercial Cockpit Warning Device for Icing Severity, including warning of SLD conditions

2. Frequency of Occurance Survey instrument to conduct gather data from the GA and Commercial fleet in regards to icing certification requirements

3. Transfer standard for intercomparison of Icing Test Facilities

4. Stand alone certification instrument for FAA aircract certification projects.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lyle Lilie
Science Engineering Associates
114 C Mansfield Hollow Road, Box 605
Mansfield Center , CT   06250 - 0605

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Science Engineering Associates
114 C Mansfield Hollow Road, Box 605
Mansfield Center , CT   06250 - 0605


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.05-8767 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013232 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02022
PROPOSAL TITLE: Shaped Field Giant Magnetoresistive Sensor Arrays for Materials Testing

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Shaped field Giant Magnetoresistive Sensor Arrays offer substantially increased depth of sensitivity and potential to provide 3-dimensional absolute property imaging for conducting and magnetic media. The Phase I demonstrated the capability of Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM) drive winding constructs with GMR sensing elements to (1) detect and image 3% material loss in a 0.25 inch thick aluminum plate, (2) detect corrosion damage in a military aircraft component, (3) use a forward model of the sensor interactions with layered media to calibrate in ?air,? without standards, and accurately measure absolute electrical conductivity and layer thickness, (4) measure and monitor temperature variations for an aluminum plate through another 0.25 inch aluminum plate with an additional 0.5 inch air gap between plates, (5) independently measure variations in stress (i.e., through its relationship with magnetic permeability) on a steel plate through a 0.25 inch aluminum plate and variations in an approximately 0.12 inch air gap between plates, and to (6) operate a three channel GMR-MWM sensor array with JENTEK?s commercial impedance instrumentation. These demonstrations completely satisfied the Phase I objectives. The proposed Phase II effort will develop conformable MWM-Arrays with GMR sensing elements and distributed winding designs for imaging hidden damage and geometric features.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
There are substantial commercial applications for this capability including replacing X-Ray and UT for inspection of metal structures less than 0.5 inches in thickness for corrosion, fatigue and geometric feature imaging stress measurement for ferrous alloys, and weld inspection (e.g., the friction stir welds on the space shuttle tanks, gun barrel inspection, and even buried unexploded ordnance and landmine detection). The proposed Phase II effort will extend the current capability and substantially broaden JENTEK?s addressable markets. JENTEK plans to provide matching funds for Phase II and III. This match will focus on development of key components for planned commercial versions of GMR-MWM-Array products.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Neil Goldfine
JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham , MA   02453 - 7013

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham , MA   02453 - 7013


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.05-9239 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012760 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02024
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Optical Fiber Sensor Demodulation System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project?s goal is to produce a flight qualifiable tunable laser system specifically for use in optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) based distributed fiber Bragg grating sensing applications. This work represent an enabling technology for NASA's requirement for distributed optical fiber sensing for health monitoring, aviation safety, and aircraft morphing programs. The work is based on the Phase I feasibility studies which generated two approaches for producing OFDR targeted laser systems. These systems have the unique combination of rapid tuning and immunity to mode hops. The proposed designs have reduced alignment tolerances and built in wavelength tracking. These features provide a level of hardening to environmental influences that will make flight qualification of the systems possible as well as cost effective. An integral part to both approaches is the incorporation of a high speed, high resolution, tracking wavemeter. This feature allows for the use of tunable lasers both with and without mode hops.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Distributed optical fiber sensing which is the motivation for this work has applications in many commercial areas. This technology competes directly with conventional strain gage and thermocouple sensors in the industrial sensors market. Applications in air and ground based health monitoring will be dominated by the distributed optical fiber sensing in the coming years due to the need for high sensor density in these applications. The extremely high sensor density is also opening up new markets for routine sensing in industrial processes and products. One of the approaches pursued in this proposal will drastically increase system performance while reducing costs. This will of course remove barriers to entry in all market areas.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Brooks Childers
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A2.01-8267 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013732 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02001
PROPOSAL TITLE: Collaborative Routing Rationing Algorithm

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) embodies a new philosophy for managing air traffic. The initial implementation of CDM has been aimed at airport Ground Delay Programs (GDPs). However, it has become increasingly evident that very significant delays and throughput degradations have arisen from en-route airspace problems and limitations, particularly from convective weather activity. This effort focused on the application of CDM technology and concepts to the management of en-route traffic (Collaborative Routing). In this phase II effort, we will implement, demonstrate and evaluate a number of different collaborative routing rationing algorithms (CRRAs) to assign use of en route resources to individual flights. We have found that such algorithms are both feasible and can be made consistent with traffic management goals and with the CDM paradigm. The CRRA algorithms will be implemented in NASA?s System-Wide Evaluation Planning Tool (SWEPT) and a major Human-In-The-Loop simulation experiment will be conducted with participants from the FAA Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC), Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs) and Airlines Operation Center (AOC) facilities. This simulation will allow the air transportation community to discuss and refine the CRRA concept toward eventual deployment in the National Airspace System (NAS).

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The product that is contemplated to result from this phase II effort is an initial implementation of the CRRA algorithms into the SWEPT system. Our intent is to obtain further government contracts from NASA and the FAA to further test, enhance and implement the CRRA concepts, procedures and tools into the operational ATC environment.
The new procedures enabled by these algorithms and concepts allow significant flexibility to the Users of the NAS and other international ATM systems. This flexibility afforded to airlines and other Users creates decisions that need to be made and managed. Thus, as a direct result of the implementation of CDM concepts, a new market has been created to help Users manage the new options that are created by CDM.
Metron Aviation has the necessary experience, organization and track record in such a market to be able to successfully provide services based on the CRRA concepts to airlines. Metron Aviation has developed and now provides as a service the Enhanced Substitution Module (ESM), which is a commercial tool to assist airlines in managing their substitutions during Ground Delay Programs.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Robert Hoffman
Metron, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Metron, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A2.01-9158 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012841 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02003
PROPOSAL TITLE: Agent-based Simulation of NAS

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In our Phase I effort we demonstrated the feasibility of developing agent-based software for the simulation of NAS that (i) uses of extensions of UML to represent and agents and its interactions/protocols (ii) leverages research in verification of finite state machines to verify the agent protocols and (iii) automatically generates code for execution on IAI?s agent infrastructure, OpenCybele. The approach is based on a software engineering perspective that draws on ideas and recent developments in multi-agent systems, and ongoing work at IAI on multi-agent systems, which includes the development of DIVA, an agent-software verification tool, and Cybele. Having demonstrated feasibility, our Phase II effort will focus on developing a software prototype of the DIVA CASE tool for UML-based design, verification and automatic code generation of multiagent software for agent-based simulations of NAS. Our Phase II tasks include (i) development of a library of NAS agent interaction protocols that are AUML and FIPA ACL compliant (ii) extensions of the Phase I verification approach to protocol verification (iii) integration of the software with Rational Rose and (v) test and validate the case tool with NASA?s agent-based modeling and simulation Software being developed under the ATMSDI effort.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
A UML-based CASE tool for software verification and validation of scalable complex multi-agent systems will be developed in this SBIR Phase II effort. To ensure industry wide acceptance, the tool will be developed as an add-on to Rational Rose and will be compliant with OMG and AUML industry standards. To ensure successful technology transfer in our Phase II effort, Rational Software Corporation, the developers of Rational Rose, will team with us as our commercialization partner. Partnering with Rational in our gives us access to a Rational customer base of 52,000 users. In addition, in this growing market of distributed multi-agent micro-simulation applications such as Air Traffic Control Simulation, Ground Transportation, Robotics and supply-chain integration, immediate customers for this tool exist in both the Government and Commercial Sectors. In the government sector our primary customer will be NASA, USDOT and DOD. In the commercial sector customers include spacecraft, air-traffic control, process control and manufacturing companies.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Leonard Haynes
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville , MD   20855 - 2785

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville , MD   20855 - 2785


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A2.02-8202 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013797 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02006
PROPOSAL TITLE: Maneuvering Rotorcraft Aeromechanics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
"The Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) offers a unique opportunity to create a new aircraft market while off-loading a portion of the short-haul traffic." (Ref. NASA?s civil tiltrotor web page). Rotary-wing vehicles proposed for improved system capacity must meet global civil aviation requirements for safety, efficiency, and affordability. Many advances have been made in measuring characteristics of rotary-wing vehicles; however, measurements of dynamic, unsteady, and cross-coupling effects are still challenges posing impediments to rapid design cycles. An innovative method, accurately collecting such measurements, utilizes water as a medium for dynamic testing. This testing technique circumvents many of the problems presented by testing in air and provides better insight into the fluid mechanics, interactions and interferences. The method allows testing in slow motion, separates model and test support frequencies, greatly improves signal-to-noise ratios, and provides unparalleled flow visualization. Water tunnel testing will predict maneuvering aerodynamics and stability parameters early in the design cycle, reducing the development time, risk, and cost of new rotorcraft. The method also applies to high performance aircraft development.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
AeroArts is marketing the capability for performing simultaneous flow visualization and force/moment measurement on rotor models, exploiting the special advantages of water as a test medium. There are three main target markets for AeroArts? equipment and expertise, namely commercial aircraft developers, academic institutions, and government research organizations. All manufacturers and developers of runway-independent aircraft are a marketplace for AeroArts? capability. Significant developments within the business sector include the resurging civil aviation market following the lull after September 2001 and the consequent return to concern about the air transportation system capacity. Runway-independent aircraft, and particularly the tiltrotor concept, are one of the brightest hopes for relieving aviation system capacity.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Brooke Smith
AeroArts LLC
PO Box 2909
Palos Verdes Peninsula , CA   90274 - 2909

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
AeroArts LLC
PO Box 2909
Palos Verdes Peninsula , CA   90274 - 2909


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A2.02-9586 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012413 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02007
PROPOSAL TITLE: Revolutionary Runway Independent Aircraft Flight Simulation Technology

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A potentially key element of meeting NASA?s objective of dramatically increasing aviation system capacity is the utilization of runway independent aircraft (RIAs) to provide feeder service to major airports. Among the challenges in enabling high-volume terminal area RIA operations are identifying potential hazards of this flight regime and developing simulation technology for a complex aeromechanical environment involving the interaction of multiple types of air vehicles (e.g, RIA, fixed-wing,V/STOL). Fast, high-fidelity full-vehicle aeromechanical models and simulation tools are thus needed for RIAs that may be used in such roles. To meet this need, a suite of physics-based tools are being developed that capture challenging problems such as vortex wake encounters, modeling the airwakes of structures/terrain, ?self-interactions? such as vortex ring state, full vehicle gust response, and surface/ground vortex effects. Key technical innovations include novel fast viscous/turbulent wake decay methodologies tailored to RIAs, coupled with state of the art Real Time Free Wake simulation capabilities of CDI?s CHARM full-aircraft analysis. The effort will yield a Multiple Aircraft Simulation Tool (MAST) that will permit both off-line assessment and on-line, real-time flight simulation of RIA and non-RIA vehicles for flight planning, operational training, and evaluation of pilot workload and situational awareness requirements.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This new simulation technology would help government agencies and airport management determine safe trajectories and pilot workload for RIAs in terminal area flight as well as assess the impact of wake vortex interactions on IFR spacing requirements. Industry would use this tool to support design and analysis of new RIA concepts or applications, as well as assist development of next generation control system and flight director aids. Also, this new capability would directly support flight training activities by simulation manufacturers, aircraft operators, and the military services.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Daniel A. Wachspress
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing , NJ   08618 - 2302

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing , NJ   08618 - 2302


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A2.03-8183 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013816 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02008
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent Displays for Time-Critical Maneuvering of Multi-Axis Vehicles

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel training methodology that takes advantage of automation?s potential as a high-speed decision aid and the strengths of human pattern recognition and conditioning is proposed. The methodology applies optimal control theory to solve for a vehicle?s trajectory and the required control inputs. A preview of the commanded input suite is displayed to the pilot, which will dynamically update as the vehicle state changes in time. Using this and other innovative training displays, the pilot should be able to execute numerous maneuvers previously considered outside the operational envelope, in addition to performing ?standard? emergencies with a high degree of control consistency and accuracy. The preview display?s function can be extended to serve as an on-board pilot cueing aid. This methodology can be incorporated in flight simulators to train pilots across a range of platforms. The initial target application will be for rotorcraft autorotation, a particularly challenging and accident-prone multi-axis maneuver. Phase I demonstrated the concept?s feasibility in the rotorcraft autorotation domain. Phase II will focus on practical application and demonstration of the concept for rotorcraft autorotation training and its expansion to other flight vehicles.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The pilot training software developed under this project can be used to train helicopter pilots to perform safe autorotation maneuvers. The core technology may also be adapted for use in training human operators of other vehicles (flight, ground, and underwater) where multi-axis control in time-critical situations is required.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Bimal Aponso
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne , CA   90250 - 7083

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne , CA   90250 - 7083


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A3.01-9332 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012667 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02021
PROPOSAL TITLE: Measurement/Model of Effects of Grazing Flow on Resonator Impedance

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR Phase II research project is divided into four parts. The principal objective of the first part is to conduct hot-wire measurements to assess the accuracy of Dean?s Two Microphone Impedance Measurement Method. They will also be used to calibrate CAA numerical codes.
The principal objective of the second part is to develop a computationally simple 2-DOF resonator impedance model. The model will include non-linearity of the cavity sound particle velocities pumped into/out-of the inner/outer orifices. The model will be calibrated by Impedance measurements as a function of SPL and grazing flow speed.
The principal objective of the third part is to use hot-wires to measure cavity inflow/outflow sound particle velocities near the orifices of multiple orifice resonators, backed by a common cavity. These measurements should provide fundamental understanding of orifice-to-orifice interaction. They will be used to assess potential resonator bandwidth improvement as a function of orifice spacing in grazing flow applications.
The principal objective of the fourth part is to design and construct a prototype low self-noise probe microphone to measure broadband sound in high-speed flow duct applications. The performance of the prototype probe will be validated in the NASA LaRC 2-in by 2-in wind tunnel.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
1. Software/hardware to conduct in-situ impedance measurements of liners installed in engine nacelles, wind tunnels, peak electrical energy turbine exhausts, HVAC ducts.
2. Software code to predict the impedance of 1-DOF and 2-DOF liners exposed to intense sound and high-speed grazing flow.
3. Software code to improve bandwidth performance of resonators based on orifice spacing.
4. Low self-noise probe microphone capable of measuring broadband sound in high-speed flow duct applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Alan Hersh
Hersh Acoustical Engineering, Inc.
780 lakefield Road, Unit G
Westlake Village , CA   91361 - 2657

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Hersh Acoustical Engineering, Inc.
780 lakefield Road, Unit G
Westlake Village , CA   91361 - 2657


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A3.02-8760 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013239 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02006
PROPOSAL TITLE: PIP/MI Matrix SiC/SiC CMCs

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Innovative materials and processing capabilities are needed for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for efficient engine systems. NASA has identified CMCs as the only materials that will meet the combination of increased safety, reduced cost, and reduced weight as operational temperatures climb to higher levels (per AeroMat 2000 Annual Conference, June 2000). The current UEET (Ultra Efficient Engine Technology) initiative at NASA is looking at components such as combustor liners and vanes in particular. In light of these needs, this Phase II SBIR proposal addresses lightweight, high temperature, and low cost CMCs for engine and propulsion applications, particularly in the temperature range of 1200-1400C. The work specifically addresses the optimization of a hybrid PIP/MI SiC fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix composite (SiC/SiC). Effort will focus on using SiNC- and SiC-yielding preceramic polymers and a combination of PIP and melt-infiltration processing routes that will reduce the cost and time for producing SiC/SiC composites compared to traditional CVI/MI processing. The intent of this work is to refine and optimize the PIP/MI process developed in Phase I, generate a database of thermal and mechanical properties, and demonstrate fabrication capability of subcomponents. The innovation of this work lies in the ability of PIP processing to protect the fibers and interphase coating in a uniform manner compared to the CVI process, resulting in faster and less expensive processing as well as less variability in material properties.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The results of this program will be immediately applicable to the on-going work of a number of companies for programs such as Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) and other initiatives. For example, Boeing-Rocketdyne is interested in evaluating the use of CMCs for transpiration cooled injector faceplates or rocket engine thrust chamber liners for use on the IHPRPT initiative and other advanced engine programs requiring lightweight high temperature CMC materials. Understanding the thermal and mechanical performance of PIP-processed CMC materials will improve the timeline and extent of insertion of CMC materials into a variety of lightweight, high temperature applications. Rockwell Science Center has also expressed interest in C/SiC and SiC/SiC CMCs to use as the exhaust ramp material for the Aerospike Engine concept. General Electric Power Systems and Solar Turbines, Inc., are investigating SiC/SiC CMC materials for turbine engine applications and are very interested in opportunities for reductions in cost and processing time. NASA has identified CMCs as the only materials that will meet the combination of increased safety, reduced cost, and reduced weight as operational temperatures climb to higher levels (per AeroMat 2000 Annual Conference, June 2000). The need for high-temperature CMC materials is evident in applications such as turbomachinery, thrust chambers, seals, bladed-disks (blisks), and various structural panels that may have a requirement for integrated cooling channels. The NASA UEET program in particular has identified applications such as combustor liners and vanes that will require CMC components.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Timothy Easler
COI Ceramics, Inc.
9617 Distribution Ave
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2393

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
COI Ceramics, Inc.
9617 Distribution Ave
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2393


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A3.02-9716 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012283 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02009
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermal Spray of UV/Visible Light-Curable Polymide Powders

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)

The proposed innovative method for spraying UV-curable powders answers a critical NASA need for advanced coatings, and capitalizes on exciting commercial market opportunities. The technology employed combines UV/visible radiation with proprietary thermal spray processing methods yields an effective spray coating system for applying UV-curable powders without the use of solvents.
The spray process and the lay-up aspects of the powder spray technology address a NASA mandate for producing Advanced Materials with Reduced Emissions. The advanced materials processed with this technology have application in gas turbines, rocket and turbine-based combined cycle engines. The technology enables efficient high quality application of these advanced materials to fabricate lightweight jet engine components and other critical NASA and commercial equipment components.
The Phase I technical objectives were fully achieved by demonstrating feasibility of the novel UV/thermal spray technology to coat surfaces using advanced NASA UV-curable polyimide and various commercial UV-curable polymers. This was demonstrated for powder coating conventional materials, heat-sensitive and low-temperature substrates that included metal, glass, natural wood, paper and plastic.
The Phase II technical objective is to develop, fabricate and demonstrate a field portable prototype system. Phase II and Phase III matching resource commitments from the private sector of $680,000 have been obtained.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed technology will meet critical needs in applying a broad-range of commercially available UV-curable thermoplastic and thermoset polymer powder materials as neat materials and as ?designer? composites, nanocomposites and functionally graded materials. Applications include adhesives, scratch resistant coatings, protective coatings, high-elongation coatings, self-extinguishing coatings, circuit board coatings and electrically conductive coatings.
Independent evaluations of several coatings sprayed onto a broad range of substrates in Phase I were made by major UV-curable powder coating manufactures. These evaluations were favorable and resulted in significant commitments by these companies to strategically partner with Montec Research for use of the proposed process for new and expanded applications of their powder coating products.
The entire coatings market was valued at $70.6B in 2000. The UV-curable powder coatings have 4%, or $2.8 of the entire coatings market, and its market share is growing at double-digit rates. The furniture and construction industries alone used a combined 48.4 million pounds of UV-curable coatings in 2001. Automotive and appliance manufacturing use over $21.1B of coatings annually and will increasingly look to UV-curable powder coatings for solutions. The architectural coatings market is $30.7B, and will also benefit from the proposed technology. The technology addresses these industrial requirements and others.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lawrence Farrar
Montec Research
1901 South Franklin
Butte , MT   59701 - 3005

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Montec Research
1901 South Franklin
Butte , MT   59701 - 3005


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A4.01-8115 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013884 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02009
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Aircraft Parachute Recovery System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SATS is NASA's efficient personal air transportation vision. SATS airplanes must strive for higher levels of safety, speed, and comfort than small airplanes currently offer. BRS proposes to explore the dynamics of parachute inflation for aircraft in this new category and develop a system that will automatically and efficiently manage the parachute deployment sequence throughout their operating envelope. A prototype system for a 5,000 lb aircraft with a speed range from 60 to 300 knots will be developed using an unmanned drop test vehicle and cargo aircraft. BRS will also work concurrently with several light jet manufacturers to define the parachute/aircraft interface requirements. These relationships are critical because it is clear that a practical emergency parachute system for this application must be an integral component of the aircraft and will require contributions from a variety of engineering disciplines. These proposed tasks ideally fit BRS's experience and capabilities.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
BRS is strategically positioned to take advantage a new generation of jet aircraft that will break the price and operational barriers of the past. An important key to this new concept is a focus on safety. These new aircraft must be both easier to fly and safer to operate. To date, BRS has signed letters of commitment from three light jet manufacturers to provide cooperative support during and after the Phase II contract period. This support will include engineering support in the areas of airframe structure, parachute installation, and crashworthiness enhancements necessary for the successful parachute deployment and subsequent landing. All of these companies have agreed to work with BRS with the ultimate goal of making their airframes ?BRS ready?. This will allow for the installation of a parachute system once it is available. Continued promotion of Light Jet BRS product will be attained through strategic partnering with other companies that emerge as this market expands and attracts more competitors. These markets can be a significant revenue source for BRS with the average recovery system price ranging from as low as $15,000 and up to $30,000.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Tony Kasher
Ballistic Recovery Systems, Inc.
300 Airport Road
South St. Paul , MN   55075 - 3551

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ballistic Recovery Systems, Inc.
300 Airport Road
South St. Paul , MN   55075 - 3551


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A4.01-8324 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013675 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02030
PROPOSAL TITLE: SATS- Lean Technology Design (LTD)

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I research has positive value for NASA?s SATS mission as well as for the creation of near-term GA commercial product opportunities (2005). While researching the Phase I CCT transfer process a modular cabin and interior design partnership was created with RCO engineering. This automotive style cabin technology had cost and comfort that was very attractive and Eclipse Aviation engaged RCO for a prototype development and is negotiating a production selection. Therefore the successful commercial deployment of a part of the technology developed in this SBIR is possible during Phase II when Eclipse reaches production in 2004. Phase III success will be achieved with the production certification of a complete cabin module that has integrated CCTs. Munro & Assoc. will partner with appropriate GA OEMs and retrofitters to self fund a certification effort in parallel with the Phase II R&D. New GA products will be spawned from the commercial success of the CCT product.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Commercial applications include full cockpit and cabin installations in new as well as the 100,000 plus travel active existing small airplanes in the country. Spin offs include software applications for custom designs.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
David Grieco
Munro and Associates
1749 Northwood
Troy , MI   48084 - 1600

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Munro and Associates
1749 Northwood
Troy , MI   48084 - 1600


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A4.01-8541 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013458 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02016
PROPOSAL TITLE: General Aviation Aircraft Information Network Server

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
DSI will develop an integrated backplane/server solution for the SATS cockpit. The GAAINS (General Aviation Aircraft Information Network Server) solution will provide the foundation for tomorrows SATS cockpit. DSI believes in the spirit of SATS, and through the integration of COTS technologies combined with current open architecture standards, a new enabling platform will be developed which increases cockpit functionality, while decreasing pilot workload at a fraction of the cost of today?s systems. DSI?s GAAINS architecture is based on current communication industry standards for redundancy and fail over scenarios. Ruggedized COTS hardware coupled with proven smart software suites will provide new heights of modularity, cost savings, and ease of access, operation and growth. This backplane/server platform will ultimately increase the chance of success for NASA?s SATS vision.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Commercial applications include the GAAINS installations in the existing 100,000 travel active airplanes, as well as new GA aircraft. This product will also be designed for integration with the ground and satellite based GA extranet (SATS-Net). Outside of this, there is almost no limit to expansion and opportunities in terms of providing information to the GA aircraft. The implications of this are vast. As the Internet has matured and brought forth a host of viable information services, the potential for radically improving the availability of information services to the GA aircraft is enormous. This also has strong potential for the commercial airline industry. As concepts were borrowed from the automotive industry, the likelihood that advances in the GA market could be applied back to the automotive industry are very high.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Gregg Schneider
Dynamic Systems Integration
2649 Production Road
Virginia Beach , VA   23454 - 5228

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dynamic Systems Integration
2649 Production Road
Virginia Beach , VA   23454 - 5228


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.01-8361 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013638 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01135
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Hybrid Piezoelectric/Fiber Optic System for Structural Health Monitoring

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Acellent Technologies is developing a Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic (HyPFO) structural diagnostic system that can be used to perform quick non-destructive evaluation and long-term health monitoring of aerospace vehicles and structures. The development is based on Acellent's state-of-the-art SMART Layer technology that utilizes a built-in network of piezoelectric sensors and actuators embedded on a thin dielectric carrier film, that can be easily mounted on the surface of existing structures or embedded inside composite structures during manufacturing itself. Due to the popularity of fiber-optic sensors, it is proposed to incorporate fiber-optic sensors into the current SMART Layer product to create a Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber-optic monitoring layer. The specific objectives of the phase I effort were to (1) Develop and fabricate a hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic layer, (2) Integrate the fabricated prototype onto a demonstration structure and (3) Demonstrate functionality of the structurally integrated HyPFO monitoring layer. Anticipated phase II challenges include completing the design and development of the Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber-optic sensor layer, development of instrumentation for the hybrid layer in collaboration with fiber-optic companies, integration of the fiber-optic instrument and Acellent's current diagnostic instrument, development of diagnostic and application software for the HyPFO and testing and validation of the developed system with industrial partners.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This innovative technology has widespread applications in major industries including aerospace, aeronautical, automotive, and civil infrastructure. The company anticipates that the development and subsequent commercialization of the structural health monitoring system will lead to economic benefits these industries in the form of improved safety, reduced life cycle costs through real-time structural monitoring, improvement in structural reliability, reduction of maintenance cost and improved readiness for service. The proposed development is fully supported by its industrial counterpart - Thiokol Propulsion. These companies have extensive applications of the structural health monitoring system for their products including solid rocket motors, aircrafts structures, and missiles and will test the developed system on their products during the project.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Peter X. Qing
Acellent Technologies, Inc.
562 Weddell Drive, Suite 4
Sunnyvale , CA   94089 - 2108

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Acellent Technologies, Inc.
562 Weddell Drive, Suite 4
Sunnyvale , CA   94089 - 2108


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.01-9540 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012459 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01139
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cavitation Model for Turbopumps in Liquid Rocket Systems

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An innovative model for simulating cavitation in liquid rocket turbopumps using cryogenic working fluids is proposed. The formulation is based on a compressible gas-liquid framework that accurately models the acoustics in a multi-phase mixture. This methodology was successfully applied, in our Phase I effort, to simulate cavitating inducer performance in water. Our Phase II effort will extend this formulation to cavitation in cryogenic fluids which exhibit, relative to water, far more complex physics; cryogenic pumps operate at temperatures closer to the critical temperature of the working fluid making thermodynamic effects important. The model will account for the variation in the properties of the fluid as a function of the local fluid temperature that may vary due to energy requirements of vaporization/condensation. It will be incorporated within the commercially marketed code CRUNCH CFD that has a multi-element unstructured framework and is ideally suited for complex turbomachine configurations. This framework will be used as a design support tool to analyze inducer designs and in particular determine the suction specific speed at which head breakdown occurs. The limited reliability of current design tools in cavitating flow regimes makes this innovation a useful tool for turbomachine designers.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The software product resulting from our Phase II effort directly addresses core needs of liquid rocket system engineers both in the commercial aerospace industry, as well as NASA. As part of the NASA Space Launch Initiative, there is a current need to design turbomachinery systems that can be throttled over a wide range of off-design conditions. Extensive cavitation under these conditions can detrimentally affect the performance and durability of these systems. Current design procedures largely rely on a combination of one-dimensional analyses and correlations derived from historical design practices. However, these tools have limited reliability in the cavitating flow regime and designers have to be very conservative in defining a safe operational range. Furthermore, commercial CFD tools currently available are not adequate to model the compressibility effects that arise in cryogenic pumping systems. The proposed modeling software CRUNCH CFD addresses these deficiencies and can play a valuable role as a design support tool for refining preliminary designs as well as rectifying problems with existing operational systems. In addition to the liquid rocket industry, this simulation software can also be used in a wide range of the broader commercial market including: 1) Industrial pump market (e.g. boiler feed pumps, nuclear reactor safety pumps, etc). 2) Marine propellers, and 3) Recreational high-speed water crafts such as jet-skis.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ashvin Hosangadi
Combustion Research and Flow Technology,
174 North Main Street, POB 1150
Dublin , PA   18917 - 2108

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology,
174 North Main Street, POB 1150
Dublin , PA   18917 - 2108


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.02-8289 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013710 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02075
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flight Test Development of the X43A-LS Reusable Launch Vehicle

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Accurate Automation Corporation proposes a three-pronged effort to build on the Phase I program to develop technologies in support of the NASA Hyper-X program and the X-43 series of research vehicles (X-43A, X-43B, and X-43C). The data and technologies developed under the proposed Phase II program will also support the development and testing of future hypersonic vehicles and reusable launch vehicles.
The three major technical objectives of the Phase II program are: 1) Development of a robust, fully nonlinear parameter identification method and associated tools for extraction of dynamic models from flight test data, while rigorously accounting for both process (state) and measurement noise. 2) Development of an adaptive guidance and navigation control system for the development of optimal flight trajectories for hypersonic vehicles including reusable launch vehicles. 3) Development of a low-speed flight test database for the X-43 configuration by conducting envelope expansion flight tests to quantify the performance and handling qualities of AAC?s X-43A-LS UAV.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Accurate Automation will use the technologies and data developed during the proposed program to develop an advanced flight control system that can be used for the X-43 program. This package will have numerous alternate applications including use for a new decoy system being developed for the military under the ALVIN Program.
The telemetry system being developed using technologies being developed in this program will be a part of our Aircraft Video Program and will transmit cockpit, cabin and cargo bay imagery to the ground. This product will significantly improve the current ACARS link used by the commercial carriers. Accurate Automation is in negotiation with Federal Express to commercialize this technology. Mr. Jim Phillips of Federal Express has visited AAC twice in the past 3 weeks on this program to talk about a sizeable investment for adding this technology to their fleet.
The Phase I of the X-43ALS development program has successfully resulted in a vehicle configuration which includes a fully integrated turbojet engine, remote control system, in-flight video, flight data acquisition system, and ground control station. The X-43ALS vehicle provides a unique capability as a testbed to support NASA?s development of hypersonic vehicle technologies and designs.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Christopher S. Gibson
Accurate Automation Corporation
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga , TN   37421 - 1716

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Accurate Automation Corporation
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga , TN   37421 - 1716


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.02-8890 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013109 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02020
PROPOSAL TITLE: Magnesium Composites With Corrosion and Wear Resistant Coatings

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The project concerns the development of magnesium composites with advanced anodized coatings for improved corrosion and wear resistance. Coating production and the properties obtained are significant improvements over previous surface treatments for magnesium. In Phase I, over eighty experiments were conducted in the anodization of magnesium alloys and composites. Variables examined through these experiments include: voltage, electrolyte, temperature, magnesium alloy, cathode geometry, and time. Comparison of the coatings was conducted using microscopy, chemical analysis, and corrosion and wear tests. Four magnesium composites were obtained containing two different base alloys and four reinforcement phases (B4C, SiC, Al2O3, and carbon fiber). Anodization of two composites produced excellent coatings. The other two composites were shown to be incompatible with coating methods to resist corrosive environments. These results justify the goals of the project to identify appropriate magnesium composites and make them corrosion and wear resistant and eliminate from contention inappropriate materials. On completion of Phase II, the goals and objectives met will include a database will exist of known and tested anodized magnesium composites. The deliverables include anodized magnesium composite components produced and tested to NASA specifications for use in the reusable launch vehicle program.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Magnesium composites sell to industries who have special weight / wear or weight / strength requirements. Applications for magnesium composites include the automotive, military, aerospace, recreational, and electronic industries. Automotive uses include brake assemblies and pistons. Recreational uses of magnesium composites include tools, boat motors, and bicycle components. Potential government use of magnesium components include aerospace and military applications. Military uses include tank treads, hardware structural components and electronics. Aerospace applications are to be chosen part by part based on weight savings, and desired component physical properties. The P.I. of this project patented a process for anodizing magnesium alloys. The patent was assigned to a joint venture company which has gone on to license the technology in thirteen countries. The P.I. was part of the marketing and sales team that developed the patented process into a commercially viable process. The U.S. licensee of the previous patent is anticipated to be the conduit for further U.S. development and negotiations towards that end are underway.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Thomas Barton
Eltron Research Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder , CO   80301 - 3241

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Eltron Research Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder , CO   80301 - 3241


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.02-9147 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012852 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02034
PROPOSAL TITLE: Field Joining of Ceramic Matrix Composites

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Silicon carbide fiber and carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites are being considered for reusable launch vehicle airframe components. Because the furnaces needed to make components are expensive, and furnaces of the size needed to make airframe components simply do not exist, we need a way to join these composites together to make complex and large shapes. TDA proposes to address this problem by using welding equipment to join C/SiC and SiC/SiC composites. In Phase I, we demonstrated the ability to join these composites by producing a reaction-bonded silicon carbide in joints with commercial Gas Transferred Arc Welders at rates of 5 seconds/inch with strengths greater than the parts to be joined. In Phase II, we will optimize this welding/brazing process to produce prototypes including a 10 inch x 10 inch C/SiC joined composite. We will also produce a 1 inch x 6 inch C/SiC composite joined with a silicon alloy to produce a higher temperature capability joint. In addition to aerospace structures these technology will be commercialized in current markets for monolithic silicon carbide.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This project will develop a method for joining and repairing C/SiC and SiC/SiC composites and monolithic silicon carbide in the manner of advanced metal alloys. This project will allow large and/or complex shapes to be joined to produce reusable launch vehicle airframe components. In addition, it will lower the cost of producing current commercial items such as advanced turbine engines, radiant tube heaters, heat exchangers, armor, erosion and corrosion components.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mr. Jack D. Sibold
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.03-8392 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013607 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01141
PROPOSAL TITLE: Direct Metal Technology for Additive Manufacturing and Rapid Prototyping

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solidica is proposing a filament based rapid prototyping machine for the production of net shape metal and functional gradient components. Net shape fully dense metallic parts have been the holy grail of rapid prototyping since its inception. Solidica, Inc. has patented an innovative ultrasonic approach for rapid prototyping of net shape metallic parts using a ribbon feedstock. By combining the use of ultrasonics for layer-by-layer material build up of metallic ribbons with a simple machining head Solidica achieves net shape fully dense metallic components in a fraction of the time and at a lower cost than traditional machining or casting. Extending this proprietary technology to use filament based feedstock rather than ribbon, will enable a complexity of geometry that is currently only achievable for fully dense metal components through investment casting. This innovation has enormous cost saving advantages for production of both complex metallic and bimetallic functional gradient test hardware. There is currently no technology that is readily capable of forming functionally gradient structures for complex geometric shapes.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The Phase II filament based RP machine proposed here is essentially an alpha version of a next generation product for Solidica, and described in our business plan. The rapid prototyping machine market is about $300M per year, and up to 50% of all applications for these machines have metal end items, meaning that some 50% of all purchasers are potential buyers of this product. Solidica's goal is to commercialize this Phase II system by 2003, and bring it to market in 2004. We have developed an launched a larger scale tooling oriented RP/RT product, and this is a technically feasible evolution with an important market potential.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dawn White
Solidica
3941 Research Park Drive, Suite C
Ann Arbor , MI   48108 - 2219

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Solidica
3941 Research Park Drive, Suite C
Ann Arbor , MI   48108 - 2219


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.03-8601 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013398 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01142
PROPOSAL TITLE: Economical Fabrication of Thick-Section Ceramic Matrix Composites, Phase II

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
No timely and cost-effective methods now exist for fabrication of thick-section (>=2"), continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Application of such CMCs can enhance the efficiency and performance, reduce the weight, improve the durability, and lower the cost of aerospace propulsion systems, particularly those used in high temperature, high-stress environments. Achieving these benefits requires development of matrix infiltration techniques capable of efficiently producing thick parts. The quality of such parts will also depend on implementation of improved fiber/matrix interfaces and interface deposition techniques. Carbon fibers are of particular interest as CMC reinforcements because they are relatively inexpensive, have higher strength and stiffness and lower density than oxide or non-oxide ceramic fibers, and retain their mechanical properties at very high temperatures. The main drawback of carbon fibers is their low oxidation resistance, which has prevented their extensive use in high temperature oxidizing environments. Oxide interfaces can potentially impart sufficient protection, as well as provide other essential interface functions related to load transfer between fibers. In Phase I, Ultramet demonstrated a unique and innovative process for depositing oxide interfaces, specifically ultraviolet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (UVCVD), throughout thick fiber preforms. Ultramet also successfully achieved rapid infiltration of carbide matrices into thick-section (1") fiber preforms, up to 98% dense, using an innovative melt infiltration process and obtained initial mechanical properties and oxidation performance of the resultant composites. In Phase II, Ultramet will optimize material selection and processing parameters to produce low-porosity carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC) thick-section CMCs having optimal strength, stiffness, and oxidation performance, and scale up the processing to fabricate components up to 14" diameter x 2.5" thick.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Cost-effective, rapid fabrication of thick-section ceramic matrix composites will potentially benefit a number of component applications. Within this project, aerospace applications are of particular interest. A broad range of aerospace components would benefit from an economical thick-section C/SiC composite offering a long lifetime in a high temperature oxidizing environment while under load. Specific applications include high temperature engine panels (e.g. those needed for hypersonic propulsion hot gas flow paths), combustors, inlet nozzles (stators), turbine disks, process industry parts requiring high temperature capability and corrosive environment resistance for extended periods (e.g. hot gas and liquid handling equipment), furnace structures, and high temperature filter elements. Successful generic demonstration and database development of the proposed technology could support any of these applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Jason R. Babcock, Ph.D.
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima , CA   91331 - 2210

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima , CA   91331 - 2210


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.03-9756 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012243 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01146
PROPOSAL TITLE: Better Pressure Vessel Impact Resistance Utilizing Filament Wound Hybrid Fibers.

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
HyPerComp Engineering, Inc. proposes to develop filament wound composite pressure vessels with superior low and high velocity impact resistance as well as improved high temperature (fire) survivability.

The current generation of high performance filament wound composite pressure vessels as utilized in solid propellant propulsion, space craft energy storage systems, launch tubes, self contained breathing apparatus, and other demanding applications utilize carbon fibers in order to obtain a high performance to weight ratio. While the impressively high tensile strength of these fibers provides for light weight pressure vessels, the resulting thin wall thickness combined with carbon fiber?s sensitivity to ?bruising? can result in significant risk of impact damage. Even relatively light and difficult to detect impacts can potentially degrade the capability of these pressure vessels.

HyPerComp Engineering has recently completed a Phase I SBIR through NASA, MSFC demonstrating significant improvement in impact resistance in high performance pressure vessels (NAS8?01146). The effort proposed herein builds upon that knowledge, expands it into higher energy levels, and incorporates heat resistant materials currently under evaluation at NASA, MSFC to develop a ?next generation? filament wound pressure vessel with significant improvements in both high and low velocity impact capability as well as improved fire resistance

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Both military and aerospace pressure vessel applications where high performance and mission reliability are required are natural targets for the technology proposed for development herein. Similarly the commercial pressure vessel industry, while not requiring quite as high of performance, is always keenly aware of any technology that might make the product safer. These seemingly separate but demanding industries are always searching for improvements in performance and safety with regard to pressure vessels. The demonstrated technology has the potential of taking both attributes to a new level.

In the aerospace market composite pressure vessels are relied upon for both performance (low weight) and reliability. The thin walled nature of these high performance pressure vessels make them susceptible to impact damage, often undetectable impact damage. An improvement in damage tolerance with little to no performance sacrifice is of significant worth and should be readily marketable either through the sale of specific hardware or the licensing of specific technology.

Likewise there are many commercial applications where pressure vessels are used in demanding applications. An improved, significantly lighter yet extremely rugged SCBA cylinder would be viewed as a significant improvement in safety and would find a significant market niche for demanding applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
James Patterson
HyPerComp Engineering, Inc.
1080 North Main Suite #2
Brigham City , UT   84302 - 1470

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
HyPerComp Engineering, Inc.
1080 North Main Suite #2
Brigham City , UT   84302 - 1470


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.04-9065 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012934 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS13-02002
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-disciplinary Multiphase Flow Analyzer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Simulation methodologies which describe complex, Multiphase, flow phenomena including cavitation, cryogenic fluid management, coolant spray and impinging jets will be developed. Accurately described real fluid properties will be employed in an integrated simulation tool, that involves thermodynamics and fluid dynamics models, to describe local vaporization phenomena in liquid rocket engine propellant delivery systems, propellant tanks and the test facilities. Bubbly flows will be simulated with a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture model, which emphasizes the computational efficiency and modeling effectiveness. Cavitating venturi meter and pump flows, cryogenic propellant tank filling processes and evaporating cooling jets can be analyzed with this methodology. More accurate propellant metering, oscillatory inlet flow characterization and accurate description of the thermodynamics environment of cryogenic fluid systems will be the result of this project. Other complex flows in propellant delivery systems or coolant flows in test facilities will also be amenable to analysis with the produced methodology.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Advanced propulsion systems of the reusable launch vehicle designs require heavy testing in the liquid propellant supply systems. Cryogenic propellants are usually stored near the saturation conditions. This means that system optimization would involve a lot of analyses trying to identify the possible onset of cavitation anywhere in the supply systems. Also, analysis to predict the phase change due to thermal flushing is also important in cryogenic fluid management. This requirement is shared across the Government agencies and the private industry, which organizations are involved in aerospace research and development.
Cross industry application may also include marine propulsion designs for cavitation diagnostics, water pumps design, valve operation design in industrial liquid flow circuits and artificial heart design, etc. The fundamental multiphase flow physics involved in these applications are similar to what are proposed in this research. There may be some application specific variations in fluid properties that required further tailoring to have good representation of the type of flow under investigation. With these resolved in the Phase II and Phase III research, the present multiphase flow analyzer will become widely accepted in the industry.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Yen-Sen Chen
Engineering Sciences, Inc.
1900 Golf Road, Suite D
Huntsville , AL   35802 - 4319

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Engineering Sciences, Inc.
1900 Golf Road, Suite D
Huntsville , AL   35802 - 4319


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.04-9367 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012632 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS13-02004
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent Wireless Sensor Communication for Health Monitoring

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The key innovation of this proposal is the design of a low-cost high data rate wireless sensor network for rocket engine test facilities. Time Modulated Ultra-wideband (TM-UWB) technology is the key to implementing this wireless sensor network. To the best of our knowledge, no other wireless technology can achieve the high data rate and high channel capacity required for rocket engine testing. During Phase I, we have demonstrated the feasibility of our concept. In Phase II, we will further develop the complete architecture and develop a prototype wireless sensor network to evaluate the system performance and fields demonstrate its capability. The proposed wireless sensor network consists of a network controller and many smart sensor nodes. Each smart sensor node is equipped with a TM-UWB transmitter, a narrow band receiver, and a multiplexed data acquisition system. The UWB transmitter is used to transmit the digitized sensor data to the network controller at a data rate of at least 1.25Mbps. The narrow band receiver is used to receive control and configuration commands from the network controller, which will be very infrequent and can be very low data rate. We believe this is the most cost effective architecture for Phase II.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
For current rocket engine testing, a long wire needs to be connected from each sensor on the test stand to the signal-conditioning center. Furthermore, the sensor configurations always need to be changed for testing different rocket engines. These wiring and configuration changes represent significant cost and time for the test. With the proposed TM-UWB wireless sensor networks, this cost and the preparation time can be greatly reduced. This cost and time saving will attract government agencies, including NASA and US Air Force, to use this wireless sensor network for their engine testing facilities. None of the existing wireless technologies can provide high data rate and high channel capacity required in rocket test facilities, which often involves hundreds of sensors. TM-UWB also offers other advantages over other wireless technologies, such as spectral efficiency, coexistence with other RF devices without causing interference, and multipath Immunity. Beyond engine testing, this wireless sensor network can be for any equipment health monitoring and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, especially for large manufacturing facilities. The fact that TDC raised $100 million of private funds for this development proves that there are many investors who believe this concept will yield valuable products.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Chujen Lin
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville , MD   20855 - 2785

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville , MD   20855 - 2785


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A6.01-8259 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013740 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01206
PROPOSAL TITLE: Composite Grids for Ion Thruster

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The grid stack used on ion engines is a critical component influencing engine performance and weight. The grids currently used on ion thrusters and in laboratory ion sources use costly machined pyrocarbon grids with thick ceramic mounting posts and they require assembly of several parts.

This project investigates novel carbon grid materials and sandwich construction using insulating core materials that resist shorting caused by sputtered contaminates. The benefits of this grid concept are: precision shape, vibration resistance, light weight, fewer grid components required, scalability to small and large grid diameters (including high power ion engines for nuclear electric propulsion), and low cost.

Phase 1 demonstrated feasibility of fabricating small sandwich grids with suitable precision and voltage standoff. Phase 2 shall futher develop materials and processing, and fabricate full-scale sandwich grids for use in NASA Ion Engines.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Low cost carbon grids have commerical application in Ion Sources and Ion Engines. The sandwich grids architecture offers special benefits to Ion Thrusters for in space propulsion, including high power nuclear electric propulsion. The methods developed may be useful for other electron sources in microwave tubes, lasers, accelerators, and electronics display technology.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Y Robert Yamaki
Energy Science Laboratories, Inc.
6888 Nancy Ridge Dr.
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2232

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Energy Science Laboratories, Inc.
6888 Nancy Ridge Dr.
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2232


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A6.01-8910 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013089 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01181
PROPOSAL TITLE: FLIGHT WEIGHT MAGNETS USING CARBON NANOTUBES

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The motivation for the Phase I effort to use carbon nanotubes for application to magnets in space was based on published reports that their current carrying capacity was 10,000 times that of other superconductors and that their mechanical strength was 100 times that of steel on a mass basis. In phase I, we investigated the properties of this amazing new material and concluded the original premise was substantially correct, although some details remain to be investigated and a whole new suite of tools and machinery are required. In Phase II, we are proposing to advance this technology to the point of winding a nanotube magnet coil, testing it and delivering it to NASA/MSFC. The main thrusts of the program include some more definitive measurements of superconducting properties as a function of temperature, magnetic field and mechanical strain. In parallel efforts, tools will be developed to wind the carbon nanotube coils, attach electrical leads to them and test their performance. We will update the conceptual design for a NASA magnet for an MHD disk generator using carbon nanotube conductors and perform sufficient economic analyses to determine the economic feasibility of this application of carbon nanotubes.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The most immediate commercial applications of this technology are for magnets that are deployed on space vehicles and aircraft for power and propulsion. A dramatic reduction in weight is possible as a result of the high current density. This potential, factored into a power or propulsion system weight that is mostly from the magnet with existing technology, has the result of dramatic increases in performance per unit system weight. In addition there are potential fruitful applications to magnetic nozzles, both the generator and accelerator in the AJAX type propulsion system, flow modification systems for hypersonic aircraft and magnetic confinement of fusion reactions. These applications, particularly in space can justify a premium price because of the cost of launching mass into space. If the technology is developed at a price competitive with other superconductors, there is a huge market in earth based electrical equipment such as large electric motors and generators, transformers, power transmission lines, ground fault isolators, magnetic field gradient particle separators, magnets for MRI machines and all the other markets identified for high temperature superconductors identified in the U. S. DOE market penetration studies.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
James N. Chapman
LYTEC LLC
1940 ELK RIVER DAM ROAD, P.O. BOX 1581
TULLAHOMA , TN   37388 - 1581

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
LYTEC LLC
1940 ELK RIVER DAM ROAD, P.O. BOX 1581
TULLAHOMA , TN   37388 - 1581


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A6.01-8948 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013051 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01148
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrahigh Energy Propulsion By Pulsed Magnetic Field Compression of Fissile Plas

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new fission powered space power and propulsion system based on using a non-moving fissile gas is proposed. The main innovation in the proposed fission based propulsion system is the use of well-established fusion plasma confinement and compression methods to achieve a supercritical condition in a highly subcritical fissile gas. In particular, electromagnetic induced shock wave compaction and gas dynamic trap techniques are merged to bring a relatively small volume (~ 1 m3) of a fissile (235U, 233U, or 239Pu) compound gas (such as UF4) to prompt supercriticality condition, thereby, releasing an intense pulse of fission power. A magnetic field compaction scheme is designed to directly convert the fission energy to electricity. The specific energy of the proposed nuclear electric system for megawatt level power operation is well above 1 kWe/kg. An alternative direct propulsion system is designed based on using a merger between Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) and hydrodynamic confinement techniques to achieve long duration (~ 100 to 1000 ms) criticality and ultrahigh burnup in a fissile gas. The MTF technique induces a large pressure ratio (~ 10) adiabatic compaction of fissile gas by rapid collapsing of a cylindrical layer of a low neutron absorbing metal (Al or Zr). Hydrodynamic confinement in a leaky reversed mirror configuration is used to contain and direct the fission plasma through a nozzle, thereby, generating intense thrust (~ 100s of klb) at specific impulse levels in excess of 2000 seconds.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
A shock wave driven fission power system utilizes fissile materials in highly subcritical configuration. The low nuclear material inventory combined with the active nature of the criticality inducing process is a unique feature of the proposed space nuclear power and propulsion system. The exceptional simplicity and safety of the proposed concept provides an unlimited potential for a wide range of space power and propulsion applications. Furthermore, the success of the proposed project will potentially lead to terrestrial applications including commercial nuclear power generation at a very competitive cost with improved safety features.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Angelo Ferrari
New Era Technology Inc.
2435 NW 36 Terrace
Gainesville , FL   32605 - 2633

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
New Era Technology Inc.
2435 NW 36 Terrace
Gainesville , FL   32605 - 2633


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A6.02-9259 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012740 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01152
PROPOSAL TITLE: Time-stepped & discrete-event simulations of electromagnetic propulsion systems

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The existing plasma codes are ill suited for modeling of mixed resolution problems, such as the plasma sail, where the system under study comprises subsystems with diverse modeling paradigms (e.g., fluid, kinetic) at differing levels of temporal and spatial resolution. Such complex systems are not unique to propulsion studies, but are commonly encountered in wide variety of fields. In Phase I, we were able to develop and successfully test the core technology for multi-resolution modeling within two distinct computational paradigms. By introducing a temporal mesh, we successfully overcame a major obstacle in the use of time-stepped simulations for multi-resolution problems. However, even more significant is our finding that discrete event simulation methodology works quite well for many-body systems such as plasmas with several orders of magnitude performance advantage over equivalent time-stepped simulations. The importance of this result cannot be overstated as it will have immediate repercussions in all fields where time-stepped modeling are currently used. Using these early versions of our code, we were able to address a number of outstanding issues in regards to the feasibility of plasma sails. Our objectives for Phase II are (i) to fully develop the codes, (ii) address the issues regarding the feasibility of plasma sails such as expansion of the magnetic bubble by the plasma source and the resulting drop-off of the magnetic field strength with radial distance, and (iii) prepare plans for marketing our technology in Phase III.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The successful completion of the proposed R&D will bring into existence a new generation of simulation codes that would position SciberNet as the premier provider of plasma simulation services to customers in the Federal Government and the private sector such as the aerospace and electronics industries. The discrete event simulation code (DES) presents a break through technology and will be applicable to most fields that are currently using time-stepped simulations. To this end, we plan to design our 3D DES code based on a general architecture so that it can be readily adapted to other applications such as gravitational or fluid simulations, among others. One of our objectives in Phase II is to conduct market analysis to identify the most suitable market nitche beyond propulsion and plasma simulations that we can pursue in Phase III. The development of the DES code has also led us to a new concept in interactive simulation and visualization with high commercial potential. Although a significant fraction of our revenue is projected to be from a service model, we have already had discussions with several vendors (e.g., Analytical Graphics) about the possibility of developing modules, based on simplified versions of our codes that can be integrated into existing commercial software.
In that regard, our business model will be similar to a number of companies that offer specialized commercial modeling tools such as OPNET, SES, and WorkBench.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Homa Karimabadi
SciberNet, Inc.
13270 Russett Leaf Lane
San Diego , CA   92129 - 2369

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
SciberNet, Inc.
13270 Russett Leaf Lane
San Diego , CA   92129 - 2369


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A6.02-9453 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012546 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01153
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Solid Expellant Plasma Source/Contactor for Electrodynamic Tethers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Solid Expellant Plasma Source/Contactor (SOLEX) is a new technological development that considerably simplifies the plasma generation and electron emission process. Under the Phase-1 effort, the preliminary work to demonstrate the feasibility of the SOLEX concept was accomplished. The intent of the proposed Phase-II effort is to develop a flight-level design for a SOLEX plasma generator, for electrodynamic tether systems, and fabricate an Engineering Unit test device that is appropriate for flight validation. The SOLEX will operate directly off of the tether-generated high-voltage (requiring no conditioned power or control electronics) and will eliminate the need for high-pressure gas containers, pressure regulators, plumbing and valves?required by present state-of-the-art Hollow Cathode devices. These are significant improvements over current state-of-the-art contactors that impinge heavily on spacecraft resources. Based on available flight data and Phase-I tests, current capacity can range from a few milli-amps to several amps. By nature of its design, the SOLEX should not be sensitive to contamination and should have essentially unlimited restart capability?both are issues with state-of-the-art contactors. Moreover, the simplicity of the design concept suggests that flight devices will be relatively inexpensive.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The SOLEX should be an attractive alternative to present plasma generation devices because of its simplicity, robustness, efficiency, and predicted low-cost. Potential space technology applications include (1) plasma contactors for electrodynamic space tethers, (2) plasma sources for plasma sails, and (3) electrical neutralization of high-altitude (e.g., synchronous orbit) spacecraft. A low-mass device, such as the SOLEX, is required to enable the practical application of electrodynamic tether propulsion devices to the end-of-life deorbit of satellites where system mass, simplicity and robustness are critical concerns. As space debris becomes a growing concern to NASA and the DOD, this application will become increasingly important. Potential ground-based applications include plasma sources for sputter deposition systems used in the semiconductor industry.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Nobie H. Stone
SRS Technologies
500 Discovery Drive
Huntsville , AL   35806 - 9999

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
SRS Technologies
500 Discovery Drive
Huntsville , AL   35806 - 9999


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A7.01-9688 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012311 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02013
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flow Driven Oscillating Vortex Generators for Control of Boundary Layer Dynamics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Active boundary layer control is effective in controlling boundary layer dynamics, but imposes a penalty because of the power and hardware required. In Phase I a family of self-excited Flow Driven Oscillating Vortex Generators (FDOVGs), which oscillate at frequencies where the induced vortical flows have length scales that are of the order of the scale of the aerodynamic surface, and therefore are useful to control boundary layer dyamics, have been demonstrated. The FDOVGs receive power from the mean flow to operate and generate large amplitude oscillations. Deployment can be achieved with no external power by using a flow change to activate the FDOVG, or with external power by changing the geometry or stiffness of the FDOVG.
The Phase II effort will provide the aerodynamicist with a new flow control actuator that can be integrated into aerodynamic components. Micro- as well as macro-scale devices with applications on micro air vehicles, unmanned vehicles, jetliners, and over the road vehicles such as tractor-trailer trucks can be developed. The FDOVG is a simple, inexpensive, reliable, and potentially single-part solution to providing effective flow control without significant penalty for a large variety of difficult applications.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The FDOVG system represents an innovative family of flow control devices
that could yield revolutionary increases in performance of air and sea
vehicles. For example, FDOVGs have the potential to reduce landing speeds
on general aviation aircraft, thereby enhancing safety and utility.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Alan J. Bilanin
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing , NJ   08618 - 2302

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing , NJ   08618 - 2302


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A7.02-9869 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012130 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS4-02007
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solution based 3-D Mesh adaptation for Heat and Mass predictions

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposal, a solution-based three-dimensional mesh adaptation procedure is described. The algorithm utilized in our code can very effectively refine the mesh in regions of interest by moving nodes in regions of unchanging flow field for accurate prediction of steady and unsteady pressure and thermal load distributions. Our flow solver interacts with most popular commercial CAD packages through the CGNS interface and currently interfaces with OPTIMESH/MOM3D through a user friendly GUI provided with ICEM CFD mesh generator package.
Benchmarks have been performed; among them is the moving-lid (lid-driven) cavity problem. This problem is a well-known standard to test CFD codes. The results of these benchmarks have been excellent.
Further correlation and more stringent benchmarking will continue as part of the Phase II efforts. Enhancement of the code is required to accept additional mesh element types, for unsteady flows, inclusion of species, reaction and other scalar functions.
Our objective for Phase II is to develop a product involving both the CFD solver and the grid adaptation module within a single package.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial applications of this package are varied and many since the adaptation procedure may practically be applied to almost any field or industry such as structures, acoustics, earthquake simulation, magnetic fields and so on. This is because the code accepts any parameter as a vector or scalar quantity and performs adaptation based on the error estimates obtained from the initial solution and variation of these variables.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Bahman Hadi
Cascade Engineering Services, Inc.
2515 140th Ave N.E, Suite E100,
Bellevue , WA   98005 - 1885

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Cascade Engineering Services, Inc.
2515 140th Ave N.E, Suite E100,
Bellevue , WA   98005 - 1885


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A7.02-9910 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012089 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS4-02008
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adjoint-Based Design Software Using Adaptive Finite Element Methods

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)

ResearchSouth has developed a powerful design optimization algorithm using an adjoint-based methodology for advanced aerospace vehicles including the airframe aerodynamic shape and the integrated propulsion system. The significance is that this algorithm separates the geometric entities from the optimization process allowing an independent linkage with many CAD packages and at much lower cost. All objectives have been met for the Phase I project. A computer software package, termed SAMdesign, now has the capability to solve the three-dimensional Euler equations, solve the adjoint of the Euler equations, and change the vehicle shape subject to constraints. All of these solutions are performed on unstructured tetrahedral meshes using a Finite Element based numerical algorithm. Four test cases have been successfully computed including a generic aerospace vehicle. Phase II will include multi-disciplinary effects, coupled physics for aerodynamics / propulsion / structures, fast finite element meshing methods, and will develop the software into a production package. Extensive verification and validation will be done on NASA configurations. The product will be documented, delivered and installed at NASA with a user-training course given. This will provide NASA with a powerful software tool to perform very efficient and rapid design assessment of evolving next generation space vehicles.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS

The following are some of the many commercial applications for the adjoint-based finite element design software. (1) design of automobile airbags (2) design of viscous mixing processes for chemical manufacturing companies, (3) design of more efficient internal combustion engines, (4) commercial airplane design for improved fuel economy (5) analysis and design of waste disposal systems, (7) design of air conditioning systems for large buildings, (8) housing design to withstand tornadoes, (9) biomedical application for design of cardiovascular devices, and (10) office building design for protection from terrorists activities.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lawrence W. Spradley
ResearchSouth, Inc.
555 Sparkman Dr. Suite 1612
Huntsville , AL   35816 - 0000

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
ResearchSouth, Inc.
555 Sparkman Dr. Suite 1612
Huntsville , AL   35816 - 0000


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A7.03-8825 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013174 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS4-02010
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Non-Intrusive Radar Sensor for Engine Vibration Monitoring

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radatec has demonstrated that a radar/microwave sensor can be used to measure the dynamics of turbine fan blades. The sensor was designed for function in harsh environments (+2500 F) of the combustor section. An alpha prototype was built and data were collected on a turbine simulator. The proposed Phase II project seeks to take this technology to the next step- a commercial product running on actual turbine engines providing new and useful information to turbine operators.

In Phase II, technical goals are to optimize the sensor antenna, construct a 35.0 GHz radar subsystem, and built an antenna fitting that will mount the sensor to a turbine engine through existing holes in gas turbines. Finally, a hardened beta prototype sensor will be built and tested on a General Electric F404 turbofan engine. The end result of Phase II will be a tested beta prototype that Radatec will market to industrial and government users.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
There is a strong unsatisfied need in the marketplace for robust, high bandwidth sensors that can gather data directly from the combustor section of a turbine engine. Existing engine health monitoring systems do not provide useful measurements of engine health, because they cannot pinpoint causes of damage- and often provide warnings of damage late. This technology offers a compelling value proposition to operators by allowing them to safely increase there scheduled maintenance interval, thereby reducing cost and downtime.

Land-based power producing gas turbine engines and aircraft engines are both being targeted as the first markets for the sensor. The market for land-based turbines is estimated at $56-100 million per year with the aircraft market estimated at an addition $75-$150 million per year. Land-based turbines will be the point of entry into the market due to their lower reliability, and more immediate impact on an electric utility?s bottom line. As active blade tip clearance aircraft engines become more prevalent, the Radatec sensor has the potential to improve cruising fuel efficiency by 1-2%.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Scott Billington
Radatec, LLC
430 10th Street, Suite N-104C
Atlanta , GA   30318 - 5798

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Radatec, LLC
430 10th St. NW, Suite N-104C
Atlanta , GA   30318 - 5798


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A7.03-8908 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013091 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS4-02011
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rayleigh/Mie Lidar for Non-intrusive Measurement of Aircraft Air Data Parameters

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop an Optical Air Data System (OADS) to measure air vehicle airspeed, Mach number, atmospheric pressure, atmospheric temperature, angles of attack and sideslip, and air density using a non-intrusive technique termed Rayleigh/Mie lidar. Currently, these parameters are measured using numerous sensors that cannot perform adequately for high-performance/high-speed aircraft. Recent research into OADS has focused on coherent Mie (aerosol) lidar, which fail in many flight regimes due to insufficient aerosol scattering. Moreover, Mie lidar cannot measure temperature or pressure. Rayleigh (molecular) lidar overcomes these shortcomings by scattering from the air itself to provide velocity, temperature and pressure. Rayleigh/Mie lidar has the additional benefit of providing improved velocity measurements when sufficient aerosols exist. Thus, OPHIR's Rayleigh/Mie OADS offers performance, weight and cost savings advantages not provided by any other commercially available or developing technology.

The Phase I research effort has been very successful. All objectives were met and all tasks successfully completed. This research has proven the feasibility of a Rayleigh/Mie lidar OADS.

Phase II will include the development of a flyable prototype. The Boeing Company will provide flight-testing, and Goodrich Aerospace will perform wind tunnel testing, at no cost to the Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This technology offers significant commercial potential for flight test operations, military aircraft and commercial aircraft. As an indication of this commercial potential, we have been very successful in gaining support from major airframe and air data system manufacturers. OPHIR's Rayleigh/Mie approach has gained the support of The Boeing Company Flight Test Group (providing flight testing at no cost to the Phase II effort), Goodrich Aerospace (providing testing and evaluation support at no cost to the Phase II effort) and the European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company- EADS(Airbus).

Thus, the world's two largest airframe manufacturers, Boeing and EADS(Airbus) and one of the largest manufacturers of air data systems, have all expressed interest and support for this research. The Phase II research will include cooperative demonstrations of this critical technology to these Industry leaders. This is a significant step toward Phase III commercialization.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Loren D. Nelson
OPHIR Corporation
10184 West Belleview Avenue, Suite 200
Littleton , CO   80127 - 1762

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
OPHIR Corporation
10184 West Belleview Avenue, Suite 200
Littleton , CO   80127 - 1762


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A8.01-8418 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013581 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02002
PROPOSAL TITLE: BOUNDARY LAYER PUMPED PROPULSION

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Propulsion Inc. proposes a Revolutionary Concept (RevCon) integrated aircraft and propulsion system that provides aircraft drag reduction and propulsion system efficiency increase, thereby improving aircraft fuel efficiency by as much as a factor of two. The key feature is the ducting of a high fraction of the aircraft total boundary layer from distributed airframe inlets to turbofan engine(s) in the rear of the fuselage. This fully integrated, boundary layer pumping engine(s) will provide the sole propulsive thrust for the aircraft. API?s intent is twofold: First, to design the wing and fuselage configurations and boundary layer ingestion features for a very high fraction of laminar flow and greatly reduced parasitic drag. Second, to match the mass flow of the ingested boundary layer, the turbofan engine(s) and the aircraft cruise thrust requirement at the cruise design point to yield an extremely high level of propulsive efficiency.

With reduced fuel loads, aircraft can be smaller, and less costly. With less drag and greater efficiency, aircraft can have higher performance. This integrated aircraft/propulsion technology is applicable to all types and sizes of subsonic airplanes.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
7. POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 200 WORDS):

API envisions a global general aviation and transport category airplane market for its revolutionary airplane design. Special sector airplanes are also feasible because the new economy era demands long-range personal transport that can fly an un-refuelled mission range of 8,000 nautical miles with reserves allows global coverage from the United States. The world air cargo market is also expanding at a greater rate than the passenger market and represents and has needs for long range capability that offers time savings.


NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Gerald Merrill
Advanced Propulsion Inc.
254 West Baseline Road, Suite 104
Tempe , AZ   85282 - 1263

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Advanced Propulsion Inc.
254 West Baseline Road, Suite 104
Tempe , AZ   85282 - 1263


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A8.02-8450 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013549 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02013
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Turn-Down Ratio, Low Emissions Combustor for Gas Turbine Engines

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal describes an innovative, high-efficiency, compact
combustor for lean-premixed, low-emissions gas turbine systems and
responds directly to NASA's request for "Innovative technologies
relating to combustion processes, including fuel injectors, piloting,
flameholding techniques for increased and performance and decreased
emissions" under SBIR topic A8.02. The concept is based on previously
demonstrated means for creating high mixing rate regions using multiple
discrete axial vortices in the flow. This injector-mixer-flameholder
shows promise for emissions reduction by ensuring rapid and complete,
well controlled mixing. Another goal is an axial-vorticity fuel
injection, mixing, and flame stabilization design that passively
controls combustion instability and flashback by making the combustion
region insensitive to axial flow oscillations. During previous work APRI
has demonstrated the ability to stabilize flames in a geometry designed
to provide open three-dimensional separations. In the Phase I effort the
ability to control mixing rates in geometry directly suitable to gas
turbine combustors was demonstrated. Conceptual designs for combustors
based on this technology are presented. The Phase II effort will take
advantage of the axial vorticity mixers and flame stabilizers to
complete the design and test of a lean-premixed
fuel-injector/flame-holder for gas turbine systems.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The axial-vorticity fuel-injector/flame-holder system described in this
proposal is applicable to a wide variety of combustion systems. Aircraft
gas turbines, industrial gas turbines, gaseous waste incinerators, and
other industrial burners can benefit from the high mixing rate and flame
stability characteristics of this design.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Thomas H. Sobota, Ph.D.
Advanced Projects Research, Inc.
1925 McKinley Avenue, Suite B
La Verne , CA   91750 - 5800

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Advanced Projects Research, Inc.
1925 McKinley Avenue, Suite B
La Verne , CA   91750 - 5800


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A8.02-8881 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013118 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02015
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Ejector Pump Flow Control for Low-Pressure Turbine

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The operation of the low-pressure turbine at cruise conditions produces a Reynolds number significantly below takeoff conditions leading to laminar separation over the blades; consequently, the efficiency of the LP turbine at cruise is significantly below that at takeoff for both military and commercial engines. In the Phase I SBIR Techsburg demonstrated the capability of an innovative flow control technique designed to improve the LP turbine performance leading to a reduction in costs. Flow control was achieved with ejector pumps machined into the blade surface to provide a simple and efficient way of producing blowing and suction. High-pressure supply air from the compressor is injected into the flow as a high momentum jet providing a boundary layer that is resistant to separation, while low momentum fluid in the boundary layer is removed with suction upstream and combined with the supply air to enhance the jet. CFD and experimental data predicted a 72% increase in loss coefficient for a single blade row. Techsburg is proposing a comprehensive Phase II project to perform an in-depth computational optimization, detailed low-speed testing and high-speed cascade testing. The computational effort will focus on optimizing the flow control variables and blade shape for an LP turbine blade to eliminate separation and design a more highly loaded blade. The low-speed testing will validate the CFD work on the most promising blade candidates and subsonic cascade tests at engine Mach conditions will be performed to verify the results in a more realistic test environment.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed flow control system has significant potential for both military and commercial applications. In addition to its originally intended application as a technique for increasing efficiency by eliminating separation, ejector pump flow control in the low-pressure turbine may have other potential uses including enabling the design of more highly loaded blades leading to reduced part count and fewer stages. This flow control demonstrates a unique competitive advantage in several arenas, designed to meet the specific needs of the current commercial market. Low-pressure turbine research, particularly in the US is severely under funded, yet is critical to reducing operating costs in large commercial engines. The goal of this technology is twofold: increasing LP turbine efficiency at cruise and decreasing weight. A study done at NASA GRC showed that for large transport engines, improving the efficiency and reducing the weight of the LP turbine has the greatest impact on overall improvement in both direct operating costs (DOC+I) and specific fuel consumption (SFC) of the engine. The performance degradation from take-off to cruise of such an engine is on the order of 2%. By reducing separation to regain these two points, the decrease in SFC and operating costs would be very significant to the commercial gas turbine industry.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Sarah Stitzel
Technology in Blacksburg, Inc.
2901 Prosperity Road
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 3636

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Technology in Blacksburg, Inc.
2901 Prosperity Road
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 3636


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.07-8465 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013534 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02027
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide-Bandgap CIAS Photovoltaic Absorber on Flexible Substrates

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thin-film photovoltaic cells offer the promise of high specific power arrays for space applications. Two thin-film photovoltaics technologies are presently vying for use in space applications; copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS), and amorphous silicon. This proposal focuses on efficiency improvements to the CIS-alloy technologies by the continued development of a third possibility, copper-indium-aluminum-diselenide (CIAS). This wide-bandgap thin-film technology will be deposited by co-evaporation at low substrate temperatures on sub-bandgap light transparent back contacts and lightweight, flexible and sub-bandgap light transparent polyimide substrates. To achieve the optimum bandgap of about 1.45 eV for the space solar spectrum, less than half the amount of aluminum (Al) is needed in CIAS, then gallium (Ga) in CIGS. Thus, using Al may avoid a concentration limit (bandgap limit) similar to the amount of Ga in CIGS for the degradation of material electrical quality due to Ga-Ga defect complexes. Other advantages of the proposed technology include: higher-efficiency modules due to lower resistive and distributed diode losses; higher-efficiency modules at higher operating temperatures due to more favorable temperature coefficients of cell parameters and complete IR transmission; potential for backside array visible light collection, and high end-of-life-efficiency modules due to inherent charged particle radiation resistance of CIS based alloys.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Higher specific power space arrays allow more mission capability by reducing the weight of the space array and thereby allowing more satellite functionality or higher power arrays for additional satellite capability. Due to the large increase of specific power available with thin-film technologies on flexible substrates versus the present single crystal array technology, ITN Energy Systems expects significant commercial and government satellite array business to become available. The application of wide-bandgap CIAS absorber layers with transparent back contacts and substrates to the present thin-film technology will potentially boost performance over CIGS baseline by as much as 84% and provide additional leverage of this technology to satellite manufacturers. In addition high voltage solar array applications are available when combined with the proposed monolithic integration for these arrays. Furthermore, the wide-bandgap and transparent back contact technology developed herein, will be enabling for next generation thin-film tandem junction photovoltaic (PV) technology. Together with ITN?s existing program on durable bottom cells using low bandgap CIS, then the essential components for realizing these high-efficiency and high-voltage devices will be in place.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lawrence Woods
ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy.
Littleton , CO   80127 - 4107

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy.
Littleton , CO   80127 - 4107


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B1.02-8224 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013775 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01156
PROPOSAL TITLE: Trojan Phage Crystallization System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this project is to develop a novel proprietary tool for crystallization of protein molecules and in addition to develop a multiple gene expression vector for producing protein complexes recombinantly. The novel phage display crystallization system is a high risk project that has a tremendous potential because the conditions for crystallization remain constant regardless of the protein molecule studied. The development of a multiple gene expression system, ?MaGEX,? for producing protein complexes also has a market that has drawn the interest and support of a premiere genetics company Athersys, Inc. for world wide commercialization. The development of the prototype MaGEX is required to implement the Trojan Phage technology. These products could result in a large number of proteins for structure determination which is synergistic with NASA?s Biological and Physical Research Enterprise that utilizes micro-gravitational effects to improve crystallization conditions. As part of the commercialization the systems would be offered as kits for expressing protein complexes recombinantly or for crystallization. In Phase I, we made significant progress in the construction of the MaGEX system which will be used to express the Trojan Phage. In Phase II, demonstration of the feasibility of this system to crystallize foreign proteins will begin.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
A system that could guarantee the crystallization of a protein molecule or domain does not exist. We anticipate that there will be a world wide market for this pre-packaged proprietary tool.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Larry Cosenza
Diversified Scientific, Inc.
1601 12th Ave. South
Birmingham , AL   35205 - 4709

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Diversified Scientific, Inc.
1601 12th Ave. South
Birmingham , AL   35205 - 4709


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B1.02-8508 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013491 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01157
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust, High Temperature Containment Cartridges for Microgravity

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High temperature, corrosion resistant cartridge materials are needed for microgravity processing experiments. Tungsten and molybdenum have high melting temperatures and in general possess the required chemical inertness. To improve the mechanical properties of these materials, alloy additions such as rhenium are necessary. Recently, thin-walled, closed-end cartridges have been fabricated from elemental blends of molybdenum-rhenium powders. However high temperature heat treatments are necessary to alloy elemental blended powders. Problems with distortion, intermetallic formation and incomplete alloying have occurred. To overcome these problems, an innovative Plasma Alloying and Spheroidization (PAS) process is being developed to produce pre-alloyed molybdenum-rhenium and tungsten-rhenium powders. Benefits of the PAS process such as a two-order magnitude reduction in oxygen contamination, enhanced flow characteristics, ability to produce pre-alloyed refractory metal powders and the ability to reduce heat treatment processing time were demonstrated during Phase I. During Phase II, the PAS process will be optimized. The optimized PAS Mo-Re and W-Re powders will be used for the production of robust, high temperature QMI and GEDS cartridges for microgravity processing experiments.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Commercial potential of the technology being developed during this effort is very high. The improved powder characteristics obtained by PAS processing will directly affect the coatings and powder industries, which represent multi-billion dollar markets.

Other potential applications for the SBIR technology include, chemical processing, high temperature furnace and retort components, rocket motor throat inserts, radiation shields, heat pipes, power generation equipment, nuclear components, beam and sputter targets, solid waste incineration, automotive, printing industry.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Scott O'Dell
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville , AL   35811 - 1558

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville , AL   35811 - 1558


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.01-8334 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013665 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02009
PROPOSAL TITLE: Circulating , Aeration and Nutrient Delivery System (CANDS)

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of the Phase II SBIR is to develop, build and test methods and procedures to control water, oxygen, and temperature in the root zone of a particulate based microgravity nutrient delivery system using nubs, tubes or plates. Phase I demonstrated new concepts for nutrient flow and control interval to each root module. Phase II will fully characterize a root module system capable of controlling oxygen and CO2 concentrations, and temperature of the root zone. Particulate based nutrient delivery systems have been commonly used in current space based plant growth systems and have been demonstrated to maintain healthy plants in microgravity, but have not controlled oxygen. The primary effort of this proposed project will be oriented toward building a system that can effectively control water and oxygen distribution in a root zone through manipulation of liquid source, flow, and aeration. This system will focus on aeration maintenance with and without root mass, measure and compare the impact of different water delivery sources and flows protocols, combined with various mechanisms of aeration, on the root zone environment. This research will allow the development of a root zone nutrient delivery system that will support plants in microgravity, without limiting oxygen.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Commercial applications within NASA could include developing technology to control root zone environment through physical and operational techniques for the regulation of water distribution and control of the gaseous environment, on the ground and in microgravity. This project would allow uniformity of water and oxygen, limiting possible anoxic conditions, as well as, reducing carbon dioxide within the root zone.

Terrestrial commercial application of this technology would include root modules that would be used to control oxygen levels, allowing more precise control of the root zone environment for commercial chambers, specific nursery support systems, and the growing market of plant biotechnology growth and maintenance. Universities and commercial agriculture research companies would be another major user of these root modules. There may also be use among hobbyists involved in gardening and horticulture. One large opportunity is a revolution in closed system agriculture on Earth that is integral with ORBITEC?s spin off commercial applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Jay J. Maas
Orbital Technologies Corporation
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison , WI   53717 - 1961

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison , WI   53717 - 1961


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.01-9305 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012694 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02011
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ordered Ultrathin Films based on Conducting Polymers for Gas Sensors

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Gas sensors based on metal oxides are known to be widely used for the detection of gases, aromatic hydrocarbon, etc., but such sensors lack selectivity, and operation at high temperatures is required. We have proved feasibility of our approach in Phase I, which focused on the use of highly organized ultrathin films of conducting polymers synthesized/processed via the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique for the first time relative to gas sensing application with emphasis on sensitivity and selectivity that are otherwise unattainable with other fabrication methods or materials. We have obtained excellent results relative to several aspects of the technology, particularly sensitivity and selectivity using few molecular layers of the different polymers. In the proposed Phase II program, we plan to optimize selected materials and their processing based on the feasibility study, and to elaborate on the viability of their sensors with respect to stability towards humidity, and heat, and gravity effects. We will also conduct thorough experiments to establish high selectivity while maintaining ppb detection level capability. Full characterization of single or multi-sensors will be performed towards maturing the technology and fabrication of prototypes that will be used for evaluation by NASA and for commercialization purposes in collaboration with HRL Laboratories.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
With the expected high selectivity and ppb detection levels and versatility of the measurement procedure, our proposed program will result in simple low cost devices that will work independently of gravity and that can be easily miniaturized for the different applications. In addition to NASA's gas sensing needs, such sensors can be of benefit to the automotive sector for detection of pollutant gases emanating from automobile exhaust.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Manoj K. Ram
Fractal Systems, Inc.
200 9th Avenue North, Suite 100
Safety Harbor , FL   34695 - 3504

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Fractal Systems, Inc.
200 9th Avenue North, Suite 100
Safety Harbor , FL   34695 - 3504


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.01-9728 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012271 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01054
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrochemical Ethylene Sensor for Monitoring Low Levels in Plant Environments

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I Giner, Inc. successfully demonstrated the feasibility of a novel electrochemical sensor that detects gaseous ethylene for NASA?s use in studying the effects of microgravity on plants and in growing plants for use in missions. Ethylene (C2H4) is a plant hormone that is active at very low concentrations in the developmental and reproductive processes of plants. With the Phase I prototype sensor, the detection range for ethylene in air was 22-800 parts per billion (ppb) (volume/volume). The sensor did not experience interference from CO2, N2 or O2, but NO and NO2 did show some cross reactivity on the sensor. Ethylene was successfully detected in headspace samples from cell culture systems with Catharanthus roseus and is being compared to GC/MS analysis of those gas samples. The Phase II goals include: 1) extension of the detection range to 5 to 5000 ppb, by a design change to increase the active sensing area while decreasing background noise 2) extensive validation and improvement of ethylene accuracy and specificity in laboratory and field settings and 3) fabrication of a low power, compact, light instrument for delivery to NASA.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial potential of an accurate, sensitive ethylene monitor extends beyond the plant research community into agriculture and food handling. Commercial uses of the technology include use in optimizing the production, harvest, ripening and storage of fruits and vegetables. The sensor could also be used in conjunction with ethylene generating equipment for ripening or ethylene removal systems. The proposed Giner, Inc technology will be inexpensive, accurate and portable giving it a significant advantage over any existing technology.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Linda A Tempelman, Ph.D.
GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton , MA   02466 - 1311

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton , MA   02466 - 1311


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.03-8884 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013115 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02012
PROPOSAL TITLE: Monitoring Apoptosis and Cytotoxicity of Anti-tumor Drugs in Microgravity

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cell culturing in space and/or microgravity offers numerous advantages and opens new applications for faster drug discovery and understanding gene expression. A growing body of data suggests cell growth in microgravity results in up-regulation of apoptotic pathways. Understanding apoptosis in microgravity will be crucial for long-term NASA missions, and it could provide valuable data on effects of radiation on cell growth. Both sensors will be incorporated into a microfluidic design and will be integrated into a single instrument easily adapted to current bioreactors (in space or rotating wall bioreactors on Earth) for on-line detection. Both sensors will use a relatively simple signal transduction system based on AC impedance. The instrument will also incorporate a sampling and separation module. The operation of the proposed instrument will be mostly automated. A compatibility of the proposed system with microgravity conditions will be tested by monitoring cell growth/induced apoptosis in rotating wall bioreactors. Compatibility of the design instrument may be also tested with existing spaceflight hardware. At the end of the Phase II, a working prototype will be delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This new technology will be of particular interest to the federal government (e.g., NASA, EPA, DOD, DOE, and NIH), e.g., to the Cellular Biotechnology Program at NASA. Also, it will be of interest to private industries for biomedical diagnostics (e.g., point-of-care or bedside testing), in-field environmental and forensic analysis, monitoring quality in food, and analysis of numerous biochemical molecules in chemical, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.


NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Duncan Hitchens
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.03-9016 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012983 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01133
PROPOSAL TITLE: Protein Microarrays for Bioreactor Bioproduct Monitoring

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rotating wall vessels (RWV) are widely used for cell culture in simulated microgravity conditions. Sensor technologies capable of monitoring the expression of proteins on a large scale (proteomics) are needed to fully exploit the unique capabilities of RWVs. This Phase II effort is part of a program to develop an advanced analytical monitoring system for quantitative detection of bioreactor bioproducts in microgravity. The underlying technology is grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance, which permits sensitive, label-free, parallel detection of bioproducts in a complex fluid without purification steps in real time. The objective of this effort is to develop generic capture microarrays that will allow for the site-directed self-assembly of tailor-made, user-defined high-density multi-component assay chips. This is accomplished by immobilizing a library of short oligonucleotide PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probe molecules on a chip in a site-specific manner using covalent attachment chemistry and a spotting method. Capture molecules that will compose the array are tagged (off-line) with a library of complementary PNA sequences. Then, the microarray is assembled by flowing the complex mixture of different PNA-tagged compounds over the chip, which through hybridization reactions, form site-directed self-assembled arrays. A set of microarrays will be produced and a complementary set of protein-PNA conjugates relevant to microgravity research.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial application that will be the focus of the proposed SPR technology is high throughput screening for drug discovery. The proposed site-directed, self-assembled microarrays will enable the production of disposable chips, which in combination with the SPR detection hardware will create a highly flexible platform, providing for the first time, massively parallel detection of hundreds to thousands of binding events along with kinetics without the limitations of a reporter molecule. A recent survey by PricewaterhouseCoopers reflected that the timely development of new products is the most important issue facing the pharmaceutical industry. There is a multi-billion dollar worldwide market for systems and consumables related to functional genomics, proteomics and drug discovery research. Pharmaceutical companies alone-spent billions of dollars on tools related to drug discovery in 1999 and this number is rapidly increasing. Now that mapping of the human genome has been essentially completed, there is increasing emphasis in discovering new druggable targets.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Salvador M. Fernandez
Ciencia, Inc.
111 Roberts Street, Suite K
East Hartford , CT   06108 - 3653

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ciencia, Inc.
111 Roberts Street, Suite K
East Hartford , CT   06108 - 3653


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.03-9603 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012396 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01134
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrahigh Throughput Flow Cytometer for Cell and Molecular Analysis in uG

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Commercialization of a low cost ultrahigh throughput flow cytometer is proposed. The instrument utilizes a disposable cartridge that essentially eliminates the high maintenance, training, and operating costs associated with flow cytometry. Novel fluidics increase potential throughput to several orders of magnitude faster than conventional flow cytometers, while decreasing manufacturing costs by orders of magnitude. Flow cytometers provide the underpinnings for diagnostics in many fields ? hematology, genetics screening, tissue engineering, drug screening, genomic and proteonomic research, cancer, AIDs, etc. The vast majority of the diagnostics tests using flow cytometry are not routinely available to the general public because of their cost and complexity. This technology takes the cost, skill, and complexity out of flow cytometry, and for the first time allows point-of-care testing. Underserved communities, rural locations, and third world countries could have direct access to many more diagnostic tests. Clinical and basic research will benefit from inexpensive and continuous access to a powerful analytical tool. This ultrahigh throughput flow cytometer is ideally suited to the low gravity environment due to its small size, low power consumption, and gravity independence.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Ultrahigh throughput flow cytometry addresses a segment of the $29 billion in vitro diagnostic market. The approach will reduce health care costs and enable point-of-care testing. The combination of cost reduction and point-of-care testing should improve overall health care, as well as health care in previously underserved communities, rural areas, and third world countries. There is strong market pull in the $300 - $800 million niches for genomic/proteonomic/DNA low cost ultrahigh through screening. We believe that substantially lowering screening costs will be a large multiplier for discoveries.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Glenn Spaulding
Spin Diagnostics Inc.
2437 Bay Area Blvd., #202
Houston , TX   77058 - 1519

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Spin Diagnostics Inc.
2437 Bay Area Blvd., # 202
Houston , TX   77058 - 1519


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.03-9721 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012278 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01135
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cassette Based Robotic Multiple Cell Culture System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The specific innovation proposed for continued research is a family of fully-automated (robotic) cell-culture systems, each a laboratory in a cassette, named collectively ?Multicult?. SHOT will incorporate several technical innovations, including options for gentle mixing of cell suspensions, transparent monolayer culture surfaces, control of inertial load (?g-level?) by rotation within the cassette, pH monitoring, adding fresh medium or fixatives with immediate mixing, and real-time imaging of cells in transparent containers. SHOT will perform research leading to (1) a cassette-based rotating plate for exposing 8 cultures of suspended cells to acceleration levels from 1 to 5 g while facilitating fluid additions and balancing out all forces other than centrifugal and gravity vectors, (2) a curved-wall transparent culture vessel for centrifugal studies of adherent cells, (3) a miniaturized non-invasive pH reader, (4) a compact video microscope, (5) a control-and-data network of embedded processors, and (6) a deliverable prototype cassette-based Multicult system incorporating these features for the sponsor. SHOT will use the results of this research to develop, in addition to a cell culture capability for space flight, marketable instruments based on its pH reader, centrifugal culture plates and autonomously controlled Multicults.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
SHOT's Multicult research program is rich in commercial potential. Five commercial applications are being pursued under this program: a pH reader, a Multistage Biphasic Extractor (SHOT's "BiSep"), a Suspended-Cell Multicult Laboratory Unit, an Adherent-Cell Multicult Laboratory Unit, and Space Cell Culture Commercial and Government Services. The pH reader has huge market potential providing non-invasive pH measurements for applications ranging from cell culturing to water analysis and promises to develop into a $3.3 million business for SHOT. Upgrades to SHOT's BiSep will make it user-friendly and efficient for up to 22-stage extractions with active mixing and demixing at every transfer. Multicult laboratory units are useful in biotechnology laboratories where around-the-clock sampling and performance recording of several independently controlled bench-scale bioreactors are required. SHOT will incorporate Multicult units into space flight cassettes and provide microgravity research capabilities to investigators through SHOT's pending Space Act Agreement. The Multicult system should be useful in space flight experiments, especially in view of the possibility of flying multiple units and operating each autonomously and robotically. One component, the pH reader, has been selected by SHOT to quickly commercially utilize the results of this research.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Paul Todd
Space Hardware Optimization Technology
7200 Highway 150
Greenville , IN   47124 - 9515

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Space Hardware Optimization Technology
7200 Highway 150
Greenville , IN   47124 - 9515


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.01-8800 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013199 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01160
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Thermo-Vacuum Microlith Adsorber for TCCS

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) used onboard the International Space Station provides for control of trace cabin air contamination originating from materials off-gassing, human metabolism, hygiene activities, experimental facilities, etc. The TCCS removes contaminants via a combination of techniques. The U.S. segment uses an expendable, activated charcoal bed (22.7 kg charcoal), a high temperature catalytic oxidizer assembly and a postsorbent LiOh bed. The Russian system uses an expendable activated carbon canister (1.3 kg) followed by two regenerative activated charcoal beds (16 kg apiece, 7.4 kg charcoal in each) and a room temperature CO oxidizer.

PCI is proposing to develop a novel, regenerable adsorber using zeolites/adsorbents coated on Microlith? substrates to replace the activated charcoal beds. Phase I results indicate the potential to reduce 15 kg charcoal weight to less than 2 kg of adsorbent with a proportionate reduction in size and a reduction in housing weight. The Phase II proposes to develop and optimize a resistively heated, thermo-vacuum Microlith? adsorber to be used as a simple, lightweight and cost effective system that aims to demonstrate safe and reliable operation with minimal maintenance, electrical power and crew-time requirements. A prototype will be delivered to NASA upon Phase II conclusion.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Precision Combustion, Inc. is proposing to further develop a high gas contact rate Microlith? regenerable mini adsorber with rapid trapping and release capability and low pressure-drop. The technology applications include air clean-up for closed room environments and closed personal environments. The target application is to replace the existing carbon bed installed in the Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly on-board the International Space Station. Future space applications such as space factories, lunar/Martian habitats, and lunar/Martian landing spacecraft would also find value in the small, light-weight and regenerable features. Terrestrial applications would be for military cargo planes, commercial airliners, and naval applications such as ships and submarines. Finally, applications in confined, sterile rooms such as special manufacturing processes (e.g. semiconductor manufacturing) as well as military applications in battlefield command posts that may need airborne chemical protection.

Smaller-scale versions of the technology may find use in regenerative breathing devices for personnel protection against airborne toxins. Potential applications include, breathing masks for firemen and rescue workers as well as for emergency use by people in buildings and airliners. There are also potential DoD applications for soldier chemical warfare breathing protection in the field.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Subir Roychoudhury
Precision Combustion, Inc
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven , CT   06473 - 3106

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Precision Combustion, Inc
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven , CT   06473 - 3106


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.01-9123 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012876 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01209
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Microfluidic Ion Analyzer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Human presence on the Moon, Mars or other remote base locations will have minimal or no re-supply of resources. These missions will require a completely self-contained comprised of regenerative physicochemical and biological technologies to sustain the crew. One of the highest priorities is to process and recover clean water. Monitoring the purity of the water is, therefore, of critical importance. State-of-the-art ground-based instrumentation is widely available, however these technologies are not suitable for spaceflight because of weight, volume, power and microgravity limitations. Recent advances in microfluidics permit development of new analytical methods that will meet the requirements of the spaceflight environment. Lynntech proposes development of a microfluidic ion analyzer, which minimizes the requirements for reagents, can be designed and operated as a hand-held instrument and will be capable of monitoring a wide range of ionic species not previously available in any commercial instrument. In Phase I study, major components of the analyzer for cation analysis were fabricated and tested, demonstrating the detection of ammonium at the level as low as 0.1 ppm. This Phase II project will develop a hand-held device to offer analysis of multiple cations and anions, including ammonium, nitrite and nitrate, which can be used in spaceflight.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Although the proposed ion analyzer focuses upon monitoring of water quality in a regenerative life support system, and the analyzer can be used for a wide range of applications. Its applications include, but are not limited to, monitoring water quality in wastewater and drinking water, monitoring acid rain, analysis of nutrients in freshwater and agricultural run-off, analysis of ingredients in foods and beverages, measurements of electrolytes in biological samples, etc. A number of other Federal Agencies will also benefit by using the proposed analyzer; EPA for environmental monitoring, USDA for beverages analysis, NIH for monitoring electrolytes in bodily fluids, etc. The proposed self-contained reagentless analyzer can be used as a remotely located monitoring device or process instrument. This device only requires a supply of deionized water and a waste drain to analyze a process stream. The results can conceivably be reported via wireline or cellular phone. This analyzer can be an alternative to a widely used laboratory-based ion chromatograph, yet offering a rapid, simple and on-site measurement at a much lower cost. The proposed analyzer can be also an alternative to ion-selective electrodes, but with much more sensitive detection limits and little interference with similar ions, at a comparable price.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Duncan Hitchens
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.01-9130 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012869 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02015
PROPOSAL TITLE: Catalyst for Selective Oxidation of Ammonia to Nitrogen and Water

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The cost of delivering payloads to remote destinations in space is extremely high, and even the smallest weight reductions can result in substantial cost savings. Consequently, systems that have been designed for low Earth orbit may not be suitable for a mission to Mars. One example of this is the system to recycle waste water. A system that utilizes vacuum distillation and catalytic oxidation (VPCAR) is being developed for Mars missions. A key step in the VPCAR process is the gas phase oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen and water without forming NOX. In Phase I TDA Research Inc. developed catalysts for this reaction. Our approach to the problem was centered on the development of a bifunctional catalyst, which could separate adsorbed oxygen and nitrogen atoms, thereby reducing NOX formation. In Phase I we identified a catalyst formulation, which converted 100% of the ammonia feed at temperatures where very low concentrations of NOX were produced. In Phase II, we will refine the catalyst composition, test both ammonia and hydrocarbon oxidation reactions in a pilot scale reactor, and then, in work carried out at Hamilton Sundstrand, we will test the reactor on a full-scale unit.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
In addition to use on the VPCAR, a selective ammonia oxidation catalyst would have several major commercial applications. One such application is in environmental catalysis, a field that generates approximately $2 billion in revenue per year. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is an effective method for controlling NOX emissions from stationary sources including coal-fired power plants power plants. In this method ammonia is injected into the effluent, and, in the presence of a catalyst, and it reduces NOX to nitrogen. However to be effective, excess ammonia must be present. Unfortunately, this results in ammonia emissions. Thus, if an ammonia oxidation catalyst were located downstream of the SCR unit, the excess ammonia could be oxidized to nitrogen and thus the ammonia slip problem could be eliminated. Another application is to oxidize ammonia in stripped sour gas streams. If ammonia is present in these streams, undesirable reactions occur, causing a number of problems in the refinery. Thus, a catalyst that would completely oxidize ammonia to nitrogen would eliminate these problems. In both of these cases, the catalyst must have high selectivity for nitrogen and water and produce very low concentrations of NO or NO2.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. David T. Wickham
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.01-9144 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012855 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01136
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Carbon Dioxide Reduction System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An advanced Environment Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for long duration manned space missions -such as planetary flight missions or planetary bases- requires an almost complete closure of all relevant material loops. The recovery of oxygen from a concentrated stream of carbon dioxide (CO2) offers significant advantage to long duration manned space missions by reducing the requirement for consumables. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes a sorbent-based system that carries out CO2 removal and CO2 reduction in a single unit. The system eliminates the interfacing problems associated with the currently operational CO2 Removal Assembly (CDRA) and planned CO2 Reduction Assembly (CRA).

In the Phase I work, we will develop a high capacity, long-life MgO sorbent that can effectively remove CO2 from the cabin air. We will also demonstrate the technical feasibility of carrying out CO2 removal and reduction in a single unit.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Get this.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Gokhan Alptekin
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.01-9851 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012148 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01140
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nano Ceramic Sterilization Filter

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Filters don't exist that are capable of removing virus and bacteria at high enough flow rates to be practical either for space systems or for domestic consumption. In Phase 1 we demonstrated feasibility that our nano ceramic fiber filter could produce sterile water at high flow rates. In Phase 2 we propose to develop performance data on such filters that would provide NASA with the capability for sizing such filters for AWRS for diverse missions. The tasks also include improving the strength of the filters, providing them with biocidal capability to deter the growth of bacterial slime on the filter face, and demonstrating their capability to remove all forms of pathogens. A major task will be to develop a regenerable filter that uses minimal or no expendables. We will investigate their use as pre-filters for extending the life of reverse osmosis membranes that might be used in AWRS systems. An additional task would determine the feasibility of a microbial trap to maintain sterility of stored water without using iodine disinfectant. We will prove the viability of the filter by designing and testing a full-scale cartridge filter, suitable for NASA and for commercial sale.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
There is a large and growing market for "Point of Use" cartridge filters for sterilizing water in residences, hospitals, medical and dental suites. The cartridge could also be used as a pre-filter to extend the life of RO desalination membranes and to purify water of biological weapons. If the BW can be rapidly desorbed and the filter cycled repeatedly it would be a major advance as a front end for concentrating BW agents so they could be detected and assayed. The filter could be used as a low cost environmental sampler for virus, providing EPA with the capability to implement routine virus testing of water sources. There is also an extensive market for small, disc shaped filters for laboratory use, particularly in the life sciences. We intend to commercialize these starting in the 4th quarter of 2002. The proposed filter would find wide application in sterilizing pharmaceutical and biotech products. It would be capable of separating cells, proteins, enzymes, and genes by charge differences.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Frederick Tepper
Argonide Corporation
291 Power Ct
Sanford , FL   32771 - 9406

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Argonide Corporation
291 Power Ct
Sanford , FL   32771 - 9406


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.03-8281 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013718 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02016
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reducing Symptomatology of Space Adaptation Syndrome through Perceptual Training

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ?space adaptation syndrome? develops in conditions in which nauseogenic stimuli are present for a long period. The perceptual situation of an astronaut exposed to unusual gravitational-inertial forces has been compared to that found in experiments involving perceptual rearrangement, such as optically induced displacement, curvature, tilt, or right-left reversal. In both instances, the observer is confronted with a variety of inter- and intra-sensory conflicts that initially disrupt perception and behavior and may cause nausea. However, people are able to adapt to these imposed conflicts, as manifested in a reduction or elimination of the initial disruptive responses. Overcoming motion sickness and regaining normal perception may involve many of the same processes as adaptation to perceptual rearrangement in general. Our Phase I research demonstrated that adaptation training is beneficial as it reduces dizziness and motion sickness symptoms experienced in both VR and OKN environments. In Phase II research, we propose to run studies to test further the effects of adaptation training on sickness by inducing motion sickness in a VR device with an added ?reafference? component. Phase II research will also involve refining and replicating Phase I findings, broadening the aftereffect conditions to which adaptation applies (sickness, posture, eye hand coordination, changes)

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
In recent years the possibility that space motion sickness might interfere with performance has been a major concern. As the word "interfere" suggests, the concern has been that space motion sickness might interrupt ongoing activities, e.g. as frank emesis does. An additional concern is that nausea as a negative reinforcer might lead to responses that could, in principle, be performed long after motion sickness proper had subsided. The responses most likely to be affected are head and eye movements. It is possible that these learned nausea-avoidance responses continue to affect an astronaut?s performance adversely although he or she may have no direct awareness of their presence. Based on recent studies with visual reality (VR) devices conducted in our laboratory through software changes we are able to rapidly reconfigure VR hardware and thereby produce systematic and replicable changes in the incidence and severity of motion sickness symptomatology among participants. With our ability to do so, we believe that we can develop a device and training technique or paradigm for the transfer of adaptation from other conditions which produce motion sickness and which have relevance for business, industry, the military and the private sector.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Robert Kennedy
RSK Assessments, Inc.
1040 Woodcock Road, Suite 227
Orlando , FL   32803 - 3566

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
RSK Assessments, Inc.
1040 Woodcock Road, Suite 227
Orlando , FL   32803 - 3566


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.03-8529 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013470 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01141
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Wireless Smart Sensor System for Monitoring EMG Signals

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed Phase I outlines a plan to develop a completely wireless, "smart" surface electromyographic (EMG) system. The project is directed at NASA's request for innovative in-flight and ground-based technologies to improve current methods of monitoring vital organ systems that suffer deleterious effects in micro gravity. The multi-channel digital system will provide reliable, accurate, and noninvasive monitoring of the musculoskeletal system without encumbering the user. The innovation builds on recent technological developments of our group in achieving a wireless EMG sensor prototype, as well as a portable data logger and advanced electrode/skin interfaces. The solution we propose is a significant departure from current state of the art systems that are encumbered by wires, body-worn hardware, and lack on-board processing for "smart-sensor" capability.

During Phase I, the objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of a smart, completely wireless, multichannel EMG monitoring system. The proposed deliverable is a prototype wireless EMG system capable of recording EMG signals concurrently from two sensors, and transmitting raw, or processed versions of the signal to a distant receiver without the need for wires or body-worn hardware. Phase II would focus on the development and testing of a complete EMG system, as well as its commercialization.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed completely wireless, smart EMG system would find use in Rehabilitation, Monitoring for work place injury prevention, Sports Medicine, Ergonomics, Myoelectric Prosthetics, Exercise training, and Motion studies.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Andreas Johansson
DELSYS INC.
PO BOX 15734
BOSTON , MA   02215 - 0015

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
DELSYS INC.
PO BOX 15734
BOSTON , MA   02215 - 0015


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.03-9385 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012614 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01142
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Reagent-less Protein Detection Using Nanotechnology

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Health care and medical intervention during missions, particularly those of extended duration, can be improved using medical instruments, which allow in flight specimen analysis of blood proteins. Current technologies based upon ELISAs can not meet NASA needs as it only quantitate a single protein at a time. Due to the complicated procedure for antibody immobilization, limited stability, and poor compatibility for biological materials have strongly diminished the apparent attraction of immuno-sensors. Other newly emerging techniques in the field of proteiomics depend upon mass spectrometry methods thus require extensive laboratory support and equipment. These limitations could be overcome by using artificial receptors, which mimic the active sites of antibodies. During the Phase I, Lynntech has prepared sensor elements capable of recognizing different proteins selectively from complex biological samples. Results obtained in Phase I have demonstrated the feasibility of miniatuarization of this technology with minimal power requirements. The proposed research will result in a light weight, hand held device capable of specific recognition of small concentrations of target proteins from biological fluids at the end of Phase II and will be delivered to NASA/JSC. The rapid and simultaneous quantitation of a large number of proteins in biological fluids will become a valuable tool in clinical diagnostics.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Proteins are routinely used as biomarkers for diagnosis, treatment and assessment of a number of physiological functions of the body. The world market for in vitro medical diagnostics will reach about $25 billion in 2003, with immuno-diagnostics accounting for about one-third ($8.3 billion). Development of technology for real time protein monitoring will serve as a very useful tool for early detection of cancer as well as many other fetal diseases.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Waheguru Pal Singh
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.06-8517 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013482 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01147
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bluetooth Wireless Wearable Modular Medical Instrumentation

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project will create a novel system for using medical instruments in a wireless network. A unique, highly innovative system architecture is proposed. This work is made possible by the new low-cost wireless networking technology called Bluetooth. Bluetooth makes it commercially feasible for low-cost portable devices to be connected in a true wireless network. This enabling technology will have a long-term impact on future medical systems. By adding Bluetooth wireless connectivity to standard medical instruments such as a pulse oximeter, electrocardiograph, or blood pressure monitor, a highly flexible medical data acquisition system can be constructed for managing medical data in the clinic, small doctors office, emergency medical, or homecare environments. Such a system will lower costs, improve safety, and make possible new monitoring modalities. The proposed innovation is highly relevant to space medicine and health care systems since many of the improvements address the specific needs of remote diagnosis and treatment. In phase II the software architecture and Bluetooth enabled medical instruments will be developed and integrated into an existing commercially successful medical system. FDA approval will be obtained and a new commercial system will resultcommercial production.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial potential of Bluetooth enabled medical devices is significant. The inherent modularity of the approach and the specific features of Bluetooth make it an attractive option for medical instrumentation system designers. Advanced Medical Electronics (AME) will team with QRS Diagnotic, LLC (QRS) to introduce the proposed technology into the commercial marketplace. AME has worked with QRS in the past to develop PC Card (formerly PCMCIA Card) modular medical instrumentation. Modular forms of medical instrumentation take functions such as pulse oximetry, ECG, blood pressure, spirometry, etc. and allow them to plug into a wide variety of handheld and portable computers. This modularity is very attractive to customers because it allows the user interface components of the system, typically a PC or PDA, to be upgraded without having to replace the measurement specific components of the system. In phase II, QRS will put the designs completed by AME into production. The QRS position in the marketplace will allow them to quickly commercialize the products developed under this proposed SBIR. This will assure NASA a low cost source of Bluetooth wearable modular medical instrumentation after the phase II project is complete.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Gary Havey
Advanced Medical Electronics Corp.
7124 Arrowwood Lane
Maple Grove , MN   55369 - 0000

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Advanced Medical Electronics Corp.
7124 Arrowwood Lane
Maple Grove , MN   55369 - 0000


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.07-8999 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013000 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01149
PROPOSAL TITLE: New High-Barrier Polymer Nanocomposite Food Packaging Enables 5-Year Shelf-Life

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
On future extended-flight, exploration-class missions to the Moon or to Mars, astronaut crews will need a minimum 3-year food supply. Triton addresses this challenge by developing new polymer nanocomposite-based materials solutions for food packaging. Nanocomposite materials, based in high-barrier resins, such as PET, EVOH, and polyethylene, can outperform unfilled materials in ways crucial to the needs of NASA and the extended-flight missions. Triton Nanocomposites increase the barrier capabilities of such materials by over 2-3 times. Nanocomposites remain lightweight, flexible, moldable and fully recyclable. With such dramatic increases in barrier properties, nanocomposites can allow the necessary weight and volume of food packaging to be reduced by at least half with decreased packaging wall-thickness. These unique advantages result from the nano-dispersion of very high aspect ratio (>100:1), organically-modified layered alumino-silicates (ORMLASTM). The successful nanocomposite contains well-dispersed and highly orientated nano-platelets, which form an inorganic barrier to diffusing species. This remarkable nano-structure also increases strength and tensile modulus without loss of flexibility and the low-loading levels (2-8%) do not result in any weight-increase or loss of processibility. Reduced resistance to heat and moisture makes these materials fully retortable as well as microwaveable and compatible for use with convection ovens, or hot-water-injection.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Triton has successfully produced large-scale food packaging tray prototypes incorporating our high barrier nanocomposite resins through commercial food packaging partners. This accomplishment has also attracted commercial attention from major food and beverage packagers in the US and abroad. The nanocomposite materials remain as flexible, recyclable, and versatile as the unfilled resin counterparts while providing enhanced oxygen barrier for extended shelf life. Since these effects are achieved at very low loading levels of the nanoscopic fillers, the approach is highly cost-effective. The nanocomposite structure enables unparalleled reductions in wall-thickness for bottles, retort pouches and thermoformed trays resulting in lower shipping, processing, and materials costs

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Erin McLaughlin
Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford , MA   01824 - 4000

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford , MA   01824 - 4000


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.08-9916 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012083 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02021
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bone Ultrasonic Scanner (BUSS) for Bone Health Assessment

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The main goal of this project is contructing a lightweight, low-cost, real-time ultrasound system for bone assessment that could readily be used in long term space flights as well as in a variety of environments in general medical practice. The major goal of Phase I of this project was to construct a functional prototype of the BUSS and to demonstrate in model experiments that the device is capable of evaluating the stiffness of compact bone, coritcla thickness and the stiffness of underlying spongy structure using flexural and longitudinal acoustic wave propagation parameters. In every area, Artann Laboratories fulfilled the proposed accomplishments of Phase I. A proof-of-concept prototype of the BUSS was designed, constructed and extensively tested in laboratory experiments with bone composite models. In Phase II, the BUSS team will enhance system hardware and software quality and design to the level of a final product and will validate BUSS functionality through comprehensive laboratory and clinical studies. The end products of the project would be twofold: (1) a lightweight, hand-held and easy-to-use device, with which an astronaut will monitor bone health; (2) a small size inexpensive, diagnostic bone ultrasonometer that would be marketed for general use in the commercial marketplace.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
A clear demand for better diagnostic tools, growing population and progressing bone disease rates create a significant market niche for new, more effective and more affordable screening and diagnostic technologies for bone health assessment. Due to the portability, ease of operation and affordable price, the clinical BUSS is intended for use in the health care establishments of the various size: from the large hospitals to small private clinics. It is conservatively projected that the smaller size private heatlh care establishments and offices are not likely to need more than one unit of the device, while large hospitals with the average of more than 1,000 health professionals employed will require at least five units. Based on these projections, the overall 365,000 units of market potential is available today. Population growth, aging and proliferation of the small home-case health care facilities are expected to dramatically increase demand for the technology. The Company will initially target specialty clinics and then migrate to the much larger market of family practice/internal medicine. Given the stringent requirements for clinical applications, the opportunity in commercialization of the BUSS will be explored into the sports medicine and veterinary medicine, as well as expansion on the foreign markets.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Armen Sarvazyan
Artann Laboratories, Inc.
1753 Linvale-Harbourton Road
Lamertville , NJ   085 - 4731

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Artann Laboratories, Inc.
1753 Linvale-Harbourton Road
Lambertville , NJ   08530 - 0000


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.09-8173 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013826 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02001
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight radiation shielding materials with carbon nanotube reinforcements

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Human tissue and electronic component protection from harmful effects of space radiation is essential for extended deep space exploration voyages. The prime objective of this Phase II proposal is to develop a multi-functional composite material design to fulfill the current need for non-parasitic, lightweight, high-strength, and effective radiation shielding materials for space exploration applications. Using their patented rapid prototyping approach, ACR and its partners will fabricate test panels of polymer materials reinforced with aligned functionalized single-walled nanotubes (SWNT). The physical, material, and comprehensive radiation properties of the composites materials will be evaluated to identify optimal radiation shielding design criteria. ACR believes the goals of this Phase II effort are directly in line with the NASA Mission.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Potential applications are for NASA and for commercial space travel, which seems to be increasingly becoming popular. All space radiation environment which humans will travel will benefit from these materials.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ranji Vaidyanathan
Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson , AZ   85706 - 5013

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson , AZ   85706 - 5013


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B4.02-9861 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012138 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01166
PROPOSAL TITLE: LEDs as countermeasure for pituitary/neuroendocrine effects of space flight

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
What we learn in space, by developing countermeasures for long-term exposure to microgravity and radiation exposure, can lead to tremendous improvements in medical care for patients here on earth. Spaceflight has been shown to impair bone, muscle and cutaneous repair as well as pituitary/neuroendocrine function. The limited information available suggests that delayed healing in microgravity is related to impairedangiogenesis, immune dysfunction and alterations in cell migration. These are also primary factors contributing to non-healing, chronic wounds on earth. The focus of this Phase I was to determine if Light-Emitting Diode (LED) technology used for biostimulation can be enhanced to deliver doses of near-infrared (IR) light deep into the brain, at the level of the pituitary gland, to stimulate neuronal processes, including cytochrome c oxidase activity and neuronal regeneration. This may have multiple benefits as countermeasures to neurologic injury from microgravity and radiation in long-term space flight, such as the ability to restore neuroendocrine function.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The National Fibromyalgia Partnership, Inc. reports, in their 2001 Monograph, that a conservative estimate of the US population suffering from FM to be 4 to 6 million. They go on to say, ?Other experts believe the true number is closer to 10 million.?

Given the NFPI?s conservative estimate of 4-6 million, a medium priced device, in the price range of $500.00 to $1,000.00, could have a market potential exceeding 3 billion dollars. And we have only addressed one medical condition thought to be the result of only one hormone generated by the pituitary gland. As we proceed with our Phase II task we are certain to discover more about the modulation of the other hormones generated by the pituitary and hypothalamus that could multiply the 3 billion potential of FM to a astronomical revenue potential.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ronald Ignatius
Quantum Devices, Inc.
112 Orbison Street
Barneveld , WI   53507 - 0100

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Quantum Devices, Inc.
112 Orbison Street
Barneveld , WI   53507 - 0100


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.01-8808 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013191 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02004
PROPOSAL TITLE: Imaging Spectropolarimetric Sensor for Airborne and Ground Based Retrieval of Aerosol Properties

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aerodyne Research will develop, demonstrate and market HySPAR, the HyperSpectral Polarimeter for Aerosol Retrievals. Our HySPAR commercial market will comprise both product sales (selling copies of the sensor) and R&D-level aerosol field measurement services. HySPAR employs snapshot multi-angle (passive optical) spectropolarimetry to retrieve atmospheric aerosol macro and microphysical properties. It will be made suitable for both uplooking ground-based measurements, as well as downlooking airborne measurements.

In Phase I, we performed a preliminary design for a HySPAR sensor suitable for both airborne and ground-based applications. The design is compact and offers the advantages of single snapshot spectro-polarimetry over a 120 degree field-of-view with no moving parts. The simplicity of the design should allow a cost effective implementation even if built in small quantities (>10 units). We performed experiments with our prototype sensor and two co-located sensors, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, and a robotic sunphotometer belonging to NASA's AERONET network, yielding good correlation. Using NASA/GISS forward atmospheric modeling codes, we ascertained that the spectral variability of polarized albedos is compatible with our straightforward Stokes inversion method which we demonstrated on sky radiance data measured using our prototype sensor. The Phase I objectives were achieved in entirety and clearly warrant Phase II continuation.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
HySPAR's most immediate intended Phase III application is to support the NASA CALIPSO program, in airborne underflights of the CALIPSO satellite suite for purposes of closure studies. Such studies corroborate and improve aerosol property retrievals by CALIPSO's space-based sensors. In addition to demonstrating readiness for CALIPSO, our Phase II effort will also position HySPAR as a candidate for populating the worldwide networks of ground-based aerosol measurement stations. We will conduct extensive correlative measurements and retrievals alongside a NASA AERONET sensor. Additionally, HySPAR should appeal to future closure study opportunities, particularly in support of the NPOESS Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS).

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Stephen Jones
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica , MA   01821 - 3976

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica , MA   01821 - 3976


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.01-8826 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013173 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02028
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Cryogenic Fabry-Perot Interferometer Development

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Several significant potential infrared applications of tunable Fabry-Perot interferometers are not presently possible because of the unavailability of a Fabry-Perot that can be tuned at cryogenic temperatures. For operation in the far infrared (8-12 micron) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, optics must be kept at cryogenic temperature. At present, such devices are not commercially available for laboratory or spaceflight use. The primary objective of this SBIR proposal is to develop and test a tunable etalon that could be used at cryogenic temperatures based on an existing spaceflight qualified piezoelectric motor design. This actuator would also find application in infrared astronomy, both on the ground and on instruments such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The secondary objective of this effort is to apply this motor to the Multi-Order Etalon Sounder instrument for remote sensing of trace gases in the troposphere. A description of the motor concept as well as the MOES instrument is included in this proposal.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The advanced cryogenic Fabry-Perot interferometer to be developed under the proposed SBIR phase II program will have extensive commercial applications ranging from airborne natural gas pipeline leak monitoring and trace gas detection, to optical fiber communication. There have been strong interests in the detection and monitoring of natural gas pipeline leaks to address public security concerns. The advanced cryogenic Fabry-Perot interferometer developed under this SBIR phase II proposal can be used to detect methane and ethane, two primary gases used to monitor gas pipeline leak. The commercial potential and benefits to the public here are significant. The advanced Fabry-Perot etalon and technologies developed under this SBIR phase II proposal will also find applications as dispersion compensation module and wavelength locker in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems, which have revolutionized the telecommunication industry. The advanced Fabry-Perot etalon and technologies developed under this SBIR phase II proposal can be used in the remote sensing of O3, CO, CO2, and other trace gases for Earth system science and defense applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Carl A. Nardell
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Dr., Suite B
Ann Arbor , MI   48108 - 2285

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Dr., Suite B
Ann Arbor , MI   48108 - 2285


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.01-9870 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012129 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01175
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Airborne VNIR and SWIR Imaging Spectrometer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation is an Airborne VNIR and SWIR Imaging Spectrometer (AVSIS) that acquires calibrated hyperspectral data within the 400?1700nm range (expandable to 2,500nm) for light aircraft/UAV. AVSIS is a grating-type hyperspectral scanner using all solid-state Silicon/InGaAs sensors via a common slit imaging approach. By simultaneously imaging Earth surface and acquiring downwelling irradiance or reference radiance via switching fiber optics, Earth surface spectral reflectance or radiance is measured. With platform positioning, attitude, and altitude measurements, its data cube is precisely geo-referenced. AVSIS has a spectral resolution better than 5nm with a swath width better than 320 pixels and quantization resolution better than 10-bits.
AVSIS is tightly integrated. A tightened airborne computer (weighing 20LBs) is developed to interface and power its imaging components, positioning/attitude/altitude measurement sensors, and radio-link. The power and interconnection circuits for AVSIS attachments are build-ins of the compact computer. Seamless real-time operation is implemented by intuitive graphic user interface or system automation.
AVSIS achieves great expandability with its modularization and network design. AVSIS can be operated alone or as a networked node with other supplementary nodes in an imaging cluster, which includes Flight Landata?s high-resolution multispectral/photographic imaging nodes, and a future fluorescence lidar for thematic airborne remote sensing.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The unique competitive advantage of AVSIS is that there is nothing else like it in the world; no other system offers such a favorable combination of size, weight, and capability. These features allow it to be fitted onto diverse small aircraft (manned and unmanned) to provide calibrated high quality hyperspectral data for repeatable and operational airborne remote sensing.
Immediate AVSIS applications include NASA calibration/validation for the multitude of hyperspectral and multispectral satellites and new application development. The potential commercial applications of this innovative instrument product include operational airborne remote sensing services for precision agriculture, forest management, mining area management, vegetation specie maps, crop and forest growing status monitoring, forest fire forecast, coastal environment studies, ocean/water color, shallow-water bathymetry, wetland delineation, surface pollution detection, mineral exploration, hydro-carbon related material detection, and land-use surveys. Current customers who have expressed an interest in the advanced features proposed include the Army Corps of Engineers, Woods Hole, NASA, Applied Applications, and the Bureau of Land Management.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Xiuhong Sun
Flight Landata, Inc
One Parker Street
Lawrence , MA   01843 - 1548

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Flight Landata, Inc
One Parker Street
Lawrence , MA   01843 - 1548


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.02-8624 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013375 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02033
PROPOSAL TITLE: Laser Gain Media for Wavelength Specific Applications

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Diode pumped solid state lasers have proven to be well suited for use in space based and airborne Lidar systems for remote sensing. These types of lasers are capable of operating at high efficiency while remaining both compact and extremely rugged. However, one of the primary limitations of such systems has been that the laser gain media operates only at specific wavelengths determined by the active dopant ion. These wavelengths do not necessarily match absorption features or transmission windows specific to a given application. Scientific Materials Corp. has recently developed innovative laser gain media that provides operation at the desired wavelength without the need for frequency conversion or tuning elements. It is the purpose of this Phase II SBIR to improve the optical homogeneity and optimize the performance of these materials for diode pumping, as well as scale the growth of these materials to allow implementation in a variety of cavity designs. Based on previous results, the primary material of interest will be Nd3+ doped crystals of YAG(1-x)YSAGx for operation at 944.1 nm for use in lasers for lidar systems designed for remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial availability of materials which lase at specified wavelengths that exactly match the requirement for a particular application would greatly simplify laser design as well as open possibilities for a variety of new applications in medical and other remote sensing systems. Laser manufacturing companies have already begun development of systems based on these materials.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Randy W. Equall
Scientific Materials Corp.
310 Icepond Road
Bozeman , MT   59715 - 5380

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Scientific Materials Corp.
310 Icepond Road
Bozeman , MT   59715 - 5380


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.02-8818 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013181 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01190
PROPOSAL TITLE: A switchable holographic circle to point converter for use in LIDAR receivers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A solid state air-gap Fabry-Perot is configured in tandem with a switchable holographic optic element established by holographic polymer liquid crystal dispersion. This switchable element is the innovative centerpiece developed during Phase I research. By stacking these tuning elements, one per wavelength channel, any discrete channel within the operating range (which can include multiple orders) of a Fabry-Perot etalon can be selected for transmission to any receiver in a LIDAR or spectroscopy system. A sealed, solid state etalon combined with a switchable holographic element can replace a tunable etalon system. This has advantages with respect to LIDAR system cost, complexity and weight. Multiplexing allows additional spectral elements to be selected simultaneously or a channel may be switched in milliseconds. The device can thus isolate hundreds of individual wavelengths across the tunable range of a tunable laser or LIDAR transmitter. These capabilities are accomplished with no moving parts, and with a significant cost advantage over competing technologies.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The largest commercial market is telecommunications where this beam steering technology can be used to randomly switch signals among different fiber channels. A solid-state, dense, random optical cross-switch is commercialized to fill needs in the commercial metro-core telecom market, and to supply rapid, multi-channel, covert, and frequency agile optical communications to the national missile defense initiative. The optical switch is based upon Fabry-Perot and Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal (H-PDLC) technology. The deliverable is entirely solid state, is switched electronically requiring minimal power, and is fabricated using planar fabrication techniques - providing significant cost and durability advantages over competing technologies. Additionally this device when configured, as a solid state LIDAR receiver will result in many sales to the space based remote sensing community.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
John Noto
Scientific Solutions Inc.
55 Middlesex Street
Chelmsford , MA   01863 - 1570

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Scientific Solutions Inc.
55 Middlesex Street
Chelmsford , MA   01863 - 1570


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.03-8641 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013358 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01193
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Lidar for Cloud and Aerosol Radiation Sciences

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The largest error source in validation of NASA's EOS satellite cloud products is the mismatch in sampling volumes between the remote sensors and the in situ cloud probes. The sampling error from the extrapolation of the in situ cloud probe measurement of a few cm3 to the remote sensing measurement of millions of m3 is very large because of the extreme variability of cloud density. The new in situ lidar built in Phase I and tested in cloud on a mountaintop measures the volumetric extinction coefficient in cloud volumes ranging from millions to billions of m3. The in situ lidar differs from a regular lidar in that inside an optically thick cloud the laser pulse is multiply scattered by cloud droplets and the signal measured by the detector is the number of photons returned as a function of time. The amplitude and shape of the returned pulse contain information about the cloud volumetric extinction coefficient at different spatial scales around the instrument and the distance to the cloud boundaries.

Phase I proof-of-concept tests conducted in cloud on a mountaintop demonstrated that the time-varying signal measured by the in situ lidar fit exactly the shape of the signal predicted by a physical model. The volumetric extinction coefficients measured over a period of several hours by the in situ lidar agreed in magnitude with local measurements using a cloud droplet probe, although as expected, there was considerable variability in the measurements. In Phase II we will build an airborne in situ lidar and install it on a Learjet research aircraft. The in situ lidar will be compared with microphysical measurements of cloud properties and cloud boundaries collected by the Learjet in various types of clouds.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The in situ lidar will play a critical role in validating remote measurements from both ground-based and spaceborne remote sensing instruments. It will be sought for several government field projects and international programs. The military can use the in situ lidar to measure visibility and cloud boundaries around aircraft carriers and in dense aerosol clouds on the battlefield. The ability of an in situ lidar to measure cloud boundaries will generate an application at uncontrolled airports that will increase aviation safety and provide a substantial commercial market. When the aircraft enters a low-lying fog on approach to landing, the visibility, which previously looked good from aloft, rapidly drops to a few hundred feet in the horizontal, often causing disorientation and disaster. An unattended in situ lidar will warn pilots through the automated weather observing system (AWOS).

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Paul Lawson
SPEC, Inc.
3022 Sterling Circle, Suite 200
Boulder , CO   80301 - 2388

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
SPEC, Inc.
3022 Sterling Circle, Suite 200
Boulder , CO   80301 - 2388


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.04-9809 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012190 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01200
PROPOSAL TITLE: MMW Pyroelectric Sensor Array

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
WaveBand Corporation proposes a novel focal plane array sensor for millimeter wave (MMW) imaging. The major innovation is the monolithic integration of printed fractal-like antennas, pyroelectric capacitors, and MEMS switches in a single wafer. Pyroelectric sensors have low sensitivity in the MMW range of the spectrum. The proposed integration of pyroelectric capacitors with printed broad-band antennas will dramatically improve sensitivity. The preliminary design and calculations performed in the course of the Phase I Project have shown that the minimum detectable temperature contrast is less than 1 K. A MEMS switch incorporated in the antenna/capacitor circuit will act as a chopper, eliminating the need for that cumbersome device.
The goal of Phase II of the Project is to build a working prototype of the proposed imager (with support of Raytheon?s foundry for the manufacturing process). The final result of Phase II will be the creation of a very efficient low-cost MMW imager whose sensitivity is comparable to that of the best IR sensors. The combination of WaveBand?s MMW circuitry and a pyroelectric thermal sensor makes it possible to overcome the main problem of MMW thermal sensors, their low sensitivity caused by the small power of thermal radiation in the MMW frequency range.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
A conceptual illustration of the contemplated commercial product is presented in Figure 10-1. This is a preliminary concept of the product design for the proposed millimeter wave sensor based on the Phase I work results. It consists of a monolithic array chip, which includes antenna elements, pyroelectric capacitors, MEMS switches fabricated monolithically on a semiconductor substrate and mounted in the center of a cylindrical housing with a conventional lens and interface circuitry for reading electronics. The monolithic array chip is the enabling technology that permits the realization of a very simple and low cost quasi-optical approach for the millimeter-wave high-sensitivity imaging sensor. This compact module, which serves as the heart of sensor systems, is an ideal product for aircraft landing as well as environmental mapping applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Vladimir Manasson
WaveBand Corporation
375 Van Ness Ave #1105
Torrance , CA   90501 - 1821

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
WaveBand Corporation
375 Van Ness Ave #1105
Torrance , CA   90501 - 1821


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.04-9866 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012133 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01199
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Terahertz Heterodyne Receivers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary goal is to develop and market a new class of heterodyne receivers that take advantage of our proprietary GaAs-on-dielectric integrated circuit fabrication process and our innovative mixer and multiplier circuit designs. These receivers will cover full waveguide bands without tuning, require no DC bias and will be ultra compact. In Phase I we successfully demonstrated i) the basic circuit designs, ii) the elimination of isolators in the multiplier chains, iii) full waveguide bandwidth and iv) the critical dimensions necessary for the fabrication of a terahertz mixer. The focus of Phase II will be the demonstration of a highly compact receiver for the frequency band from 750 GHz through 1,050 GHz. A single waveguide block will house the integrated subharmonically pumped mixer circuit and an integrated doubler/tripler multiplier chain. This block will have an input connection for a 75 GHz local oscillator, a horn antenna for the RF signal and a coaxial connector for the IF output. The prototype receiver will be delivered to NASA GSFC for use on the Conical Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer for the study of ice crystals in cirrus clouds.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
When we think about the long-term future of terahertz technology we envision the breadth and scope of the microwave and infrared industries. Although the terahertz band has its unique and often formidable challenges, it is inherently just as useful as the frequency bands above and below. It is only a matter of time and effort before the terahertz technology base becomes mature enough to allow this band to be fully exploited. VDI was formed to make this evolution occur sooner rather than later. This proposal will foster the development of terahertz components that cover complete waveguide bands without mechanical tuners or dc bias. They also use integrated circuits, so that assembly is much easier and more precise. This greatly increases reliability and repeatability and thereby reduces costs. Our customers include atmospheric researchers, radio astronomers, chemical spectroscopists, and nuclear and solid-state physicists. We also gain support from researchers developing next generation electron paramagnetic resonance imaging systems, high data rate point-to-point communications, millimeter-wave radars above 100 GHz, submillimeter-wave test equipment including vector network analyzers, and the detection and monitoring of chemical and biological toxins for military and commercial food processing applications. Each of these applications will benefit from the proposed SBIR research.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Jeffrey L. Hesler
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
321 West Main Street
Charlottesville , VA   22903 - 5537

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
321 West Main Street
Charlottesville , VA   22903 - 5537


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.06-8294 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013705 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01221
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micromachined Interconnects for RF MEMS Relays

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
XCom Wireless proposes to develop a micromachined interconnect technology for the broad-band low-loss transfer of RF energy between substrates. This interconnect design will improve the performance of hybrid RF MEMS sub-systems that use separate substrates for RF circuitry and actuator fabrication. MEMS relays will be assembled and packaged using the interconnect in order to determine the effectiveness of the technology for improving mm-wave performance. XCom Wireless expects RF MEMS relays to be fundamental components of future multi-band, high-performance, low-cost antenna systems, proposing the design, prototype, and testing of this interconnect technology. XCom Wireless is presently developing a new type of RF MEMS relay under Department of Defense contracts, which promises superior reliability to that of competing RF MEMS development efforts. The XCom Wireless vision is to enable the design of modular, multi-functional, high-performance antennas, for a dramatic reduction in system cost, weight, volume and power consumption. Within such a vision, the specific needs of NASA remote sensing programs can be furthered; upon the completion of this Phase II program, the results of interconnect technology development will form an important foundation for low cost mm-wave systems capable of high performance and functionality.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS

The benefit of RF MEMS based subsystems to the commercial marketplace is significant, in that the markets for high performance RF components and subsystems are large and growing at 35% yearly. The test and instrumentation community, the aerospace communications and radar community, and the defense wireless system developers have been identified as the first adopters of RF MEMS technology, with relevant MEMS-enabled sales expected to grow to over $75 million in 2005. Consumer markets for RF MEMS include fixed broadband data link equipment, wireless LAN hardware, and civilian handsets and PDA?s, and are anticipated to reach, $1.4 billion in 2005 with combined sales of MEMS components, subsystems, and RFICs incorporating MEMS

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Daniel J. Hyman, Ph.D.
XCom Wireless, Inc.
1718 E. Ocean Blvd #4
Long Beach , CA   90802 - 6014

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
XCom Wireless, Inc.
1718 E. Ocean Blvd #4
Long Beach , CA   90802 - 6014


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.06-9880 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012119 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01220
PROPOSAL TITLE: Broadband Terahertz Frequency Multipliers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The spectral band from 1 - 5THz contains a wealth of information about the chemistry of the upper atmosphere and the structure and evolution of the Universe. The recent development of superconductive hot electron bolometers (HEBs) has made it possible for NASA to cover this frequency band with high-resolution heterodyne receivers with exceptional sensitivity. As a critical additional benefit, the HEB mixers require extremely low levels of local oscillator (LO) power. In fact system requirements of as little as one to ten microwatts make it feasible for the mixers to be pumped with solid-state sources based on a fundamental oscillator and a cascaded chain of frequency multipliers. However, multipliers for above 1 THz, even at these power levels, remain a formidable challenge. In fact, a frequency multiplier for Band 6 of the Heterodyne Radiometer for Herschel, spanning from 1,410 - 1,910 GHz, has not yet been demonstrated. Thus, the problem we propose to solve is the lack of a source of terahertz power suitable for preent and future NASA missions. This will be achieved through the use of our innovative and unique frequency quintupler circuit design and our proprietary GaAs-on-quartz circuit integration process.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial market for terahertz components is not yet large enough to attract interest from major companies. However, it is ideal for a company of our size. Our terahertz customers include atmospheric researchers, radio astronomers, chemical spectroscopists, and nuclear and solid-state physicists. We also gain support from researchers and companies developing next generation electron paramagnetic resonance imaging systems, high data rate point-to-point communications, millimeter-wave radars above 100 GHz, millimeter and submillimeter-wave test equipment including vector network analyzers, the detection and monitoring of chemical and biological toxins in food processing facilities, contraband detection, and many more.
Further, this SBIR research will foster our move toward component designs with integrated circuits and fewer mechanical parts, thus easing assembly, increasing reliability and reducing costs. Because of this progress we will market components and systems that are useful not only to the most dedicated and determined scientists, but to a much wider base of users who are looking for a valuable and reliable tool rather than an impressive laboratory curiosity. Through this SBIR a much larger range of scientific experiments and future commercial applications becomes possible and the commercial market for our products will continue to grow.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Jeffrey L. Hesler
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
321 West Main Street
Charlottesville , VA   22903 - 5537

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
321 West Main Street
Charlottesville , VA   22903 - 5537


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.07-8448 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013551 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01198
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computer Code to Model Loop Heat Pipe Transients

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) centers have incorporated or is contemplating the use of Loop Heat Pipes (LHP) in many of their current and future spacecraft designs. However, there is currently no means for a typical spacecraft thermal engineer, with limited technical knowledge of two-phase flow and LHP technology, to incorporate LHP functionality into their thermal models. The proposed LHP code, in its final form, will enable the spacecraft thermal engineer to effectively model their LHP TCS that is coupled to the spacecraft. It will be able to provide valuable insights during early program trade-off studies, by making independent evaluation of varying LHP TCS designs possible, and will allow the thermal engineer to accurately predict/bound tests and on-orbit performances. The LHP code can be integrated with any industry standard thermal analyzer, and will require only input data that can be provided by the LHP vendor. Expertise in LHP technology will not be required to utilize the code.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The LHP computer code takes the guesswork out of the users by handling all LHP calculations internally. The users do not need to know every single detail in a LHP design in order to incorporate the code into the spacecraft system model for analysis. This is particularly useful when the spacecraft engineer has to conduct trade studies at early phases of the program. With a limited amount of information, the computer code can still provide reasonable predictions for top-level thermal analyses.

On the other hand, when the design of a LHP-based thermal control system matures, the computer code can then be utilized to simulate accurately the transient LHP behaviors and its thermal interaction with the spacecraft. The LHP computer simulation is precise enough to reveal potential problems and deficiencies associated with the TCS design.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Triem Hoang
TTH Research, Inc.
505 Hampton Park Blvd. Suite J
Capitol Heights , MD   20743 - 3827

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
TTH Research, Inc.
505 Hampton Park Blvd. Suite J
Capitol Heights , MD   20743 - 3827


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.07-8863 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013136 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01181
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Heat Flux Evaporator for Two Phase Transport Loops

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project addresses the development of high performance evaporators for loop heat pipes (LHP) or capillary pumped loops. Thermal management of future high-power laser instrumentation will require power dissipation of 2-5 kW at heat fluxes beyond 100 W/cm2. Although localized heat fluxes as high as 100 W/cm2 have been demonstrated using bi-disperse wicks, the maximum average heat flux capability of present LHP evaporators is an order of magnitude lower. Cooling high heat flux loads with present technology would necessitate the use heat spreaders, which would substantially increase the thermal resistance and weight of the system.

We propose an evaporator configuration that can operate at average heat fluxes an order of magnitude larger, and thermal resistances an order of magnitude lower than present LHP evaporators. A novel fabrication approach enables vapor/liquid distribution networks to maximize capillary pumping and substantially reduce liquid and vapor flow pressure drops. Phase I proof-of-concept tests and scoping analyses demonstrated the feasibility and performance potential of the proposed evaporator. In Phase II we will develop the evaporator technology through a combination of modeling, fabrication trials, and separate effects tests. We will then demonstrate the technology by designing, fabricating, and testing a prototype LHP incorporating the proposed evaporator.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The principal commercial application for this technology is cooling of high heat flux electronics. The three areas with the highest thermal dissipation challenges are: diode-pumped lasers, solid-state power conversion devices, and high-end microprocessors. All three are areas of high market growth. They are also areas where thermal management is a high value-added component. Better heat dissipation would enable higher power lasers, higher power and more compact electric drives, and higher device density and speed microprocessors.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Javier Valenzuela
Mikros Manufacturing, Inc.
88 Etna Road, Suite B
Lebanon , NH   03766 - 1403

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mikros Manufacturing, Inc.
88 Etna Road, Suite B
Lebanon , NH   03766 - 1403


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.01-8557 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013442 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02038
PROPOSAL TITLE: Large Inflatable Self-Rigidizing Polymer Film Structures

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary objective of the Phase I work was to determine the feasibility of manufacturing inflatable preshaped polyimide film structures that have the inherent thermal stability and structural strength to meet requirements of large space systems without internal pressurization or other rigidization. The feasibility of the scalable, low-cost manufacturing technology was validated by structural component design, fabrication and testing. A sound technology basis was established for continued manufacturing process refinement and application. The Phase II effort will develop and demonstrate large ultra-lightweight, compactly stowable, self-rigidizing inflatable structures.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This structures technology is applicable to large antennas, high resolution earth observation satellites, solar thermal and electric propulsion, space solar power, and high temperature materials processing systems. Ground commercial applications include emergency shelters in extreme environments and lightweight articles exposed to long-term weathering conditions.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Rodney Bradford
United Applied Technologies
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville , AL   35803 - 4327

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
United Applied Technologies
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville , AL   35803 - 4327


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.01-8579 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013420 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02036
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Clear Space Durable Polymer for Ultra-Lightweight Structures and Optics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Triton proposes to meet NASA?s need for space- based ultra-lightweight structures and optics with a new, advanced, colorless, space durable polymer, TOR-NC. This new polyimide is specifically engineered for resistance to atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV) and particle radiation. This new polyimide has low solar absorbance and high thermal emittance. The TOR-NC polyimide is well suited for synthesis of multi-kilogram quantities and cost reduction through co-polymer design. Films made by solution casting display good mechanical and optical properties for the space applications.
The proposed Phase II program is a comprehensive two-year program that will improve the quality and effective production of TOR-NC. The proposed program involves the technologists, the converters, the evaluators, and the end-users all on the same team. Feed back from the end-users will be used to develop a superior product that is geared especially to the needs of the space community.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Triton is positioning itself as manufacturer of high quality specialty monomers and polymers. Triton is pursuing chemical companies to establish partnership for larger scale commercial production of these newly developed monomers and polymers for terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. We are also forming partnerships with film manufacturers to produce large thin sheets or continuous rolls of films using Triton?s polymers. With these team arrangements, Triton will be in position to commercialize its synthesis capabilities and also produce high quality space durable films. These films can be used in multi-layer insulation blankets for commercial and government satellites. They also can be used for large inflatable or deployable membranes.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Arthur Gavrin
Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford , MA   01824 - 4000

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford , MA   01824 - 4000


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.02-8565 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013434 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01183
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Antenna Array and GPS Receiver for Combined Navigation/Attitude Determination

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Under the Phase I effort, a design was developed for a flexible, high performance Space-based Software GPS Receiver (SSGR). The objective of this Phase II effort is to develop an SSGR Engineering Development Unit to be used to demonstrate the next generation capabilities of the SSGR for space applications.

The SSGR is based on a digital multi-element phased array design that can be configured to provide: 4p steridian field of view for all-around GPS satellite visibility; digital beam and null-forming to allow tracking of both high power and low power GPS satellites; attitude determination to allow operation in a spinning satellite; advanced signal processing to allow extremely low power GPS satellite signal detection; precision GPS navigation capability using WADGPS corrections; and integrated GPS orbit determination using NASA GSFC?s GPS Enhanced Orbit Estimation Software (GEONS). On conclusion of the development effort, we propose to perform a demonstration of the SSGR capabilities to track both high and low power GPS satellite signals using a combination of live satellite tracking and simulated space mission scenarios.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The SSGR will provide a flexible, integrated precision navigation and attitude determination solution for space applications including LEO, HEO and GEO missions. The ability to track low power GPS satellites will extend the use of GPS for precision navigation and timing, particularly for high altitude space missions (above the GPS satellite constellation). The flexibility of the SSGR design will allow it to be adapted for use in launch and orbit entry, station-keeping and autonomous orbit estimation applications, leveraging a common rad-hard hardware implementation to keep the unit cost low for each individual application.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Alison K. Brown
NAVSYS Corporation
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs , CO   80921 - 2370

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
NAVSYS Corporation
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs , CO   80921 - 2370


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.02-9508 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012491 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01195
PROPOSAL TITLE: Com+ Simulation Architecture With Application To Tethers And Formation Flying

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA missions cover a diverse set of requirements from Earth Observing constellations Flying in Formation to Scientific Observations using multiple tethers. Each spacecraft will have unique design specifications on actuators, sensors, dynamics, control and flight software. Traditionally, these spacecraft simulations have been divided into files, modules or classes which are compiled and linked to form a monolithic simulation application. This static approach requires re-compilation or re-linking for each different spacecraft.

Star Technologies along with our Team Member Microsoft Corporation proposes to develop a COM+, Component Object Model, spacecraft simulation architecture that will enable the User to build COM components that can be assembled into a spacecraft simulation without the need for re-compiling or re-linking. The advantages of using COM components result directly from their ability to dynamically plug-into and unplug-from a spacecraft simulation. The COM simulation architecture will provide for rapid assembly via COM components that represent the environment, sensors, actuators, dynamics, and control which may function as distributed processes across networks. And since COM is language independent, the COM+ architecture will enable re-use of previously developed FORTRAN and C programs or routines. The resulting COM+ simulation architecture will be demonstrated on a Tether and a Formation Flying configuration.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The COM+ simulation architecture will provide a methodology for the rapid prototyping of various spacecraft simulations by assimilation of COM components at run time. The addition of new COM components or the replacement of existing COM components will enable spacecraft simulations to evolve over time. Previously, development of a spacecraft attitude control system would apply 80% of the effort toward the development of a detailed spacecraft simulation while 20% went to the actual control system design and analysis. This COM+ simulation architecture will reduce the cost and time-to-develop sophisticated spacecraft simulations to less than 20% of the effort, leaving the remainder of the effort for control system design and analysis. The COM+ simulation architecture will enable component manufacturers to provide sensor or actuator models as COM components thereby protecting any proprietary information while making their specific sensor or actuator model available as a plug-in. Star Technologies has contacted such manufacturers as Barnes Engineering who are in agreement with the providing such a COM plug-in component. The COM+ simulation architecture has the potential of supporting a variety of commercial as well as government spacecraft simulation developments.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Robert Strunce
Star Technologies Corporation
10303 Galpin Court
Great Falls , VA   22066 - 2401

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Star Technologies Corporation
10303 Galpin Court
Great Falls , VA   22066 - 2401


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.04-9409 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012590 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02023
PROPOSAL TITLE: Transoner Power Transfer for TWT Power Systems

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the framework of a NASA SBIR-Phase I sponsored program, Face Electronics, LC has developed the first successful demonstration of a piezoelectric-based high-voltage, high-power transformer, TAP-SONER, for use in Electronic Power Conditioners (EPCs) for space Travelling Wave Tube Amplifiers (TWTAs). The new transformer operates under resonant conditions with a very high mechanical factor. Consequently, the transformer can achieve a higher step-up ratios and higher power density compared to similar conventional magnetic transformers. The novel transformer is compact in size, light in weight, and does not generate magnetic interferences, since neither magnetic materials nor coils are involved in its manufacturing. Additionally, the specific design proposed for Phase I, based on a new paralleling-tapped concept developed by Face, allows for the supply of a different number of high voltages and high powers required to drive the TWT.

The Phase II proposal is focused on the technical improvement of the proposed device in order to achieve the performance levels required for low and medium power TWTs. In order to achieve this goal the following objectives will be pursued: (a) increase power output of current design up to 100W, (b) electronic integration for space application, and (c) reliability testing for the final equipment.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The 1990s were characterized by continual growth of communication satellites caused by the expanding need for fixed and mobile communications, broadcast television, and multimedia systems. The market share of satellite communication will rise from about 2.5% of total global communication revenues today (i.e. $20 billion of $800 billion) to 6.5% of all communications services (i.e. $68 to $80 billion of $1.2 trillion in 2005). The key element of a commercial communication satellite is the TWTA. Specifically, the current worldwide market segment for TWTs (including commercial and military ground and space applications) is estimated to be in the order of $500 million. Including military applications, the total space TWT market might amount to as much as $250 million. Typically a satellite can have more than 50 TWTs on board, the price of each being about $65k, so the total cost of the flight complement on board is about $3M. The maximum number of TWTs with power supplies is related to efficiency issues, space available, and component weight of onboard equipment. Improving the performance of the HV transformers, which represent about 10% to 20% of the total size, by using Transoner based power supplies, is a situation with significant commercial potential.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Alfredo Vazquez
Face Electronics, LC
427 West 35th Street
Norfolk , VA   23508 - 3201

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Face Electronics, LC
427 West 35th Street
Norfolk , VA   23508 - 3201


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.05-8415 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013584 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01151
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost Hardware for In-Space Oxygen/Hydrogen Propulsion, Phase II

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The use of gaseous oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant for satellite maneuvering, attitude control, and station keeping offers many advantages over the use of storable propellants such as nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) or nitrogen tetroxide/hydrazine (NTO/N2H4). Primary among these are increased specific impulse and reduced launch weight. Previously, the use of gaseous O2/H2 was limited by the lack of a combustion chamber material capable of withstanding the temperatures of stoichiometric O2/H2 combustion. Ultramet recently solved this problem by demonstrating a material system capable of operating for several hours under stoichiometric conditions utilizing only radiation cooling. Because the chambers reached temperatures of nearly 2600?C during testing, a water-cooled injector was used. That will not be an option in space, so an injector must be developed that will be able to withstand these extreme temperatures and minimize thermal soakback to the valves. In Phase I, an uncooled combustion chamber/injector system for use with stoichiometric O2/H2 propellants was designed, fabricated, and hot-fire tested. Phase II will focus on improving the life of the combustion chamber by taking a critical look at the designs of both the chamber and the injector. Modifications will be made, and several iterations of hot-fire testing will be performed. Based on previous hot-fire testing with this material system, it is anticipated that lifetimes in excess of ten hours can be achieved.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed technology will enable water electrolysis propulsion to become a reality and result in an increase in specific impulse of ~100 seconds. This will allow satellites to remain on station longer and/or increase their retasking capabilities, while simultaneously increasing the mass fraction delivered to orbit.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Arthur J. Fortini, Ph.D.
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima , CA   91331 - 2210

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima , CA   91331 - 2210


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.05-9431 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012568 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02025
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Catalysts for HAN/HEHN Based Monopropellants

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I work completed under Contract NAS3-02025 demonstrated that a family of ceramic oxides can successfully be used either as high temperature catalyst carriers or catalysts for decomposition of HAN/MeOH fuels. A ceramic processing technique to produce high surface area spherical catalyst granules was also demonstrated. However, no performance and process optimizations were performed. The work initiated in Phase I will be continued under Phase II to develop and test ceramic based catalyst carriers and catalysts that are capable of initiating the decomposition of HAN-based monopropellants, and sustaining steady-state runs for several hours. One or two candidates in each of catalyst carrier and unpromoted catalyst categories will be defined. Their performances in a small rocket engine will be demonstrated using the propellant(s) specified by NASA.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Catalysts proposed here as an ignition technique promise to achieve the same reliability as that already demonstrated with Shell 405 catalyst in hydrazine thrusters. The catalyst developed by STI has near-term applicability to NASA programs and ties in directly with nontoxic propellant thruster development in progress at other government centers and NASA or USAF contractors. The potential market for the catalyst to be developed under this Phase II SBIR contract and its Phase III follow-on commercialization contracts is the same as that for the well-established Shell 405 catalyst. Our material may eventually replace Shell 405 in most monopropellant thruster and gas generator applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ender Savrun
Sienna Technologies, Inc
19501 144th Ave NE, Ste F-500
Woodinville , WA   98072 - 4423

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Sienna Technologies, Inc
19501 144th Ave NE, Ste F-500
Woodinville , WA   98072 - 4423


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.06-8155 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013844 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01201
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enabling Cluster Based Architecture for Virtual Platforms and Sensor Webs

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Distributed spacecraft systems with enhanced formation flying (EFF) technology for onboard constellation and formation control will enable large numbers of spacecraft to be managed with a minimum of ground support. EFF facilitates a ?virtual platform? concept which lowers total mission risk, increases science data collection and adds considerable mission flexibility. The requirement to act as a unified information system places requirements on the system architecture that go above an beyond what is required for traditional systems.
We propose a software based infrastructure that facilitates dependable formation and operation of distributed real-time control systems with several innovations that advance the state of the art in distributed systems technology and sensor webs. These innovations include: 1) cold start algorithms that allow for autonomous, dependable system organization and formation, 2) distributed on-line configuration control, monitoring and health assessment processes that operate in concert across the entire system allowing for coordinated system operation, 3) a multi-level scheduling approach that allows for distributed control elements to be responsive to local events and to participate in system wide coordinated operations and 4) a robust fault/error model that accounts for arbitrary fault/error cases and anomalies, thereby providing superior fault tolerance, particularly for Single event Upsets (SEUs).

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
As distributed real-time systems move toward network centric architectures, the demand for dependable clustering capabilities multiply appreciably. Distributed clustering technology is at the threshold of market definition in commercial wireless, avionics, automotive, industrial, medical and ecommerce, and in distributed system/testbed/simulation applications. It has recognized applications for a wide spectrum of distributed information processing systems that are the basis for the information age.
Distributed clustering architectures of significant scale are fairly recent and have not yet matured to the point where they offer appropriate dependability and real-time performance. In avionics (both military and commercial) alone, the market value is projected to be sufficient to establish a viable business case. In addition to this market, WWTG also foresees significant opportunities in automotive and truck fleet markets where there is interest in architecture concepts for expediting traffic flow, and now safety for highways and critical access areas. WWTG's strategy for entering this market is based on using its extensive experience and strong background in successful fault tolerant systems developments translated into dependable distributed cluster technology applied to targeted, viable commercial markets.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Chris Walter
WW Technology Group
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City , MD   21042 - 5949

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
WW Technology Group
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City , MD   21042 - 5949


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.06-8510 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013489 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01164
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Distributed Guidance And Control System For Satellite Constellations

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Accurate Automation Corporation has developed a distributed adaptive guidance and control architecture for minimum Delta-V formation flying of satellite constellations. The innovation in this approach is that it is an extremely streamlined solution to a very difficult guidance and control problem. The guidance module of the proposed architecture is built around a simulation of a system of particles whose motion is a result of attractive and repulsive forces generated through simulated potential fields. Desirable characteristics of the guidance system are: 1) that a large number of satellites, starting at some initial conditions, can move amongst themselves to some desired final conditions with a guarantee that undesirable interactions between individual satellites will not occur, 2) that the path taken by each individual satellite can be achieved using minimum Delta-V, and 3) that the guidance system is distributed. In order to guarantee stability for the satellite constellation as a whole, we designed a distributed satellite control module with a specifiable convergence rate. This in combination with our ability to specify the convergence rate of the guidance module, allows us to ensure that each satellite will stay within a certain distance of its commanded path (tracking error has a known bound).

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This project will result in two products. The first product will be a distributed, nonlinear, adaptive guidance module for minimum Delta-V formation flying of satellite constellations. The second product will be a nonlinear satellite tracking control module with the capability for user specified convergence rate. These products are important to NASA because they can be applied to control of semi-autonomous agents of any sort, including spacecraft, rovers, and submersibles. The potential size of the Government market is very large. The Air Force and NASA are investigating a wide range of satellite constellation applications, including TechSat-21 (Air Force) and NASA?s LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) for observing gravitational waves in space, NASA?s MAXIM (Micro-Arcsecond X-Ray Imaging Mission) for capturing the black hole phenomenon, NASA?s Stellar Imager for understanding the magnetic field of stars, NASA?s SPECS (Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure), another interferometer, and NASA?s GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) for helping predict climates.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
James C. Neidhoefer
Accurate Automation Corporation
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga , TN   37421 - 1716

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Accurate Automation Corporation
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga , TN   37421 - 1716


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.07-8773 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013226 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02029
PROPOSAL TITLE: Soft Magnetic Nanocomposites for High-Frequency Power Applications

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As an excellent candidate soft magnetic material for transformer, generator, inductor and other applications at low frequency, Fe-Co alloys have attracted much attention. However, at high frequency, the power loss increases due to its low electrical resistivity. During the Phase I research, Nanomat, Inc. has successfully synthesized Fe-Co alloy nanoparticles coated with some electrically insulating materials in order to increase its electrical resistivity. Interesting results pertaining to the electrical and magnetic properties of such nanocomposites achieved in the Phase I research suggest that there is considerable merit for further research and development of the approach. In the Phase II program, Nanomat will focus on the optimization of powder synthesis, consolidation and scale-up. We will consolidate the powder in order to achieve high density compacts and evaluate their microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties as a function of compaction parameter. The additional developments and improvements will be the critical steps needed to incorporate the technology developed during Phase I into the market. Additionally, similar studies on synthesis, compaction and characterization of structural, magnetic and electrical properties of Fe-Ni alloy nanoparticles, will also be taken up.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Fe-Co nanocomposites can be used for many applications, especially in power converters, motor drivers and other power electronics in commercial as well as military satellites, aircrafts, and spacecrafts requiring soft magnetic materials for use at high frequency. This material may also be used to make antennas and high frequency coils, tunable filters for cellular handset, suppression beads, choke coils, loading coils etc. Fe-Ni nanomaterials have potential applications in audio coils, transformers magnetic amplifier coils, etc.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Anit Giri
Nanomat, Inc.
1061 Main Street, Building #1
North Huntingdon , PA   15501 - 1267

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Nanomat, Inc.
1061 Main Street, Building #1
North Huntingdon , PA   15501 - 1267


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.07-9483 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012516 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02031
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long-Lived Solar Concentrator for Space Power

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the first phase of this SBIR, Long Lived Solar Concentrator for Space Power, NAS3-02031, L?Garde has focused on development of inflatably deployed rigidizable parabolic reflectors for space based solar power. L?Garde has proposed the novel approach of utilizing an inflated solar concentrator for the high precision requirements of solar propulsion, then rigidizing the reflector and jettisoning the canopy to provide long term solar concentration for space power generation at lower concentration levels. The concept of rigidizing a reflector for space solar concentration was demonstrated by rigidizing a 1m-diameter aluminum laminate reflector and achieving an excellent surface precision of 0.80 mm RMS. Through fabrication and test of high quality test articles, the relative merits of two reflector rigidization concepts, Sub Tg and Aluminum Laminate, were demonstrated and compared. L?Garde strongly recommends proceeding to a Phase II effort, and has developed a comprehensive analysis and test plan to build on the successes of Phase I. L?Garde?s unique mix of skills, experience, design tools, and test hardware will ensure the greatest chance of bringing this very important technology to fruition.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial applications for rigidizable reflector/concentrator concept are many. The lightweight and simplicity of the concept, coupled with the reliability of inflatable deployment, will be used in the fields of solar propulsion and deep space power generation. Further, the rigidized reflector can be utilized in the RF spectrum for space based radar, communications, radiometry, earth mapping, and with some further development possibly even optics. Relevant testing in a simulated space environment will significantly raise the technology readiness levels of these technologies, and give the confidence needed for incorporation of inflatably deployed rigidizable reflectors into America?s space programs.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
David Lichodziejewski
L'Garde, Inc.
15181 Woodlawn Ave.
Tustin , CA   92780 - 6487

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
L'Garde, Inc.
15181 Woodlawn Ave.
Tustin , CA   92780 - 6487


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.07-9800 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012199 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01212
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multipurpose Li-Ion Spacecraft Battery

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phase I established the viability of a 3.0-volt, Li-ion-based LixV2O5 cell system. Rechargeability, rate capability, and operability at -30oC, -200C, R/T, and +550C were demonstrated. It was also found that depending on the structural modifications of V2O5, delivery of specific capacity at 200 mAh/g or higher can be achieved. Further development and optimization of this cathode material, including processing of the electrode, should merit this system for NASA missions (GEO, LEO and Terrestrial). This Phase II effort proposes to further the development of two types of crystalline V2O5 (bulk crystalline and nanocrystalline) and two types of amorphous V2O5. Continued effort on this cathode technology will focus on the synthesis and optimization of the materials, characterizations of the materials at the 15-350 mAh cell level, determinations of the optimum windows for each specific materials with respect to achieving long cycle life, and the development of a 5 Ah cell prototype as the cell deliverables. Three basic tasks are therefore proposed: Task 1. Cathode Development, Task 2. Anode/Electrolyte Development, and Task 3. Cell Development for a duration of 24 months.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Successful introduction of high rate and high energy density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries is expected to have significance in commercial markets as well for military and aerospace markets. The key features in MaxPower's presently proposed SBIR battery R&D program are high energy density, high rate, and an operational range over an extremely wide temperature range. Uses in commercial markets include power tools, mobile computing (e.g. notebook PCs with energy and power demanding disk drives) which operate via satellite communications, implantable medical devices such as cardiac pacemakers and ICD batteries, and the high power battery required for hybrid electric vehicles, e.g. in combination with a low power very high energy density fuel cell.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mark Salomon
MaxPower, Inc.
220 Stahl Road
Harleysville , PA   19438 - 1911

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
MaxPower, Inc.
220 Stahl Road
Harleysville , PA   19438 - 1911


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E3.02-8972 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013027 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02019
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Plan Execution System For Web-Based Scientific Data Integration

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The sheer quantity of data available to scientists via the Internet is staggering, and more is being collected, aggregated and processed daily. Unfortunately, this data is scattered in collections throughout the network, stored in a variety of formats, and accessible via many different types of programs. NASA is a primary producer of scientific data, as well as an important consumer of such data, and thus developing systems to help scientists access, integrate and process large volumes of heterogeneous data is clearly in NASA's interest. Theseus is a commercial high-performance plan execution system that we have developed for integrating web-based data. We propose to extend the Theseus architecture to create a practical system that will make it easy for earth scientists to access, stage, integrate and process large volumes of scientific data distributed over the Internet. Theseus employs a dataflow architecture for plan execution, which we can leverage to create an innovative, scalable approach for processing distributed scientific data. The resulting system will be used as part of a collaborative ongoing effort with scientists from NASA Ames and University of Montana who are applying AI planning technology to ?Biospheric NowCasting? -- real-time ecosystem modeling from Earth Science data.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed work will significantly extend the parallel processing and data handling capabilities of the Fetch Agent Platform, our existing commercial system, which is built on top of the Theseus architecture. Though the market for scientific data integration is relatively small, there exists much larger potential markets for Internet Application Integration (IAI) and Intelligence, and the proposed project will significantly enhance Fetch Technologies abilities to sell into these markets. The ability to easily access, move and transform data is critical for IAI in that large enterprise organizations have numerous disparate sources of information that they need to integrate. Similarly, intelligence organizations that we have been working with (e.g., US SOCOM) are very interested in improving their technology for gathering and integrating geospatial and intelligence data. The new capabilities that we develop in this project will be marketed as ?add on? components to our existing product. Potential customers, in addition to U.S. military and intelligence services, include Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), and B2B integration companies.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Steven Minton
Fetch Technologies
4676 Admiralty Way, 10th floor
Marina del Rey , CA   90292 - 6611

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Fetch Technologies
4676 Admiralty Way, 10th floor
Marina del Rey , CA   90292 - 6611


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E3.03-9195 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012804 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02021
PROPOSAL TITLE: 1024 x 1024 Liquid Crystal Multi-Level Spatial Light Modulator

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Success in recent high-speed multi-level spatial light modulator (SLM) developments has led to a desire for increased resolution at these high frame rates. Applications such as optical correlation, holographic storage, and multi-spot beam-steering would all benefit from the development of a very high-resolution high-speed multi-level SLM. Today Boulder Nonlinear Systems (BNS) offers several high-speed liquid crystal SLMs custom designed for use in high-end optical systems. The most advanced SLM is our 512x512 pixel multi-level SLM that can operate at frame rates exceeding 1000-Hz. However, many applications require even higher resolution to maximize the processing gain achieved from the highly parallel nature of the SLM. BNS proposes to develop a multi-level 1024x1024 SLM with 5-micron pixels and 1000-Hz frame rate. In Phase I, BNS developed a conceptual design for the system. The Phase II effort completes the development by fabricating and testing the 1024x1024 SLM system.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
BNS has built substantial business around our SLMs because we designed them exclusively for phase and amplitude encoding instead of manipulating intensity as would a display device. This focus results in devices with superior performance for non-display applications. With the successful completion of the proposed Phase II effort, we will be in a position to offer this 1024x1024 multi-level SLM as a product, the likes of which cannot currently be found anywhere. Potential customers that have shown interest in this development include those in laser-tweezer microscopy, optical correlation, holographic storage, beam steering, high-speed printing and atmospheric correction.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Steve Serati
Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette , CO   80026 - 8878

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette , CO   80026 - 8878


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E3.04-9142 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012857 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS13-02006
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Processing Incorporating coremicro IMU and GPS Data

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of the proposed Phase II project is to develop AGNC?-2000CIMIU coremicro? IMU/GPS-based hyperspectral remote sensing processing system for spaceborne and airborne in situ data collection systems. This effort will result a high payoff and unique commercial product which features real time and high precision. Location and attitude information provided by the sensor suite of AGNC?-2000CIMIU coremicro? IMU and a GPS receiver are used for hyperspectral image processing. The Phase I efforts and achievements have laid a solid foundation for success of the Phase II project. Specifically, the Phase II project would: 1) Refine and integrate the Phase I algorithms; 2) Implement the miniature and custom design for hardware system; 3) Develop embedded software system, and 4) Perform the marketing and commercialization of the end product. Commercial applications include the use of the pointing and positioning system for monitoring water quality, geodesy surveying, precision farming, and potentially for other applications such as aircraft landing.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This project will lead to an innovative real time high accuracy pointing system which has wide commercial applications, such as assessment of environmentally sensitive locations, geodesy surveying, precision farming, and aircraft landing.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ching-Fang Lin, Ph.D
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley , CA   93065 - 1812

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley , CA   93065 - 1812


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E3.04-9718 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012281 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS13-02007
PROPOSAL TITLE: Web-Based Hurricane Storm Surge and Flood Forecasting Using Optimized IFSAR Bald Earth DEMs

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase II objective is to deliver two commercial products: 1) variational analysis software that can produce optimized DEM maps for any region along the US coast; and 2) hurricane flood atlases for any coastal area.

These atlases will not only include higher-resolution storm surge simulations but rainfall effects as well. For flash flood mapping, the well-established HEC software program will be obtained from the Hydrologic Engineering Center of the US Army Corps of Engineers. These maps will have overlaid roads and detailed coastline information. Product evaluation partners will provide guidance on how to make the graphical output easy to interpret for their use.

It is important to note the power and versatility of variational analysis - non-conventional variables (in this case, optical pixel brightness and backscatter) can be incorporated into a cost function to find the optimized solution for an unrelated variable (in this case, elevation).

The current implementation of variational analysis yields desirable improvements to bare-earth estimation in several key areas, while other aspects require more work. There are also validation uncertainties due to a lack of ground truth that hampers both the development of the algorithm and in validation efforts. These shortcomings will be addressed in Phase II.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The market is wide open for the application of state-of-the-art remote sensing information to improve public safety. Federal and state agencies, such as Federal Emergency Management Agency, are evaluating IFSAR data as a potential solution for its Floodplain Map Reinvention Program, at significantly less cost [and higher resolution] than traditional means could achieve (Imaging Notes, July 2000).

Baron Services, of Huntsville, AL, currently distributes WorldWinds? commercial weather product line. They are interested in adding the storm surge and flood prediction forecasts into their current product offering to their established customer base that includes: local Emergency Management Officials, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and their TV broadcast station clientele.

A second major client base is the utilization of DEMs for orthorectification of satellite and airborne imagery. Intermap Technologies of Englewood, CO, is very interested in partnering on this SBIR in an effort to utilize WorldWinds' automated DEM algorithms for their commercial applications. This will be a ?ready-made? established market for the WorldWinds? developed DEM algorithm. Intermap is the commercial world leader in elevation mapping and plans to capitalize on its market and technology leadership, by capturing complete national coverage of the United States, Japan, and countries in Western Europe.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Elizabeth Valenti
WorldWinds, Inc.
29 Timberlane Road
Picayune , MS   39466 - 0001

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
WorldWinds, Inc.
29 Timberlane Road
Picayune , MS   39466 - 0001


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E4.02-8394 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013605 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS13-02009
PROPOSAL TITLE: An In-situ, Biogeochemical Sensor using Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorometry

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technical, scientific, and commercial feasibility of developing a novel aquatic in-situ biogeochemical sensor, termed the XMF, is evaluated. Using excitation-emission matrix fluorometry, the sensor will enable in-situ simultaneous detection and effective analytical separation of individual biogeochemical components present in seawater, including humic substances, hydrocarbons, proteins, wastewater/sewage, and other natural and anthropogenic substances. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) will be measured at sampling rates on the order of a second. No scanning of the monochromators, in fact no moving parts whatsoever, will be required. The technological innovation making this possible is termed Double Dispersion Imaging (DDI). The sensor software will incorporate real-time, automated quantum corrections and 2-D mixing analysis techniques. Design goals emphasize portability, compactness, ruggedness, and enabling flexible deployment through features such as variable sampling rates and memory storage capabilities. No current sensor for oceanographic deployment has these characteristics. If feasibility is demonstrated, the XMF is expected to be a powerful analytical tool for investigating biogeochemical processes that we feel will realistically mark a turning point in the analytical oceanic measurement capabilities.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
WET Labs plans to commercialize and manufacture three products as a direct result of this SBIR effort. These products will include an in water sensor for detection and classification of dissolved hydrocarbons and natural dissolved organics, a general purpose bench-top spectral fluorometer for process control and underway applications, and a in-water spectral fluorometer for biogenic identification. In addition two collaborations are presently underway which will allow the company to develop products using the core technologies and methods developed in this project, for developing chemical sensors for process control applications in the sewage treatment community and for making smart auto analyzers for autonomous and remote vehicles. The company sees potential revenues from manufacture and licensing to produce total revenues exceeding $50M. WET labs is currently hiring a marketing manager to assure successful implementation and completion of its commercialization efforts.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Casey Moore
WET Labs, Inc.
620 Applegate St. (PO Box 518)
Philomath , OR   97370 - 0518

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
WET Labs, Inc.
620 Applegate St. (PO Box 518)
Philomath , OR   97370 - 0518


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E4.02-9548 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012451 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS13-02010
PROPOSAL TITLE: Atmospheric Correction of Remote Imagery Using Ground-based Radiometers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Spectral Sciences, Inc. project addresses the development of data analysis software tools for ground-based radiometers to facilitate improved atmospheric correction of remotely sensed hyperspectral and multispectral imagery (HSI and MSI) of the coastal zone. The atmospheric variables needed for the correction (water vapor and ozone column amounts, and aerosol optical properties) may be retrieved from a radiometer located in the vicinity of the remotely sensed scene of interest. The radiometer-retrieved information will significantly improve atmospheric correction accuracy, most notably by taking the guesswork out of selecting a suitable aerosol model

Phase I featured novel MODTRAN-based algorithms and tools for analyzing shadow band radiometer measurements and porting the results to the FLAASH atmospheric correction algorithm. Key accomplishments include demonstration of radiometer data conditioning for continuous daytime retrievals, an aerosol parameterization that extrapolates well into the IR, analysis of radiometer data, and demonstration of complete, end-to-end atmospheric retrieval and correction using simulated radiometer and HSI data. In Phase II, an integrated software toolkit will be prototyped and validated against new HSI/MSI field and archival data. In Phase III, the toolkit will be commercialized and integrated with MODTRAN5 and ENVI/FLAASH products under development with our commercial partner, Research Systems, Inc.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
While the initially targeted application would be NASA?s current and future coastal zone remote sensing needs, an extensive market for such software exists within the broad-based remote sensing community, which includes numerous government agencies (NASA, USDA, USAF, DOE, etc.) and private companies. A key commercial application is precision agriculture, which is being pursued by one of our development partners, Resource 21 LLC. Other commercial remote sensing applications include mineral exploration, forestry management, rangeland management, and environmental monitoring. Related military remote sensing applications include surveillance, reconnaissance, and technical intelligence. Both commercial and military applications utilize aircraft and satellite sensor platforms.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Steven Adler-Golden
Spectral Sciences, Inc.
99 South Bedford Street, Suite 7
Burlington , MA   01803 - 5169

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Spectral Sciences, Inc.
99 South Bedford Street, Suite 7
Burlington , MA   01803 - 5169


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H1.01-8212 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013787 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01057
PROPOSAL TITLE: Toolkit for Enabling Adaptive Modeling and Simulation (TEAMS)

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to design, build, and deploy a Toolkit for Enabling Adaptive Modeling and Simulation (TEAMS). The proposed solution uses a process-centered approach to automatically reconfigure and optimize space transportation system operations analysis models. Because it operates over the Internet, the TEAMS solution will be platform independent and enable collaborative space transportation system operations modeling and analysis over geographically dispersed locations. The technical viability of the approach was established in Phase I by designing and prototyping an adaptive analysis tool that facilitates collaborative design of future NASA spaceport operations processes. The Phase II effort will implement the innovation on two focused NASA operations analysis applications and rapidly commercialize the research results. Central Phase II products include (i) TEAMS software applications, (ii) re-configurable spaceport operations modeling framework, and (iii) scalable operations analysis knowledge repository. Key innovations include (i) a process-centered approach that maximizes re-use of domain knowledge for rapid operations analysis model development, (ii) open-architecture, distributed, plug and play architecture that allows for mass customization and rapid deployment of TEAMS tools in multiple application problems, and (iii) novel, simulation-based optimization mechanisms that facilitate risk minimization through exploration of a large number of spaceport design configurations at reduced cost.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The first application of TEAMS will be to provide a model-based infrastructure for quickly and cost-effectively developing, maintaining and reconfiguring operations analysis models with NASA space transportation system designers. Other NASA TEAMS applications include space transportation systems analysis and design, spaceport process and infrastructure design, spaceport decision support systems, spaceport performance optimization, and virtual spaceport prototyping and validation. TEAMS commercial applications include air transportation system design, airport systems analysis and design, supply chain analysis and design, simulation-based acquisition, and virtual systems prototyping.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Perakath Benjamin
Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.
1408 University Drive East
College Station , TX   77840 - 2335

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.
1408 University Drive East
College Station , TX   77840 - 2335


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H1.02-8768 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013231 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01168
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed. Inspired by the biological example of cooperative nest building by social insects, the architecture's robotic construction agents perform their construction duties stigmergically, i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through sensed modifications made to the structure by each agent. Phase I simulations have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. During Phase II, the prototype multi-robot architecture will be comprehensively developed. The idealized robot subsystem models utilized in Phase I will be replaced with detailed engineering models. Phase II research objectives include the development of a comprehensive simulation of the cooperative multi-robot control architecture, development of parametric design relationships between the key robotic subsystems, and a system demonstration using commercial robotic hardware. It is anticipated that the Phase II research program will lead to a robust multi-robot control strategy that will make the use of autonomous robots a viable option for the assembly of future large space structures.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Coordinating the actions of multiple autonomous robots in order to assemble any structure is a challenging task, but the application of stigmergic principles may lead to a simplification of the undertaking. The development of a flexible, cooperative multi-robot control architecture which incorporates a stigmergic building algorithm has the potential to produce significant commercial applications. Commercialization opportunities may exist in situations where an assembly process is required and the environmental conditions are so hazardous that the use of autonomous construction robots is ideal. Examples include the construction of a containment structure after a nuclear accident and the underwater assembly of oil extraction platforms.
In addition to the construction of large structural assemblies, it may become possible in the near future to build very small items by using nanotechnology to create very small robotic agents. A common scenario for the envisioned technology involves many individual nanobots working collectively, hence requiring a cooperative control architecture to coordinate their activities. It is anticipated that the proposed research will produce a stigmergically based control architecture that can be applied to the emerging field of nanotechnology.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Thomas G. Howsman
Dynamic Concepts, Inc.
P. O. Box 97
Madison , AL   35758 - 0097

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dynamic Concepts, Inc.
P. O. Box 97
Madison , AL   35758 - 0097


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.02-8835 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013164 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01169
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rotational Molding of Thermoplastic Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rotational molding is a low-cost processing scheme used to fabricate large tanks, ducts, and tubes with complicated shapes. Rotational molding of liquid crystal polymer (LCP) resins was successfully demonstrated in the Phase I program, and the proposed Phase II effort will continue development of this process. LCP materials are of interest in application to cryogenic propellant storage because of their low permeability, low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), excellent strength, and chemical inertness. Development of rotationally molded LCP articles addresses the aerospace industry's need for lightweight, low-cost liners for use in propellant storage tanks and transport lines in space vehicles. LCP tanks will potentially be suitable for use with several liquid rocket propellant systems including liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Rotationally molded LCP tanks will have a broad domestic application base in containment of cryogenic liquids, compressed gas, hazardous chemicals, and food processing. In effect, we hope to use LCPs as a low cost and lightweight alternative to metal containment materials such as stainless steel. We estimate the potential market size for rotationally molded LCPs in the tens of millions of dollars per year range.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Paul A. Clark, Ph.D.
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.02-9320 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012679 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01062
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Thermal Loss Cryogenic Pump

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phase I has shown that it is of great importance in most cryogenic pumping systems to minimize heat addition to the cryogen by the pump. Heat addition from pump inefficiency is the most significant heat addition source and conduction from the motor and ambient surroundings into the cryogen is secondary. The lower thermal conductivity of composite materials essentially eliminates the heat conducted to the cryogen, and allows a significant reduction in the length of what is typically an extended pump drive shaft. The previously long shaft may have limited the speed at which the pump may operate. The speed limitation usually increases pump inefficiency thus adding more heat to the cryogen. By incorporation of the composite material, and the subsequent drive shaft shortening that allows, a window for operation at increased speed is achieved. This will lower heat from inefficiency and allow the pump to operate at a higher, more efficient speed.

Phase II will design, build, and test a prototype cryogenic pump using composite components. Further research and design studies will be performed based on Phase I results. A pump intended for a Liquid Hydrogen transfer application will be delivered to NASA at the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The technology developed in this SBIR will be extremely useful in Helium and Hydrogen pumping applications. In these very cold applications, it can be worth thousands of dollars in operating costs to limit heat addition anywhere in the cryogenic system. BNI has sold many Helium and Hydrogen pumps for applications from magnet cooling in superconductors to circulation of Hydrogen in a propellant densification system. Nearly all of these systems could have benefited from this technology.

There is also commercial potential for this innovative pump design anywhere that cryogenic fluids (liquids and vapors) need to be transferred. All of the numerous cryogenic pumps, blowers, and compressors that Barber-Nichols supplies each year could use this technology. This would result in lower capital costs when developing the system due to the ability to use smaller cryostats. It would also lower energy consumption during operation.

With the successful demonstration of a cryogenic composite to metallic adhesive bond in Phase I, the potential commercial applications have broadened significantly to include any cryogenic system application where the use of composite materials technology is desired. Examples include liquid cryogen transfer pumps for propellant densification.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Bill Batton
Barber-Nichols Inc.
6325 W. 55th Ave
Arvada , CO   80002 - 2777

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Barber-Nichols Inc.
6325 W. 55th Ave
Arvada , CO   80002 - 2777


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.02-9952 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012047 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01063
PROPOSAL TITLE: Energy Efficient Cryogenic Transfer Line with Magnetic Suspension

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Energy efficient, cost effective, cryogenic distribution system (up to several miles) is strongly commanded for spaceport and in-space cryogenic systems. The use of magnetic levitation by permanent magnets and high temperature superconductors (HTS) results in without mechanical contact and thus, the conduction part of the heat leak can be reduced to zero. In Phase I, various magnetic suspensions, magnetic materials, insulations and mechanical stops for the cryo-maglev transfer line has been comprehensively investigated. Two demo modules of the cryo-transfer line has been designed and constructed. The cryogenic tests of the modules successfully demonstrate the vertical magnetic suspension, horizontal stability, and other important performances that have paved the solid ground for a Phase II project. In phase II, further optimizations of the designs and performances of cryo-maglev transfer lines will be conducted analytically and experimentally to meet the KSC technical requirements. The various warm supports (shape-memory-materials, bimetals, special magnetic structures, and special metal wires) will be studied. Two full sized prototype transfer lines will be designed, constructed and cryogenic tested at KSC. The proposed novel transfer line will provide potential of extending many missions, save cryogens, or reducing the overall launch mass to accomplish a given mission.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed energy efficient, cost effective cryogen transfer lines with magnetic levitation technologies are strongly demanded in a variety of applications including the transport of liquefied gases (N2, O2, H2, He and LNG) and in superconducting applications such as high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission lines. These technologies can also be used in various cryogenic tanks and cryostats in storage of cryogens for many government facilities (NASA, DOE, DOD, TOD, etc.) and private sectors (LNG facilities, chemistry plants, Liquefied gases plant, etc.)

*Very high thermal performance transfer lines for NASA spaceport (up to several miles) and in space application
*The technologies developed in this project will also directly be used in cryotank and cryostat (many NASA missions)
*For liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and liquid natural gas transportation industry of the future, LH2 powered cars, buses, planes and rockets
*Smaller rockets such as envisioned for on-orbit payload transfer operations or interplanetary propulsion
*Cryogen transfer line for super conducting accelerators and power cables industrials
* These technologies can also be extended to other applications, which need magnetic levitations.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Quan-Sheng Shu
AMAC International
12050 Jefferson Ave, Suite 348
Newport News , VA   23606 - 4385

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
AMAC International
12050 Jefferson Ave, Suite 348
Newport News , VA   23606 - 4385


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.03-8178 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013821 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01064
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Volumetric Visualization Using CBDs for Aviation Range Safety and Air T

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the use of Crossed-Beam Volumtric Displays for Range Safety and Mission Control of NASA rocket launch facilities.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Applications exist in NASA, the Department of Defense, and commercial markets.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Elizabeth Downing
3D Technology Laboratories
1243 Reamwood Drive
Sunnyvale , CA   94089 - 2226

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
3D Technology Laboratories
1243 Reamwood Drive
Sunnyvale , CA   94089 - 2226


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.03-8201 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013798 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01065
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spaceport Compatible Optical Sensor Suite for Hazardous Gas Detection

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Monitoring mission critical gases is vital for space ventures, including space shuttles, the international space station, spacecraft for planetary missions, spaceports, future projects on Mars, and satellites ? they all need to monitor gases that are mission critical. Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS), based on the successful results of Phase I, proposes to develop a compact and multi-analyte sensing platform for use across all NASA enterprises. Specifically, IOS will develop a prototype MOFS (multiplexed optical fiber sensor) unit for measuring, in real time, the leakage of highly combustible cryogenic fluids (hydrogen and oxygen) in spaceport and spacecraft in low ppms over multiple locations. The use of optical fiber in the MOFS unit will eliminate the danger of any arc or spark. During Phase I, IOS successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed device by constructing an eight-channel experimental setup that was able to detect 0.02% oxygen and 0.1% hydrogen with no interference from 100% nitrogen, argon, helium, and carbon dioxide. IOS has committed $150,000 co-funding for Phase II, and has attracted $250,000 in additional follow-on funding. IOS will deliver the MOFS prototype to NASA, complete with software, manuals, and schematics.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
It is estimated that the present $1.2 billion worldwide gas sensing market needs safe and reliable sensors to measure leaks in valves, and personal units for hydrogen gas safety monitoring. The transition into a hydrogen economy could push the $120,000,000 annual hydrogen sensor market today into annual sales of $1,800,000,000 by 2010 for hydrogen safety sensing according to available estimates. Hydrogen feed stock sensors needed to manage gas flow and purity will further increase the demand for hydrogen sensors. The upgrading of fuel tanks aboard commercial, freight, military, and corporate jets to avoid potential explosion from fuel vapor will open new markets for oxygen sensing. If the FAA mandates that all fuel tanks switch from open aerated fuel tanks into closed oxygen purged systems, then $900,000,000 in oxygen sensor will be required to meet the current need. Over $100,000,000 per year would be spent on sensor tip replacement during scheduled tri-annual fuel tank maintenance. The current combined world market totals roughly 40,000 aircraft in service today growing to 60,000 aircraft by 2020. Of these, new aircraft will replace about 40,000 aircraft, as older airplanes are retired and military aircraft upgraded.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Kisholoy Goswami
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance , CA   90505 - 5217

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance , CA   90505 - 5217


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.03-8501 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013498 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01066
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact, Low-Power Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Many hazardous gases that NASA needs to monitor on and around space vehicles during launch could be detected using mass spectrometers that need operate over only a limited mass range. But, stringent requirements of low weight and low power operation, plus the ability to tolerate high G-forces and excessive vibration prevent the ready adaptation of existing, commercial mass spectrometers to these applications. This Phase I SBIR project successfully tested a novel, compact, inexpensive, low power, time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) for quantitative measurement of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. The key insight behind our approach is recognizing that a useful TOFMS can be built incorporating a short flight tube that is operated at low energies. Phase I proof-of-principle experiments provide the essential information needed to design and build a prototype instrument that will be delivered to NASA KSC at the end of Phase II. We anticipate that deliverable will meet most of the target parameters specified in the Phase I solicitation: operation between 2 and 40 amu; a measurement dynamic range of 1,000,000; less than 3500 cubic centimeter volume; and, less than 10 kg total weight.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The planned technology also has commercial application as a low cost, portable sensor for leak detection, hygrometry, breathing air monitoring, and residual gas analysis.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
David Bomse
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco St., Suite E-11
Santa Fe , NM   87505 - 3993

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco St., Suite E-11
Santa Fe , NM   87505 - 3993


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.03-9895 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012104 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01067
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rugged High-Vacuum System for a Spacecraft Mass Spectrometer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has a pressing need for cost-effective and rugged mass spectrometers to detect hazardous gases on and around space vehicles during launch and flight. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small detectors for mass spectrometers. However, the vacuum systems required to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power hungry. An even greater problem is that commercially available high vacuum pumps cannot supply the required performance while withstanding the loads that would be experienced if the pumps were located on the launch vehicle or adjacent structures. Creare proposes to build and test a rugged, space-qualifiable vacuum system for use in a mass spectrometer. The vacuum system utilizes two innovative pump designs: a turbomolecular pump and a molecular drag pump. Both pumps employ a unique motor developed during Phase I specifically to provide high vibration tolerance. These pumps, which also rely on pump design technology developed in earlier NASA-sponsored projects, will be combined with a modified commercial diaphragm pump. Together, these pumps will comprise an integrated vacuum system that is optimized for use in a mass spectrometer operating in a harsh environment.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The vacuum system has commercial applications to support portable analytical instruments such as mass spectrometers and leak detectors that are intended for harsh environments. This includes mass spectrometers used for military chemical and biological weapons detection, and general-purpose field use such as environmental monitoring. Current-generation portable mass spectrometers are limited either by the size, mass, and ruggedness of their turbomolecular pumps or because they use less capable absorption pumps. Building a small, lightweight, low-power, and rugged vacuum system based on a turbomolecular pump and a molecular drag pump whose performance is optimized to meet the needs of miniature detectors, will expand the market for portable mass spectrometers.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Marc Kenton
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.04-9878 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012121 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01069
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacecraft Charge Monitor

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Electrostatic charging can damage spacecraft, cause instrument biases that limit the accuracy of scientific measurements, and poses a direct hazard to personnel during extravehicular activity. There are now few options available for monitoring spacecraft charge. An inexpensive, compact, reliable, easily deployed spacecraft charge monitor is needed. Goembel Instruments has developed just such an instrument - the Spacecraft Charge Monitor (SCM). In Phase I we built and tested a prototype SCM. Results from Phase I show that the SCM will revolutionize the field of spacecraft charge detection. The 500 gram, 1 Watt, instrument will be able to determine spacecraft floating potential to within 0.1 volt for each second in flight. The SCM's performance represents an order of magnitude improvement over what is available now. In Phase II we will advance the SCM from laboratory prototype to flight prototype. We will develop flight electronics, a flight sensor head, calibrate the instrument, put it through a series of tests for flight worthiness, and deliver the fully tested flight instrument and documentation to NASA. The Phase II work will produce an SCM for flight tests, and will prepare us for the Phase III production of instruments.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
There are three markets in aerospace for use of the SCM: 1) scientific use in low earth orbit, 2) use for the detection of hazardous charge, and, 3) use for the detection of charge in the solar wind. We have already made a significant advance into the first market. The SCM has been included in one of two proposals now pending for the NPOESS satellite system. If funded, $3-5 million would be available for the production of the Goembel Instruments SCM starting as early as late 2002. We expect continued success in marketing the instrument to both the private sector and the Government (for all three uses given above). For instance, the SCM would excel at monitoring the floating potential of the International Space Station, which charges to dangerously high levels. The SCM could be used on its own to warn of high levels of charge or it could be used in conjunction with a discharge device to reduce charge. The relatively modest expenditure by NASA in Phase II would do a great deal to advance the state of the art in spacecraft charge sensing and make an inexpensive, compact, reliable spacecraft charge monitor available to all.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Luke Goembel
Goembel Instruments
1020 Regester Avenue
Baltimore , MD   21239 - 1515

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Goembel Instruments
1020 Regester Avenue
Baltimore , MD   21239 - 1515


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.05-9646 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012353 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01171
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermophotovoltaic and Thermionic Power Systems with Film Concentrators

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility of demonstrating critical subsystems and components of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) and thermionic (TI) power systems that use thin-film solar concentrators. Based on design, performance, and technology readiness evaluations, key hardware elements were identified for both electrical, power generation approaches and a thin-film concentrator assembly that are viable for validation testing. The Phase II work will validate the performance of critical elements of solar TPV and TI power systems. These elements are: a preshaped thin-film primary concentrator with inflatable support structure; the TPV receiver-emitter with a band gap solar cell array; and the TI thermal receiver with integral cylindrical inverted converter and secondary concentrator.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
In addition to large-scale, long-lived space solar power systems, these technologies have applications in near-sun and Mars-class missions, large antennas, high resolution earth observation satellites, light collectors for precision secondary optics, solar thermal and electric propulsion and high temperature materials processing in space. Ground commercial applications include large- and small-scale electrical power generation and use of the inflatable structures for emergency shelters in extreme environments and in lightweight articles exposed to long-term weathering conditions.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Rodney Bradford
United Applied Technologies
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville , AL   35803 - 4327

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
United Applied Technologies
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville , AL   35803 - 4327


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.07-9502 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012497 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02034
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Fiber Optic Sensors for Space-Based Nuclear Reactors

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Luna Innovations has successfullly completed all of the Phase I objectives. A Distributed Grating Demodulation System (DGDS) was constructed and tested using radiation-resistant fiber. Temperatue sensors were produced and calibrated. Two housings were constructed that allow an all-welded pressure boundary penetration. Radiation testing was successfully conducted on sensing fiber in a combined high-neutron and gamma environment. The key technological advantage offered by the sensors developed under this program is their ability to be highly multiplexed, allowing the placement of literally thousands of sensors along a single optical fiber.

There are three strategic objectives for the Phase II: 1) Fully validate the DGDS technology for space reactor applications, 2) Expand the application base for DGDS sensor technology, and 3) Develop strategy for commercial development. The primary objective is to finalize sensor designs using specifications obtained from NASA and industry partners so that prototypes can be constructed. Resolving high temperature operation is a major portion of this objective. The application base will be expanded by designing sensors that can measure temperature, strain, pressure, and flow. Luna has an extremely successful track record in commercial development, having spun off four successful companies dedicated to the commercialization of technologies developed at Luna Innovations.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial product under development is a fiber optic-based highly multiplexed sensor suite. Sensor types will include temperature, strain, pressure, and flow. The nature of the Distributed Grating Demodulation System (DGDS) upon which this suite is based, allows the placement of thousands of sensors along a single optical fiber. A four channel system can easily read out 20,000 separate sensors with a spatial resolution less than 1.0cm. Commercial development efforts during the Phase I have uncovered numerous commercial applications for this system including:

1.) SAFE-100 and SAFE-400 Reactor core test prototypes
2.) Reusable Launch Vehicle surface temperature monitoring
3.) Turbine structural monitoring
4.) In-core experiments requiring temperature sensing
5.) Temperature monitoring inside of electrical machines such as generators and motors
6.) Pipeline health monitoring for steam lines piping

The development of the system under this program can address several markets for nuclear reactors, reactor test beds, steam and gas turbines, aircraft health monitoring, structural monitoring, and other applications. Luna?s initial market focus will be on the nuclear power and aerospace industry, with secondary focus in the test reactors market. Both of these markets show superb growth over the next decade.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Robert S. Fielder
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H4.01-9413 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012586 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01158
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Thermal Conductivity Textiles

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Personal cooling system technology was first utilized by NASA for the Apollo Astronauts to prevent heat buildup under their space suits. Extensive plastic tubing is used to circulate water for body heat removal. The undergarment is quite binding and restrictive and inefficient in the removal of body heat to the external heat exchanger. The proposed innovation is the creation of a new thermally conductive textile fiber using nanocomposite engineering. The immediate opportunity is reduced contact surface required for the plastic tubing. The loops can be spaced further apart greatly enhancing comfort and mobility. Improved rate of heat transfer and more uniform temperature distribution will provide the benefit of reduced water circulation needs, leading to an opportunity for reduction in the weight and bulk of the space suit and improved astronaut mobility. Reduced support systems, lower launch weight, greater personal comfort and extended activity time are expected.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Numerous commercial applications have been developed for cool suit technology and would benefit from improvements made through this proposal. Representative current uses include: Personal cooling systems (PCS)used by US and foreign troops under bulky protective gear; PCS for firefighters, hazardous materials handlers, nuclear power personnel, crop dusters, and workers in primary metals reduction, glass manufacturing, chemical processing, steel mills and foundries, and paper production; self-contained cooling systems for mine rescue workers; recreational sports/sports medicine; to lower body temperatures for patients with multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, and other neurological disorders.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Felipe Chibante
NanoTex Corporation
9402 Alberene Dr.
Houston , TX   77074 - 1306

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
NanoTex Corporation
9402 Alberene Dr.
Houston , TX   77074 - 1306


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H4.02-8799 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013200 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01160
PROPOSAL TITLE: UltraWIS

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Leak detection and location within manned spacecraft has been an elusive goal as was demonstrated on MIR. Manual leak detection, using ultrasonic technology, was successfully demonstrated at Johnson Space Center by a project team within ES using techniques for leak detection in pressurized aircraft. Manual surveys are intrusive to space craft activities and crews. An automated process of leak detection and location is needed. IVC proposes to do this with (a) existing space qualified hardware, (b) an addition of wideband ultrasonic transducers, and (c) new "smart" software algorithms that process emitted leak energy in a manner that results in detection and location of the leak. The uniqueness of the proposed approach is the use of large numbers of self-powered, miniaturized, "stick on" ultrasonic sensory nodes that are all synchronized within a radio frequency network and are self calibrating. The network provides the data paths and synchronization. Ultrasonic transducers can act as transmitters as well as receivers. Thus the sensor network calibrates itself thus increasing detection and location accuracy. Numbers of MicroWIS units (organized into such networks) have already been flown on Shuttle and station and have operated in a completely non-intrusive manner in regard to radio frequency, physical encumbrance, and astronaut time.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Cyclotron facilities require manual processes of leak detection. The proposed technology would allow automated detection and location of leaks. Food storage depends upon reliable temperature maintenance and air circulation equipment. This technology would monitor the sonic and ultrasonic energy that represents normal cooling conditions and alert maintenance personnel to abnormal conditions. Operating machines, whether for transportation, manufacturing, or maintenance give off residual wide band energy. Flaws in the machine will produce uncharacteristic spectral patterns of energy that can also be first recognized as anomalous and later evaluated to determine the nature and severity of the malfunction. Application of this NASA technology to complex machines would establish an automated process for machine inspection routines currently provided by expensive and error prone manual methods. Automotive, submarine, aircraft, and ship structures display a characteristic sonic and ultrasonic vibration pattern when excited. These patterns are functions of the structure type, weight, and bulk modulus of the materials. Accurate detection and mapping of these patterns and their dynamic characteristics are critical to noise suppression design. This technology would allow miniature wireless sensor units to be place quickly and easily on the surfaces to be tested so as to not damp the signals producing the noise.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Kevin Champaigne
Invocon Inc.
19221 IH 45 South - Suite 530
Conroe , TX   77385 - 8703

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Invocon Inc.
19221 IH 45 South - Suite 530
Conroe , TX   77385 - 8703


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H5.02-9012 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012987 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01164
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Situ Training of Anthropomorphic Robots

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The control technology under development enables human operators to teach anthropomorphic robots, in the field, how to perform new complex tasks. Building upon existing inverse kinematics, rule-based control, and neural network learning technology, the training method enhances robot capabilities through operator supervision. The current innovation enables the online construction of rule-based plans of action through verbal dialogue between operator and robot, and uses verbal, visual, and manual cues such as spoken words, hand gestures, and the pushing of buttons and joysticks to teach neural networks how to improve nominal rule-based performance. Phase I results indicate that given an underlying library of intelligent behaviors, non-trivial robot task plans can be created and modified verbally by an operator in a straightforward manner. Phase II will optimize the behavior control system, training process, and operator interface. Validation will focus on two scenarios: assisting EVA astronauts with tool preparation and handling using the Johnson Space Center?s Robonaut system, and assisting a physiologically degraded astronaut in partial gravity environments. The show-and-tell approach to adaptive control is expected to give future NASA robots an unending ability to learn, and NASA astronauts the ability to customize robot behavior for both routine tasks and unexpected situations.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Successful completion of the proposed effort will result in a trainable robot control system with great commercial potential. The incremental nature of the training algorithm permits an operator with limited mobility to build complex tasks. At no time is the operator expected to provide a complete, precise example of task performance. Robot competency builds over time, course to fine, given symbolic task plans and error-driven corrective cues. Not only can suited NASA astronauts with restricted movement benefit from this approach, but also persons with disabilities. With this technology, the disabled will be able to tailor to their personal needs the behavior of robotic assistive devices, providing a level of access and a sense of freedom otherwise difficult to attain. More generally, as anthropomorphic service robots begin to appear in consumer markets, intuitive man-machine interfaces will promote acceptance of these devices. Smart robots capable of learning from their owners will also find their way into entertainment and educational products. The current development effort addresses these opportunities.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
David Handelman
American Android Corp.
301 N. Harrison St., Suite 242
Princeton , NJ   08540 - 3512

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
American Android Corp.
301 N. Harrison St., Suite 242
Princeton , NJ   08540 - 3512


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H5.02-9883 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012116 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01165
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Velocity-Control Framework for Kinematically Redundant Manipulators

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During Phase I we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a generic control method for cooperating kinematically redundant serial and bifurcating manipulators. This method extended an augmented Jacobian technique recently published by Energid personnel by 1) adding a post-processing step to increase its robustness and 2) writing an Extensable Markup Language (XML) based description language for the framework to allow control system supervision and modification. The method was proven through implementation in C++ toolkit form and integration with an OpenGL-based viewer. During the Phase II effort, we will 1) refine and extend the existing algorithms and language, 2) add support for vision-based feedback, 3) add support for acceleration control, 4) add support for force control, 5) add algorithms for collision reasoning about rigid, flexible, and movable objects, 6) include simulation capability as part of the control algorithm, 7) enhance the demonstration viewer and integrate a GUI for editing, viewing, and exchanging velocity control systems, 8) add grasping support, and 9) add support for floating-base manipulators. Phase II will culminate in the demonstration of the toolkit working with the software API for Johnson Space Center's Robonaut and CMT manipulator systems.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
There are many potential applications for kinematically redundant manipulators and the software toolkit we will develop. Harvesting citrus fruit from trees is an area in which Energid Technologies has particular interest, and we believe this problem is especially amenable to a robotic solution. We believe our manipulator-control toolkit can be applied to harvesting, where complex mechanisms are required to reach around limbs to access the fruit. The potential market for this application is large, and the need is great. In the 2001-2002 season, approximately 380 million boxes of oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and tangerines were picked in the United States (in Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California). A box contains about 200 oranges or 100 grapefruit. The cost to pick this fruit is about $1/box, for an annual total of almost $400 million.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
James English
Energid Technologies
258 Belmont Street
Watertown , MA   02472 - 3563

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Energid Technologies
258 Belmont Street
Watertown , MA   02472 - 3563


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H6.01-9170 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012829 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02026
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Test Generation in Intelligent Systems (GENISYS)

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
EDAptive Computing, Inc. (EDAptive) and the University of Kansas (KU) propose a unique and commercially viable solution to the problem of testing upgraded hardware and software components in place, within the system that contains them. Such upgrades occur frequently in NASA satellite and Space Station embedded systems. Our proposed solution implements specification-based testing techniques to automatically generate test sequences and expected results from component requirements models, and translates the generated tests, initially generated for application to the component interface, for application to the interface of the overall system. Our solution will considerably reduce the time and effort required for in place testing of components in real-time and embedded computing systems, thereby ensuring their safe and reliable operation. Our proposed Automated Test Generation in Intelligent Systems (GENISYS) project leverages the following:
i. An emerging System Level Design Language (SLDL), Rosetta,
ii. EDAptive?s VectorGen? tool, to automatically generate test sequences and expected results starting from specifications, and Syscape? tool to intuitively capture system specifications,
iii. EDAptive and KU?s expertise in formal methods, specification languages and test generation techniques, and
iv. KnowledgeKinetics (K2), an enterprise collaboration tool suite.
Furthermore, our commercialization and business plan has been refined and validated through a peer review.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed GENISYS tool suite is applicable to a variety of application areas; however, the Phase I analysis has indicated that GENISYS enabled automated test generation mechanism from specifications, and unit testing performed through the system interface upon replacement/upgrade of components, especially in embedded systems, holds high probability of commercialization success. EDAptive Computing has created a commercialization and business plan that includes the GENISYS translator, and subjected this business plan to a peer review of business leaders active in the field of innovative, high-tech products. This Government and commercial thrust enables effective utilization of limited Phase II resources. This initial target market provides a foundation for extending the GENISYS tool suite to other application areas such as Automotive, Control systems, Environmental controls (HVAC), and Security markets during Phase III. This provides NASA the benefit of a commercially supported toolset with which to address problems such as upgrading a software or hardware component on a satellite in orbit, or in a complex real time environment such as the Space Station. The GENISYS tool will make in place testing viable in virtually any system or environment.
Commercialization of the related VectorGen technology is underway, and the GENISYS effort will further its commercialization.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Krishna Ranganathan
EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1107-C Lyons Road
Dayton , OH   45458 - 1856

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1107-C Lyons Road
Dayton , OH   45458 - 1856


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H6.02-8346 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013653 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01166
PROPOSAL TITLE: Conversation Interface Domains for Rapid Programming of Complex Natural Language

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a programming environment that will greatly simplify the development of natural, cooperative natural language interfaces to complex systems. As flight operations and flight crews interact with larger numbers of complex and semi-autonomous systems, it is imperative that less demanding, more cooperative interfaces be developed. However, creating such interfaces is difficult. We believe these difficulties can be overcome by cleanly separating the complex language issues such as noun phrase resolution and dialog management, from the simpler issues of
describing the components of the system. Such a separation is made possible by defining broad Conversational Interface Domains (CIDs) that incorporate expert algorithms and heuristics for processing language within the domain. Thus, the interface programmer need only describe the specific objects, actions, and relationships that make up the application behind the interface. We believe that CIDs will significantly lower the cost and development time of effective, conversational interfaces. We plan to create a stable, commercial-grade version of a CID software engine and development system. The engine will run on hand-held wireless devices (PDAs) and allow distributed, conversational interaction to other CID-enabled devices.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Our company is focused on the development and deployment of conversational interfaces in a variety of markets, including on-board vehicular telematics systems and embedded devices. Applications also exist for home and factory automation, toys and surveillance system management.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
R. James Firby
I/NET, Inc
643 West Crosstown
Kalamazoo , MI   49008 - 1983

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
I/NET, Inc
643 West Crosstown
Kalamazoo , MI   49008 - 1983


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H6.02-8715 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013284 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01167
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Video for Synthetic Vision Systems

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Integrated Video for Synthetic Vision project aims to create a unique software technology to seamlessly add real-time video capture to VisualFlight's proven combination of real time flight simulation performance and Geographic Information System (GIS) power. While solutions exist to do this in hardware, they are ill suited to the flight deck environment for reasons of size and weight. These hardware video mixer solutions are limited to analog video technology, and therefore do not provide the level of resolution offered by new generations of digital video cameras. This project proposes to develop the first software only synthetic vision video overlay solution that will be scalable to any video resolution, and which will have no weight or size impacts on cockpit design.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The first application of the SmartCam technologies will be as a flight review system or debriefing system. This system records a pilot?s performance during instructional flight for later review. In this application the SmartCam technology is mounted in an aircraft and used to assess and improve the performance of pilots and aircrews. The SmartCam system will be used to record the flight including overlaid two and three dimensional data to video tape. The video tape then will be used by the instructor to review the performance of the crew and identify areas of necessary improvement. Typical commercial customers include flight schools and airline Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA).

The other major application of SmartCam technology that we foresee is to enhance UAV aircrew situation awareness. The SmartCam system will permit these vehicles to be operated more safely by providing the flight crew with enhanced situation awareness through SmartCam?s use of enriched video. UAVs have video cameras providing video imagery to ground stations from which they are controlled. By combining this video with 3D geographic information, we create an information-rich display, which substantially enhances situation awareness. This enrichment was demonstrated during recent NASA and RIS flight tests.


NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Michael F. Abernathy
Rapid Imaging Software, Inc.
1318 Ridgecrest Place S.E.
Albuquerque , NM   87108 - 5136

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Rapid Imaging Software, Inc.
1318 Ridgecrest Place S.E.
Albuquerque , NM   87108 - 5136


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H6.02-9928 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012071 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01168
PROPOSAL TITLE: Virtual Collaborative Training and Operations Simulation System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of VCTOSS is to enable the creation and deployment of highly effective training and operations support materials by using new lightweight 3D simulation technology. This lightweight approach to 3D simulation makes it possible to: (1) electronically transmit materials to physically distributed mission participants, (2) run 3D simulations on COTS portable computers used on-orbit, and (3) economically apply the technology to broad application areas in procedures training. This approach is made possible by a rapid applications development system built specifically for the creation of network friendly 3D simulation. The Phase 1 project was intended to validate the concept of using lightweight 3D simulation for spaceflight applications. The Phase 2 project will greatly expand the applications of this approach by enabling collaborative use of the training materials. This will allow 3D simulation based training and operations support to be conducted collaboratively by geographically distributed participants using existing low bandwidth Internet connections. Thus, VCTOSS can have significant implications to (1) increase efficiency and effectiveness of preflight and flight-based training, (2) provide additional opportunity for real-time interactive support employing 3D models with expert collaboration, and (3) increase the ability to recovery from off-nominal situations, which may have significant performance and safety implications.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
One of the most promising aspects of high definition training and operations support media the wide range of applications and benefits that represent markets of 10?s to 100?s of millions of dollars. The primary general applications that can be applied to many market segments include an advance field service support system, training systems for industry and university, virtual education systems, and advanced collaborative customer service systems. The field operations and support market has wide potential in many applications including aircraft, computers, medical equipment, power systems, etc. The virtual laboratory can bring computer simulation techniques that are familiar to researchers into any classroom. Corporate and organizational training systems that bring in collaborative experts for key areas and allow the virtual, remote training to more efficiently use employee and trainer time. Web-based customer service that empower consumers to conduct self-service and allows collaborative service with a remote expert.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mark C. Lee
Orbital Technologies Corporation
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison , WI   53717 - 1961

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison , WI   53717 - 1961


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S1.05-9053 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012946 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01203
PROPOSAL TITLE: Antistatic Thermal Control Coatings

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Electrostatic discharge control is vital for the health of any spacecraft. Exposure to charged particles in a space enviroment can lead to large charge differences across the craft, that, if no mechanism for controlled discharge is present, can destroy mission critical equipment. The preferred way of ESD control is to use conducting thermal control coatings. These coatings combine the ability to regulate the thermal balance of a spacecraft with charge mitigation along the whole surface. Adherent Technologies Inc. has developed a new series of conductive binders with excellent thermal control properties. NASA?s JPL has confirmed a solar absorbance of only 0.175, which is 20% better then currently deployed conductive coatings. The material is easy to apply and is, by it?s chemical nature, much more resistant to the space environment then other organic materials. The Phase II program will further improve on the application properties, expose the coatings to a simulated space environment for an extended period of time, and provide sufficient material for full scale testing.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Adherent Technologies? new anti-static polymer system with high emissivity at ambient spacecraft surface temperature, atomic oxygen resistance, and resistance to surface charging by ion and electron impact is ideal for aerospace applications. One of the primary commercial markets for anti-static and thermal control coatings is in satellite manufacturing. In the commercial sector, the markets for space systems are extremely large, particularly for communications antennas and radars. In addition, the military satellite market is expected to experience a steady growth through the next ten-year period and is expected to deploy a consistent number of satellites despite budget cuts. In addition, these copolymers may also find a small niche commercial market for specialty products such as electrically conductive ?O? rings and seals. They may also be an attractive replacement for metal-filled elastomers in many shielding applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Jan-Michael Gosau
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque , NM   87111 - 1522

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque , NM   87111 - 1522


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S1.05-9324 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012675 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01173
PROPOSAL TITLE: PolyRAD Space Radiation Shield for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Microelectronics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
PolyRAD, a radiation shielding material, was demonstrated in a Phase I study. Three densities were fabricated: 15.3, 10.0, and 4.0 g/cc with mass and dimensional deviations of 0.27 % and 0.3 %, 0.6 % and 0.6 %, and 1.2 % and 1.4 % respectively. Outgassing tests yielded TML's less than 0.06 % and CVCM's less than 0.02 %. Mechanical flex and shear property tests showed the expected increase in modulus with density and strengths sufficient to enable handling without breakage. Data from electron radiation exposure tests and theoretical modeling agreed well for the three densities thus there is confidence in modeling prediction that a 20-mil (0.051 cm) PolyRAD shield can reduce the annual TID in GEO to less than 5 krads/year. These technical performances, combined with its simple and low-cost application to individual parts or large board, are a clear indication that PolyRAD can reliably and cost effectively enable successful commercial and NASA/DOD space applications of state-of-the-art, commercial-off-the-shelf microelectronics. The work planned for Phase II is intended to introduce and apply PolyRAD in the NASA and commercial communities.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The application of PolyRAD is to provide a total incident dose (TID) durability for microelectronic devices that is orders of magnitude more than their design. This is particularly important for use of commercial-off-the-shelf, state-of-the-art devices, analog or digital, large or small, simple or complex, that provide hi-speed and hi-volume data capacities but have insufficient radiation dose durability. PolyRAD will be marketed as a radiation shielding of either individual or arrays of microelectronic devices, ultimately as the packaging material. Commercial applications are as broad and in depth as are the needs for reduction of radiation TID in space. Upcoming NASA programs will benefit from PolyRAD by enabling COTS for micro- and nano-satellite applications. This will reduce costs and provide reliable hi-speed, hi-capacity devices. Several of the deep space probes such as the mission to Europa must deal with severe total dose threats. Defense satellites, including the next generation GPS and MILSTAR, continue to require TID well above that of most COTS silicon. Pure commercial ventures (Skybridge, FaiSAT, Orbcomm) need drastically reduced costs for economic viability. The total market for microelectronics in space is projected at over $1.3B in 2006.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Edward Long
Longhill Engineering
140 New Hope - Crimora Road
Waynesboro , VA   22980 - 1209

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Longhill Engineering
140 New Hope - Crimora Road
Waynesboro , VA   22980 - 1209


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S1.06-8900 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013099 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01174
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Lighweight Mirrors (SLMs) for UV and Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Mirrors

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Subtopic 01-S1.06 requires mirrors with a diameter of 0.5-2.4 meters, areal density <20 kg/m2, a figure specification of 0.02-0.005 waves rms @633nm, a surface roughness 0.5-1 nm rms, and a midfrequency error of 1.0-2.5 nm rms for use in the IR to EUV waveband. Schafer?s Phase II objective is to use Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS), a novel, all-silicon, foam-core, lightweight mirror technology, to build three imaging mirrors for the Next Generation Space Telescope Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Engineering Test Unit: M0 (a flat), M2 (a concave sphere) and M3R (an oblate spheroid). The surface figure error specification for the NIRCam imaging mirrors is 8 nm rms (0.013 waves rms @633 nm), equivalent to that required for UV and EUV mirrors, and this figure must be maintained at the 35 K operational temperature of NGST. The surface roughness required is 30 ? rms since NIRCam operates in the VIS/IR (0.65-5 m). We will produce mounts for mirrors M2 and M3R using the complementary thermally matched C/SiC material demonstrated by Schafer under another NASA SBIR, NAS8-98137.

SLMS technology will significantly impact and benefit a very broad set of future NASA Space Science Enterprise (e.g., Explorer Program) and Earth Science Enterprise (e.g., GOES-R) missions. SLMS will provide a national benefit beyond NASA for DoD (Directed Energy, Imaging), DoC/NOAA (Remote Imaging) and commercial system houses (Ball, Raytheon, ITT, et.al.).

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
We anticipate that demonstration of TRL 6 performed during Phase III testing at NASA GSFC will lead to the successful launch of our Lightweight Optical Systems (LWOS) Business Area. The target marketplace is for lightweight, athermal optics, optical mounts and optical benches, at the component, subsystem or system level of assembly, for operation in the far infrared to extreme ultraviolet spectral bandwidth, and over a wide range of temperatures (25K-500K). Products include telescopes, imagers, fast steering mirrors and mirrors for high-energy laser applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
William Goodman
Schafer Corporation
26565 West Agoura Road, Suite 202
Calabasas , CA   91302 - 1958

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Schafer Corporation
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford , MA   01824 - 4177


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.02-9803 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012196 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01177
PROPOSAL TITLE: Trajectory and Performance Models for Earth and Planetary Balloons

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Global Aerospace Corporation is developing an innovative, new trajectory and performance tool for Earth and planetary balloons and lighter-than-air (LTA) systems, called Navajo. No software tool like Navajo currently exists. The key innovations of this concept are integrated vertical and horizontal trajectory modeling, application to Earth and planetary balloons and LTA systems, a graphical user interface, and a computer-platform-independent software package. Additional innovations are (a) the decoupling of environment and balloon trajectory models to allow a given balloon design to be flown in any number of environments with different levels of fidelity (b) the integration of safety analysis of Earth balloon flights for in-flight and pre-flight safety calculations, (c) improved fidelity of thermal models, and (d) an extensible application architecture to allow different balloon designs and new environments.

Navajo is a new, advanced, and modern simulation and analysis tool to enable the development of new balloon and LTA technologies for Earth and planetary applications.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The potential commercial market for Navajo includes those organizations and individuals that study, design, fabricate, fly, or analyze Earth tropospheric, Earth stratospheric, or planetary balloons and lighter-than-air systems (LTAs). These organizations would use Navajo to develop new balloon or LTA vehicle types; fine-tune models to better predict balloon or LTA vehicle performance; develop balloon platform component designs, such as valve, ballast or propulsion systems; develop new campaign and mission concepts; perform detailed, pre-flight analyses of launch trajectories; develop and analyze planetary balloon mission concepts; and evaluate in-flight safety and mission sequencing options.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Matthew Kuperus Heun
Global Aerospace Corporation
711 West Woodbury Road, Suite H
Altadena , CA   91001 - 5327

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Global Aerospace Corporation
711 West Woodbury Road, Suite H
Altadena , CA   91001 - 5327


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.03-8703 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013296 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01184
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacecraft Formation Control with Direct Interferometer-Output Feedback

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I research and analyses have confirmed the potential of wavefront sensing in providing the necessary information to accurately control interferometers. The concept involves data processing on the interferometer output signals to determine the adjustments required to achieve the desired interferometer performance. It is particularly valuable in advanced space interferometry missions where conventional metrology instrumentation may not be adequate in providing the necessary alignment data. The resulting information is useful in controlling the optical elements, and, in cases where the optical components are carried on separate spacecraft flying in formation, useful in controlling the spacecraft.
The signal-processing and image-processing techniques developed in Phase I are relatively generic in nature. For Phase II research, the selection of a specific space interferometer mission concept is proposed to provide the basis for more-detailed development of the wavefront-sensing concept. A comprehensive control structure for the optical components and their host spacecraft will be designed to address the real-world control issues. New data-processing techniques will be developed to handle the realistic interferometer signals expected from operational deployment. High-fidelity test beds are considered for evaluation of the technologies.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The primary application of the proposed technologies is in space science to enable space interferometry missions to image celestial bodies and phenomena. A secondary application is in Earth and planetary sciences where the technologies can be applied to enable orbiting interferometers to map and collect geo-spatial data. There are tertiary potentials in commercial application of the technologies as well. The signal-processing techniques may be useful in different medical imaging applications. Furthermore, the signal-processing techniques may be combined with low-cost embedded processors and optics with laser diodes to produce low-cost, high-performance metrology instruments for machine-tooling and surface-inspection applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Victor Cheng
Optimal Synthesis Inc.
4966 El Camino Real, Suite 108
Los Altos , CA   94022 - 1406

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Optimal Synthesis Inc.
4966 El Camino Real, Suite 108
Los Altos , CA   94022 - 1406


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.04-8182 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013817 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01178
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Al/Diamond Composites for Thermal Management Applications

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I, MER has demonstrated low cost diamond/Al and diamond/Mg composites, which have the highest thermal conductivity of any known isotropic composite available today (>640 W/m/K), with low CTE (<7.5 p.p.m/K) for compatibility with GaAs and Si devices in electronics applications. The Phase II effort is focused on confirming low cost fabrication and processing of diamond/Al composites into useful forms including rolling of thin sheet (0.05" thick) and sheet joining for space radiators and building power electronic devices, using vapor deposition techniques for adherent dielectric layers with laser micro-machining and metallization techniques for 3-D devices.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Diamond/Al can be used for light-weight space platforms and high density power electronics. Low cost processing by rolling can provide thin sheet product for radiators, a generic thermal spreader for substrates and for lids which is a multi-billion dollar market. Higher added value is provided by patterning of the diamond/Al with dielectric and metallization to make devices with projected initial multi-million dollar yearly market increasing to multi-billion dollars once the products gets established.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Sion Pickard
Materials & Electrochemical Research Cor
7960 S. Kolb Road
Tucson , AZ   85706 - 9237

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Materials & Electrochemical Research Cor
7960 S. Kolb Road
Tucson , AZ   85706 - 9237


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.04-9901 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012098 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01172
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrochromic Variable Emissivity Devices for Thermal Control

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Small light-weight satellites and space vehicles under development for future NASA missions have reduced thermal mass and are rapidly affected by changes in orbital conditions, resulting in large temperature variations. Restrictions on payload weight and volume limit the usefulness of many thermal control system technologies. To address this problem, Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc. (EES) has suggested the application of electrochromic variable emittance devices (VEDs) to control the rate of energy dissipation by thermal emission from the satellite surface. During Phase I EES has demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating all-solid-state inorganic electrochromic VEDs built on high resistance silicon wafers. This VED is advantageous, because the silicon serves as a thermal shock resistant infrared window that can protect the electrochromic layers against the harsh space environment. The Phase II program will be directed toward the development of VEDs with 44cm2 active area that can achieve a tunable emittance modulation range from 0.2 to 0.6. VEDs will be subjected to different reliability tests to demonstrate feasibility of use in low, middle-earth, and geosynchronous orbit environments. The electrochromic technology under development by EES holds promise as an alternate for the ST5 mission should any of the scheduled participants fail in the preliminary test protocols.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Successful completion of the Phase II program will produce EC VEDs having an IR emittance modulation ranging from 0.2 to 0.6. These VEDs will exhibit low areal density and operate at a voltage as low as 1.5 volt. The EC technology will benefit the military and civilian aerospace industry by improving thermal stability of spacecraft and space structures. The EC technology will also find application in automotive and architectural glazing as well as improved contrast visible and IR imaging sensor arrays.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Nikolai Kislov, PhD
Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc.
2345 Anvil Street North
Tampa , FL   33710 - 3905

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc.
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg , FL   33710 - 3905


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.04-9911 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012088 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01207
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Frequency Low-Temperature Regenerative Heat Exchangers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Even with multi-layer insulation blankets, cryogenic thermal switches, thermal distribution systems (such as cryogenic heat pipes), and advanced thermal/structural isolation systems, the mission capability of a fully-passive, stored cryogen system is compromised by the lack of an active cooler to recharge the system. This shortcoming is particularly acute at very low temperatures (<15 K) because there are no proven, long-life space cryocooler technologies for that operational temperature range. The primary technological barrier to extending proven Stirling and pulse tube technologies down to liquid helium temperatures is the absence of a regenerator design that will function at the high frequencies (> 30 Hz) required to enable small, compact designs typical of existing flexure-bearing, space-qualified cryocoolers. Irvine Sensors Corporation proposes to develop an advanced regenerator, based upon the use of novel rare earth metal matrix designs to enable very-low-temperature Stirling and pulse tube cryocoolers for both ground and space applications. The matrix will offer the combined benefits of low porosity and an extremely high surface-area-to-volume ratio, both of which are essential for very low temperature operation. Our goal is to achieve a 50 percent improvement in efficiency for high-frequency regenerators operating around a cold head temperature of 5 K.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed regenerator has broad application for virtually any cryogenic refrigeration need below 15 K. The proposed concept will offer improved efficiency, even for traditional 4 K Gifford-McMahon refrigerators, because of increased control over matrix porosity and a reduced pressure drop through the parallel plate matrix. Magnetic resonance imaging, cryogenic vacuum pumping systems, laboratory instruments, radio astronomy, and high performance data communications (wired and wireless) are some of the commercial areas to be impacted by the development of a compact cryocooler.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Volkan Ozguz
Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Redhill Ave, Bldg 4
Costa Mesa , CA   92869 - 4529

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Redhill Ave, Bldg 4
Costa Mesa , CA   92869 - 4529


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.05-8276 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013723 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01167
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extended range profiling

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We analyze a new, noncontact approach for sensing the topography of an optic. It offers (1) sub-nanometer accuracy; (2) several mm or more of dynamic range; and (3) accommodation of large surface slopes and structure. We add autofocusing to a focusing distance measuring interferometer to keep the beam focused on the test piece. The measurement is unaffected by small autofocusing errors. Thus, the range is extended to the lens-servoing range; the servoing has loose tolerances; and the sub-nanometer accuracy is preserved. In another innovation, we add coma (by tilting the lens) to enlarge the focused spot on the test piece to be immune to surface defects. The coma is canceled on the return trip through the lens, preserving wavefront quality. These innovations can greatly improve the optical profiling of astronomical and space optics.

Our Phase I project was successful - we arrived at a workable design including mechanics, optics, actuation, and servoing architecture. In Phase II we have two main technical (and programmatic) objectives: (1) develop and demonstrate a potentially commercially viable extended range probe; and (2) use a set of those probes in a specific instrumental configuration to demonstrate explicitly the ability to perform sub-nanometer profilometry.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The potential commercial applications are in two areas. The first is for the probes themselves. Manufacturers such as Zygo, who makes the excellent laser gauge components that are key subsystems in our approach, understand that their standard focusing probes are finicky to use because of their lack of range, and especially their inability to accommodate both large standoff ranges and large incidence angle ranges. It is likely to be attractive to these manufacturers to work with Bauer to deliver hybrid systems based on their components to increase their sales. The second area of potential commercial applications is in the wider application of full surface profilometers (e.g., the four point sensor that we developed under a previous SBIR project). Such profilometers can be a powerful tool for any large or precision optics manufacturer. NASA itself, stands to benefit in both areas. The profilometry seems especially well suited to the NGST primary and secondary mirrors, while modified forms can be extremely useful for unusual mirrors such as the Constellation-X foils.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Paul Glenn
Bauer Associates, Inc.
888 Worcester Steet, Suite 30
Wellesley , MA   02482 - 3717

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Bauer Associates, Inc.
888 Worcester Steet, Suite 30
Wellesley , MA   02482 - 3717


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.05-8762 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013237 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01194
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fracture-tough Reaction Bonded SiC Composites for Monolithic SiC Optical Instrum

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSGPO proposes the development of a fracture tough reaction bonded silicon carbide (RB SiC) composite for lightweight space-based optical instruments. The combination of visible quality SiC optics and a fracture tough SiC structure will result in athermal operation for demanding environments. The new structural composite has material properties approaching those of reaction bonded SiC (high specific stiffness and thermal stability), ability to be formed into near-net shapes and the durability of a composite. Phase I showed the viability of a composite that combines a novel, low-cost fiber coating process developed in conjunction with the University of Illinois-Chicago and Drexel University with our reaction bonded SiC. This combination provides three critical discriminators for SiC structural materials: (1) low-cost fabrication (fraction of the cost of CVI process) and scaleability, (2) the ability to achieve complex shapes using the inherent near net shape forming of RB SiC and (3) material properties that are well matched to RB SiC while providing increased durability. In Phase II SSGPO will optimize the SiC/SiC composite process and demonstrate this process by building an optical bench for delivery to NASA.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Low-cost, high specific stiff, high thermal stability SiC/SiC composites have applications in both military and commercial markets. The material properties enable high performance monolithic space-based optical instruments. Low-cost/scalable processing provides a solution for high-end E-O tactical applications where multiple units need to be produced cost effectively. Moving SiC into commercial markets where cost is a driving factor will benefit from the successful completion of this Phase II effort including high speed stages and support structures for the semiconductor industry and high-temperature applications where SiC composites provide the only solution.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Jay Schwartz
SSG Precision Optronics, Inc
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington , MA   01887 - 1020

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
SSG Precision Optronics, Inc
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington , MA   01887 - 1020


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.05-9084 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012915 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01180
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dynamics Optics Controls Structures (DOCS)

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Disturbance-Optics-Controls-Structures (DOCS) suite is an Integrated Development Environment for assembly of multidisciplinary analyses into an accurate dynamic integrated model for analysis of performance and margins and identification of resource-optimal redesign. The suite is innovative because it combines validated design tools, or modules, for detailed system analysis with an automation layer that drives the analysis tools, permitting rapid evaluation of the trade space between many highly coupled design variables. The analysis modules are general enough to be applicable for the complete program life cycle, from conceptual design to operational analysis. The automation layer handles the translation of high-level systems requirements into module-level design space constraints, and buffers the detailed analysis results. The suite encompasses an archiving function, which enables the time evolution of the design to be explicitly tracked, facilitating the systems designer?s understanding of the design space, and providing a formal means to manage risk. The combination of detailed modeling accuracy with the automation necessary for trading a large design space provides analysis depth and breadth, leading to an optimal systems design.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The "out of the box" capability included in the Phase II DOCS product is focused on the core market of high performance optomechanical systems. However, the modeling language, methodology, and analysis tools are common to a much wider field of customers. Any technical area that contains aspects of Controls/Structures Interaction (CSI), optimization of dynamic performance of structural systems, and/or coupled-system analysis are potential customers. For NASA missions, an example of a potential analysis extension supported by the framework is power dissipation by active control system elements on the cryogenic side of a system, which is naturally described in the DOCS language using coupled electro-mechanical impedance models of the actuators. Some potential commercial applications, culled from current Mide customers, including: disk drives and other storage media; running shoe stiffness optimization; smart material system design; acoustic and vibration control; and human factors such as ride quality and vibration. The basic capabilities for extension to these fields have been built into the package from the start of the Phase I effort, based in part in Mide's collaboration with representatives in these industries. Therefore, while the Phase II effort will remain focused on the core optomechanical systems customers, a significant effort will be made to identify and cultivate the grounds for an expansion to a wider market.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Carl Blaurock
Mide Technology Corporation
200 Boston Avenue Suite 2500
Medford , MA   02155 - 4258

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mide Technology Corporation
200 Boston Avenue Suite 2500
Medford , MA   02155 - 4258


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S3.01-8288 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013711 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02046
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Boundary and Alignment Actuation for Improvement of Large Membrane Optical Figure

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of the efforts described in this proposal is to establish the feasibility of boundary control and alignment actuators for improving the optical figure of thin film membrane optics. A representative example of this type of system, and the primary focus of the proposed Phase 2, is the DART telescope concept currently being advanced at JPL. Of immediate interest are multi-degree-of-freedom parallel actuator hexapod systems that can be used to adjust the orientation of the two primary reflectors relative to one another in the presence of manufacturing, deployment, and on-orbit disturbances. The desirability and feasibility of such systems was established in the course of Phase 1 activities. In Phase 2 we propose the continued development and hardware demonstration of hexapods with asymmetric attachment planes and suchsystems capable of functioning at the cryogenic temperatures required for infrared science as well as laying the groundwork for scaling up to on-orbit implementation. The developed systems will support the DART, and other space science, technology development efforts and lead to eventual in space applications as well as anticipated commercial/terrestrial spin-offs.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed actuators and hexapod based alignment systems could be used across a wide range of potential NASA and DOD missions covering a variety of Space Science, Earth Science, and Aerospace Transportation Enterprise major efforts such as Origins (optics and sunshields for NGST, TPF, Life Finder, Planet Imager), Structure and Evolution of the Universe, Sun-Earth-Connection and the Living with a Star Initiative (Solar Sails for Geostorm and North and South Pole Sitters), Exploration of the Universe (Solar Sails, SEP Concentrators and large communication antennas), the Interstellar Probes and Precursor Missions, and ASTP (Concentrators for SOTV and Solar Sails) and other programs like technology development for Space Solar Power. Potential terrestrial applications of the technology are also foreseen in a variety of applications such as life sciences, advanced manufacturing, fiber-optic alignment, and precision motion control applications industries.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Eric Flint
CSA Engineering, Inc.
2565 Leghorn St.
Mountain View , CA   94043 - 1613

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
CSA Engineering, Inc.
2565 Leghorn St.
Mountain View , CA   94043 - 1613


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S3.02-9233 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012766 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02048
PROPOSAL TITLE: Capillarity Driven Flow Of Propellant Liquids In Colloidal Satellite Thrusters

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this project is to develop colloidal thrusters capable of producing the thrust levels required to overcome drift and maintain individual microsatellites at their assigned positions.
In the Phase I research on this project, we showed that the use of capillarity driven flow of non-volatile propellant liquid through a porous matrix or "wick" could produce extremely stable electrosprays in vacuum of charged droplets. Inherent in this use of "wick" injection is that the flow rate of propellant liquid, and thus the thrust level for a particular thruster, is determined entirely by the applied voltage without any need for additional flow rate control circuitry. Moreover, this inherent simplicity, relative to other colloidal propulsion systems, means that multiplexing of such wick injectors is simple and straight-forward so that any desired level of thrust over a wide range can be achieved simply by varying the number of these simple wick thrusters.
The objective of the proposed Phase II research is to implement the results of our Phase I research by designing, constructing and testing prototype wick thrusters with both conventional needle designs and to investigate similar applications using MEMS technology.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Electrospray feed by capillarity driven flow provides an improved means of colloidal satellite propulsion yielding increased reliabilty, efficiency, and reduced weight over competitive systems employing hydrostatic feed mechanisms. Commercial applications include not only users of colloidal satellite thrusters, but numerous biomedical applications of electrospray mass spectrometry, where small sources are often plagued by plugging as a result of dirt or particulate media. Stable sprays for both ES-MS and Colloidal thrusters can be achieved simply by adjusting the applied electrostatic field.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Joseph Bango
Connecticut Analytical Corporation
696 Amity Road
Bethany , CT   06524 - 3006

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Connecticut Analytical Corporation
696 Amity Road
Bethany , CT   06524 - 3006


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S3.02-9366 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012633 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02049
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optimal Path Planning Toolbox for Formation Flying Spacecraft Missions

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spacecraft Formation Flying is a key technology for NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and other Origins missions. Specific formation flying technologies required for TPF are distributed real-time fault-tolerant collision-free path planning and U-V mapping optimization tools. During Phase I, we investigated and further developed two approaches for solving the collision avoidance problem; namely, the LMI Approach and the Crossing Pattern Approach. Both methods proved to be very effective for small formations such as TPF. The objective of Phase II is to design and develop a Formation Flying Path Planner (FFPP) Toolbox with a comprehensive set of algorithms for path planning, u-v mapping, reactive control, actuator failure detection and dynamic control allocation. Specific Phase II tasks are: (i) Optimal path planning algorithms for TPF, (ii) Path Planning algorithms for moderate and large formations, (iii) Reactive collision-free control, (iv) Actuator failure detection and dynamic control allocation, (v) U-V mapping optimization, (vi) Testing and tuning of the algorithms for TPF, (vii) Development of FFPP Toolbox, (viii) Commercialization Planning, and (ix) Reports. Phase II work will be closely coordinated with JPL project teams for technology transition to TPF and other missions. The commercialization of the Toolbox will be pursued collaboratively with Ball Aerospace, Lockheed-Martin, and Boeing.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Commercial applications of collision-free path planning strategies exist in flight formation for UAVs, fighter aircraft, and spacecraft, as well as in control of automated air traffic management systems, and automated vehicle highway systems. NASA Space Science (Starlight, TPF) and Earth Science Enterprises (EOS, NMP, ESTP) will directly benefit from this technology. Commercial applications exist in the areas of satellite communications and remote sensing.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Sanjeev Seereeram
Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn , MA   01801 - 6580

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn , MA   01801 - 6580


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S3.03-9418 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012581 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02028
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Magnetic Refrigerator for Cooling at 2 K

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA requires cooling of detectors for space telescopes. Detector temperatures as low as 0.05 K are being specified for a number of missions. A number of physics experiments proposed on the International Space Station require very low temperatures as well. Thus, NASA has identified a dilution refrigerator (DR) as a new technology requirement for its Fundamental Physics program.

For a DR to operate it requires pre-cooling at 2K. Other than stored He II an ADR is the only suitable technique for achieving 2K in space. The ADR can serve to pre-cool a DR or a low-temperature ADR stage to achieve very low temperatures. It can also be integrated into a He II storage dewar to eliminate boil-off. This will reduce size and increase lifetime of such a system making long-duration experiments feasible.

An ADR is designed to provide cooling at 2K. Cycling the magnetic refrigerant it is necessary to connect or isolate the refrigerant to/from the heat source and the heat sink. This is accomplished by employing novel heat switches. The efficiency is greatly affected by the performances of the heat switches. In the design the on and off conductances and the switching times of the heat switches are optimized to achieve a high efficiency.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed ADR can be employed for re-liquefying helium in several commercial applications:
? Superconducting magnets for power generation and energy storage
? Superconducting magnets for MRI systems
? Low temperature superconducting electronics.

It can also be used as a precooler with a dilution refrigerator or a lower-temperature ADR stage for cryogen free operation.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ali Kashani
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose , CA   95120 - 4925

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose , CA   95120 - 4925


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S3.04-8623 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013376 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02029
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Pressure Micro-Sampling System for In Situ Deep Subsurface Measurements

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thorleaf Research, Inc. has demonstrated feasibility in Phase I and now proposes a Phase II effort to develop a miniature, aseptic, high pressure micro-sampling system for in situ measurements in deep subsurface environments. This addresses an important NASA technology gap for astrobiology related studies, mainly how to acquire and process deep subsurface samples for in situ analysis while meeting challenging mass, volume and power constraints. In these high pressure environments, the integrity of the sample may be compromised by degassing of volatile components if brought to the surface. Our proposed high pressure micro-sampling inlet system addresses this by collecting a micro-sample in the high pressure environment, then transfers it into a protected low pressure environment within the instrument housing for processing and analysis. The proposed enabling technology will allow in situ analysis in deep subsurface environments by the new generation of miniaturized, low power instruments being developed by NASA, including GC/MS, isotope spectrometers, and other techniques that inherently require low pressures for operation. Since we plan to follow a modular design approach in our Phase II development, this core instrumentation can be adapted for a variety of astrobiology-related applications including Cryobot missions in deep ice and deep sea measurements.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Commercial application of the proposed high pressure micro-sampling system for in situ measurements in deep subsurface environments will address needs for scientific research instrumentation, energy exploration and environmental monitoring. Analysis of commercial instrumentation markets shows that two of the three major growth areas for analytical instrumentation are real-time analysis and environmental monitoring, with projected annual growth rates of more than 15%. There is a significant technology gap for low power instrumentation that can be miniaturized for field use. The proposed SBIR effort to develop a miniaturized, high pressure micro-sampling system for in situ measurements in deep subsurface environments addresses this need in an innovative way, and thus technical developments in the proposed program could have a significant market impact.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Paul M. Holland
Thorleaf Research, Inc.
5552 Cathedral Oaks Road
Santa Barbara , CA   93111 - 1406

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Thorleaf Research, Inc.
5552 Cathedral Oaks Road
Santa Barbara , CA   93111 - 1406


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S3.05-8592 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013407 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02050
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Noise High-Resolution Vacuum Compatible Multiplexed DM Electronics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The multiplexer electronics represent a true breakthrough in adaptive-optics technology. Xinetics has developed the multiplexer system to take advantage of the properties of the PMN actuators. The high dielectric constant of PMN actuatorsmeans that any charge placed on an actuator remains there essentially forever until it finds a discharge path. This implies that fabricating a suitable switching system allows a single amplifier channel to address thousands of actuators. The trade-off has to do with the overall system speed, but for spaced-based imaging applications speed is not critical.

The current SBIR took the results from previous programs one-step further by reducing the system noise and increasing the digital resolution. Xinetics has successfully demonstrated the low-noise concepts under this program. The major issues raised in Phase I are: charge injection in solid state switches, and optimizing analog and digital algorithms for robust charge transfer control. Results show a 1-lsb differentiation between adjacent channels within the test system. These results are extremely encouraging for a Phase II program where we will develop a single-board 1024-channel driver system with 16-bit input with 1-bit of resolution.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Low-Noise multiplexer electronics have applications in a variety of low-speed adaptive optics applications. Currently applications such as opthalmic imaging, laser correction, and satellite imaging would all benefit from this technology. In addition NASA programs such as Terrestrial Planet Finder will find direct application for this technology.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Eugene Kreda
Xinetics Inc
2 Buena Vista St
Devens , MA   01432 - 5022

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Xinetics Inc
2 Buena Vista St
Devens , MA   01432 - 5022


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.01-8861 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013138 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02053
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Calibrating Vector Magnetometer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase II proposal describes the design, fabrication and evaluation of a Self-Calibrating Vector Magnetometer (SVM) breadboard model. The SVM is an innovative high-accuracy instrument capable of making both scalar and vector component measurements of Earth and planetary magnetic fields. The SVM scalar mode employs Optically-Driven Spin Precession (OSP) magnetic resonance. An OSP single-cell locked digital oscillator magnetometer was demonstrated for the first time under the Phase I Project achieving 3 pT/root-Hz sensitivity. Laser pumping with optical fiber coupling permits miniaturization of the SVM sensor by reducing helium cell volume by a factor of 8 and placing the laser and IR detector in the Electronic Unit. High-accuracy SVM scalar measurements are used to calibrate the SVM vector measurements thereby eliminating both fluxgate vector magnetometers and the scalar magnetometers required to correct for fluxgate drifts and offsets. The feasibility of fabricating a breadboard model SVM in Phase II has been established under the Phase I Project. By providing scalar measurements with an accuracy better than 1.0 nT, scalar sensitivity of 3 pT/root-Hz, vector component sensitivity of 5 pT/root-Hz, and calibrated accuracy of 1 nT, the SVM offers a significant advance in space magnetometer state of the art.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The SVM will have a variety of commercial and military applications including measurements of the magnetic fields around the Earth in support of monitoring the solar magnetic field activities for telecommunication applications and climate change predictions. The SVM will be use at the Earth's surface for geophysical airborne and surface magnetic prospecting as well as the new standard for geomagnetic observatories. The SVM technology is currently being considered by the US Navy and the Japanese Defense Agency for submarine detection and mine countermeasures applications. The SVM capabilities of outstanding accuracy, scalar and vector measurements, omni-directionality without dead zones, and high-frequency detection will open up a variety of applications in commercial security and surveillance applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Robert Slocum
Polatomic, Inc
1810 Glenville Dr. #116
Richardson , TX   75081 - 1954

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Polatomic, Inc
1810 Glenville Dr. #116
Richardson , TX   75081 - 1954


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.01-9167 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012832 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02054
PROPOSAL TITLE: Detecting Fossilized Microscopic Life Forms on Mars with Dual-Energy CT

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This purpose of this SBIR Phase II project is to build a prototype dual-energy CT scanner to inspect and analyze the small rocks and minerals for evidnece of fossilized life. The goal is to achieve three-dimensional volume images with 10-micron spatial resolution in the reconstructed image and to provide identification at that resolution, of both the density and the effective atomic number of the material being examined. The scanner will use a precision turntable to manipulate the part and an array of CZT detectors to detect full-energy photons from the decay of a 109Cd radioactive source.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Microfocus CT is needed for better inspection of printed circuit boards and microelectronic components. Other applications are in military and civilian non-destructive testing, mineralogy, paleontology, composites, forensics, small-animal scanning, etc. In several of these, dual energy can improve visibility of constituents that are not readily distinguishable by density. These include fossils in rock matrix, fibers in two-component composites, and small concentrations of metal-tagged drugs in mice in pharmaceutical research. However, at the present time, the immediate commercialization of this technology is to support NASA in its exploration of Mars.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
David Nisius
Bio-Imaging Research, Inc.
425 Barclay Blvd.
Lincolnshire , IL   60069 - 3624

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Bio-Imaging Research, Inc.
425 Barclay Blvd.
Lincolnshire , IL   60069 - 3624


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.02-8649 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013350 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02033
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Versatile Apparatus and Method for Remote Autonomous Robot Mobility

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I, we explored and developed a concept for a versatile and robust locomotion methodology based on snake and worm morphologies. These creatures have evolved versatile techniques for mobility that can be mimicked by robots operating in complex unknown workspaces such as in rough debris fields or in diverse media such as water, sand, slush, or ice, as may be found on Mars or Europa. While we found a significant amount of prior research in related areas, it was confined to laboratory experiments in relatively benign environments, and none exhibited the ability of a mechanism to transition from one environment to another. For commonality of parts, our concept uses a single module design based on a three degree-of-freedom parallel kinematic linkage that is connected in series. The modules monitor their own specific orientations, which are then summed by a central processor. The vehicle's protective skin is one of the critical areas of innovation because it must resist abrasion and corrosion, yet be flexible and elastic. In Phase II, we will construct a working prototype, and conduct a series of experiments, both on the test bench and in the field, toward developing algorithms for locomotion.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Our snake-like vehicle's small frontal area and ability to conform to complex shapes would be advantageous in scientific applications, including glaciology and other polar research. Industrial applications include internal pipe inspections for obstructions, corrosion, and zebra mussel infestation. The device could be used to counter bioterrorism by inspecting and cleaning building air ducts. Its ability to maneuver in complex unpredictable environments makes it suitable for certain planetary exploration objectives, and to survey hazardous waste sites such as Chernobyl. Like silkworms, this vehicle could spool out an optical fiber, delivering a communication lifeline to survivors trapped in collapsed structures. Military applications include mine countermeasures and stealth operations, for example, deployed from a submarine, transiting through open water, moving inland via rivers or sewer pipes, onto shore and then overland, even climbing stairs or other structures. Sensors or ordinance packages could be stealthily deployed en route. The vehicle could swim to a predetermined site, bury itself, and remain on station for extended periods collecting data or awaiting further instructions. The snake mechanism also has important commercial potential as a serpentine robotic manipulator in industrial and underwater applications. Deep Ocean Engineering has a proven ability to commercialize technology developed in its SBIR projects.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Philip J Ballou
Deep Ocean Engineering, Inc.
1431 Doolittle Drive
San Leandro , CA   94577 - 2225

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Deep Ocean Engineering, Inc.
1431 Doolittle Drive
San Leandro , CA   94577 - 2225


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.02-9163 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012836 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02056
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multiuser Collaboration for Planetary Mobility and Robotics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This research will develop the multiuser collaboration infrastructure which
enables multiple users to interact and collaborate on host applications
using their mobile devices. Multiuser collaboration is an important
element of ground operations in planetary rover and lander missions.
During mission operations, scientists need to meet often to plan science
activities with planning and visualization tools projected on large
displays. This infrastructure will allow the scientists to interact
directly with the software tools to collaborate on science planning
activities.

The infrastructure includes (1) human-computer interaction techniques that
enable natural, fast, and accurate inputs, (2) application-independent
middleware that maintains information about the connection, state, and
session of individual users and enables interaction and collaboration with
the software applications, (3) communication protocol that ensures reliable
and secure connectivity between the mobile devices and host computers, (4)
toolkit that generates GUI components that can be displayed on mobile
devices, and (5) delivery and synchronization services that transport
application components and data for offline interactions.

The infrastructure supports a broad range of mobile devices encompassing
laptops, PDAs, and cellphones, and supports all desktop applications
running under the Windows or Unix platforms.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Business meetings, design reviews, and brainstorming sessions, are often
conducted with a software application projected to a large screen to
facilitate discussions. The software could be a presentation application,
CAD design tool, etc. The Multiuser Collaboration Suite (MCS) will enable
the attendees to interact with the software application simultaneously from
anywhere in the room, using the mobile devices they often bring to the
meetings. Since MCS supports all Java-enabled devices, millions of future
genrations of cellphone users can use MCS to interact with host
applications. MCS also enables doctors in hospitals to access patient
records at point of care, passengers at airports to check city information,
customers at grocery stores to locate merchandises, etc. MCS will also
provide a toolkit for developing mobile applications that are based on the
host applications. The MCS toolkit enables rapid development of mobile
applications with minimal effort.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Kam S. Tso
IA Tech, Inc.
10501 Kinnard Avenue
Los Angeles , CA   90024 - 6017

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
IA Tech, Inc.
10501 Kinnard Avenue
Los Angeles , CA   90024 - 6017


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.04-9077 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012922 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02059
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Rigidizable, Deployable Ultra-Lightweight Microcellular CHEM Foams

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space rigidizable and deployable structures with ultra-lightweight, high rigidity, and space durability are desirable to improve the reliability and affordability of space structures. Some of the components currently in use like shelters or space stations use double-walled thick films with high internal pressure. All these hollow components are often vulnerable in space because debris and meteorites can strike them. They will lose their functions if hit and damaged by foreign objects. We propose to fill the cavities of these hollow components with an ultra-lightweight cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) or a shape memory polymer (SMP) foam that can rigidize the space structure in space so that it can maintain its functions even when struck by debris. In our phase I research, we have successfully processed ultra-lightweight microcellular CHEM foams using an environmentally friendly technique. These microcellular CHEM foams have much higher mechanical properties than those processed by the conventional techniques. We have also performed tests and proved that the microcellular CHEM foams did recover their original shapes after compaction and stowage. This capability allowed them to be packed into a very small volume, recover their shapes and be rigidized in space, thereby considerably reducing the launching cost yet providing high rigidity for space structures. The objectives proposed in the Phase I work plan have been accomplished. In this Phase II research we will scale-up the processing of the microcellular CHEM foams, further reduce their density, and optimize their mechanical properties as well as processing conditions.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Potential Phase III NASA applications include space structures like boom and support structures for Gossamer structures, rover subsystems like wheels, chasis, insulation boxes, masts, solar array deployment devices, shelters and hangars for space habitats, airlocks, electronics boxes, tanks/shells/shields, solar arrays, radar boards, and support structures for telecommunication subsystems like struts and beams, etc. Commercial applications include satellite structures, and medical components like artificial muscles and organs, drug-delivery devices, chemical valves, and actuators. A team of medical devices investigator and manufacturer has made a statement that our microcellular SMP foams have a large potential to be used in endovascular devices especially in the treatment of aneurysms. The proposed microcellular SMP foams may solve or alleviate the cerebral vascular accident (AVC) or stroke problem that is the third cause of death and the principal cause of long-term disability in the United States.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Seng Tan
Wright Materials Research Co.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek , OH   45430 - 1120

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Wright Materials Research Co.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek , OH   45430 - 1120


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.04-9899 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012100 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02017
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrochromic Thermal Stabilization of Large Deployable Structures

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar sails use a thin reflecting membrane to deflect sunlight, converting the momentum of solar photons striking the sail to a means of spacecraft propulsion. The trajectory of the sail-powered spacecraft may be controlled by through a mechanical arrangement or through the use of an electrochromic material that changes reflectivity or transmittance in response to the application of an electric potential. In Phase I of this effort, Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc. has demonstrated both reflective and transparent all-solid-state electrochromic membranes (EMs) built on 100cm2 flexible PET films. The reflective EMs demonstrated acceptable performance after cyclic potentiostatic tests in vacuum. The Phase II program concentrates on the development of 100cm2 VEMs built on 7 to 10 micron polymer films that can achieve a reflectance/transmittance modulation ranging from 10 to 75 %. Scale-up to fabrication of reflective EMs having 900cm2 (1? x 1?) active area will be also demonstrated in the Phase II program. EMs will be subjected to cyclic potentiostatic tests in vacuum as well as long-term exposure to ultraviolet radiation in order to demonstrate feasibility of use in orbit-to-space missions.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Successful completion of the Phase II program will extend the reflectance/transmittance modulation range of all-solid state EMs and provide an EM design suitable for use in space missions. These VEMs will exhibit a low areal density and operate at low voltages. The electrochromic technology will find application in aerospace and automotive industries as well as in architectural glazing.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Nikolai Kislov, PhD
Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc.
2345 Anvil Street North
Tampa , FL   33710 - 3905

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc.
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg , FL   33710 - 3905


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.05-8791 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013208 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02060
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Power High Speed Digital Signal Isolator

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Highly-sensitive linear spin-valve sensors combined with NVE's patented GMR isolator technology will be used to develop miniature, low power, high speed, radiation-hard, digital isolator devices for space and other commercial applications. The proposed linear mode spin-valve digital isolators will overcome the shortcomings of the present latching mode spin-valve digital isolators. The devices can be designed to work either in the unipolar mode or bipolar mode. If operating in the unipolar mode, the devices will not only be fully pin-for-pin compatible with optocouplers but also have superior performance with regard to cost, size, power consumption (<35 mW), bandwidth (DC to 1 GHz) and radiation tolerance. If operating in the bipolar mode, the devices will significantly improve NVE's present latching mode digital isolators with much faster speed (>400Mbd) and at least 80% less power consumption. This Phase II proposal is directed towards designing, fabricating and optimizing single/multi-channel digital signal isolator devices. The linear spin-valve sensors used in these devices will be based on the Phase I result. Prototype, radiation hard, low power, high speed, miniature digital isolator devices, that meet space and other commercial requirements will be demonstrated, and these prototypes will be ready for Phase III commercialization.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed technique will significantly improve and expand NVE's magnetic signal isolator products. The success of this project will enable NVE to not only fabricate low power, high speed, miniature (single/multi-channel) digital signal isolators for a variety of applications but also gain competitive advantage over other isolator technologies in the commercial market.

Keywords: spin-valve, radiation hard, digital isolator, magnetics, sensor

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Zhenghong Qian
NVE Corporation
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie , MN   55344 - 3617

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
NVE Corporation
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie , MN   55344 - 3617


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.06-8926 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013073 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02063
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surface Enhanced Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Near-IR Detection

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II SBIR builds on the exciting results demonstrated during the Phase I research. Using a new approach for enhancing the near-infrared (IR) sensitivity of high gain avalanche photodiodes (APDs), Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) will develop a reliable procedure to produce APD arrays with high sensitivity at 1064 nm. This work utilizes an innovative technique to microtexture the front surface of the APD using high power, ultra-short laser pulses (100 femto-seconds). The laser processed silicon surface exhibits remarkably high absorption characteristics over a large range of wavelengths (0.4 - 3 microns). Phase I work established that this processing technique provides an enhancement in the photo-induced charge collection at near-IR wavelengths. We have further demonstrated APD responsivity > 350 A/W at 1064 nm. Evidence of silicon bandgap transformations makes this remarkable innovation extremely promising for present detector technology needs.
The ultimate goal of this project is to use laser microtexturing technology to develop a high speed, high gain, low noise APD array sensor module with significantly improved near-IR response. The APD array sensor will be an extremely valuable tool for long distance optical communication and for LIDAR/LADAR applications.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed technology will have numerous important commercial applications, such as imaging altimeters, LIDAR systems, near-IR spectroscopy, free-space optical communication, optical mammography and tomography, tissue oxygenation studies and many other applications. A successful program could potentially revolutionize any field that is presently limited by the lack of sensitive detection at 1064 nm, where robust and compact transmission technology is readily available.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Arieh M. Karger
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown , MA   02472 - 4699

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown , MA   02472 - 4699


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.07-8411 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013588 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02070
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency, Long Life, Low Mass Stirling Engine for Low Power Applications

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation is a small, highly efficient, long life, low mass free-piston Stirling engine for low power applications. This machine is innovative because in addition to its small mass and physical dimensions it is anticipated to have 35 percent higher efficiency than engines now being considered by NASA. The proposed machine is expected to have 32 percent efficiency at a temperature ratio of 2.35 . Analysis work under the Phase I effort is intended to verify the projected efficiency, size, and the ability to manufacture such a unit. Fabrication, testing and development would be carried out under the Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Commercial applications for a small Stirling engine/alternator are numerous. Anywhere a battery can be found, the Stirling engine is a candidate to replace it. The interest in this area stems from the extremely low energy density of batteries compared to liquid fuels. For example gasoline has approximately 300 times the energy density of a Ni-Cd battery and about 140 times the energy density of a Lithium-Ion battery. An efficient small engine combined with a liquid fuel source would thus act as a highly energy dense replacement for batteries. A second replacement category is that of current fuel fired devices such as thermoelectric power generators and small internal combustion engine portable generators in cases where such power sources are used because of their non-dependency on power grids rather than the higher powers they are capable of producing. Some of the major applications for our proposed unit include:
> Uninterruptible power supply.
> LED based portable traffic lights and safety signs.
> Soldier!|s power source.
> Power source for controls of a non-electrically connected furnace.
> Recreational remote power source.
> Laptop computer power source.
> Cordless (large) battery charger.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
James Gary Wood
Sunpower, Inc.
182 Mill Street
Athens , OH   45701 - 2627

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Sunpower, Inc.
182 Mill Street
Athens , OH   45701 - 2627


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.07-8513 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013486 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02036
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deep Space Power and Propulsion Systems

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Deep Space Missions need a prime power solar array that can operate in both inner and outer planet conditions. The Deep Space Concentrator uses optical and thermal control techniques available to high concentration ratio design, to enable a solar array that provides power efficiently at very high flux, high thermal environments, and very low-flux, cold, high radiation environments. The unique innovation of the DSC is to take advantage of the changes in apparent solar width, and use a concentrator with limited acceptance angle to reduce the light transmitted to the solar cell at near-sun conditions, when the apparent solar disk angle and collimation angle is large, and transmit more solar energy to the solar cell when at far-sun conditions, when the apparent solar disk size and collimation angle is small. In the Phase I SBIR, we demonstrated the basic operation of the Deep Space Concentrator through optical and thermal analysis and the fabrication and test of a Demo Model. The Phase II proposed program finalizes the mirror and photovoltaic receiver manufacturing technology, designs and analyzes a full-scale kilowatt-sized solar panel, and builds qualification and prototype panels for testing in thermal balance, thermal cycling and acoustic environments.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Solar panels represent a large fraction of high-power commercial spacecraft cost. High concentration ratio concentrator panels can reduce the cost per watt of a solar panel by reducing the cost of the solar cell, the primary driver of solar panel cost. The DSC program will demonstrate the cost reduction achievable by miniaturizing a solar cell and using automated semiconductor die-attach and assembly processes. The Phase III effort to complete commercialization will focus on minimizing risk of implementing the DSC in a commercial spacecraft operating environment.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Theodore Stern
Composite Optics, Incorporated
9617 Distribution Ave
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2393

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Composite Optics, Incorporated
9617 Distribution Ave
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2393


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.07-8931 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013068 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02038
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance, Microfabricated Converters for Space Science Missions

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the need for the efficient conversion of thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source to electrical energy for space science missions. We propose to develop a miniature Turbo-Brayton Power Unit (TBPU) using a closed-loop Brayton cycle to provide approximately 55 We at a sink temperature of 300 K. This TBPU promises to achieve a net thermal efficiency of 22% and have a mass of only 3.0 kg. The technical approach that enables high efficiency relies on unique micro-fabrication techniques that have been developed at Creare. These techniques have been used in long-life, vibration-free turbo-Brayton cryocoolers that have been successfully space flight qualified and tested. Here we plan to apply the basic technology to high temperature power generation. During Phase I, we proved the feasibility of the concept by demonstrating the operation of a prototypical turbomachine rotor in gas bearings at speeds in excess of the design speed. During Phase II, we will develop a prototype TBPU and test it at prototypical power levels and temperatures. The project team that will collaborate on this effort has extensive experience in the development of space-flight hardware incorporating high-speed turbomachines, high-performance recuperators, and precision gas film bearings.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Turbo-Brayton power units promise to be lighter, quieter, and more compact than current military and commercial generators. Military applications include portable power units and cogeneration units for soldiers in the field; power sources for personal environmental control systems, battery chargers, and robots; and auxiliary power units for aircraft, cruise missiles, and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Commercial applications include portable power units and cogeneration units for construction and camp sites; emergency power units for homes and offices; and auxiliary power units for homes, boats, and aircraft.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mark V. Zagarola, Ph.D.
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.07-9244 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012755 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02039
PROPOSAL TITLE: MEMS Packaging for Deep Space Environments Using Nano-structured Polymers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project investigated feasibility of nanostructured polymers for improving micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) packaging for deep space harsh environments. MEMS technology enables development of spacecraft devices and subsystems that are small, low-cost, low mass, low volume, and low power consumption. A Stirling powered microcooler device was studied and investigated in Phase II. MEMS devices offer improvements in spacecraft efficiencies and new mission functionalities, MEMS introduces new challenges directly related to their micro-size and solid-state structure. Space missions require devices to operate in harsh environments with extreme temperatures, debris, planetary atmospheres and electromagnetic radiation. A pervasive issue facing users of MEMS devices in all environments is the availability and design of packaging technologies for ensuring long-term reliability and performance of the devices. This project will develop packaging technologies for MEMS based on innovative polymeric materials that are processable into diamond like carbon and silicon carbide materials. Packaging benefits include:

? High wear surfaces
? Thermally conductive
? Electrically insulating
? Anti-stiction
? Hard surface
? Low porosity
? Low coefficient of friction
? CTE matched to silicon

These materials are also expected to be low in cost compared to chemical vapor deposition materials and they achieve higher purity and quality.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The technology that is proposed for this project is a pervasive, critical path capability that is needed for MEMS devices as well as for microelectronics packaging. AMT is presently in the process of launching services for packaging and utilizing high reliability microelectronics in space and military environments and this project will provide added capabilities and new market niches that are complementary and synergistic. The initial focus is on space applications, however there are many other terrestrial needs for MEMS devices that are required to operate in harsh environments; examples include oceanographic exploration, automotive, oil and gas exploration, medical applications, fuel cells, etc. The market for MEMS devices is presently $3.8B and is expected to reach $11B by 2005. Packaging will become at least 10 % of the sales (based on microelectronics industry experience) and therefore MEMS packaging should achieve a market size of at least $1B. Because of the performance and cost benefits that MEMS devices offer for harsh environment applications, it is expected that the products and the packaging technology should be a high profit margin business. AMT has received a contingent letter of commitment from Intel Capital for $300K to support Phase II.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
William E. Davis
Applied Material Technologies, Inc.
2302 S. Fairview Street
Santa Ana , CA   92704 - 4938

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Applied Material Technologies, Inc.
2302 S. Fairview Street
Santa Ana , CA   92704 - 4938


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.07-9679 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012320 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01169
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long Life, High Energy Silver/Zinc Batteries

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Silver/zinc batteries have been a critical component in NASA missions for decades, yet the technology has not overcome the basic flaws that limit service life. Working with Eagle-Picher Technologies, RBC succeeded in its Phase I program in solving the two major causes of early failure in silver/zinc batteries, by incorporating innovative electrode and separator components. Capacity fade on cycling was appreciably reduced translating to higher average working energy density and specific energy. Polyolefin based microporous separators were stable in KOH electrolyte giving wet-life superior to a cellophane containing laminate. Cells could be assembled in the charged state, not requiring a formation step, which is an advantage in terms of mission preparation. The proposed Phase II program will build upon the successful results of the Phase I demonstration to complete development to the point where RBC would design, assemble and deliver to NASA a higher performance silver/zinc battery for a specific NASA application. In Phase II RBC will work with Eagle-Picher Technologies and Advanced Membrane Systems, Inc. in order to complete optimization of separator and electrolyte for maximum service life. The technology will then be scaled into 40Ah, 17V batteries for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit-Primary Life Support System.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Silver/zinc batteries have been widely used in space where volume and weight limitations are critical. Space applications include: launch-vehicle guidance and control, telemetry, NASA vehicles, space shuttle payload launch and power for the life-support equipment used by the astronauts during EVA's. Silver/zinc batteries (primary as well as secondary) also find critical applications in military markets, powering over 90% of all military missile systems, including the Patriot and Tomahawk Cruise missiles. The Navy makes use of silver/zinc batteries in applications that include: mines, buoys, special test vehicles, swimmer aids, deep submergence and rescue vehicles, exploratory underwater vehicles, torpedo propulsion, drones, submarines, and other military equipment. There are also commercial sector applications for silver/zinc in premium electronic equipment that requires a lightweight, high-capacity battery, such as portable medical equipment, portable communications, and professional video recorder. With sufficient improvements in wet-life/cycle-life, technology developed under this SBIR program could find new markets in high performance telecommunications and satellites, which are currently undergoing high rates of growth. Higher performance silver/zinc batteries could be reasonably expected to take market share from older versions of this system, and would be a driver for implementing technology successfully developed under this program.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ramesh Kainthla
RBC Technologies
809 University Drive East, Suite 100E
College Station , TX   77840 - 1431

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
RBC Technologies
809 University Drive East, Suite 100E
College Station , TX   77840 - 1431


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.01-8284 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013715 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02027
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intent Inference Algorithm

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase II SBIR effort, Metron designs and develops an intent inference algorithm, an algorithm that infers the intent of the pilot of an aircraft that is being tracked by a surveillance system. Data describing the environment around the aircraft, for instance, the location of nearby aircraft, weather, Navaids, alternate airports, turbulence, and operational data are used to determine plausible routes for travel. Operational data and domain knowledge from pilot and air traffic controller interviews are used to identify how pilots react to these elements in the National Airspace System (NAS). The algorithm imbeds operational data and domain knowledge into human decision-making computer models; these models are then used to predict the future motion of the vehicle and to identify intent. The outputs of the algorithm are an inferred intent, a level of confidence in the intent, and a continuous predicted path.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
We are designing our algorithm to be used in real-time applications of systems that track aircraft
en route in the NAS and for future cockpit displays that require the intent of a nearby aircraft to
be inferred. Such a functionality for the cockpit is a required part of a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information,
or CDTI.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Jimmy Krozel, Ph.D.
Metron, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Metron, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.02-8103 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013896 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02001
PROPOSAL TITLE: Affordable Composite Fan Containment Case with Integral Toughening Elements

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed program will develop and demonstrate an affordable manufacturing approach to fabricate the latest generation of damage tolerant composite fan case designs. These designs embed a grid of stiffener ribs within the composite laminate to limit damage propagation that is initiated during the fan blade containment event. This grid blunts the crack growth and restricts damage within a "safe zone" that permits structural viability of the case after the blade is contained. The proposed work package will demonstrate that advanced braiding concepts can be used to fabricate these composite-toughening elements in a cost-effective manner. This economically viable fabrication method will allow widespread application of the toughened design concept and enable weight efficient, safe containment system designs for high bypass turbofan engines.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This technology can be applied to the design of all jet engine fan containment cases.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mike Braley
A&P Technology
4595 East Tech Drive
Cincinnati , OH   45245 - 1055

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
A&P Technology
4595 East Tech Drive
Cincinnati , OH   45245 - 1055


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.02-8674 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013325 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02002
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sensitive and Specific Detection of Early Warning Fire Signatures

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An airborne fire is one of the most dreaded emergencies, as all pilots will acknowledge. Isolated at high altitudes, a fire-induced loss of systems can disable the aircraft beyond control. The space shuttles and the International Space Station face an even worse predicament. While an aircraft can land on a short notice, spacecraft are totally vulnerable. Existing fire sensors detect smoke or flame, indicating that the fire is in a relatively advanced stage, but these systems produce false alarms 199 times out of 200. Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to develop a fire onset detection system (FODS) that will: (a) detect fire at a very early stage, without false alarm, by performing trend analysis on key chemical markers and temperature, and (b) provide a continuous status update for intelligent decision making by the crew. In Phase I, IOS established the feasibility of FODS by detecting 50 ppm of carbon monoxide. In Phase II, the project team will develop and test a compact FODS prototype. This prototype system will have the capability to react to several fire markers simultaneously with a high level of reliability.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
IOS's early-warning fire detection system will improve the aircraft industry's ability to detect in-flight fires. In 1997, the Federal Aviation Administration estimated that the incorporation of fire detectors in Class D cargo holds would result in a savings to the airlines of $458 million in incident and accident reductions over the lifetime of the aircraft that existed at that time. The dramatic reduction in false alarm, and increase in the sensitivity that IOS?s system offers will nearly double these savings. The system will also have applications in manufacturing facilities, buildings, and on ships.
Other possible applications include: a) environmental gas sensing; b) flammable gas detection in the fire hazard areas; and c) evaluation of gas mixtures in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.
Another potential application includes chemical and biological warfare agent detection by remotely tracing vapors of the explosives and chemicals. The market for chemical and biological warfare agent detectors could reach nearly $400 million in 2002, rising to $490 million by 2007.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Vladimir Rubtsov
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance , CA   90505 - 5217

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance , CA   90505 - 5217


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.02-9278 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012721 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02018
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Crashworthy Aircraft Seat Design

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is concerned with the prevention of hazardous and accident conditions in transport aircraft and is interested in the mitigation of passenger injuries in accident conditions. Aircraft seats can significantly contribute to the safety of the passengers by restraining them and providing protection in the event of crashes.

An innovative transport aircraft passenger seat concept for superior occupant protection, meeting all structural requirements used in typical seat designs was developed in the Phase I program. This was accomplished with the use of new energy-absorbing structural members and precise control of seat deformation characteristics. Foster-Miller developed an innovative design using the integrated advanced dynamic finite element modeling technique for the seat, occupants, restraints and energy absorbing elements. Results from certification tests on an existing seat design were used to validate the analytical model.

The Phase II program will focus on the optimization and detailed design of this new aircraft seat, including the injury-reduction features. Testing and verification of designs based on the new approach will be conducted. Manufacturing issues and costs will be also addressed. The design will conform to the SAE certification standards for aircraft passenger seats. (P-020417)








POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This project is directly relevant in the design and manufacturing of high performance aircraft seats. This technology can be adapted in other fields such as automobiles and locomotives to protect passengers and train crew.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Kash Kasturi
Foster-Miller, Inc.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham , MA   02154 - 1196

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Foster-Miller, Inc.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham , MA   02154 - 1196


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.03-9314 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012685 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS4-02003
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Model Fusion for Gas Turbine Engine Diagnostics and Prognostics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I IAC, teamed with Pratt & Whitney and Luppold & Associates, developed and demonstrated a hybrid modeling approach to enhance diagnostics and prognostics performance on F-117 engines. The hybrid model fuses a physics-based model developed by Pratt & Whitney called STORM with an empirical model that uses neural networks to monitor and quantify unmodeled and/or mismodeled engine phenomena that corrupt STORM?s diagnostic outputs. The resulting hybrid model is called the enhanced STORM or eSTORM. In Phase I eSTORM was demonstrated to work extremely well for limited conditions when processing simulated engine data.
In Phase II IAC proposes to develop a standalone system for real time implementation of a full F-117 engine eSTORM. The system will cover the full C-17 flight envelope. The system will include interfaces to accept data from the C-17 aircraft bus and will be capable of on-wing operation. The system will be demonstrated using real F-117 inputs running in a test bench environment. Though developed explicitly for an F-117 application, the hybrid modeling concept developed on this Phase II is generic and can be used for eSTORM development on all Pratt & Whitney military and commercial engines.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
IAC worked closely with Pratt & Whitney in development of the initial eSTORM system in Phase I. Pratt & Whitney will support IAC in Phase II to provide engine expertise and proprietary engine models. Though developed explicitly for an F-117 application, the system to be developed on Phase II is generic and can be used for eSTORM development on all Pratt & Whitney military and commercial engines. If Phase II is successful Pratt & Whitney would transition the technologies developed to all their product lines

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Tom Brotherton
Intelligent Automation Corporation
13029 Danielson Street, Suite 200
Poway , CA   92064 - 8811

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Intelligent Automation Corporation
13029 Danielson Street, Suite 200
Poway , CA   92064 - 8811


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.03-9855 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012144 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS4-02005
PROPOSAL TITLE: Object-Oriented, Network-Based, Health Management System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The safety and efficiency of transportation will be enhanced by revolutionary systems that provide on-line health management of vehicle systems. Creare's Online Health Management (OHM) Toolkit facilitates the assembly of a such a system, through the creation of a distributed network-based data processing structure, which is completely described by semantic metadata. This approach enables the system to intelligently interpret diagnostic and prognostic information and to dynamically generate online reports for a wide range of users.
The object-oriented paradigm employed by Creare's software, provides numerous advantages over current custom written systems, including reduced development time and cost, reduced learning curves, reduced bandwidth requirements through distributed processing, and increased data availability through data buffering and web-based report delivery.
In Phase I we demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by developing and testing prototype software. We accomplished this by building on Creare's previously developed, patented, and award-winning RBNB? middleware software. We augmented this enabling technology with an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) for configuring online health-monitoring systems.
During Phase II of this project, we will complete development of the software to produce a commercial-grade package. We will then test the OHM tools by creating health-management systems for a number of demonstration applications.


POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Health management systems can enhance the safety and cost effectiveness of a broad range of vehicle, machinery, and processing systems. As a result, our software tools, which enable the creation of online-health management systems, have a broad range of potential applications, in the military, transport, medical, and industrial fields. However, the revolutionary potential of our application is as a next-generation web tool that moves beyond the simple formatting capability of HTML tools, to interpreting and processing capabilities enabled by semantic data descriptions. We envisage explosive growth of this new technology once the the required data management infrastructure is widely implemented and the use of semantic metadata becomes standard. Our software toolkit addresses both of these requirements, through our buffered data management middleware, and our integrated metadata schema.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Anthony Dietz
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.04-8757 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013242 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02004
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Simple, Small, Low Power Instrument to Measure Aircraft Icing Severity

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft icing severity depends on two key cloud parameters, liquid water content and droplet size. Proposed is a simple instrument using multiple hot wire elements to measure cloud droplet size (median volume diameter) and liquid water content.

The unit utilizes three hot wire sensor elements each of a different geometry, all exposed to the same airflow. By virtue of their different sizes/shapes, the elements have different measurment efficiencies with respect to droplet diameter.

Liquid water content is determined by the total amount of water measured by all three elements. Droplet median volume diameter is determined by the response differences between the three elements. The range of droplet measurement includes super large droplets SLD).

The proposed instrument has no moving parts, no optics and emits no electromagnetic radiation. It is a first principles device capable of complete calibration. Its response time is under one second.

Total frontal area of the instrument is less than four square inches. Less than 500 watts of power are required for operation in continuous icing conditions. The operational airspeed range is compatible with operational jet and turboprop transport aircraft.

Applications include icing research and operational cockpit warning for icing and SLD conditions.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
1. GA and Commercial Cockpit Warning Device for Icing Severity, including warning of SLD conditions

2. Frequency of Occurance Survey instrument to conduct gather data from the GA and Commercial fleet in regards to icing certification requirements

3. Transfer standard for intercomparison of Icing Test Facilities

4. Stand alone certification instrument for FAA aircract certification projects.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lyle Lilie
Science Engineering Associates
114 C Mansfield Hollow Road, Box 605
Mansfield Center , CT   06250 - 0605

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Science Engineering Associates
114 C Mansfield Hollow Road, Box 605
Mansfield Center , CT   06250 - 0605


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.05-8767 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013232 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02022
PROPOSAL TITLE: Shaped Field Giant Magnetoresistive Sensor Arrays for Materials Testing

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Shaped field Giant Magnetoresistive Sensor Arrays offer substantially increased depth of sensitivity and potential to provide 3-dimensional absolute property imaging for conducting and magnetic media. The Phase I demonstrated the capability of Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM) drive winding constructs with GMR sensing elements to (1) detect and image 3% material loss in a 0.25 inch thick aluminum plate, (2) detect corrosion damage in a military aircraft component, (3) use a forward model of the sensor interactions with layered media to calibrate in ?air,? without standards, and accurately measure absolute electrical conductivity and layer thickness, (4) measure and monitor temperature variations for an aluminum plate through another 0.25 inch aluminum plate with an additional 0.5 inch air gap between plates, (5) independently measure variations in stress (i.e., through its relationship with magnetic permeability) on a steel plate through a 0.25 inch aluminum plate and variations in an approximately 0.12 inch air gap between plates, and to (6) operate a three channel GMR-MWM sensor array with JENTEK?s commercial impedance instrumentation. These demonstrations completely satisfied the Phase I objectives. The proposed Phase II effort will develop conformable MWM-Arrays with GMR sensing elements and distributed winding designs for imaging hidden damage and geometric features.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
There are substantial commercial applications for this capability including replacing X-Ray and UT for inspection of metal structures less than 0.5 inches in thickness for corrosion, fatigue and geometric feature imaging stress measurement for ferrous alloys, and weld inspection (e.g., the friction stir welds on the space shuttle tanks, gun barrel inspection, and even buried unexploded ordnance and landmine detection). The proposed Phase II effort will extend the current capability and substantially broaden JENTEK?s addressable markets. JENTEK plans to provide matching funds for Phase II and III. This match will focus on development of key components for planned commercial versions of GMR-MWM-Array products.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Neil Goldfine
JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham , MA   02453 - 7013

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham , MA   02453 - 7013


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A1.05-9239 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012760 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02024
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Optical Fiber Sensor Demodulation System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project?s goal is to produce a flight qualifiable tunable laser system specifically for use in optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) based distributed fiber Bragg grating sensing applications. This work represent an enabling technology for NASA's requirement for distributed optical fiber sensing for health monitoring, aviation safety, and aircraft morphing programs. The work is based on the Phase I feasibility studies which generated two approaches for producing OFDR targeted laser systems. These systems have the unique combination of rapid tuning and immunity to mode hops. The proposed designs have reduced alignment tolerances and built in wavelength tracking. These features provide a level of hardening to environmental influences that will make flight qualification of the systems possible as well as cost effective. An integral part to both approaches is the incorporation of a high speed, high resolution, tracking wavemeter. This feature allows for the use of tunable lasers both with and without mode hops.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Distributed optical fiber sensing which is the motivation for this work has applications in many commercial areas. This technology competes directly with conventional strain gage and thermocouple sensors in the industrial sensors market. Applications in air and ground based health monitoring will be dominated by the distributed optical fiber sensing in the coming years due to the need for high sensor density in these applications. The extremely high sensor density is also opening up new markets for routine sensing in industrial processes and products. One of the approaches pursued in this proposal will drastically increase system performance while reducing costs. This will of course remove barriers to entry in all market areas.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Brooks Childers
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A2.01-8267 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013732 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02001
PROPOSAL TITLE: Collaborative Routing Rationing Algorithm

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) embodies a new philosophy for managing air traffic. The initial implementation of CDM has been aimed at airport Ground Delay Programs (GDPs). However, it has become increasingly evident that very significant delays and throughput degradations have arisen from en-route airspace problems and limitations, particularly from convective weather activity. This effort focused on the application of CDM technology and concepts to the management of en-route traffic (Collaborative Routing). In this phase II effort, we will implement, demonstrate and evaluate a number of different collaborative routing rationing algorithms (CRRAs) to assign use of en route resources to individual flights. We have found that such algorithms are both feasible and can be made consistent with traffic management goals and with the CDM paradigm. The CRRA algorithms will be implemented in NASA?s System-Wide Evaluation Planning Tool (SWEPT) and a major Human-In-The-Loop simulation experiment will be conducted with participants from the FAA Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC), Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs) and Airlines Operation Center (AOC) facilities. This simulation will allow the air transportation community to discuss and refine the CRRA concept toward eventual deployment in the National Airspace System (NAS).

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The product that is contemplated to result from this phase II effort is an initial implementation of the CRRA algorithms into the SWEPT system. Our intent is to obtain further government contracts from NASA and the FAA to further test, enhance and implement the CRRA concepts, procedures and tools into the operational ATC environment.
The new procedures enabled by these algorithms and concepts allow significant flexibility to the Users of the NAS and other international ATM systems. This flexibility afforded to airlines and other Users creates decisions that need to be made and managed. Thus, as a direct result of the implementation of CDM concepts, a new market has been created to help Users manage the new options that are created by CDM.
Metron Aviation has the necessary experience, organization and track record in such a market to be able to successfully provide services based on the CRRA concepts to airlines. Metron Aviation has developed and now provides as a service the Enhanced Substitution Module (ESM), which is a commercial tool to assist airlines in managing their substitutions during Ground Delay Programs.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Robert Hoffman
Metron, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Metron, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A2.01-9158 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012841 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02003
PROPOSAL TITLE: Agent-based Simulation of NAS

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In our Phase I effort we demonstrated the feasibility of developing agent-based software for the simulation of NAS that (i) uses of extensions of UML to represent and agents and its interactions/protocols (ii) leverages research in verification of finite state machines to verify the agent protocols and (iii) automatically generates code for execution on IAI?s agent infrastructure, OpenCybele. The approach is based on a software engineering perspective that draws on ideas and recent developments in multi-agent systems, and ongoing work at IAI on multi-agent systems, which includes the development of DIVA, an agent-software verification tool, and Cybele. Having demonstrated feasibility, our Phase II effort will focus on developing a software prototype of the DIVA CASE tool for UML-based design, verification and automatic code generation of multiagent software for agent-based simulations of NAS. Our Phase II tasks include (i) development of a library of NAS agent interaction protocols that are AUML and FIPA ACL compliant (ii) extensions of the Phase I verification approach to protocol verification (iii) integration of the software with Rational Rose and (v) test and validate the case tool with NASA?s agent-based modeling and simulation Software being developed under the ATMSDI effort.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
A UML-based CASE tool for software verification and validation of scalable complex multi-agent systems will be developed in this SBIR Phase II effort. To ensure industry wide acceptance, the tool will be developed as an add-on to Rational Rose and will be compliant with OMG and AUML industry standards. To ensure successful technology transfer in our Phase II effort, Rational Software Corporation, the developers of Rational Rose, will team with us as our commercialization partner. Partnering with Rational in our gives us access to a Rational customer base of 52,000 users. In addition, in this growing market of distributed multi-agent micro-simulation applications such as Air Traffic Control Simulation, Ground Transportation, Robotics and supply-chain integration, immediate customers for this tool exist in both the Government and Commercial Sectors. In the government sector our primary customer will be NASA, USDOT and DOD. In the commercial sector customers include spacecraft, air-traffic control, process control and manufacturing companies.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Leonard Haynes
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville , MD   20855 - 2785

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville , MD   20855 - 2785


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A2.02-8202 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013797 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02006
PROPOSAL TITLE: Maneuvering Rotorcraft Aeromechanics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
"The Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) offers a unique opportunity to create a new aircraft market while off-loading a portion of the short-haul traffic." (Ref. NASA?s civil tiltrotor web page). Rotary-wing vehicles proposed for improved system capacity must meet global civil aviation requirements for safety, efficiency, and affordability. Many advances have been made in measuring characteristics of rotary-wing vehicles; however, measurements of dynamic, unsteady, and cross-coupling effects are still challenges posing impediments to rapid design cycles. An innovative method, accurately collecting such measurements, utilizes water as a medium for dynamic testing. This testing technique circumvents many of the problems presented by testing in air and provides better insight into the fluid mechanics, interactions and interferences. The method allows testing in slow motion, separates model and test support frequencies, greatly improves signal-to-noise ratios, and provides unparalleled flow visualization. Water tunnel testing will predict maneuvering aerodynamics and stability parameters early in the design cycle, reducing the development time, risk, and cost of new rotorcraft. The method also applies to high performance aircraft development.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
AeroArts is marketing the capability for performing simultaneous flow visualization and force/moment measurement on rotor models, exploiting the special advantages of water as a test medium. There are three main target markets for AeroArts? equipment and expertise, namely commercial aircraft developers, academic institutions, and government research organizations. All manufacturers and developers of runway-independent aircraft are a marketplace for AeroArts? capability. Significant developments within the business sector include the resurging civil aviation market following the lull after September 2001 and the consequent return to concern about the air transportation system capacity. Runway-independent aircraft, and particularly the tiltrotor concept, are one of the brightest hopes for relieving aviation system capacity.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Brooke Smith
AeroArts LLC
PO Box 2909
Palos Verdes Peninsula , CA   90274 - 2909

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
AeroArts LLC
PO Box 2909
Palos Verdes Peninsula , CA   90274 - 2909


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A2.02-9586 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012413 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02007
PROPOSAL TITLE: Revolutionary Runway Independent Aircraft Flight Simulation Technology

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A potentially key element of meeting NASA?s objective of dramatically increasing aviation system capacity is the utilization of runway independent aircraft (RIAs) to provide feeder service to major airports. Among the challenges in enabling high-volume terminal area RIA operations are identifying potential hazards of this flight regime and developing simulation technology for a complex aeromechanical environment involving the interaction of multiple types of air vehicles (e.g, RIA, fixed-wing,V/STOL). Fast, high-fidelity full-vehicle aeromechanical models and simulation tools are thus needed for RIAs that may be used in such roles. To meet this need, a suite of physics-based tools are being developed that capture challenging problems such as vortex wake encounters, modeling the airwakes of structures/terrain, ?self-interactions? such as vortex ring state, full vehicle gust response, and surface/ground vortex effects. Key technical innovations include novel fast viscous/turbulent wake decay methodologies tailored to RIAs, coupled with state of the art Real Time Free Wake simulation capabilities of CDI?s CHARM full-aircraft analysis. The effort will yield a Multiple Aircraft Simulation Tool (MAST) that will permit both off-line assessment and on-line, real-time flight simulation of RIA and non-RIA vehicles for flight planning, operational training, and evaluation of pilot workload and situational awareness requirements.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This new simulation technology would help government agencies and airport management determine safe trajectories and pilot workload for RIAs in terminal area flight as well as assess the impact of wake vortex interactions on IFR spacing requirements. Industry would use this tool to support design and analysis of new RIA concepts or applications, as well as assist development of next generation control system and flight director aids. Also, this new capability would directly support flight training activities by simulation manufacturers, aircraft operators, and the military services.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Daniel A. Wachspress
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing , NJ   08618 - 2302

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing , NJ   08618 - 2302


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A2.03-8183 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013816 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02008
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent Displays for Time-Critical Maneuvering of Multi-Axis Vehicles

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel training methodology that takes advantage of automation?s potential as a high-speed decision aid and the strengths of human pattern recognition and conditioning is proposed. The methodology applies optimal control theory to solve for a vehicle?s trajectory and the required control inputs. A preview of the commanded input suite is displayed to the pilot, which will dynamically update as the vehicle state changes in time. Using this and other innovative training displays, the pilot should be able to execute numerous maneuvers previously considered outside the operational envelope, in addition to performing ?standard? emergencies with a high degree of control consistency and accuracy. The preview display?s function can be extended to serve as an on-board pilot cueing aid. This methodology can be incorporated in flight simulators to train pilots across a range of platforms. The initial target application will be for rotorcraft autorotation, a particularly challenging and accident-prone multi-axis maneuver. Phase I demonstrated the concept?s feasibility in the rotorcraft autorotation domain. Phase II will focus on practical application and demonstration of the concept for rotorcraft autorotation training and its expansion to other flight vehicles.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The pilot training software developed under this project can be used to train helicopter pilots to perform safe autorotation maneuvers. The core technology may also be adapted for use in training human operators of other vehicles (flight, ground, and underwater) where multi-axis control in time-critical situations is required.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Bimal Aponso
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne , CA   90250 - 7083

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne , CA   90250 - 7083


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A3.01-9332 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012667 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02021
PROPOSAL TITLE: Measurement/Model of Effects of Grazing Flow on Resonator Impedance

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR Phase II research project is divided into four parts. The principal objective of the first part is to conduct hot-wire measurements to assess the accuracy of Dean?s Two Microphone Impedance Measurement Method. They will also be used to calibrate CAA numerical codes.
The principal objective of the second part is to develop a computationally simple 2-DOF resonator impedance model. The model will include non-linearity of the cavity sound particle velocities pumped into/out-of the inner/outer orifices. The model will be calibrated by Impedance measurements as a function of SPL and grazing flow speed.
The principal objective of the third part is to use hot-wires to measure cavity inflow/outflow sound particle velocities near the orifices of multiple orifice resonators, backed by a common cavity. These measurements should provide fundamental understanding of orifice-to-orifice interaction. They will be used to assess potential resonator bandwidth improvement as a function of orifice spacing in grazing flow applications.
The principal objective of the fourth part is to design and construct a prototype low self-noise probe microphone to measure broadband sound in high-speed flow duct applications. The performance of the prototype probe will be validated in the NASA LaRC 2-in by 2-in wind tunnel.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
1. Software/hardware to conduct in-situ impedance measurements of liners installed in engine nacelles, wind tunnels, peak electrical energy turbine exhausts, HVAC ducts.
2. Software code to predict the impedance of 1-DOF and 2-DOF liners exposed to intense sound and high-speed grazing flow.
3. Software code to improve bandwidth performance of resonators based on orifice spacing.
4. Low self-noise probe microphone capable of measuring broadband sound in high-speed flow duct applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Alan Hersh
Hersh Acoustical Engineering, Inc.
780 lakefield Road, Unit G
Westlake Village , CA   91361 - 2657

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Hersh Acoustical Engineering, Inc.
780 lakefield Road, Unit G
Westlake Village , CA   91361 - 2657


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A3.02-8760 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013239 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02006
PROPOSAL TITLE: PIP/MI Matrix SiC/SiC CMCs

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Innovative materials and processing capabilities are needed for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for efficient engine systems. NASA has identified CMCs as the only materials that will meet the combination of increased safety, reduced cost, and reduced weight as operational temperatures climb to higher levels (per AeroMat 2000 Annual Conference, June 2000). The current UEET (Ultra Efficient Engine Technology) initiative at NASA is looking at components such as combustor liners and vanes in particular. In light of these needs, this Phase II SBIR proposal addresses lightweight, high temperature, and low cost CMCs for engine and propulsion applications, particularly in the temperature range of 1200-1400C. The work specifically addresses the optimization of a hybrid PIP/MI SiC fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix composite (SiC/SiC). Effort will focus on using SiNC- and SiC-yielding preceramic polymers and a combination of PIP and melt-infiltration processing routes that will reduce the cost and time for producing SiC/SiC composites compared to traditional CVI/MI processing. The intent of this work is to refine and optimize the PIP/MI process developed in Phase I, generate a database of thermal and mechanical properties, and demonstrate fabrication capability of subcomponents. The innovation of this work lies in the ability of PIP processing to protect the fibers and interphase coating in a uniform manner compared to the CVI process, resulting in faster and less expensive processing as well as less variability in material properties.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The results of this program will be immediately applicable to the on-going work of a number of companies for programs such as Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) and other initiatives. For example, Boeing-Rocketdyne is interested in evaluating the use of CMCs for transpiration cooled injector faceplates or rocket engine thrust chamber liners for use on the IHPRPT initiative and other advanced engine programs requiring lightweight high temperature CMC materials. Understanding the thermal and mechanical performance of PIP-processed CMC materials will improve the timeline and extent of insertion of CMC materials into a variety of lightweight, high temperature applications. Rockwell Science Center has also expressed interest in C/SiC and SiC/SiC CMCs to use as the exhaust ramp material for the Aerospike Engine concept. General Electric Power Systems and Solar Turbines, Inc., are investigating SiC/SiC CMC materials for turbine engine applications and are very interested in opportunities for reductions in cost and processing time. NASA has identified CMCs as the only materials that will meet the combination of increased safety, reduced cost, and reduced weight as operational temperatures climb to higher levels (per AeroMat 2000 Annual Conference, June 2000). The need for high-temperature CMC materials is evident in applications such as turbomachinery, thrust chambers, seals, bladed-disks (blisks), and various structural panels that may have a requirement for integrated cooling channels. The NASA UEET program in particular has identified applications such as combustor liners and vanes that will require CMC components.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Timothy Easler
COI Ceramics, Inc.
9617 Distribution Ave
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2393

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
COI Ceramics, Inc.
9617 Distribution Ave
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2393


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A3.02-9716 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012283 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02009
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermal Spray of UV/Visible Light-Curable Polymide Powders

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)

The proposed innovative method for spraying UV-curable powders answers a critical NASA need for advanced coatings, and capitalizes on exciting commercial market opportunities. The technology employed combines UV/visible radiation with proprietary thermal spray processing methods yields an effective spray coating system for applying UV-curable powders without the use of solvents.
The spray process and the lay-up aspects of the powder spray technology address a NASA mandate for producing Advanced Materials with Reduced Emissions. The advanced materials processed with this technology have application in gas turbines, rocket and turbine-based combined cycle engines. The technology enables efficient high quality application of these advanced materials to fabricate lightweight jet engine components and other critical NASA and commercial equipment components.
The Phase I technical objectives were fully achieved by demonstrating feasibility of the novel UV/thermal spray technology to coat surfaces using advanced NASA UV-curable polyimide and various commercial UV-curable polymers. This was demonstrated for powder coating conventional materials, heat-sensitive and low-temperature substrates that included metal, glass, natural wood, paper and plastic.
The Phase II technical objective is to develop, fabricate and demonstrate a field portable prototype system. Phase II and Phase III matching resource commitments from the private sector of $680,000 have been obtained.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed technology will meet critical needs in applying a broad-range of commercially available UV-curable thermoplastic and thermoset polymer powder materials as neat materials and as ?designer? composites, nanocomposites and functionally graded materials. Applications include adhesives, scratch resistant coatings, protective coatings, high-elongation coatings, self-extinguishing coatings, circuit board coatings and electrically conductive coatings.
Independent evaluations of several coatings sprayed onto a broad range of substrates in Phase I were made by major UV-curable powder coating manufactures. These evaluations were favorable and resulted in significant commitments by these companies to strategically partner with Montec Research for use of the proposed process for new and expanded applications of their powder coating products.
The entire coatings market was valued at $70.6B in 2000. The UV-curable powder coatings have 4%, or $2.8 of the entire coatings market, and its market share is growing at double-digit rates. The furniture and construction industries alone used a combined 48.4 million pounds of UV-curable coatings in 2001. Automotive and appliance manufacturing use over $21.1B of coatings annually and will increasingly look to UV-curable powder coatings for solutions. The architectural coatings market is $30.7B, and will also benefit from the proposed technology. The technology addresses these industrial requirements and others.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lawrence Farrar
Montec Research
1901 South Franklin
Butte , MT   59701 - 3005

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Montec Research
1901 South Franklin
Butte , MT   59701 - 3005


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A4.01-8115 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013884 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02009
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Aircraft Parachute Recovery System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SATS is NASA's efficient personal air transportation vision. SATS airplanes must strive for higher levels of safety, speed, and comfort than small airplanes currently offer. BRS proposes to explore the dynamics of parachute inflation for aircraft in this new category and develop a system that will automatically and efficiently manage the parachute deployment sequence throughout their operating envelope. A prototype system for a 5,000 lb aircraft with a speed range from 60 to 300 knots will be developed using an unmanned drop test vehicle and cargo aircraft. BRS will also work concurrently with several light jet manufacturers to define the parachute/aircraft interface requirements. These relationships are critical because it is clear that a practical emergency parachute system for this application must be an integral component of the aircraft and will require contributions from a variety of engineering disciplines. These proposed tasks ideally fit BRS's experience and capabilities.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
BRS is strategically positioned to take advantage a new generation of jet aircraft that will break the price and operational barriers of the past. An important key to this new concept is a focus on safety. These new aircraft must be both easier to fly and safer to operate. To date, BRS has signed letters of commitment from three light jet manufacturers to provide cooperative support during and after the Phase II contract period. This support will include engineering support in the areas of airframe structure, parachute installation, and crashworthiness enhancements necessary for the successful parachute deployment and subsequent landing. All of these companies have agreed to work with BRS with the ultimate goal of making their airframes ?BRS ready?. This will allow for the installation of a parachute system once it is available. Continued promotion of Light Jet BRS product will be attained through strategic partnering with other companies that emerge as this market expands and attracts more competitors. These markets can be a significant revenue source for BRS with the average recovery system price ranging from as low as $15,000 and up to $30,000.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Tony Kasher
Ballistic Recovery Systems, Inc.
300 Airport Road
South St. Paul , MN   55075 - 3551

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ballistic Recovery Systems, Inc.
300 Airport Road
South St. Paul , MN   55075 - 3551


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.01-8361 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013638 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01135
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Hybrid Piezoelectric/Fiber Optic System for Structural Health Monitoring

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Acellent Technologies is developing a Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic (HyPFO) structural diagnostic system that can be used to perform quick non-destructive evaluation and long-term health monitoring of aerospace vehicles and structures. The development is based on Acellent's state-of-the-art SMART Layer technology that utilizes a built-in network of piezoelectric sensors and actuators embedded on a thin dielectric carrier film, that can be easily mounted on the surface of existing structures or embedded inside composite structures during manufacturing itself. Due to the popularity of fiber-optic sensors, it is proposed to incorporate fiber-optic sensors into the current SMART Layer product to create a Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber-optic monitoring layer. The specific objectives of the phase I effort were to (1) Develop and fabricate a hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic layer, (2) Integrate the fabricated prototype onto a demonstration structure and (3) Demonstrate functionality of the structurally integrated HyPFO monitoring layer. Anticipated phase II challenges include completing the design and development of the Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber-optic sensor layer, development of instrumentation for the hybrid layer in collaboration with fiber-optic companies, integration of the fiber-optic instrument and Acellent's current diagnostic instrument, development of diagnostic and application software for the HyPFO and testing and validation of the developed system with industrial partners.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This innovative technology has widespread applications in major industries including aerospace, aeronautical, automotive, and civil infrastructure. The company anticipates that the development and subsequent commercialization of the structural health monitoring system will lead to economic benefits these industries in the form of improved safety, reduced life cycle costs through real-time structural monitoring, improvement in structural reliability, reduction of maintenance cost and improved readiness for service. The proposed development is fully supported by its industrial counterpart - Thiokol Propulsion. These companies have extensive applications of the structural health monitoring system for their products including solid rocket motors, aircrafts structures, and missiles and will test the developed system on their products during the project.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Peter X. Qing
Acellent Technologies, Inc.
562 Weddell Drive, Suite 4
Sunnyvale , CA   94089 - 2108

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Acellent Technologies, Inc.
562 Weddell Drive, Suite 4
Sunnyvale , CA   94089 - 2108


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.01-9540 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012459 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01139
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cavitation Model for Turbopumps in Liquid Rocket Systems

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An innovative model for simulating cavitation in liquid rocket turbopumps using cryogenic working fluids is proposed. The formulation is based on a compressible gas-liquid framework that accurately models the acoustics in a multi-phase mixture. This methodology was successfully applied, in our Phase I effort, to simulate cavitating inducer performance in water. Our Phase II effort will extend this formulation to cavitation in cryogenic fluids which exhibit, relative to water, far more complex physics; cryogenic pumps operate at temperatures closer to the critical temperature of the working fluid making thermodynamic effects important. The model will account for the variation in the properties of the fluid as a function of the local fluid temperature that may vary due to energy requirements of vaporization/condensation. It will be incorporated within the commercially marketed code CRUNCH CFD that has a multi-element unstructured framework and is ideally suited for complex turbomachine configurations. This framework will be used as a design support tool to analyze inducer designs and in particular determine the suction specific speed at which head breakdown occurs. The limited reliability of current design tools in cavitating flow regimes makes this innovation a useful tool for turbomachine designers.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The software product resulting from our Phase II effort directly addresses core needs of liquid rocket system engineers both in the commercial aerospace industry, as well as NASA. As part of the NASA Space Launch Initiative, there is a current need to design turbomachinery systems that can be throttled over a wide range of off-design conditions. Extensive cavitation under these conditions can detrimentally affect the performance and durability of these systems. Current design procedures largely rely on a combination of one-dimensional analyses and correlations derived from historical design practices. However, these tools have limited reliability in the cavitating flow regime and designers have to be very conservative in defining a safe operational range. Furthermore, commercial CFD tools currently available are not adequate to model the compressibility effects that arise in cryogenic pumping systems. The proposed modeling software CRUNCH CFD addresses these deficiencies and can play a valuable role as a design support tool for refining preliminary designs as well as rectifying problems with existing operational systems. In addition to the liquid rocket industry, this simulation software can also be used in a wide range of the broader commercial market including: 1) Industrial pump market (e.g. boiler feed pumps, nuclear reactor safety pumps, etc). 2) Marine propellers, and 3) Recreational high-speed water crafts such as jet-skis.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ashvin Hosangadi
Combustion Research and Flow Technology,
174 North Main Street, POB 1150
Dublin , PA   18917 - 2108

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology,
174 North Main Street, POB 1150
Dublin , PA   18917 - 2108


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.02-8890 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013109 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02020
PROPOSAL TITLE: Magnesium Composites With Corrosion and Wear Resistant Coatings

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The project concerns the development of magnesium composites with advanced anodized coatings for improved corrosion and wear resistance. Coating production and the properties obtained are significant improvements over previous surface treatments for magnesium. In Phase I, over eighty experiments were conducted in the anodization of magnesium alloys and composites. Variables examined through these experiments include: voltage, electrolyte, temperature, magnesium alloy, cathode geometry, and time. Comparison of the coatings was conducted using microscopy, chemical analysis, and corrosion and wear tests. Four magnesium composites were obtained containing two different base alloys and four reinforcement phases (B4C, SiC, Al2O3, and carbon fiber). Anodization of two composites produced excellent coatings. The other two composites were shown to be incompatible with coating methods to resist corrosive environments. These results justify the goals of the project to identify appropriate magnesium composites and make them corrosion and wear resistant and eliminate from contention inappropriate materials. On completion of Phase II, the goals and objectives met will include a database will exist of known and tested anodized magnesium composites. The deliverables include anodized magnesium composite components produced and tested to NASA specifications for use in the reusable launch vehicle program.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Magnesium composites sell to industries who have special weight / wear or weight / strength requirements. Applications for magnesium composites include the automotive, military, aerospace, recreational, and electronic industries. Automotive uses include brake assemblies and pistons. Recreational uses of magnesium composites include tools, boat motors, and bicycle components. Potential government use of magnesium components include aerospace and military applications. Military uses include tank treads, hardware structural components and electronics. Aerospace applications are to be chosen part by part based on weight savings, and desired component physical properties. The P.I. of this project patented a process for anodizing magnesium alloys. The patent was assigned to a joint venture company which has gone on to license the technology in thirteen countries. The P.I. was part of the marketing and sales team that developed the patented process into a commercially viable process. The U.S. licensee of the previous patent is anticipated to be the conduit for further U.S. development and negotiations towards that end are underway.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Thomas Barton
Eltron Research Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder , CO   80301 - 3241

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Eltron Research Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder , CO   80301 - 3241


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.02-9147 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012852 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02034
PROPOSAL TITLE: Field Joining of Ceramic Matrix Composites

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Silicon carbide fiber and carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites are being considered for reusable launch vehicle airframe components. Because the furnaces needed to make components are expensive, and furnaces of the size needed to make airframe components simply do not exist, we need a way to join these composites together to make complex and large shapes. TDA proposes to address this problem by using welding equipment to join C/SiC and SiC/SiC composites. In Phase I, we demonstrated the ability to join these composites by producing a reaction-bonded silicon carbide in joints with commercial Gas Transferred Arc Welders at rates of 5 seconds/inch with strengths greater than the parts to be joined. In Phase II, we will optimize this welding/brazing process to produce prototypes including a 10 inch x 10 inch C/SiC joined composite. We will also produce a 1 inch x 6 inch C/SiC composite joined with a silicon alloy to produce a higher temperature capability joint. In addition to aerospace structures these technology will be commercialized in current markets for monolithic silicon carbide.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This project will develop a method for joining and repairing C/SiC and SiC/SiC composites and monolithic silicon carbide in the manner of advanced metal alloys. This project will allow large and/or complex shapes to be joined to produce reusable launch vehicle airframe components. In addition, it will lower the cost of producing current commercial items such as advanced turbine engines, radiant tube heaters, heat exchangers, armor, erosion and corrosion components.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mr. Jack D. Sibold
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.03-8392 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013607 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01141
PROPOSAL TITLE: Direct Metal Technology for Additive Manufacturing and Rapid Prototyping

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solidica is proposing a filament based rapid prototyping machine for the production of net shape metal and functional gradient components. Net shape fully dense metallic parts have been the holy grail of rapid prototyping since its inception. Solidica, Inc. has patented an innovative ultrasonic approach for rapid prototyping of net shape metallic parts using a ribbon feedstock. By combining the use of ultrasonics for layer-by-layer material build up of metallic ribbons with a simple machining head Solidica achieves net shape fully dense metallic components in a fraction of the time and at a lower cost than traditional machining or casting. Extending this proprietary technology to use filament based feedstock rather than ribbon, will enable a complexity of geometry that is currently only achievable for fully dense metal components through investment casting. This innovation has enormous cost saving advantages for production of both complex metallic and bimetallic functional gradient test hardware. There is currently no technology that is readily capable of forming functionally gradient structures for complex geometric shapes.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The Phase II filament based RP machine proposed here is essentially an alpha version of a next generation product for Solidica, and described in our business plan. The rapid prototyping machine market is about $300M per year, and up to 50% of all applications for these machines have metal end items, meaning that some 50% of all purchasers are potential buyers of this product. Solidica's goal is to commercialize this Phase II system by 2003, and bring it to market in 2004. We have developed an launched a larger scale tooling oriented RP/RT product, and this is a technically feasible evolution with an important market potential.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dawn White
Solidica
3941 Research Park Drive, Suite C
Ann Arbor , MI   48108 - 2219

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Solidica
3941 Research Park Drive, Suite C
Ann Arbor , MI   48108 - 2219


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.03-8601 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013398 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01142
PROPOSAL TITLE: Economical Fabrication of Thick-Section Ceramic Matrix Composites, Phase II

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
No timely and cost-effective methods now exist for fabrication of thick-section (>=2"), continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Application of such CMCs can enhance the efficiency and performance, reduce the weight, improve the durability, and lower the cost of aerospace propulsion systems, particularly those used in high temperature, high-stress environments. Achieving these benefits requires development of matrix infiltration techniques capable of efficiently producing thick parts. The quality of such parts will also depend on implementation of improved fiber/matrix interfaces and interface deposition techniques. Carbon fibers are of particular interest as CMC reinforcements because they are relatively inexpensive, have higher strength and stiffness and lower density than oxide or non-oxide ceramic fibers, and retain their mechanical properties at very high temperatures. The main drawback of carbon fibers is their low oxidation resistance, which has prevented their extensive use in high temperature oxidizing environments. Oxide interfaces can potentially impart sufficient protection, as well as provide other essential interface functions related to load transfer between fibers. In Phase I, Ultramet demonstrated a unique and innovative process for depositing oxide interfaces, specifically ultraviolet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (UVCVD), throughout thick fiber preforms. Ultramet also successfully achieved rapid infiltration of carbide matrices into thick-section (1") fiber preforms, up to 98% dense, using an innovative melt infiltration process and obtained initial mechanical properties and oxidation performance of the resultant composites. In Phase II, Ultramet will optimize material selection and processing parameters to produce low-porosity carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC) thick-section CMCs having optimal strength, stiffness, and oxidation performance, and scale up the processing to fabricate components up to 14" diameter x 2.5" thick.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Cost-effective, rapid fabrication of thick-section ceramic matrix composites will potentially benefit a number of component applications. Within this project, aerospace applications are of particular interest. A broad range of aerospace components would benefit from an economical thick-section C/SiC composite offering a long lifetime in a high temperature oxidizing environment while under load. Specific applications include high temperature engine panels (e.g. those needed for hypersonic propulsion hot gas flow paths), combustors, inlet nozzles (stators), turbine disks, process industry parts requiring high temperature capability and corrosive environment resistance for extended periods (e.g. hot gas and liquid handling equipment), furnace structures, and high temperature filter elements. Successful generic demonstration and database development of the proposed technology could support any of these applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Jason R. Babcock, Ph.D.
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima , CA   91331 - 2210

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima , CA   91331 - 2210


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.03-9756 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012243 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01146
PROPOSAL TITLE: Better Pressure Vessel Impact Resistance Utilizing Filament Wound Hybrid Fibers.

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
HyPerComp Engineering, Inc. proposes to develop filament wound composite pressure vessels with superior low and high velocity impact resistance as well as improved high temperature (fire) survivability.

The current generation of high performance filament wound composite pressure vessels as utilized in solid propellant propulsion, space craft energy storage systems, launch tubes, self contained breathing apparatus, and other demanding applications utilize carbon fibers in order to obtain a high performance to weight ratio. While the impressively high tensile strength of these fibers provides for light weight pressure vessels, the resulting thin wall thickness combined with carbon fiber?s sensitivity to ?bruising? can result in significant risk of impact damage. Even relatively light and difficult to detect impacts can potentially degrade the capability of these pressure vessels.

HyPerComp Engineering has recently completed a Phase I SBIR through NASA, MSFC demonstrating significant improvement in impact resistance in high performance pressure vessels (NAS8?01146). The effort proposed herein builds upon that knowledge, expands it into higher energy levels, and incorporates heat resistant materials currently under evaluation at NASA, MSFC to develop a ?next generation? filament wound pressure vessel with significant improvements in both high and low velocity impact capability as well as improved fire resistance

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Both military and aerospace pressure vessel applications where high performance and mission reliability are required are natural targets for the technology proposed for development herein. Similarly the commercial pressure vessel industry, while not requiring quite as high of performance, is always keenly aware of any technology that might make the product safer. These seemingly separate but demanding industries are always searching for improvements in performance and safety with regard to pressure vessels. The demonstrated technology has the potential of taking both attributes to a new level.

In the aerospace market composite pressure vessels are relied upon for both performance (low weight) and reliability. The thin walled nature of these high performance pressure vessels make them susceptible to impact damage, often undetectable impact damage. An improvement in damage tolerance with little to no performance sacrifice is of significant worth and should be readily marketable either through the sale of specific hardware or the licensing of specific technology.

Likewise there are many commercial applications where pressure vessels are used in demanding applications. An improved, significantly lighter yet extremely rugged SCBA cylinder would be viewed as a significant improvement in safety and would find a significant market niche for demanding applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
James Patterson
HyPerComp Engineering, Inc.
1080 North Main Suite #2
Brigham City , UT   84302 - 1470

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
HyPerComp Engineering, Inc.
1080 North Main Suite #2
Brigham City , UT   84302 - 1470


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.04-9065 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012934 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS13-02002
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multi-disciplinary Multiphase Flow Analyzer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Simulation methodologies which describe complex, Multiphase, flow phenomena including cavitation, cryogenic fluid management, coolant spray and impinging jets will be developed. Accurately described real fluid properties will be employed in an integrated simulation tool, that involves thermodynamics and fluid dynamics models, to describe local vaporization phenomena in liquid rocket engine propellant delivery systems, propellant tanks and the test facilities. Bubbly flows will be simulated with a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture model, which emphasizes the computational efficiency and modeling effectiveness. Cavitating venturi meter and pump flows, cryogenic propellant tank filling processes and evaporating cooling jets can be analyzed with this methodology. More accurate propellant metering, oscillatory inlet flow characterization and accurate description of the thermodynamics environment of cryogenic fluid systems will be the result of this project. Other complex flows in propellant delivery systems or coolant flows in test facilities will also be amenable to analysis with the produced methodology.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Advanced propulsion systems of the reusable launch vehicle designs require heavy testing in the liquid propellant supply systems. Cryogenic propellants are usually stored near the saturation conditions. This means that system optimization would involve a lot of analyses trying to identify the possible onset of cavitation anywhere in the supply systems. Also, analysis to predict the phase change due to thermal flushing is also important in cryogenic fluid management. This requirement is shared across the Government agencies and the private industry, which organizations are involved in aerospace research and development.
Cross industry application may also include marine propulsion designs for cavitation diagnostics, water pumps design, valve operation design in industrial liquid flow circuits and artificial heart design, etc. The fundamental multiphase flow physics involved in these applications are similar to what are proposed in this research. There may be some application specific variations in fluid properties that required further tailoring to have good representation of the type of flow under investigation. With these resolved in the Phase II and Phase III research, the present multiphase flow analyzer will become widely accepted in the industry.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Yen-Sen Chen
Engineering Sciences, Inc.
1900 Golf Road, Suite D
Huntsville , AL   35802 - 4319

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Engineering Sciences, Inc.
1900 Golf Road, Suite D
Huntsville , AL   35802 - 4319


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A5.04-9367 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012632 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS13-02004
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent Wireless Sensor Communication for Health Monitoring

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The key innovation of this proposal is the design of a low-cost high data rate wireless sensor network for rocket engine test facilities. Time Modulated Ultra-wideband (TM-UWB) technology is the key to implementing this wireless sensor network. To the best of our knowledge, no other wireless technology can achieve the high data rate and high channel capacity required for rocket engine testing. During Phase I, we have demonstrated the feasibility of our concept. In Phase II, we will further develop the complete architecture and develop a prototype wireless sensor network to evaluate the system performance and fields demonstrate its capability. The proposed wireless sensor network consists of a network controller and many smart sensor nodes. Each smart sensor node is equipped with a TM-UWB transmitter, a narrow band receiver, and a multiplexed data acquisition system. The UWB transmitter is used to transmit the digitized sensor data to the network controller at a data rate of at least 1.25Mbps. The narrow band receiver is used to receive control and configuration commands from the network controller, which will be very infrequent and can be very low data rate. We believe this is the most cost effective architecture for Phase II.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
For current rocket engine testing, a long wire needs to be connected from each sensor on the test stand to the signal-conditioning center. Furthermore, the sensor configurations always need to be changed for testing different rocket engines. These wiring and configuration changes represent significant cost and time for the test. With the proposed TM-UWB wireless sensor networks, this cost and the preparation time can be greatly reduced. This cost and time saving will attract government agencies, including NASA and US Air Force, to use this wireless sensor network for their engine testing facilities. None of the existing wireless technologies can provide high data rate and high channel capacity required in rocket test facilities, which often involves hundreds of sensors. TM-UWB also offers other advantages over other wireless technologies, such as spectral efficiency, coexistence with other RF devices without causing interference, and multipath Immunity. Beyond engine testing, this wireless sensor network can be for any equipment health monitoring and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, especially for large manufacturing facilities. The fact that TDC raised $100 million of private funds for this development proves that there are many investors who believe this concept will yield valuable products.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Chujen Lin
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville , MD   20855 - 2785

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville , MD   20855 - 2785


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A6.01-8259 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013740 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01206
PROPOSAL TITLE: Composite Grids for Ion Thruster

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The grid stack used on ion engines is a critical component influencing engine performance and weight. The grids currently used on ion thrusters and in laboratory ion sources use costly machined pyrocarbon grids with thick ceramic mounting posts and they require assembly of several parts.

This project investigates novel carbon grid materials and sandwich construction using insulating core materials that resist shorting caused by sputtered contaminates. The benefits of this grid concept are: precision shape, vibration resistance, light weight, fewer grid components required, scalability to small and large grid diameters (including high power ion engines for nuclear electric propulsion), and low cost.

Phase 1 demonstrated feasibility of fabricating small sandwich grids with suitable precision and voltage standoff. Phase 2 shall futher develop materials and processing, and fabricate full-scale sandwich grids for use in NASA Ion Engines.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Low cost carbon grids have commerical application in Ion Sources and Ion Engines. The sandwich grids architecture offers special benefits to Ion Thrusters for in space propulsion, including high power nuclear electric propulsion. The methods developed may be useful for other electron sources in microwave tubes, lasers, accelerators, and electronics display technology.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Y Robert Yamaki
Energy Science Laboratories, Inc.
6888 Nancy Ridge Dr.
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2232

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Energy Science Laboratories, Inc.
6888 Nancy Ridge Dr.
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2232


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A6.01-8910 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013089 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01181
PROPOSAL TITLE: FLIGHT WEIGHT MAGNETS USING CARBON NANOTUBES

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The motivation for the Phase I effort to use carbon nanotubes for application to magnets in space was based on published reports that their current carrying capacity was 10,000 times that of other superconductors and that their mechanical strength was 100 times that of steel on a mass basis. In phase I, we investigated the properties of this amazing new material and concluded the original premise was substantially correct, although some details remain to be investigated and a whole new suite of tools and machinery are required. In Phase II, we are proposing to advance this technology to the point of winding a nanotube magnet coil, testing it and delivering it to NASA/MSFC. The main thrusts of the program include some more definitive measurements of superconducting properties as a function of temperature, magnetic field and mechanical strain. In parallel efforts, tools will be developed to wind the carbon nanotube coils, attach electrical leads to them and test their performance. We will update the conceptual design for a NASA magnet for an MHD disk generator using carbon nanotube conductors and perform sufficient economic analyses to determine the economic feasibility of this application of carbon nanotubes.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The most immediate commercial applications of this technology are for magnets that are deployed on space vehicles and aircraft for power and propulsion. A dramatic reduction in weight is possible as a result of the high current density. This potential, factored into a power or propulsion system weight that is mostly from the magnet with existing technology, has the result of dramatic increases in performance per unit system weight. In addition there are potential fruitful applications to magnetic nozzles, both the generator and accelerator in the AJAX type propulsion system, flow modification systems for hypersonic aircraft and magnetic confinement of fusion reactions. These applications, particularly in space can justify a premium price because of the cost of launching mass into space. If the technology is developed at a price competitive with other superconductors, there is a huge market in earth based electrical equipment such as large electric motors and generators, transformers, power transmission lines, ground fault isolators, magnetic field gradient particle separators, magnets for MRI machines and all the other markets identified for high temperature superconductors identified in the U. S. DOE market penetration studies.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
James N. Chapman
LYTEC LLC
1940 ELK RIVER DAM ROAD, P.O. BOX 1581
TULLAHOMA , TN   37388 - 1581

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
LYTEC LLC
1940 ELK RIVER DAM ROAD, P.O. BOX 1581
TULLAHOMA , TN   37388 - 1581


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A6.01-8948 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013051 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01148
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrahigh Energy Propulsion By Pulsed Magnetic Field Compression of Fissile Plas

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new fission powered space power and propulsion system based on using a non-moving fissile gas is proposed. The main innovation in the proposed fission based propulsion system is the use of well-established fusion plasma confinement and compression methods to achieve a supercritical condition in a highly subcritical fissile gas. In particular, electromagnetic induced shock wave compaction and gas dynamic trap techniques are merged to bring a relatively small volume (~ 1 m3) of a fissile (235U, 233U, or 239Pu) compound gas (such as UF4) to prompt supercriticality condition, thereby, releasing an intense pulse of fission power. A magnetic field compaction scheme is designed to directly convert the fission energy to electricity. The specific energy of the proposed nuclear electric system for megawatt level power operation is well above 1 kWe/kg. An alternative direct propulsion system is designed based on using a merger between Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) and hydrodynamic confinement techniques to achieve long duration (~ 100 to 1000 ms) criticality and ultrahigh burnup in a fissile gas. The MTF technique induces a large pressure ratio (~ 10) adiabatic compaction of fissile gas by rapid collapsing of a cylindrical layer of a low neutron absorbing metal (Al or Zr). Hydrodynamic confinement in a leaky reversed mirror configuration is used to contain and direct the fission plasma through a nozzle, thereby, generating intense thrust (~ 100s of klb) at specific impulse levels in excess of 2000 seconds.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
A shock wave driven fission power system utilizes fissile materials in highly subcritical configuration. The low nuclear material inventory combined with the active nature of the criticality inducing process is a unique feature of the proposed space nuclear power and propulsion system. The exceptional simplicity and safety of the proposed concept provides an unlimited potential for a wide range of space power and propulsion applications. Furthermore, the success of the proposed project will potentially lead to terrestrial applications including commercial nuclear power generation at a very competitive cost with improved safety features.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Angelo Ferrari
New Era Technology Inc.
2435 NW 36 Terrace
Gainesville , FL   32605 - 2633

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
New Era Technology Inc.
2435 NW 36 Terrace
Gainesville , FL   32605 - 2633


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A6.02-9259 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012740 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01152
PROPOSAL TITLE: Time-stepped & discrete-event simulations of electromagnetic propulsion systems

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The existing plasma codes are ill suited for modeling of mixed resolution problems, such as the plasma sail, where the system under study comprises subsystems with diverse modeling paradigms (e.g., fluid, kinetic) at differing levels of temporal and spatial resolution. Such complex systems are not unique to propulsion studies, but are commonly encountered in wide variety of fields. In Phase I, we were able to develop and successfully test the core technology for multi-resolution modeling within two distinct computational paradigms. By introducing a temporal mesh, we successfully overcame a major obstacle in the use of time-stepped simulations for multi-resolution problems. However, even more significant is our finding that discrete event simulation methodology works quite well for many-body systems such as plasmas with several orders of magnitude performance advantage over equivalent time-stepped simulations. The importance of this result cannot be overstated as it will have immediate repercussions in all fields where time-stepped modeling are currently used. Using these early versions of our code, we were able to address a number of outstanding issues in regards to the feasibility of plasma sails. Our objectives for Phase II are (i) to fully develop the codes, (ii) address the issues regarding the feasibility of plasma sails such as expansion of the magnetic bubble by the plasma source and the resulting drop-off of the magnetic field strength with radial distance, and (iii) prepare plans for marketing our technology in Phase III.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The successful completion of the proposed R&D will bring into existence a new generation of simulation codes that would position SciberNet as the premier provider of plasma simulation services to customers in the Federal Government and the private sector such as the aerospace and electronics industries. The discrete event simulation code (DES) presents a break through technology and will be applicable to most fields that are currently using time-stepped simulations. To this end, we plan to design our 3D DES code based on a general architecture so that it can be readily adapted to other applications such as gravitational or fluid simulations, among others. One of our objectives in Phase II is to conduct market analysis to identify the most suitable market nitche beyond propulsion and plasma simulations that we can pursue in Phase III. The development of the DES code has also led us to a new concept in interactive simulation and visualization with high commercial potential. Although a significant fraction of our revenue is projected to be from a service model, we have already had discussions with several vendors (e.g., Analytical Graphics) about the possibility of developing modules, based on simplified versions of our codes that can be integrated into existing commercial software.
In that regard, our business model will be similar to a number of companies that offer specialized commercial modeling tools such as OPNET, SES, and WorkBench.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Homa Karimabadi
SciberNet, Inc.
13270 Russett Leaf Lane
San Diego , CA   92129 - 2369

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
SciberNet, Inc.
13270 Russett Leaf Lane
San Diego , CA   92129 - 2369


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A6.02-9453 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012546 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01153
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Solid Expellant Plasma Source/Contactor for Electrodynamic Tethers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Solid Expellant Plasma Source/Contactor (SOLEX) is a new technological development that considerably simplifies the plasma generation and electron emission process. Under the Phase-1 effort, the preliminary work to demonstrate the feasibility of the SOLEX concept was accomplished. The intent of the proposed Phase-II effort is to develop a flight-level design for a SOLEX plasma generator, for electrodynamic tether systems, and fabricate an Engineering Unit test device that is appropriate for flight validation. The SOLEX will operate directly off of the tether-generated high-voltage (requiring no conditioned power or control electronics) and will eliminate the need for high-pressure gas containers, pressure regulators, plumbing and valves?required by present state-of-the-art Hollow Cathode devices. These are significant improvements over current state-of-the-art contactors that impinge heavily on spacecraft resources. Based on available flight data and Phase-I tests, current capacity can range from a few milli-amps to several amps. By nature of its design, the SOLEX should not be sensitive to contamination and should have essentially unlimited restart capability?both are issues with state-of-the-art contactors. Moreover, the simplicity of the design concept suggests that flight devices will be relatively inexpensive.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The SOLEX should be an attractive alternative to present plasma generation devices because of its simplicity, robustness, efficiency, and predicted low-cost. Potential space technology applications include (1) plasma contactors for electrodynamic space tethers, (2) plasma sources for plasma sails, and (3) electrical neutralization of high-altitude (e.g., synchronous orbit) spacecraft. A low-mass device, such as the SOLEX, is required to enable the practical application of electrodynamic tether propulsion devices to the end-of-life deorbit of satellites where system mass, simplicity and robustness are critical concerns. As space debris becomes a growing concern to NASA and the DOD, this application will become increasingly important. Potential ground-based applications include plasma sources for sputter deposition systems used in the semiconductor industry.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Nobie H. Stone
SRS Technologies
500 Discovery Drive
Huntsville , AL   35806 - 9999

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
SRS Technologies
500 Discovery Drive
Huntsville , AL   35806 - 9999


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A7.01-9688 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012311 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02013
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flow Driven Oscillating Vortex Generators for Control of Boundary Layer Dynamics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Active boundary layer control is effective in controlling boundary layer dynamics, but imposes a penalty because of the power and hardware required. In Phase I a family of self-excited Flow Driven Oscillating Vortex Generators (FDOVGs), which oscillate at frequencies where the induced vortical flows have length scales that are of the order of the scale of the aerodynamic surface, and therefore are useful to control boundary layer dyamics, have been demonstrated. The FDOVGs receive power from the mean flow to operate and generate large amplitude oscillations. Deployment can be achieved with no external power by using a flow change to activate the FDOVG, or with external power by changing the geometry or stiffness of the FDOVG.
The Phase II effort will provide the aerodynamicist with a new flow control actuator that can be integrated into aerodynamic components. Micro- as well as macro-scale devices with applications on micro air vehicles, unmanned vehicles, jetliners, and over the road vehicles such as tractor-trailer trucks can be developed. The FDOVG is a simple, inexpensive, reliable, and potentially single-part solution to providing effective flow control without significant penalty for a large variety of difficult applications.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The FDOVG system represents an innovative family of flow control devices
that could yield revolutionary increases in performance of air and sea
vehicles. For example, FDOVGs have the potential to reduce landing speeds
on general aviation aircraft, thereby enhancing safety and utility.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Alan J. Bilanin
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing , NJ   08618 - 2302

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing , NJ   08618 - 2302


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A7.02-9869 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012130 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS4-02007
PROPOSAL TITLE: Solution based 3-D Mesh adaptation for Heat and Mass predictions

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this proposal, a solution-based three-dimensional mesh adaptation procedure is described. The algorithm utilized in our code can very effectively refine the mesh in regions of interest by moving nodes in regions of unchanging flow field for accurate prediction of steady and unsteady pressure and thermal load distributions. Our flow solver interacts with most popular commercial CAD packages through the CGNS interface and currently interfaces with OPTIMESH/MOM3D through a user friendly GUI provided with ICEM CFD mesh generator package.
Benchmarks have been performed; among them is the moving-lid (lid-driven) cavity problem. This problem is a well-known standard to test CFD codes. The results of these benchmarks have been excellent.
Further correlation and more stringent benchmarking will continue as part of the Phase II efforts. Enhancement of the code is required to accept additional mesh element types, for unsteady flows, inclusion of species, reaction and other scalar functions.
Our objective for Phase II is to develop a product involving both the CFD solver and the grid adaptation module within a single package.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial applications of this package are varied and many since the adaptation procedure may practically be applied to almost any field or industry such as structures, acoustics, earthquake simulation, magnetic fields and so on. This is because the code accepts any parameter as a vector or scalar quantity and performs adaptation based on the error estimates obtained from the initial solution and variation of these variables.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Bahman Hadi
Cascade Engineering Services, Inc.
2515 140th Ave N.E, Suite E100,
Bellevue , WA   98005 - 1885

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Cascade Engineering Services, Inc.
2515 140th Ave N.E, Suite E100,
Bellevue , WA   98005 - 1885


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A7.02-9910 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012089 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS4-02008
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adjoint-Based Design Software Using Adaptive Finite Element Methods

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)

ResearchSouth has developed a powerful design optimization algorithm using an adjoint-based methodology for advanced aerospace vehicles including the airframe aerodynamic shape and the integrated propulsion system. The significance is that this algorithm separates the geometric entities from the optimization process allowing an independent linkage with many CAD packages and at much lower cost. All objectives have been met for the Phase I project. A computer software package, termed SAMdesign, now has the capability to solve the three-dimensional Euler equations, solve the adjoint of the Euler equations, and change the vehicle shape subject to constraints. All of these solutions are performed on unstructured tetrahedral meshes using a Finite Element based numerical algorithm. Four test cases have been successfully computed including a generic aerospace vehicle. Phase II will include multi-disciplinary effects, coupled physics for aerodynamics / propulsion / structures, fast finite element meshing methods, and will develop the software into a production package. Extensive verification and validation will be done on NASA configurations. The product will be documented, delivered and installed at NASA with a user-training course given. This will provide NASA with a powerful software tool to perform very efficient and rapid design assessment of evolving next generation space vehicles.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS

The following are some of the many commercial applications for the adjoint-based finite element design software. (1) design of automobile airbags (2) design of viscous mixing processes for chemical manufacturing companies, (3) design of more efficient internal combustion engines, (4) commercial airplane design for improved fuel economy (5) analysis and design of waste disposal systems, (7) design of air conditioning systems for large buildings, (8) housing design to withstand tornadoes, (9) biomedical application for design of cardiovascular devices, and (10) office building design for protection from terrorists activities.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lawrence W. Spradley
ResearchSouth, Inc.
555 Sparkman Dr. Suite 1612
Huntsville , AL   35816 - 0000

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
ResearchSouth, Inc.
555 Sparkman Dr. Suite 1612
Huntsville , AL   35816 - 0000


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A7.03-8825 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013174 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS4-02010
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Non-Intrusive Radar Sensor for Engine Vibration Monitoring

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radatec has demonstrated that a radar/microwave sensor can be used to measure the dynamics of turbine fan blades. The sensor was designed for function in harsh environments (+2500 F) of the combustor section. An alpha prototype was built and data were collected on a turbine simulator. The proposed Phase II project seeks to take this technology to the next step- a commercial product running on actual turbine engines providing new and useful information to turbine operators.

In Phase II, technical goals are to optimize the sensor antenna, construct a 35.0 GHz radar subsystem, and built an antenna fitting that will mount the sensor to a turbine engine through existing holes in gas turbines. Finally, a hardened beta prototype sensor will be built and tested on a General Electric F404 turbofan engine. The end result of Phase II will be a tested beta prototype that Radatec will market to industrial and government users.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
There is a strong unsatisfied need in the marketplace for robust, high bandwidth sensors that can gather data directly from the combustor section of a turbine engine. Existing engine health monitoring systems do not provide useful measurements of engine health, because they cannot pinpoint causes of damage- and often provide warnings of damage late. This technology offers a compelling value proposition to operators by allowing them to safely increase there scheduled maintenance interval, thereby reducing cost and downtime.

Land-based power producing gas turbine engines and aircraft engines are both being targeted as the first markets for the sensor. The market for land-based turbines is estimated at $56-100 million per year with the aircraft market estimated at an addition $75-$150 million per year. Land-based turbines will be the point of entry into the market due to their lower reliability, and more immediate impact on an electric utility?s bottom line. As active blade tip clearance aircraft engines become more prevalent, the Radatec sensor has the potential to improve cruising fuel efficiency by 1-2%.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Scott Billington
Radatec, LLC
430 10th Street, Suite N-104C
Atlanta , GA   30318 - 5798

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Radatec, LLC
430 10th St. NW, Suite N-104C
Atlanta , GA   30318 - 5798


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A7.03-8908 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013091 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS4-02011
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rayleigh/Mie Lidar for Non-intrusive Measurement of Aircraft Air Data Parameters

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop an Optical Air Data System (OADS) to measure air vehicle airspeed, Mach number, atmospheric pressure, atmospheric temperature, angles of attack and sideslip, and air density using a non-intrusive technique termed Rayleigh/Mie lidar. Currently, these parameters are measured using numerous sensors that cannot perform adequately for high-performance/high-speed aircraft. Recent research into OADS has focused on coherent Mie (aerosol) lidar, which fail in many flight regimes due to insufficient aerosol scattering. Moreover, Mie lidar cannot measure temperature or pressure. Rayleigh (molecular) lidar overcomes these shortcomings by scattering from the air itself to provide velocity, temperature and pressure. Rayleigh/Mie lidar has the additional benefit of providing improved velocity measurements when sufficient aerosols exist. Thus, OPHIR's Rayleigh/Mie OADS offers performance, weight and cost savings advantages not provided by any other commercially available or developing technology.

The Phase I research effort has been very successful. All objectives were met and all tasks successfully completed. This research has proven the feasibility of a Rayleigh/Mie lidar OADS.

Phase II will include the development of a flyable prototype. The Boeing Company will provide flight-testing, and Goodrich Aerospace will perform wind tunnel testing, at no cost to the Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This technology offers significant commercial potential for flight test operations, military aircraft and commercial aircraft. As an indication of this commercial potential, we have been very successful in gaining support from major airframe and air data system manufacturers. OPHIR's Rayleigh/Mie approach has gained the support of The Boeing Company Flight Test Group (providing flight testing at no cost to the Phase II effort), Goodrich Aerospace (providing testing and evaluation support at no cost to the Phase II effort) and the European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company- EADS(Airbus).

Thus, the world's two largest airframe manufacturers, Boeing and EADS(Airbus) and one of the largest manufacturers of air data systems, have all expressed interest and support for this research. The Phase II research will include cooperative demonstrations of this critical technology to these Industry leaders. This is a significant step toward Phase III commercialization.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Loren D. Nelson
OPHIR Corporation
10184 West Belleview Avenue, Suite 200
Littleton , CO   80127 - 1762

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
OPHIR Corporation
10184 West Belleview Avenue, Suite 200
Littleton , CO   80127 - 1762


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A8.01-8418 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013581 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02002
PROPOSAL TITLE: BOUNDARY LAYER PUMPED PROPULSION

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Propulsion Inc. proposes a Revolutionary Concept (RevCon) integrated aircraft and propulsion system that provides aircraft drag reduction and propulsion system efficiency increase, thereby improving aircraft fuel efficiency by as much as a factor of two. The key feature is the ducting of a high fraction of the aircraft total boundary layer from distributed airframe inlets to turbofan engine(s) in the rear of the fuselage. This fully integrated, boundary layer pumping engine(s) will provide the sole propulsive thrust for the aircraft. API?s intent is twofold: First, to design the wing and fuselage configurations and boundary layer ingestion features for a very high fraction of laminar flow and greatly reduced parasitic drag. Second, to match the mass flow of the ingested boundary layer, the turbofan engine(s) and the aircraft cruise thrust requirement at the cruise design point to yield an extremely high level of propulsive efficiency.

With reduced fuel loads, aircraft can be smaller, and less costly. With less drag and greater efficiency, aircraft can have higher performance. This integrated aircraft/propulsion technology is applicable to all types and sizes of subsonic airplanes.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
7. POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 200 WORDS):

API envisions a global general aviation and transport category airplane market for its revolutionary airplane design. Special sector airplanes are also feasible because the new economy era demands long-range personal transport that can fly an un-refuelled mission range of 8,000 nautical miles with reserves allows global coverage from the United States. The world air cargo market is also expanding at a greater rate than the passenger market and represents and has needs for long range capability that offers time savings.


NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Gerald Merrill
Advanced Propulsion Inc.
254 West Baseline Road, Suite 104
Tempe , AZ   85282 - 1263

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Advanced Propulsion Inc.
254 West Baseline Road, Suite 104
Tempe , AZ   85282 - 1263


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A8.02-8450 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013549 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02013
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Turn-Down Ratio, Low Emissions Combustor for Gas Turbine Engines

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal describes an innovative, high-efficiency, compact
combustor for lean-premixed, low-emissions gas turbine systems and
responds directly to NASA's request for "Innovative technologies
relating to combustion processes, including fuel injectors, piloting,
flameholding techniques for increased and performance and decreased
emissions" under SBIR topic A8.02. The concept is based on previously
demonstrated means for creating high mixing rate regions using multiple
discrete axial vortices in the flow. This injector-mixer-flameholder
shows promise for emissions reduction by ensuring rapid and complete,
well controlled mixing. Another goal is an axial-vorticity fuel
injection, mixing, and flame stabilization design that passively
controls combustion instability and flashback by making the combustion
region insensitive to axial flow oscillations. During previous work APRI
has demonstrated the ability to stabilize flames in a geometry designed
to provide open three-dimensional separations. In the Phase I effort the
ability to control mixing rates in geometry directly suitable to gas
turbine combustors was demonstrated. Conceptual designs for combustors
based on this technology are presented. The Phase II effort will take
advantage of the axial vorticity mixers and flame stabilizers to
complete the design and test of a lean-premixed
fuel-injector/flame-holder for gas turbine systems.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The axial-vorticity fuel-injector/flame-holder system described in this
proposal is applicable to a wide variety of combustion systems. Aircraft
gas turbines, industrial gas turbines, gaseous waste incinerators, and
other industrial burners can benefit from the high mixing rate and flame
stability characteristics of this design.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Thomas H. Sobota, Ph.D.
Advanced Projects Research, Inc.
1925 McKinley Avenue, Suite B
La Verne , CA   91750 - 5800

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Advanced Projects Research, Inc.
1925 McKinley Avenue, Suite B
La Verne , CA   91750 - 5800


PROPOSAL NUMBER: A8.02-8881 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013118 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02015
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Ejector Pump Flow Control for Low-Pressure Turbine

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The operation of the low-pressure turbine at cruise conditions produces a Reynolds number significantly below takeoff conditions leading to laminar separation over the blades; consequently, the efficiency of the LP turbine at cruise is significantly below that at takeoff for both military and commercial engines. In the Phase I SBIR Techsburg demonstrated the capability of an innovative flow control technique designed to improve the LP turbine performance leading to a reduction in costs. Flow control was achieved with ejector pumps machined into the blade surface to provide a simple and efficient way of producing blowing and suction. High-pressure supply air from the compressor is injected into the flow as a high momentum jet providing a boundary layer that is resistant to separation, while low momentum fluid in the boundary layer is removed with suction upstream and combined with the supply air to enhance the jet. CFD and experimental data predicted a 72% increase in loss coefficient for a single blade row. Techsburg is proposing a comprehensive Phase II project to perform an in-depth computational optimization, detailed low-speed testing and high-speed cascade testing. The computational effort will focus on optimizing the flow control variables and blade shape for an LP turbine blade to eliminate separation and design a more highly loaded blade. The low-speed testing will validate the CFD work on the most promising blade candidates and subsonic cascade tests at engine Mach conditions will be performed to verify the results in a more realistic test environment.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed flow control system has significant potential for both military and commercial applications. In addition to its originally intended application as a technique for increasing efficiency by eliminating separation, ejector pump flow control in the low-pressure turbine may have other potential uses including enabling the design of more highly loaded blades leading to reduced part count and fewer stages. This flow control demonstrates a unique competitive advantage in several arenas, designed to meet the specific needs of the current commercial market. Low-pressure turbine research, particularly in the US is severely under funded, yet is critical to reducing operating costs in large commercial engines. The goal of this technology is twofold: increasing LP turbine efficiency at cruise and decreasing weight. A study done at NASA GRC showed that for large transport engines, improving the efficiency and reducing the weight of the LP turbine has the greatest impact on overall improvement in both direct operating costs (DOC+I) and specific fuel consumption (SFC) of the engine. The performance degradation from take-off to cruise of such an engine is on the order of 2%. By reducing separation to regain these two points, the decrease in SFC and operating costs would be very significant to the commercial gas turbine industry.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Sarah Stitzel
Technology in Blacksburg, Inc.
2901 Prosperity Road
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 3636

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Technology in Blacksburg, Inc.
2901 Prosperity Road
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 3636


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.07-8465 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013534 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02027
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide-Bandgap CIAS Photovoltaic Absorber on Flexible Substrates

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thin-film photovoltaic cells offer the promise of high specific power arrays for space applications. Two thin-film photovoltaics technologies are presently vying for use in space applications; copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS), and amorphous silicon. This proposal focuses on efficiency improvements to the CIS-alloy technologies by the continued development of a third possibility, copper-indium-aluminum-diselenide (CIAS). This wide-bandgap thin-film technology will be deposited by co-evaporation at low substrate temperatures on sub-bandgap light transparent back contacts and lightweight, flexible and sub-bandgap light transparent polyimide substrates. To achieve the optimum bandgap of about 1.45 eV for the space solar spectrum, less than half the amount of aluminum (Al) is needed in CIAS, then gallium (Ga) in CIGS. Thus, using Al may avoid a concentration limit (bandgap limit) similar to the amount of Ga in CIGS for the degradation of material electrical quality due to Ga-Ga defect complexes. Other advantages of the proposed technology include: higher-efficiency modules due to lower resistive and distributed diode losses; higher-efficiency modules at higher operating temperatures due to more favorable temperature coefficients of cell parameters and complete IR transmission; potential for backside array visible light collection, and high end-of-life-efficiency modules due to inherent charged particle radiation resistance of CIS based alloys.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Higher specific power space arrays allow more mission capability by reducing the weight of the space array and thereby allowing more satellite functionality or higher power arrays for additional satellite capability. Due to the large increase of specific power available with thin-film technologies on flexible substrates versus the present single crystal array technology, ITN Energy Systems expects significant commercial and government satellite array business to become available. The application of wide-bandgap CIAS absorber layers with transparent back contacts and substrates to the present thin-film technology will potentially boost performance over CIGS baseline by as much as 84% and provide additional leverage of this technology to satellite manufacturers. In addition high voltage solar array applications are available when combined with the proposed monolithic integration for these arrays. Furthermore, the wide-bandgap and transparent back contact technology developed herein, will be enabling for next generation thin-film tandem junction photovoltaic (PV) technology. Together with ITN?s existing program on durable bottom cells using low bandgap CIS, then the essential components for realizing these high-efficiency and high-voltage devices will be in place.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lawrence Woods
ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy.
Littleton , CO   80127 - 4107

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy.
Littleton , CO   80127 - 4107


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B1.02-8224 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013775 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01156
PROPOSAL TITLE: Trojan Phage Crystallization System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this project is to develop a novel proprietary tool for crystallization of protein molecules and in addition to develop a multiple gene expression vector for producing protein complexes recombinantly. The novel phage display crystallization system is a high risk project that has a tremendous potential because the conditions for crystallization remain constant regardless of the protein molecule studied. The development of a multiple gene expression system, ?MaGEX,? for producing protein complexes also has a market that has drawn the interest and support of a premiere genetics company Athersys, Inc. for world wide commercialization. The development of the prototype MaGEX is required to implement the Trojan Phage technology. These products could result in a large number of proteins for structure determination which is synergistic with NASA?s Biological and Physical Research Enterprise that utilizes micro-gravitational effects to improve crystallization conditions. As part of the commercialization the systems would be offered as kits for expressing protein complexes recombinantly or for crystallization. In Phase I, we made significant progress in the construction of the MaGEX system which will be used to express the Trojan Phage. In Phase II, demonstration of the feasibility of this system to crystallize foreign proteins will begin.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
A system that could guarantee the crystallization of a protein molecule or domain does not exist. We anticipate that there will be a world wide market for this pre-packaged proprietary tool.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Larry Cosenza
Diversified Scientific, Inc.
1601 12th Ave. South
Birmingham , AL   35205 - 4709

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Diversified Scientific, Inc.
1601 12th Ave. South
Birmingham , AL   35205 - 4709


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B1.02-8508 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013491 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01157
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust, High Temperature Containment Cartridges for Microgravity

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High temperature, corrosion resistant cartridge materials are needed for microgravity processing experiments. Tungsten and molybdenum have high melting temperatures and in general possess the required chemical inertness. To improve the mechanical properties of these materials, alloy additions such as rhenium are necessary. Recently, thin-walled, closed-end cartridges have been fabricated from elemental blends of molybdenum-rhenium powders. However high temperature heat treatments are necessary to alloy elemental blended powders. Problems with distortion, intermetallic formation and incomplete alloying have occurred. To overcome these problems, an innovative Plasma Alloying and Spheroidization (PAS) process is being developed to produce pre-alloyed molybdenum-rhenium and tungsten-rhenium powders. Benefits of the PAS process such as a two-order magnitude reduction in oxygen contamination, enhanced flow characteristics, ability to produce pre-alloyed refractory metal powders and the ability to reduce heat treatment processing time were demonstrated during Phase I. During Phase II, the PAS process will be optimized. The optimized PAS Mo-Re and W-Re powders will be used for the production of robust, high temperature QMI and GEDS cartridges for microgravity processing experiments.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Commercial potential of the technology being developed during this effort is very high. The improved powder characteristics obtained by PAS processing will directly affect the coatings and powder industries, which represent multi-billion dollar markets.

Other potential applications for the SBIR technology include, chemical processing, high temperature furnace and retort components, rocket motor throat inserts, radiation shields, heat pipes, power generation equipment, nuclear components, beam and sputter targets, solid waste incineration, automotive, printing industry.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Scott O'Dell
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville , AL   35811 - 1558

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville , AL   35811 - 1558


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.01-8334 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013665 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02009
PROPOSAL TITLE: Circulating , Aeration and Nutrient Delivery System (CANDS)

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of the Phase II SBIR is to develop, build and test methods and procedures to control water, oxygen, and temperature in the root zone of a particulate based microgravity nutrient delivery system using nubs, tubes or plates. Phase I demonstrated new concepts for nutrient flow and control interval to each root module. Phase II will fully characterize a root module system capable of controlling oxygen and CO2 concentrations, and temperature of the root zone. Particulate based nutrient delivery systems have been commonly used in current space based plant growth systems and have been demonstrated to maintain healthy plants in microgravity, but have not controlled oxygen. The primary effort of this proposed project will be oriented toward building a system that can effectively control water and oxygen distribution in a root zone through manipulation of liquid source, flow, and aeration. This system will focus on aeration maintenance with and without root mass, measure and compare the impact of different water delivery sources and flows protocols, combined with various mechanisms of aeration, on the root zone environment. This research will allow the development of a root zone nutrient delivery system that will support plants in microgravity, without limiting oxygen.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Commercial applications within NASA could include developing technology to control root zone environment through physical and operational techniques for the regulation of water distribution and control of the gaseous environment, on the ground and in microgravity. This project would allow uniformity of water and oxygen, limiting possible anoxic conditions, as well as, reducing carbon dioxide within the root zone.

Terrestrial commercial application of this technology would include root modules that would be used to control oxygen levels, allowing more precise control of the root zone environment for commercial chambers, specific nursery support systems, and the growing market of plant biotechnology growth and maintenance. Universities and commercial agriculture research companies would be another major user of these root modules. There may also be use among hobbyists involved in gardening and horticulture. One large opportunity is a revolution in closed system agriculture on Earth that is integral with ORBITEC?s spin off commercial applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Jay J. Maas
Orbital Technologies Corporation
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison , WI   53717 - 1961

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison , WI   53717 - 1961


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.01-9305 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012694 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02011
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ordered Ultrathin Films based on Conducting Polymers for Gas Sensors

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Gas sensors based on metal oxides are known to be widely used for the detection of gases, aromatic hydrocarbon, etc., but such sensors lack selectivity, and operation at high temperatures is required. We have proved feasibility of our approach in Phase I, which focused on the use of highly organized ultrathin films of conducting polymers synthesized/processed via the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique for the first time relative to gas sensing application with emphasis on sensitivity and selectivity that are otherwise unattainable with other fabrication methods or materials. We have obtained excellent results relative to several aspects of the technology, particularly sensitivity and selectivity using few molecular layers of the different polymers. In the proposed Phase II program, we plan to optimize selected materials and their processing based on the feasibility study, and to elaborate on the viability of their sensors with respect to stability towards humidity, and heat, and gravity effects. We will also conduct thorough experiments to establish high selectivity while maintaining ppb detection level capability. Full characterization of single or multi-sensors will be performed towards maturing the technology and fabrication of prototypes that will be used for evaluation by NASA and for commercialization purposes in collaboration with HRL Laboratories.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
With the expected high selectivity and ppb detection levels and versatility of the measurement procedure, our proposed program will result in simple low cost devices that will work independently of gravity and that can be easily miniaturized for the different applications. In addition to NASA's gas sensing needs, such sensors can be of benefit to the automotive sector for detection of pollutant gases emanating from automobile exhaust.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Manoj K. Ram
Fractal Systems, Inc.
200 9th Avenue North, Suite 100
Safety Harbor , FL   34695 - 3504

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Fractal Systems, Inc.
200 9th Avenue North, Suite 100
Safety Harbor , FL   34695 - 3504


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.01-9728 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012271 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01054
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrochemical Ethylene Sensor for Monitoring Low Levels in Plant Environments

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I Giner, Inc. successfully demonstrated the feasibility of a novel electrochemical sensor that detects gaseous ethylene for NASA?s use in studying the effects of microgravity on plants and in growing plants for use in missions. Ethylene (C2H4) is a plant hormone that is active at very low concentrations in the developmental and reproductive processes of plants. With the Phase I prototype sensor, the detection range for ethylene in air was 22-800 parts per billion (ppb) (volume/volume). The sensor did not experience interference from CO2, N2 or O2, but NO and NO2 did show some cross reactivity on the sensor. Ethylene was successfully detected in headspace samples from cell culture systems with Catharanthus roseus and is being compared to GC/MS analysis of those gas samples. The Phase II goals include: 1) extension of the detection range to 5 to 5000 ppb, by a design change to increase the active sensing area while decreasing background noise 2) extensive validation and improvement of ethylene accuracy and specificity in laboratory and field settings and 3) fabrication of a low power, compact, light instrument for delivery to NASA.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial potential of an accurate, sensitive ethylene monitor extends beyond the plant research community into agriculture and food handling. Commercial uses of the technology include use in optimizing the production, harvest, ripening and storage of fruits and vegetables. The sensor could also be used in conjunction with ethylene generating equipment for ripening or ethylene removal systems. The proposed Giner, Inc technology will be inexpensive, accurate and portable giving it a significant advantage over any existing technology.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Linda A Tempelman, Ph.D.
GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton , MA   02466 - 1311

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton , MA   02466 - 1311


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.03-8884 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013115 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02012
PROPOSAL TITLE: Monitoring Apoptosis and Cytotoxicity of Anti-tumor Drugs in Microgravity

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cell culturing in space and/or microgravity offers numerous advantages and opens new applications for faster drug discovery and understanding gene expression. A growing body of data suggests cell growth in microgravity results in up-regulation of apoptotic pathways. Understanding apoptosis in microgravity will be crucial for long-term NASA missions, and it could provide valuable data on effects of radiation on cell growth. Both sensors will be incorporated into a microfluidic design and will be integrated into a single instrument easily adapted to current bioreactors (in space or rotating wall bioreactors on Earth) for on-line detection. Both sensors will use a relatively simple signal transduction system based on AC impedance. The instrument will also incorporate a sampling and separation module. The operation of the proposed instrument will be mostly automated. A compatibility of the proposed system with microgravity conditions will be tested by monitoring cell growth/induced apoptosis in rotating wall bioreactors. Compatibility of the design instrument may be also tested with existing spaceflight hardware. At the end of the Phase II, a working prototype will be delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This new technology will be of particular interest to the federal government (e.g., NASA, EPA, DOD, DOE, and NIH), e.g., to the Cellular Biotechnology Program at NASA. Also, it will be of interest to private industries for biomedical diagnostics (e.g., point-of-care or bedside testing), in-field environmental and forensic analysis, monitoring quality in food, and analysis of numerous biochemical molecules in chemical, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.


NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Duncan Hitchens
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.03-9016 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012983 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01133
PROPOSAL TITLE: Protein Microarrays for Bioreactor Bioproduct Monitoring

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rotating wall vessels (RWV) are widely used for cell culture in simulated microgravity conditions. Sensor technologies capable of monitoring the expression of proteins on a large scale (proteomics) are needed to fully exploit the unique capabilities of RWVs. This Phase II effort is part of a program to develop an advanced analytical monitoring system for quantitative detection of bioreactor bioproducts in microgravity. The underlying technology is grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance, which permits sensitive, label-free, parallel detection of bioproducts in a complex fluid without purification steps in real time. The objective of this effort is to develop generic capture microarrays that will allow for the site-directed self-assembly of tailor-made, user-defined high-density multi-component assay chips. This is accomplished by immobilizing a library of short oligonucleotide PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probe molecules on a chip in a site-specific manner using covalent attachment chemistry and a spotting method. Capture molecules that will compose the array are tagged (off-line) with a library of complementary PNA sequences. Then, the microarray is assembled by flowing the complex mixture of different PNA-tagged compounds over the chip, which through hybridization reactions, form site-directed self-assembled arrays. A set of microarrays will be produced and a complementary set of protein-PNA conjugates relevant to microgravity research.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial application that will be the focus of the proposed SPR technology is high throughput screening for drug discovery. The proposed site-directed, self-assembled microarrays will enable the production of disposable chips, which in combination with the SPR detection hardware will create a highly flexible platform, providing for the first time, massively parallel detection of hundreds to thousands of binding events along with kinetics without the limitations of a reporter molecule. A recent survey by PricewaterhouseCoopers reflected that the timely development of new products is the most important issue facing the pharmaceutical industry. There is a multi-billion dollar worldwide market for systems and consumables related to functional genomics, proteomics and drug discovery research. Pharmaceutical companies alone-spent billions of dollars on tools related to drug discovery in 1999 and this number is rapidly increasing. Now that mapping of the human genome has been essentially completed, there is increasing emphasis in discovering new druggable targets.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Salvador M. Fernandez
Ciencia, Inc.
111 Roberts Street, Suite K
East Hartford , CT   06108 - 3653

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ciencia, Inc.
111 Roberts Street, Suite K
East Hartford , CT   06108 - 3653


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.03-9603 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012396 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01134
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrahigh Throughput Flow Cytometer for Cell and Molecular Analysis in uG

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Commercialization of a low cost ultrahigh throughput flow cytometer is proposed. The instrument utilizes a disposable cartridge that essentially eliminates the high maintenance, training, and operating costs associated with flow cytometry. Novel fluidics increase potential throughput to several orders of magnitude faster than conventional flow cytometers, while decreasing manufacturing costs by orders of magnitude. Flow cytometers provide the underpinnings for diagnostics in many fields ? hematology, genetics screening, tissue engineering, drug screening, genomic and proteonomic research, cancer, AIDs, etc. The vast majority of the diagnostics tests using flow cytometry are not routinely available to the general public because of their cost and complexity. This technology takes the cost, skill, and complexity out of flow cytometry, and for the first time allows point-of-care testing. Underserved communities, rural locations, and third world countries could have direct access to many more diagnostic tests. Clinical and basic research will benefit from inexpensive and continuous access to a powerful analytical tool. This ultrahigh throughput flow cytometer is ideally suited to the low gravity environment due to its small size, low power consumption, and gravity independence.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Ultrahigh throughput flow cytometry addresses a segment of the $29 billion in vitro diagnostic market. The approach will reduce health care costs and enable point-of-care testing. The combination of cost reduction and point-of-care testing should improve overall health care, as well as health care in previously underserved communities, rural areas, and third world countries. There is strong market pull in the $300 - $800 million niches for genomic/proteonomic/DNA low cost ultrahigh through screening. We believe that substantially lowering screening costs will be a large multiplier for discoveries.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Glenn Spaulding
Spin Diagnostics Inc.
2437 Bay Area Blvd., #202
Houston , TX   77058 - 1519

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Spin Diagnostics Inc.
2437 Bay Area Blvd., # 202
Houston , TX   77058 - 1519


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B2.03-9721 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012278 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01135
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cassette Based Robotic Multiple Cell Culture System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The specific innovation proposed for continued research is a family of fully-automated (robotic) cell-culture systems, each a laboratory in a cassette, named collectively ?Multicult?. SHOT will incorporate several technical innovations, including options for gentle mixing of cell suspensions, transparent monolayer culture surfaces, control of inertial load (?g-level?) by rotation within the cassette, pH monitoring, adding fresh medium or fixatives with immediate mixing, and real-time imaging of cells in transparent containers. SHOT will perform research leading to (1) a cassette-based rotating plate for exposing 8 cultures of suspended cells to acceleration levels from 1 to 5 g while facilitating fluid additions and balancing out all forces other than centrifugal and gravity vectors, (2) a curved-wall transparent culture vessel for centrifugal studies of adherent cells, (3) a miniaturized non-invasive pH reader, (4) a compact video microscope, (5) a control-and-data network of embedded processors, and (6) a deliverable prototype cassette-based Multicult system incorporating these features for the sponsor. SHOT will use the results of this research to develop, in addition to a cell culture capability for space flight, marketable instruments based on its pH reader, centrifugal culture plates and autonomously controlled Multicults.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
SHOT's Multicult research program is rich in commercial potential. Five commercial applications are being pursued under this program: a pH reader, a Multistage Biphasic Extractor (SHOT's "BiSep"), a Suspended-Cell Multicult Laboratory Unit, an Adherent-Cell Multicult Laboratory Unit, and Space Cell Culture Commercial and Government Services. The pH reader has huge market potential providing non-invasive pH measurements for applications ranging from cell culturing to water analysis and promises to develop into a $3.3 million business for SHOT. Upgrades to SHOT's BiSep will make it user-friendly and efficient for up to 22-stage extractions with active mixing and demixing at every transfer. Multicult laboratory units are useful in biotechnology laboratories where around-the-clock sampling and performance recording of several independently controlled bench-scale bioreactors are required. SHOT will incorporate Multicult units into space flight cassettes and provide microgravity research capabilities to investigators through SHOT's pending Space Act Agreement. The Multicult system should be useful in space flight experiments, especially in view of the possibility of flying multiple units and operating each autonomously and robotically. One component, the pH reader, has been selected by SHOT to quickly commercially utilize the results of this research.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Paul Todd
Space Hardware Optimization Technology
7200 Highway 150
Greenville , IN   47124 - 9515

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Space Hardware Optimization Technology
7200 Highway 150
Greenville , IN   47124 - 9515


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.01-8800 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013199 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01160
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Thermo-Vacuum Microlith Adsorber for TCCS

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) used onboard the International Space Station provides for control of trace cabin air contamination originating from materials off-gassing, human metabolism, hygiene activities, experimental facilities, etc. The TCCS removes contaminants via a combination of techniques. The U.S. segment uses an expendable, activated charcoal bed (22.7 kg charcoal), a high temperature catalytic oxidizer assembly and a postsorbent LiOh bed. The Russian system uses an expendable activated carbon canister (1.3 kg) followed by two regenerative activated charcoal beds (16 kg apiece, 7.4 kg charcoal in each) and a room temperature CO oxidizer.

PCI is proposing to develop a novel, regenerable adsorber using zeolites/adsorbents coated on Microlith? substrates to replace the activated charcoal beds. Phase I results indicate the potential to reduce 15 kg charcoal weight to less than 2 kg of adsorbent with a proportionate reduction in size and a reduction in housing weight. The Phase II proposes to develop and optimize a resistively heated, thermo-vacuum Microlith? adsorber to be used as a simple, lightweight and cost effective system that aims to demonstrate safe and reliable operation with minimal maintenance, electrical power and crew-time requirements. A prototype will be delivered to NASA upon Phase II conclusion.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Precision Combustion, Inc. is proposing to further develop a high gas contact rate Microlith? regenerable mini adsorber with rapid trapping and release capability and low pressure-drop. The technology applications include air clean-up for closed room environments and closed personal environments. The target application is to replace the existing carbon bed installed in the Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly on-board the International Space Station. Future space applications such as space factories, lunar/Martian habitats, and lunar/Martian landing spacecraft would also find value in the small, light-weight and regenerable features. Terrestrial applications would be for military cargo planes, commercial airliners, and naval applications such as ships and submarines. Finally, applications in confined, sterile rooms such as special manufacturing processes (e.g. semiconductor manufacturing) as well as military applications in battlefield command posts that may need airborne chemical protection.

Smaller-scale versions of the technology may find use in regenerative breathing devices for personnel protection against airborne toxins. Potential applications include, breathing masks for firemen and rescue workers as well as for emergency use by people in buildings and airliners. There are also potential DoD applications for soldier chemical warfare breathing protection in the field.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Subir Roychoudhury
Precision Combustion, Inc
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven , CT   06473 - 3106

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Precision Combustion, Inc
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven , CT   06473 - 3106


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.01-9123 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012876 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01209
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Microfluidic Ion Analyzer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Human presence on the Moon, Mars or other remote base locations will have minimal or no re-supply of resources. These missions will require a completely self-contained comprised of regenerative physicochemical and biological technologies to sustain the crew. One of the highest priorities is to process and recover clean water. Monitoring the purity of the water is, therefore, of critical importance. State-of-the-art ground-based instrumentation is widely available, however these technologies are not suitable for spaceflight because of weight, volume, power and microgravity limitations. Recent advances in microfluidics permit development of new analytical methods that will meet the requirements of the spaceflight environment. Lynntech proposes development of a microfluidic ion analyzer, which minimizes the requirements for reagents, can be designed and operated as a hand-held instrument and will be capable of monitoring a wide range of ionic species not previously available in any commercial instrument. In Phase I study, major components of the analyzer for cation analysis were fabricated and tested, demonstrating the detection of ammonium at the level as low as 0.1 ppm. This Phase II project will develop a hand-held device to offer analysis of multiple cations and anions, including ammonium, nitrite and nitrate, which can be used in spaceflight.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Although the proposed ion analyzer focuses upon monitoring of water quality in a regenerative life support system, and the analyzer can be used for a wide range of applications. Its applications include, but are not limited to, monitoring water quality in wastewater and drinking water, monitoring acid rain, analysis of nutrients in freshwater and agricultural run-off, analysis of ingredients in foods and beverages, measurements of electrolytes in biological samples, etc. A number of other Federal Agencies will also benefit by using the proposed analyzer; EPA for environmental monitoring, USDA for beverages analysis, NIH for monitoring electrolytes in bodily fluids, etc. The proposed self-contained reagentless analyzer can be used as a remotely located monitoring device or process instrument. This device only requires a supply of deionized water and a waste drain to analyze a process stream. The results can conceivably be reported via wireline or cellular phone. This analyzer can be an alternative to a widely used laboratory-based ion chromatograph, yet offering a rapid, simple and on-site measurement at a much lower cost. The proposed analyzer can be also an alternative to ion-selective electrodes, but with much more sensitive detection limits and little interference with similar ions, at a comparable price.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Duncan Hitchens
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.01-9130 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012869 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02015
PROPOSAL TITLE: Catalyst for Selective Oxidation of Ammonia to Nitrogen and Water

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The cost of delivering payloads to remote destinations in space is extremely high, and even the smallest weight reductions can result in substantial cost savings. Consequently, systems that have been designed for low Earth orbit may not be suitable for a mission to Mars. One example of this is the system to recycle waste water. A system that utilizes vacuum distillation and catalytic oxidation (VPCAR) is being developed for Mars missions. A key step in the VPCAR process is the gas phase oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen and water without forming NOX. In Phase I TDA Research Inc. developed catalysts for this reaction. Our approach to the problem was centered on the development of a bifunctional catalyst, which could separate adsorbed oxygen and nitrogen atoms, thereby reducing NOX formation. In Phase I we identified a catalyst formulation, which converted 100% of the ammonia feed at temperatures where very low concentrations of NOX were produced. In Phase II, we will refine the catalyst composition, test both ammonia and hydrocarbon oxidation reactions in a pilot scale reactor, and then, in work carried out at Hamilton Sundstrand, we will test the reactor on a full-scale unit.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
In addition to use on the VPCAR, a selective ammonia oxidation catalyst would have several major commercial applications. One such application is in environmental catalysis, a field that generates approximately $2 billion in revenue per year. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is an effective method for controlling NOX emissions from stationary sources including coal-fired power plants power plants. In this method ammonia is injected into the effluent, and, in the presence of a catalyst, and it reduces NOX to nitrogen. However to be effective, excess ammonia must be present. Unfortunately, this results in ammonia emissions. Thus, if an ammonia oxidation catalyst were located downstream of the SCR unit, the excess ammonia could be oxidized to nitrogen and thus the ammonia slip problem could be eliminated. Another application is to oxidize ammonia in stripped sour gas streams. If ammonia is present in these streams, undesirable reactions occur, causing a number of problems in the refinery. Thus, a catalyst that would completely oxidize ammonia to nitrogen would eliminate these problems. In both of these cases, the catalyst must have high selectivity for nitrogen and water and produce very low concentrations of NO or NO2.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. David T. Wickham
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.01-9144 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012855 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01136
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Carbon Dioxide Reduction System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An advanced Environment Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for long duration manned space missions -such as planetary flight missions or planetary bases- requires an almost complete closure of all relevant material loops. The recovery of oxygen from a concentrated stream of carbon dioxide (CO2) offers significant advantage to long duration manned space missions by reducing the requirement for consumables. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes a sorbent-based system that carries out CO2 removal and CO2 reduction in a single unit. The system eliminates the interfacing problems associated with the currently operational CO2 Removal Assembly (CDRA) and planned CO2 Reduction Assembly (CRA).

In the Phase I work, we will develop a high capacity, long-life MgO sorbent that can effectively remove CO2 from the cabin air. We will also demonstrate the technical feasibility of carrying out CO2 removal and reduction in a single unit.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Get this.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Gokhan Alptekin
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.01-9851 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012148 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01140
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nano Ceramic Sterilization Filter

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Filters don't exist that are capable of removing virus and bacteria at high enough flow rates to be practical either for space systems or for domestic consumption. In Phase 1 we demonstrated feasibility that our nano ceramic fiber filter could produce sterile water at high flow rates. In Phase 2 we propose to develop performance data on such filters that would provide NASA with the capability for sizing such filters for AWRS for diverse missions. The tasks also include improving the strength of the filters, providing them with biocidal capability to deter the growth of bacterial slime on the filter face, and demonstrating their capability to remove all forms of pathogens. A major task will be to develop a regenerable filter that uses minimal or no expendables. We will investigate their use as pre-filters for extending the life of reverse osmosis membranes that might be used in AWRS systems. An additional task would determine the feasibility of a microbial trap to maintain sterility of stored water without using iodine disinfectant. We will prove the viability of the filter by designing and testing a full-scale cartridge filter, suitable for NASA and for commercial sale.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
There is a large and growing market for "Point of Use" cartridge filters for sterilizing water in residences, hospitals, medical and dental suites. The cartridge could also be used as a pre-filter to extend the life of RO desalination membranes and to purify water of biological weapons. If the BW can be rapidly desorbed and the filter cycled repeatedly it would be a major advance as a front end for concentrating BW agents so they could be detected and assayed. The filter could be used as a low cost environmental sampler for virus, providing EPA with the capability to implement routine virus testing of water sources. There is also an extensive market for small, disc shaped filters for laboratory use, particularly in the life sciences. We intend to commercialize these starting in the 4th quarter of 2002. The proposed filter would find wide application in sterilizing pharmaceutical and biotech products. It would be capable of separating cells, proteins, enzymes, and genes by charge differences.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Frederick Tepper
Argonide Corporation
291 Power Ct
Sanford , FL   32771 - 9406

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Argonide Corporation
291 Power Ct
Sanford , FL   32771 - 9406


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.03-8281 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013718 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02016
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reducing Symptomatology of Space Adaptation Syndrome through Perceptual Training

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ?space adaptation syndrome? develops in conditions in which nauseogenic stimuli are present for a long period. The perceptual situation of an astronaut exposed to unusual gravitational-inertial forces has been compared to that found in experiments involving perceptual rearrangement, such as optically induced displacement, curvature, tilt, or right-left reversal. In both instances, the observer is confronted with a variety of inter- and intra-sensory conflicts that initially disrupt perception and behavior and may cause nausea. However, people are able to adapt to these imposed conflicts, as manifested in a reduction or elimination of the initial disruptive responses. Overcoming motion sickness and regaining normal perception may involve many of the same processes as adaptation to perceptual rearrangement in general. Our Phase I research demonstrated that adaptation training is beneficial as it reduces dizziness and motion sickness symptoms experienced in both VR and OKN environments. In Phase II research, we propose to run studies to test further the effects of adaptation training on sickness by inducing motion sickness in a VR device with an added ?reafference? component. Phase II research will also involve refining and replicating Phase I findings, broadening the aftereffect conditions to which adaptation applies (sickness, posture, eye hand coordination, changes)

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
In recent years the possibility that space motion sickness might interfere with performance has been a major concern. As the word "interfere" suggests, the concern has been that space motion sickness might interrupt ongoing activities, e.g. as frank emesis does. An additional concern is that nausea as a negative reinforcer might lead to responses that could, in principle, be performed long after motion sickness proper had subsided. The responses most likely to be affected are head and eye movements. It is possible that these learned nausea-avoidance responses continue to affect an astronaut?s performance adversely although he or she may have no direct awareness of their presence. Based on recent studies with visual reality (VR) devices conducted in our laboratory through software changes we are able to rapidly reconfigure VR hardware and thereby produce systematic and replicable changes in the incidence and severity of motion sickness symptomatology among participants. With our ability to do so, we believe that we can develop a device and training technique or paradigm for the transfer of adaptation from other conditions which produce motion sickness and which have relevance for business, industry, the military and the private sector.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Robert Kennedy
RSK Assessments, Inc.
1040 Woodcock Road, Suite 227
Orlando , FL   32803 - 3566

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
RSK Assessments, Inc.
1040 Woodcock Road, Suite 227
Orlando , FL   32803 - 3566


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.03-9385 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012614 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01142
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Reagent-less Protein Detection Using Nanotechnology

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Health care and medical intervention during missions, particularly those of extended duration, can be improved using medical instruments, which allow in flight specimen analysis of blood proteins. Current technologies based upon ELISAs can not meet NASA needs as it only quantitate a single protein at a time. Due to the complicated procedure for antibody immobilization, limited stability, and poor compatibility for biological materials have strongly diminished the apparent attraction of immuno-sensors. Other newly emerging techniques in the field of proteiomics depend upon mass spectrometry methods thus require extensive laboratory support and equipment. These limitations could be overcome by using artificial receptors, which mimic the active sites of antibodies. During the Phase I, Lynntech has prepared sensor elements capable of recognizing different proteins selectively from complex biological samples. Results obtained in Phase I have demonstrated the feasibility of miniatuarization of this technology with minimal power requirements. The proposed research will result in a light weight, hand held device capable of specific recognition of small concentrations of target proteins from biological fluids at the end of Phase II and will be delivered to NASA/JSC. The rapid and simultaneous quantitation of a large number of proteins in biological fluids will become a valuable tool in clinical diagnostics.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Proteins are routinely used as biomarkers for diagnosis, treatment and assessment of a number of physiological functions of the body. The world market for in vitro medical diagnostics will reach about $25 billion in 2003, with immuno-diagnostics accounting for about one-third ($8.3 billion). Development of technology for real time protein monitoring will serve as a very useful tool for early detection of cancer as well as many other fetal diseases.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Waheguru Pal Singh
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.06-8517 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013482 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01147
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bluetooth Wireless Wearable Modular Medical Instrumentation

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed project will create a novel system for using medical instruments in a wireless network. A unique, highly innovative system architecture is proposed. This work is made possible by the new low-cost wireless networking technology called Bluetooth. Bluetooth makes it commercially feasible for low-cost portable devices to be connected in a true wireless network. This enabling technology will have a long-term impact on future medical systems. By adding Bluetooth wireless connectivity to standard medical instruments such as a pulse oximeter, electrocardiograph, or blood pressure monitor, a highly flexible medical data acquisition system can be constructed for managing medical data in the clinic, small doctors office, emergency medical, or homecare environments. Such a system will lower costs, improve safety, and make possible new monitoring modalities. The proposed innovation is highly relevant to space medicine and health care systems since many of the improvements address the specific needs of remote diagnosis and treatment. In phase II the software architecture and Bluetooth enabled medical instruments will be developed and integrated into an existing commercially successful medical system. FDA approval will be obtained and a new commercial system will resultcommercial production.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial potential of Bluetooth enabled medical devices is significant. The inherent modularity of the approach and the specific features of Bluetooth make it an attractive option for medical instrumentation system designers. Advanced Medical Electronics (AME) will team with QRS Diagnotic, LLC (QRS) to introduce the proposed technology into the commercial marketplace. AME has worked with QRS in the past to develop PC Card (formerly PCMCIA Card) modular medical instrumentation. Modular forms of medical instrumentation take functions such as pulse oximetry, ECG, blood pressure, spirometry, etc. and allow them to plug into a wide variety of handheld and portable computers. This modularity is very attractive to customers because it allows the user interface components of the system, typically a PC or PDA, to be upgraded without having to replace the measurement specific components of the system. In phase II, QRS will put the designs completed by AME into production. The QRS position in the marketplace will allow them to quickly commercialize the products developed under this proposed SBIR. This will assure NASA a low cost source of Bluetooth wearable modular medical instrumentation after the phase II project is complete.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Gary Havey
Advanced Medical Electronics Corp.
7124 Arrowwood Lane
Maple Grove , MN   55369 - 0000

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Advanced Medical Electronics Corp.
7124 Arrowwood Lane
Maple Grove , MN   55369 - 0000


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.07-8999 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013000 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01149
PROPOSAL TITLE: New High-Barrier Polymer Nanocomposite Food Packaging Enables 5-Year Shelf-Life

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
On future extended-flight, exploration-class missions to the Moon or to Mars, astronaut crews will need a minimum 3-year food supply. Triton addresses this challenge by developing new polymer nanocomposite-based materials solutions for food packaging. Nanocomposite materials, based in high-barrier resins, such as PET, EVOH, and polyethylene, can outperform unfilled materials in ways crucial to the needs of NASA and the extended-flight missions. Triton Nanocomposites increase the barrier capabilities of such materials by over 2-3 times. Nanocomposites remain lightweight, flexible, moldable and fully recyclable. With such dramatic increases in barrier properties, nanocomposites can allow the necessary weight and volume of food packaging to be reduced by at least half with decreased packaging wall-thickness. These unique advantages result from the nano-dispersion of very high aspect ratio (>100:1), organically-modified layered alumino-silicates (ORMLASTM). The successful nanocomposite contains well-dispersed and highly orientated nano-platelets, which form an inorganic barrier to diffusing species. This remarkable nano-structure also increases strength and tensile modulus without loss of flexibility and the low-loading levels (2-8%) do not result in any weight-increase or loss of processibility. Reduced resistance to heat and moisture makes these materials fully retortable as well as microwaveable and compatible for use with convection ovens, or hot-water-injection.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Triton has successfully produced large-scale food packaging tray prototypes incorporating our high barrier nanocomposite resins through commercial food packaging partners. This accomplishment has also attracted commercial attention from major food and beverage packagers in the US and abroad. The nanocomposite materials remain as flexible, recyclable, and versatile as the unfilled resin counterparts while providing enhanced oxygen barrier for extended shelf life. Since these effects are achieved at very low loading levels of the nanoscopic fillers, the approach is highly cost-effective. The nanocomposite structure enables unparalleled reductions in wall-thickness for bottles, retort pouches and thermoformed trays resulting in lower shipping, processing, and materials costs

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Erin McLaughlin
Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford , MA   01824 - 4000

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford , MA   01824 - 4000


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.08-9916 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012083 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02021
PROPOSAL TITLE: Bone Ultrasonic Scanner (BUSS) for Bone Health Assessment

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The main goal of this project is contructing a lightweight, low-cost, real-time ultrasound system for bone assessment that could readily be used in long term space flights as well as in a variety of environments in general medical practice. The major goal of Phase I of this project was to construct a functional prototype of the BUSS and to demonstrate in model experiments that the device is capable of evaluating the stiffness of compact bone, coritcla thickness and the stiffness of underlying spongy structure using flexural and longitudinal acoustic wave propagation parameters. In every area, Artann Laboratories fulfilled the proposed accomplishments of Phase I. A proof-of-concept prototype of the BUSS was designed, constructed and extensively tested in laboratory experiments with bone composite models. In Phase II, the BUSS team will enhance system hardware and software quality and design to the level of a final product and will validate BUSS functionality through comprehensive laboratory and clinical studies. The end products of the project would be twofold: (1) a lightweight, hand-held and easy-to-use device, with which an astronaut will monitor bone health; (2) a small size inexpensive, diagnostic bone ultrasonometer that would be marketed for general use in the commercial marketplace.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
A clear demand for better diagnostic tools, growing population and progressing bone disease rates create a significant market niche for new, more effective and more affordable screening and diagnostic technologies for bone health assessment. Due to the portability, ease of operation and affordable price, the clinical BUSS is intended for use in the health care establishments of the various size: from the large hospitals to small private clinics. It is conservatively projected that the smaller size private heatlh care establishments and offices are not likely to need more than one unit of the device, while large hospitals with the average of more than 1,000 health professionals employed will require at least five units. Based on these projections, the overall 365,000 units of market potential is available today. Population growth, aging and proliferation of the small home-case health care facilities are expected to dramatically increase demand for the technology. The Company will initially target specialty clinics and then migrate to the much larger market of family practice/internal medicine. Given the stringent requirements for clinical applications, the opportunity in commercialization of the BUSS will be explored into the sports medicine and veterinary medicine, as well as expansion on the foreign markets.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Armen Sarvazyan
Artann Laboratories, Inc.
1753 Linvale-Harbourton Road
Lamertville , NJ   085 - 4731

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Artann Laboratories, Inc.
1753 Linvale-Harbourton Road
Lambertville , NJ   08530 - 0000


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B3.09-8173 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013826 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02001
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight radiation shielding materials with carbon nanotube reinforcements

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Human tissue and electronic component protection from harmful effects of space radiation is essential for extended deep space exploration voyages. The prime objective of this Phase II proposal is to develop a multi-functional composite material design to fulfill the current need for non-parasitic, lightweight, high-strength, and effective radiation shielding materials for space exploration applications. Using their patented rapid prototyping approach, ACR and its partners will fabricate test panels of polymer materials reinforced with aligned functionalized single-walled nanotubes (SWNT). The physical, material, and comprehensive radiation properties of the composites materials will be evaluated to identify optimal radiation shielding design criteria. ACR believes the goals of this Phase II effort are directly in line with the NASA Mission.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Potential applications are for NASA and for commercial space travel, which seems to be increasingly becoming popular. All space radiation environment which humans will travel will benefit from these materials.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ranji Vaidyanathan
Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson , AZ   85706 - 5013

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson , AZ   85706 - 5013


PROPOSAL NUMBER: B4.02-9861 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012138 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01166
PROPOSAL TITLE: LEDs as countermeasure for pituitary/neuroendocrine effects of space flight

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
What we learn in space, by developing countermeasures for long-term exposure to microgravity and radiation exposure, can lead to tremendous improvements in medical care for patients here on earth. Spaceflight has been shown to impair bone, muscle and cutaneous repair as well as pituitary/neuroendocrine function. The limited information available suggests that delayed healing in microgravity is related to impairedangiogenesis, immune dysfunction and alterations in cell migration. These are also primary factors contributing to non-healing, chronic wounds on earth. The focus of this Phase I was to determine if Light-Emitting Diode (LED) technology used for biostimulation can be enhanced to deliver doses of near-infrared (IR) light deep into the brain, at the level of the pituitary gland, to stimulate neuronal processes, including cytochrome c oxidase activity and neuronal regeneration. This may have multiple benefits as countermeasures to neurologic injury from microgravity and radiation in long-term space flight, such as the ability to restore neuroendocrine function.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The National Fibromyalgia Partnership, Inc. reports, in their 2001 Monograph, that a conservative estimate of the US population suffering from FM to be 4 to 6 million. They go on to say, ?Other experts believe the true number is closer to 10 million.?

Given the NFPI?s conservative estimate of 4-6 million, a medium priced device, in the price range of $500.00 to $1,000.00, could have a market potential exceeding 3 billion dollars. And we have only addressed one medical condition thought to be the result of only one hormone generated by the pituitary gland. As we proceed with our Phase II task we are certain to discover more about the modulation of the other hormones generated by the pituitary and hypothalamus that could multiply the 3 billion potential of FM to a astronomical revenue potential.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ronald Ignatius
Quantum Devices, Inc.
112 Orbison Street
Barneveld , WI   53507 - 0100

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Quantum Devices, Inc.
112 Orbison Street
Barneveld , WI   53507 - 0100


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.01-8808 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013191 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02004
PROPOSAL TITLE: Imaging Spectropolarimetric Sensor for Airborne and Ground Based Retrieval of Aerosol Properties

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aerodyne Research will develop, demonstrate and market HySPAR, the HyperSpectral Polarimeter for Aerosol Retrievals. Our HySPAR commercial market will comprise both product sales (selling copies of the sensor) and R&D-level aerosol field measurement services. HySPAR employs snapshot multi-angle (passive optical) spectropolarimetry to retrieve atmospheric aerosol macro and microphysical properties. It will be made suitable for both uplooking ground-based measurements, as well as downlooking airborne measurements.

In Phase I, we performed a preliminary design for a HySPAR sensor suitable for both airborne and ground-based applications. The design is compact and offers the advantages of single snapshot spectro-polarimetry over a 120 degree field-of-view with no moving parts. The simplicity of the design should allow a cost effective implementation even if built in small quantities (>10 units). We performed experiments with our prototype sensor and two co-located sensors, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, and a robotic sunphotometer belonging to NASA's AERONET network, yielding good correlation. Using NASA/GISS forward atmospheric modeling codes, we ascertained that the spectral variability of polarized albedos is compatible with our straightforward Stokes inversion method which we demonstrated on sky radiance data measured using our prototype sensor. The Phase I objectives were achieved in entirety and clearly warrant Phase II continuation.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
HySPAR's most immediate intended Phase III application is to support the NASA CALIPSO program, in airborne underflights of the CALIPSO satellite suite for purposes of closure studies. Such studies corroborate and improve aerosol property retrievals by CALIPSO's space-based sensors. In addition to demonstrating readiness for CALIPSO, our Phase II effort will also position HySPAR as a candidate for populating the worldwide networks of ground-based aerosol measurement stations. We will conduct extensive correlative measurements and retrievals alongside a NASA AERONET sensor. Additionally, HySPAR should appeal to future closure study opportunities, particularly in support of the NPOESS Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS).

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Stephen Jones
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica , MA   01821 - 3976

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica , MA   01821 - 3976


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.01-8826 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013173 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02028
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Cryogenic Fabry-Perot Interferometer Development

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Several significant potential infrared applications of tunable Fabry-Perot interferometers are not presently possible because of the unavailability of a Fabry-Perot that can be tuned at cryogenic temperatures. For operation in the far infrared (8-12 micron) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, optics must be kept at cryogenic temperature. At present, such devices are not commercially available for laboratory or spaceflight use. The primary objective of this SBIR proposal is to develop and test a tunable etalon that could be used at cryogenic temperatures based on an existing spaceflight qualified piezoelectric motor design. This actuator would also find application in infrared astronomy, both on the ground and on instruments such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The secondary objective of this effort is to apply this motor to the Multi-Order Etalon Sounder instrument for remote sensing of trace gases in the troposphere. A description of the motor concept as well as the MOES instrument is included in this proposal.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The advanced cryogenic Fabry-Perot interferometer to be developed under the proposed SBIR phase II program will have extensive commercial applications ranging from airborne natural gas pipeline leak monitoring and trace gas detection, to optical fiber communication. There have been strong interests in the detection and monitoring of natural gas pipeline leaks to address public security concerns. The advanced cryogenic Fabry-Perot interferometer developed under this SBIR phase II proposal can be used to detect methane and ethane, two primary gases used to monitor gas pipeline leak. The commercial potential and benefits to the public here are significant. The advanced Fabry-Perot etalon and technologies developed under this SBIR phase II proposal will also find applications as dispersion compensation module and wavelength locker in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems, which have revolutionized the telecommunication industry. The advanced Fabry-Perot etalon and technologies developed under this SBIR phase II proposal can be used in the remote sensing of O3, CO, CO2, and other trace gases for Earth system science and defense applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Carl A. Nardell
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Dr., Suite B
Ann Arbor , MI   48108 - 2285

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Dr., Suite B
Ann Arbor , MI   48108 - 2285


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.01-9870 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012129 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01175
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Airborne VNIR and SWIR Imaging Spectrometer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation is an Airborne VNIR and SWIR Imaging Spectrometer (AVSIS) that acquires calibrated hyperspectral data within the 400?1700nm range (expandable to 2,500nm) for light aircraft/UAV. AVSIS is a grating-type hyperspectral scanner using all solid-state Silicon/InGaAs sensors via a common slit imaging approach. By simultaneously imaging Earth surface and acquiring downwelling irradiance or reference radiance via switching fiber optics, Earth surface spectral reflectance or radiance is measured. With platform positioning, attitude, and altitude measurements, its data cube is precisely geo-referenced. AVSIS has a spectral resolution better than 5nm with a swath width better than 320 pixels and quantization resolution better than 10-bits.
AVSIS is tightly integrated. A tightened airborne computer (weighing 20LBs) is developed to interface and power its imaging components, positioning/attitude/altitude measurement sensors, and radio-link. The power and interconnection circuits for AVSIS attachments are build-ins of the compact computer. Seamless real-time operation is implemented by intuitive graphic user interface or system automation.
AVSIS achieves great expandability with its modularization and network design. AVSIS can be operated alone or as a networked node with other supplementary nodes in an imaging cluster, which includes Flight Landata?s high-resolution multispectral/photographic imaging nodes, and a future fluorescence lidar for thematic airborne remote sensing.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The unique competitive advantage of AVSIS is that there is nothing else like it in the world; no other system offers such a favorable combination of size, weight, and capability. These features allow it to be fitted onto diverse small aircraft (manned and unmanned) to provide calibrated high quality hyperspectral data for repeatable and operational airborne remote sensing.
Immediate AVSIS applications include NASA calibration/validation for the multitude of hyperspectral and multispectral satellites and new application development. The potential commercial applications of this innovative instrument product include operational airborne remote sensing services for precision agriculture, forest management, mining area management, vegetation specie maps, crop and forest growing status monitoring, forest fire forecast, coastal environment studies, ocean/water color, shallow-water bathymetry, wetland delineation, surface pollution detection, mineral exploration, hydro-carbon related material detection, and land-use surveys. Current customers who have expressed an interest in the advanced features proposed include the Army Corps of Engineers, Woods Hole, NASA, Applied Applications, and the Bureau of Land Management.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Xiuhong Sun
Flight Landata, Inc
One Parker Street
Lawrence , MA   01843 - 1548

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Flight Landata, Inc
One Parker Street
Lawrence , MA   01843 - 1548


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.02-8624 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013375 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02033
PROPOSAL TITLE: Laser Gain Media for Wavelength Specific Applications

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Diode pumped solid state lasers have proven to be well suited for use in space based and airborne Lidar systems for remote sensing. These types of lasers are capable of operating at high efficiency while remaining both compact and extremely rugged. However, one of the primary limitations of such systems has been that the laser gain media operates only at specific wavelengths determined by the active dopant ion. These wavelengths do not necessarily match absorption features or transmission windows specific to a given application. Scientific Materials Corp. has recently developed innovative laser gain media that provides operation at the desired wavelength without the need for frequency conversion or tuning elements. It is the purpose of this Phase II SBIR to improve the optical homogeneity and optimize the performance of these materials for diode pumping, as well as scale the growth of these materials to allow implementation in a variety of cavity designs. Based on previous results, the primary material of interest will be Nd3+ doped crystals of YAG(1-x)YSAGx for operation at 944.1 nm for use in lasers for lidar systems designed for remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial availability of materials which lase at specified wavelengths that exactly match the requirement for a particular application would greatly simplify laser design as well as open possibilities for a variety of new applications in medical and other remote sensing systems. Laser manufacturing companies have already begun development of systems based on these materials.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Randy W. Equall
Scientific Materials Corp.
310 Icepond Road
Bozeman , MT   59715 - 5380

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Scientific Materials Corp.
310 Icepond Road
Bozeman , MT   59715 - 5380


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.02-8818 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013181 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01190
PROPOSAL TITLE: A switchable holographic circle to point converter for use in LIDAR receivers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A solid state air-gap Fabry-Perot is configured in tandem with a switchable holographic optic element established by holographic polymer liquid crystal dispersion. This switchable element is the innovative centerpiece developed during Phase I research. By stacking these tuning elements, one per wavelength channel, any discrete channel within the operating range (which can include multiple orders) of a Fabry-Perot etalon can be selected for transmission to any receiver in a LIDAR or spectroscopy system. A sealed, solid state etalon combined with a switchable holographic element can replace a tunable etalon system. This has advantages with respect to LIDAR system cost, complexity and weight. Multiplexing allows additional spectral elements to be selected simultaneously or a channel may be switched in milliseconds. The device can thus isolate hundreds of individual wavelengths across the tunable range of a tunable laser or LIDAR transmitter. These capabilities are accomplished with no moving parts, and with a significant cost advantage over competing technologies.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The largest commercial market is telecommunications where this beam steering technology can be used to randomly switch signals among different fiber channels. A solid-state, dense, random optical cross-switch is commercialized to fill needs in the commercial metro-core telecom market, and to supply rapid, multi-channel, covert, and frequency agile optical communications to the national missile defense initiative. The optical switch is based upon Fabry-Perot and Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal (H-PDLC) technology. The deliverable is entirely solid state, is switched electronically requiring minimal power, and is fabricated using planar fabrication techniques - providing significant cost and durability advantages over competing technologies. Additionally this device when configured, as a solid state LIDAR receiver will result in many sales to the space based remote sensing community.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
John Noto
Scientific Solutions Inc.
55 Middlesex Street
Chelmsford , MA   01863 - 1570

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Scientific Solutions Inc.
55 Middlesex Street
Chelmsford , MA   01863 - 1570


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.03-8641 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013358 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01193
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Lidar for Cloud and Aerosol Radiation Sciences

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The largest error source in validation of NASA's EOS satellite cloud products is the mismatch in sampling volumes between the remote sensors and the in situ cloud probes. The sampling error from the extrapolation of the in situ cloud probe measurement of a few cm3 to the remote sensing measurement of millions of m3 is very large because of the extreme variability of cloud density. The new in situ lidar built in Phase I and tested in cloud on a mountaintop measures the volumetric extinction coefficient in cloud volumes ranging from millions to billions of m3. The in situ lidar differs from a regular lidar in that inside an optically thick cloud the laser pulse is multiply scattered by cloud droplets and the signal measured by the detector is the number of photons returned as a function of time. The amplitude and shape of the returned pulse contain information about the cloud volumetric extinction coefficient at different spatial scales around the instrument and the distance to the cloud boundaries.

Phase I proof-of-concept tests conducted in cloud on a mountaintop demonstrated that the time-varying signal measured by the in situ lidar fit exactly the shape of the signal predicted by a physical model. The volumetric extinction coefficients measured over a period of several hours by the in situ lidar agreed in magnitude with local measurements using a cloud droplet probe, although as expected, there was considerable variability in the measurements. In Phase II we will build an airborne in situ lidar and install it on a Learjet research aircraft. The in situ lidar will be compared with microphysical measurements of cloud properties and cloud boundaries collected by the Learjet in various types of clouds.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The in situ lidar will play a critical role in validating remote measurements from both ground-based and spaceborne remote sensing instruments. It will be sought for several government field projects and international programs. The military can use the in situ lidar to measure visibility and cloud boundaries around aircraft carriers and in dense aerosol clouds on the battlefield. The ability of an in situ lidar to measure cloud boundaries will generate an application at uncontrolled airports that will increase aviation safety and provide a substantial commercial market. When the aircraft enters a low-lying fog on approach to landing, the visibility, which previously looked good from aloft, rapidly drops to a few hundred feet in the horizontal, often causing disorientation and disaster. An unattended in situ lidar will warn pilots through the automated weather observing system (AWOS).

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Paul Lawson
SPEC, Inc.
3022 Sterling Circle, Suite 200
Boulder , CO   80301 - 2388

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
SPEC, Inc.
3022 Sterling Circle, Suite 200
Boulder , CO   80301 - 2388


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.04-9809 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012190 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01200
PROPOSAL TITLE: MMW Pyroelectric Sensor Array

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
WaveBand Corporation proposes a novel focal plane array sensor for millimeter wave (MMW) imaging. The major innovation is the monolithic integration of printed fractal-like antennas, pyroelectric capacitors, and MEMS switches in a single wafer. Pyroelectric sensors have low sensitivity in the MMW range of the spectrum. The proposed integration of pyroelectric capacitors with printed broad-band antennas will dramatically improve sensitivity. The preliminary design and calculations performed in the course of the Phase I Project have shown that the minimum detectable temperature contrast is less than 1 K. A MEMS switch incorporated in the antenna/capacitor circuit will act as a chopper, eliminating the need for that cumbersome device.
The goal of Phase II of the Project is to build a working prototype of the proposed imager (with support of Raytheon?s foundry for the manufacturing process). The final result of Phase II will be the creation of a very efficient low-cost MMW imager whose sensitivity is comparable to that of the best IR sensors. The combination of WaveBand?s MMW circuitry and a pyroelectric thermal sensor makes it possible to overcome the main problem of MMW thermal sensors, their low sensitivity caused by the small power of thermal radiation in the MMW frequency range.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
A conceptual illustration of the contemplated commercial product is presented in Figure 10-1. This is a preliminary concept of the product design for the proposed millimeter wave sensor based on the Phase I work results. It consists of a monolithic array chip, which includes antenna elements, pyroelectric capacitors, MEMS switches fabricated monolithically on a semiconductor substrate and mounted in the center of a cylindrical housing with a conventional lens and interface circuitry for reading electronics. The monolithic array chip is the enabling technology that permits the realization of a very simple and low cost quasi-optical approach for the millimeter-wave high-sensitivity imaging sensor. This compact module, which serves as the heart of sensor systems, is an ideal product for aircraft landing as well as environmental mapping applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Vladimir Manasson
WaveBand Corporation
375 Van Ness Ave #1105
Torrance , CA   90501 - 1821

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
WaveBand Corporation
375 Van Ness Ave #1105
Torrance , CA   90501 - 1821


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.04-9866 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012133 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01199
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Terahertz Heterodyne Receivers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary goal is to develop and market a new class of heterodyne receivers that take advantage of our proprietary GaAs-on-dielectric integrated circuit fabrication process and our innovative mixer and multiplier circuit designs. These receivers will cover full waveguide bands without tuning, require no DC bias and will be ultra compact. In Phase I we successfully demonstrated i) the basic circuit designs, ii) the elimination of isolators in the multiplier chains, iii) full waveguide bandwidth and iv) the critical dimensions necessary for the fabrication of a terahertz mixer. The focus of Phase II will be the demonstration of a highly compact receiver for the frequency band from 750 GHz through 1,050 GHz. A single waveguide block will house the integrated subharmonically pumped mixer circuit and an integrated doubler/tripler multiplier chain. This block will have an input connection for a 75 GHz local oscillator, a horn antenna for the RF signal and a coaxial connector for the IF output. The prototype receiver will be delivered to NASA GSFC for use on the Conical Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer for the study of ice crystals in cirrus clouds.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
When we think about the long-term future of terahertz technology we envision the breadth and scope of the microwave and infrared industries. Although the terahertz band has its unique and often formidable challenges, it is inherently just as useful as the frequency bands above and below. It is only a matter of time and effort before the terahertz technology base becomes mature enough to allow this band to be fully exploited. VDI was formed to make this evolution occur sooner rather than later. This proposal will foster the development of terahertz components that cover complete waveguide bands without mechanical tuners or dc bias. They also use integrated circuits, so that assembly is much easier and more precise. This greatly increases reliability and repeatability and thereby reduces costs. Our customers include atmospheric researchers, radio astronomers, chemical spectroscopists, and nuclear and solid-state physicists. We also gain support from researchers developing next generation electron paramagnetic resonance imaging systems, high data rate point-to-point communications, millimeter-wave radars above 100 GHz, submillimeter-wave test equipment including vector network analyzers, and the detection and monitoring of chemical and biological toxins for military and commercial food processing applications. Each of these applications will benefit from the proposed SBIR research.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Jeffrey L. Hesler
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
321 West Main Street
Charlottesville , VA   22903 - 5537

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
321 West Main Street
Charlottesville , VA   22903 - 5537


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.06-8294 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013705 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01221
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micromachined Interconnects for RF MEMS Relays

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
XCom Wireless proposes to develop a micromachined interconnect technology for the broad-band low-loss transfer of RF energy between substrates. This interconnect design will improve the performance of hybrid RF MEMS sub-systems that use separate substrates for RF circuitry and actuator fabrication. MEMS relays will be assembled and packaged using the interconnect in order to determine the effectiveness of the technology for improving mm-wave performance. XCom Wireless expects RF MEMS relays to be fundamental components of future multi-band, high-performance, low-cost antenna systems, proposing the design, prototype, and testing of this interconnect technology. XCom Wireless is presently developing a new type of RF MEMS relay under Department of Defense contracts, which promises superior reliability to that of competing RF MEMS development efforts. The XCom Wireless vision is to enable the design of modular, multi-functional, high-performance antennas, for a dramatic reduction in system cost, weight, volume and power consumption. Within such a vision, the specific needs of NASA remote sensing programs can be furthered; upon the completion of this Phase II program, the results of interconnect technology development will form an important foundation for low cost mm-wave systems capable of high performance and functionality.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS

The benefit of RF MEMS based subsystems to the commercial marketplace is significant, in that the markets for high performance RF components and subsystems are large and growing at 35% yearly. The test and instrumentation community, the aerospace communications and radar community, and the defense wireless system developers have been identified as the first adopters of RF MEMS technology, with relevant MEMS-enabled sales expected to grow to over $75 million in 2005. Consumer markets for RF MEMS include fixed broadband data link equipment, wireless LAN hardware, and civilian handsets and PDA?s, and are anticipated to reach, $1.4 billion in 2005 with combined sales of MEMS components, subsystems, and RFICs incorporating MEMS

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Daniel J. Hyman, Ph.D.
XCom Wireless, Inc.
1718 E. Ocean Blvd #4
Long Beach , CA   90802 - 6014

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
XCom Wireless, Inc.
1718 E. Ocean Blvd #4
Long Beach , CA   90802 - 6014


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.06-9880 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012119 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01220
PROPOSAL TITLE: Broadband Terahertz Frequency Multipliers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The spectral band from 1 - 5THz contains a wealth of information about the chemistry of the upper atmosphere and the structure and evolution of the Universe. The recent development of superconductive hot electron bolometers (HEBs) has made it possible for NASA to cover this frequency band with high-resolution heterodyne receivers with exceptional sensitivity. As a critical additional benefit, the HEB mixers require extremely low levels of local oscillator (LO) power. In fact system requirements of as little as one to ten microwatts make it feasible for the mixers to be pumped with solid-state sources based on a fundamental oscillator and a cascaded chain of frequency multipliers. However, multipliers for above 1 THz, even at these power levels, remain a formidable challenge. In fact, a frequency multiplier for Band 6 of the Heterodyne Radiometer for Herschel, spanning from 1,410 - 1,910 GHz, has not yet been demonstrated. Thus, the problem we propose to solve is the lack of a source of terahertz power suitable for preent and future NASA missions. This will be achieved through the use of our innovative and unique frequency quintupler circuit design and our proprietary GaAs-on-quartz circuit integration process.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial market for terahertz components is not yet large enough to attract interest from major companies. However, it is ideal for a company of our size. Our terahertz customers include atmospheric researchers, radio astronomers, chemical spectroscopists, and nuclear and solid-state physicists. We also gain support from researchers and companies developing next generation electron paramagnetic resonance imaging systems, high data rate point-to-point communications, millimeter-wave radars above 100 GHz, millimeter and submillimeter-wave test equipment including vector network analyzers, the detection and monitoring of chemical and biological toxins in food processing facilities, contraband detection, and many more.
Further, this SBIR research will foster our move toward component designs with integrated circuits and fewer mechanical parts, thus easing assembly, increasing reliability and reducing costs. Because of this progress we will market components and systems that are useful not only to the most dedicated and determined scientists, but to a much wider base of users who are looking for a valuable and reliable tool rather than an impressive laboratory curiosity. Through this SBIR a much larger range of scientific experiments and future commercial applications becomes possible and the commercial market for our products will continue to grow.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Jeffrey L. Hesler
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
321 West Main Street
Charlottesville , VA   22903 - 5537

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Virginia Diodes, Inc.
321 West Main Street
Charlottesville , VA   22903 - 5537


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.07-8448 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013551 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01198
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computer Code to Model Loop Heat Pipe Transients

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) centers have incorporated or is contemplating the use of Loop Heat Pipes (LHP) in many of their current and future spacecraft designs. However, there is currently no means for a typical spacecraft thermal engineer, with limited technical knowledge of two-phase flow and LHP technology, to incorporate LHP functionality into their thermal models. The proposed LHP code, in its final form, will enable the spacecraft thermal engineer to effectively model their LHP TCS that is coupled to the spacecraft. It will be able to provide valuable insights during early program trade-off studies, by making independent evaluation of varying LHP TCS designs possible, and will allow the thermal engineer to accurately predict/bound tests and on-orbit performances. The LHP code can be integrated with any industry standard thermal analyzer, and will require only input data that can be provided by the LHP vendor. Expertise in LHP technology will not be required to utilize the code.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The LHP computer code takes the guesswork out of the users by handling all LHP calculations internally. The users do not need to know every single detail in a LHP design in order to incorporate the code into the spacecraft system model for analysis. This is particularly useful when the spacecraft engineer has to conduct trade studies at early phases of the program. With a limited amount of information, the computer code can still provide reasonable predictions for top-level thermal analyses.

On the other hand, when the design of a LHP-based thermal control system matures, the computer code can then be utilized to simulate accurately the transient LHP behaviors and its thermal interaction with the spacecraft. The LHP computer simulation is precise enough to reveal potential problems and deficiencies associated with the TCS design.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Triem Hoang
TTH Research, Inc.
505 Hampton Park Blvd. Suite J
Capitol Heights , MD   20743 - 3827

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
TTH Research, Inc.
505 Hampton Park Blvd. Suite J
Capitol Heights , MD   20743 - 3827


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E1.07-8863 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013136 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01181
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Heat Flux Evaporator for Two Phase Transport Loops

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project addresses the development of high performance evaporators for loop heat pipes (LHP) or capillary pumped loops. Thermal management of future high-power laser instrumentation will require power dissipation of 2-5 kW at heat fluxes beyond 100 W/cm2. Although localized heat fluxes as high as 100 W/cm2 have been demonstrated using bi-disperse wicks, the maximum average heat flux capability of present LHP evaporators is an order of magnitude lower. Cooling high heat flux loads with present technology would necessitate the use heat spreaders, which would substantially increase the thermal resistance and weight of the system.

We propose an evaporator configuration that can operate at average heat fluxes an order of magnitude larger, and thermal resistances an order of magnitude lower than present LHP evaporators. A novel fabrication approach enables vapor/liquid distribution networks to maximize capillary pumping and substantially reduce liquid and vapor flow pressure drops. Phase I proof-of-concept tests and scoping analyses demonstrated the feasibility and performance potential of the proposed evaporator. In Phase II we will develop the evaporator technology through a combination of modeling, fabrication trials, and separate effects tests. We will then demonstrate the technology by designing, fabricating, and testing a prototype LHP incorporating the proposed evaporator.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The principal commercial application for this technology is cooling of high heat flux electronics. The three areas with the highest thermal dissipation challenges are: diode-pumped lasers, solid-state power conversion devices, and high-end microprocessors. All three are areas of high market growth. They are also areas where thermal management is a high value-added component. Better heat dissipation would enable higher power lasers, higher power and more compact electric drives, and higher device density and speed microprocessors.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Javier Valenzuela
Mikros Manufacturing, Inc.
88 Etna Road, Suite B
Lebanon , NH   03766 - 1403

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mikros Manufacturing, Inc.
88 Etna Road, Suite B
Lebanon , NH   03766 - 1403


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.01-8557 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013442 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02038
PROPOSAL TITLE: Large Inflatable Self-Rigidizing Polymer Film Structures

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary objective of the Phase I work was to determine the feasibility of manufacturing inflatable preshaped polyimide film structures that have the inherent thermal stability and structural strength to meet requirements of large space systems without internal pressurization or other rigidization. The feasibility of the scalable, low-cost manufacturing technology was validated by structural component design, fabrication and testing. A sound technology basis was established for continued manufacturing process refinement and application. The Phase II effort will develop and demonstrate large ultra-lightweight, compactly stowable, self-rigidizing inflatable structures.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This structures technology is applicable to large antennas, high resolution earth observation satellites, solar thermal and electric propulsion, space solar power, and high temperature materials processing systems. Ground commercial applications include emergency shelters in extreme environments and lightweight articles exposed to long-term weathering conditions.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Rodney Bradford
United Applied Technologies
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville , AL   35803 - 4327

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
United Applied Technologies
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville , AL   35803 - 4327


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.01-8579 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013420 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02036
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Clear Space Durable Polymer for Ultra-Lightweight Structures and Optics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Triton proposes to meet NASA?s need for space- based ultra-lightweight structures and optics with a new, advanced, colorless, space durable polymer, TOR-NC. This new polyimide is specifically engineered for resistance to atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV) and particle radiation. This new polyimide has low solar absorbance and high thermal emittance. The TOR-NC polyimide is well suited for synthesis of multi-kilogram quantities and cost reduction through co-polymer design. Films made by solution casting display good mechanical and optical properties for the space applications.
The proposed Phase II program is a comprehensive two-year program that will improve the quality and effective production of TOR-NC. The proposed program involves the technologists, the converters, the evaluators, and the end-users all on the same team. Feed back from the end-users will be used to develop a superior product that is geared especially to the needs of the space community.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Triton is positioning itself as manufacturer of high quality specialty monomers and polymers. Triton is pursuing chemical companies to establish partnership for larger scale commercial production of these newly developed monomers and polymers for terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. We are also forming partnerships with film manufacturers to produce large thin sheets or continuous rolls of films using Triton?s polymers. With these team arrangements, Triton will be in position to commercialize its synthesis capabilities and also produce high quality space durable films. These films can be used in multi-layer insulation blankets for commercial and government satellites. They also can be used for large inflatable or deployable membranes.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Arthur Gavrin
Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford , MA   01824 - 4000

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford , MA   01824 - 4000


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.02-8565 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013434 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01183
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Antenna Array and GPS Receiver for Combined Navigation/Attitude Determination

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Under the Phase I effort, a design was developed for a flexible, high performance Space-based Software GPS Receiver (SSGR). The objective of this Phase II effort is to develop an SSGR Engineering Development Unit to be used to demonstrate the next generation capabilities of the SSGR for space applications.

The SSGR is based on a digital multi-element phased array design that can be configured to provide: 4p steridian field of view for all-around GPS satellite visibility; digital beam and null-forming to allow tracking of both high power and low power GPS satellites; attitude determination to allow operation in a spinning satellite; advanced signal processing to allow extremely low power GPS satellite signal detection; precision GPS navigation capability using WADGPS corrections; and integrated GPS orbit determination using NASA GSFC?s GPS Enhanced Orbit Estimation Software (GEONS). On conclusion of the development effort, we propose to perform a demonstration of the SSGR capabilities to track both high and low power GPS satellite signals using a combination of live satellite tracking and simulated space mission scenarios.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The SSGR will provide a flexible, integrated precision navigation and attitude determination solution for space applications including LEO, HEO and GEO missions. The ability to track low power GPS satellites will extend the use of GPS for precision navigation and timing, particularly for high altitude space missions (above the GPS satellite constellation). The flexibility of the SSGR design will allow it to be adapted for use in launch and orbit entry, station-keeping and autonomous orbit estimation applications, leveraging a common rad-hard hardware implementation to keep the unit cost low for each individual application.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Alison K. Brown
NAVSYS Corporation
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs , CO   80921 - 2370

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
NAVSYS Corporation
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs , CO   80921 - 2370


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.02-9508 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012491 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01195
PROPOSAL TITLE: Com+ Simulation Architecture With Application To Tethers And Formation Flying

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA missions cover a diverse set of requirements from Earth Observing constellations Flying in Formation to Scientific Observations using multiple tethers. Each spacecraft will have unique design specifications on actuators, sensors, dynamics, control and flight software. Traditionally, these spacecraft simulations have been divided into files, modules or classes which are compiled and linked to form a monolithic simulation application. This static approach requires re-compilation or re-linking for each different spacecraft.

Star Technologies along with our Team Member Microsoft Corporation proposes to develop a COM+, Component Object Model, spacecraft simulation architecture that will enable the User to build COM components that can be assembled into a spacecraft simulation without the need for re-compiling or re-linking. The advantages of using COM components result directly from their ability to dynamically plug-into and unplug-from a spacecraft simulation. The COM simulation architecture will provide for rapid assembly via COM components that represent the environment, sensors, actuators, dynamics, and control which may function as distributed processes across networks. And since COM is language independent, the COM+ architecture will enable re-use of previously developed FORTRAN and C programs or routines. The resulting COM+ simulation architecture will be demonstrated on a Tether and a Formation Flying configuration.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The COM+ simulation architecture will provide a methodology for the rapid prototyping of various spacecraft simulations by assimilation of COM components at run time. The addition of new COM components or the replacement of existing COM components will enable spacecraft simulations to evolve over time. Previously, development of a spacecraft attitude control system would apply 80% of the effort toward the development of a detailed spacecraft simulation while 20% went to the actual control system design and analysis. This COM+ simulation architecture will reduce the cost and time-to-develop sophisticated spacecraft simulations to less than 20% of the effort, leaving the remainder of the effort for control system design and analysis. The COM+ simulation architecture will enable component manufacturers to provide sensor or actuator models as COM components thereby protecting any proprietary information while making their specific sensor or actuator model available as a plug-in. Star Technologies has contacted such manufacturers as Barnes Engineering who are in agreement with the providing such a COM plug-in component. The COM+ simulation architecture has the potential of supporting a variety of commercial as well as government spacecraft simulation developments.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Robert Strunce
Star Technologies Corporation
10303 Galpin Court
Great Falls , VA   22066 - 2401

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Star Technologies Corporation
10303 Galpin Court
Great Falls , VA   22066 - 2401


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.04-9409 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012590 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02023
PROPOSAL TITLE: Transoner Power Transfer for TWT Power Systems

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the framework of a NASA SBIR-Phase I sponsored program, Face Electronics, LC has developed the first successful demonstration of a piezoelectric-based high-voltage, high-power transformer, TAP-SONER, for use in Electronic Power Conditioners (EPCs) for space Travelling Wave Tube Amplifiers (TWTAs). The new transformer operates under resonant conditions with a very high mechanical factor. Consequently, the transformer can achieve a higher step-up ratios and higher power density compared to similar conventional magnetic transformers. The novel transformer is compact in size, light in weight, and does not generate magnetic interferences, since neither magnetic materials nor coils are involved in its manufacturing. Additionally, the specific design proposed for Phase I, based on a new paralleling-tapped concept developed by Face, allows for the supply of a different number of high voltages and high powers required to drive the TWT.

The Phase II proposal is focused on the technical improvement of the proposed device in order to achieve the performance levels required for low and medium power TWTs. In order to achieve this goal the following objectives will be pursued: (a) increase power output of current design up to 100W, (b) electronic integration for space application, and (c) reliability testing for the final equipment.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The 1990s were characterized by continual growth of communication satellites caused by the expanding need for fixed and mobile communications, broadcast television, and multimedia systems. The market share of satellite communication will rise from about 2.5% of total global communication revenues today (i.e. $20 billion of $800 billion) to 6.5% of all communications services (i.e. $68 to $80 billion of $1.2 trillion in 2005). The key element of a commercial communication satellite is the TWTA. Specifically, the current worldwide market segment for TWTs (including commercial and military ground and space applications) is estimated to be in the order of $500 million. Including military applications, the total space TWT market might amount to as much as $250 million. Typically a satellite can have more than 50 TWTs on board, the price of each being about $65k, so the total cost of the flight complement on board is about $3M. The maximum number of TWTs with power supplies is related to efficiency issues, space available, and component weight of onboard equipment. Improving the performance of the HV transformers, which represent about 10% to 20% of the total size, by using Transoner based power supplies, is a situation with significant commercial potential.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Alfredo Vazquez
Face Electronics, LC
427 West 35th Street
Norfolk , VA   23508 - 3201

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Face Electronics, LC
427 West 35th Street
Norfolk , VA   23508 - 3201


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.05-8415 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013584 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01151
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost Hardware for In-Space Oxygen/Hydrogen Propulsion, Phase II

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The use of gaseous oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant for satellite maneuvering, attitude control, and station keeping offers many advantages over the use of storable propellants such as nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) or nitrogen tetroxide/hydrazine (NTO/N2H4). Primary among these are increased specific impulse and reduced launch weight. Previously, the use of gaseous O2/H2 was limited by the lack of a combustion chamber material capable of withstanding the temperatures of stoichiometric O2/H2 combustion. Ultramet recently solved this problem by demonstrating a material system capable of operating for several hours under stoichiometric conditions utilizing only radiation cooling. Because the chambers reached temperatures of nearly 2600?C during testing, a water-cooled injector was used. That will not be an option in space, so an injector must be developed that will be able to withstand these extreme temperatures and minimize thermal soakback to the valves. In Phase I, an uncooled combustion chamber/injector system for use with stoichiometric O2/H2 propellants was designed, fabricated, and hot-fire tested. Phase II will focus on improving the life of the combustion chamber by taking a critical look at the designs of both the chamber and the injector. Modifications will be made, and several iterations of hot-fire testing will be performed. Based on previous hot-fire testing with this material system, it is anticipated that lifetimes in excess of ten hours can be achieved.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed technology will enable water electrolysis propulsion to become a reality and result in an increase in specific impulse of ~100 seconds. This will allow satellites to remain on station longer and/or increase their retasking capabilities, while simultaneously increasing the mass fraction delivered to orbit.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Arthur J. Fortini, Ph.D.
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima , CA   91331 - 2210

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima , CA   91331 - 2210


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.05-9431 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012568 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02025
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Catalysts for HAN/HEHN Based Monopropellants

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I work completed under Contract NAS3-02025 demonstrated that a family of ceramic oxides can successfully be used either as high temperature catalyst carriers or catalysts for decomposition of HAN/MeOH fuels. A ceramic processing technique to produce high surface area spherical catalyst granules was also demonstrated. However, no performance and process optimizations were performed. The work initiated in Phase I will be continued under Phase II to develop and test ceramic based catalyst carriers and catalysts that are capable of initiating the decomposition of HAN-based monopropellants, and sustaining steady-state runs for several hours. One or two candidates in each of catalyst carrier and unpromoted catalyst categories will be defined. Their performances in a small rocket engine will be demonstrated using the propellant(s) specified by NASA.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Catalysts proposed here as an ignition technique promise to achieve the same reliability as that already demonstrated with Shell 405 catalyst in hydrazine thrusters. The catalyst developed by STI has near-term applicability to NASA programs and ties in directly with nontoxic propellant thruster development in progress at other government centers and NASA or USAF contractors. The potential market for the catalyst to be developed under this Phase II SBIR contract and its Phase III follow-on commercialization contracts is the same as that for the well-established Shell 405 catalyst. Our material may eventually replace Shell 405 in most monopropellant thruster and gas generator applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ender Savrun
Sienna Technologies, Inc
19501 144th Ave NE, Ste F-500
Woodinville , WA   98072 - 4423

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Sienna Technologies, Inc
19501 144th Ave NE, Ste F-500
Woodinville , WA   98072 - 4423


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.06-8155 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013844 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01201
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enabling Cluster Based Architecture for Virtual Platforms and Sensor Webs

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Distributed spacecraft systems with enhanced formation flying (EFF) technology for onboard constellation and formation control will enable large numbers of spacecraft to be managed with a minimum of ground support. EFF facilitates a ?virtual platform? concept which lowers total mission risk, increases science data collection and adds considerable mission flexibility. The requirement to act as a unified information system places requirements on the system architecture that go above an beyond what is required for traditional systems.
We propose a software based infrastructure that facilitates dependable formation and operation of distributed real-time control systems with several innovations that advance the state of the art in distributed systems technology and sensor webs. These innovations include: 1) cold start algorithms that allow for autonomous, dependable system organization and formation, 2) distributed on-line configuration control, monitoring and health assessment processes that operate in concert across the entire system allowing for coordinated system operation, 3) a multi-level scheduling approach that allows for distributed control elements to be responsive to local events and to participate in system wide coordinated operations and 4) a robust fault/error model that accounts for arbitrary fault/error cases and anomalies, thereby providing superior fault tolerance, particularly for Single event Upsets (SEUs).

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
As distributed real-time systems move toward network centric architectures, the demand for dependable clustering capabilities multiply appreciably. Distributed clustering technology is at the threshold of market definition in commercial wireless, avionics, automotive, industrial, medical and ecommerce, and in distributed system/testbed/simulation applications. It has recognized applications for a wide spectrum of distributed information processing systems that are the basis for the information age.
Distributed clustering architectures of significant scale are fairly recent and have not yet matured to the point where they offer appropriate dependability and real-time performance. In avionics (both military and commercial) alone, the market value is projected to be sufficient to establish a viable business case. In addition to this market, WWTG also foresees significant opportunities in automotive and truck fleet markets where there is interest in architecture concepts for expediting traffic flow, and now safety for highways and critical access areas. WWTG's strategy for entering this market is based on using its extensive experience and strong background in successful fault tolerant systems developments translated into dependable distributed cluster technology applied to targeted, viable commercial markets.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Chris Walter
WW Technology Group
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City , MD   21042 - 5949

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
WW Technology Group
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City , MD   21042 - 5949


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.06-8510 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013489 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01164
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Distributed Guidance And Control System For Satellite Constellations

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Accurate Automation Corporation has developed a distributed adaptive guidance and control architecture for minimum Delta-V formation flying of satellite constellations. The innovation in this approach is that it is an extremely streamlined solution to a very difficult guidance and control problem. The guidance module of the proposed architecture is built around a simulation of a system of particles whose motion is a result of attractive and repulsive forces generated through simulated potential fields. Desirable characteristics of the guidance system are: 1) that a large number of satellites, starting at some initial conditions, can move amongst themselves to some desired final conditions with a guarantee that undesirable interactions between individual satellites will not occur, 2) that the path taken by each individual satellite can be achieved using minimum Delta-V, and 3) that the guidance system is distributed. In order to guarantee stability for the satellite constellation as a whole, we designed a distributed satellite control module with a specifiable convergence rate. This in combination with our ability to specify the convergence rate of the guidance module, allows us to ensure that each satellite will stay within a certain distance of its commanded path (tracking error has a known bound).

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This project will result in two products. The first product will be a distributed, nonlinear, adaptive guidance module for minimum Delta-V formation flying of satellite constellations. The second product will be a nonlinear satellite tracking control module with the capability for user specified convergence rate. These products are important to NASA because they can be applied to control of semi-autonomous agents of any sort, including spacecraft, rovers, and submersibles. The potential size of the Government market is very large. The Air Force and NASA are investigating a wide range of satellite constellation applications, including TechSat-21 (Air Force) and NASA?s LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) for observing gravitational waves in space, NASA?s MAXIM (Micro-Arcsecond X-Ray Imaging Mission) for capturing the black hole phenomenon, NASA?s Stellar Imager for understanding the magnetic field of stars, NASA?s SPECS (Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure), another interferometer, and NASA?s GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) for helping predict climates.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
James C. Neidhoefer
Accurate Automation Corporation
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga , TN   37421 - 1716

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Accurate Automation Corporation
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga , TN   37421 - 1716


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.07-8773 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013226 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02029
PROPOSAL TITLE: Soft Magnetic Nanocomposites for High-Frequency Power Applications

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As an excellent candidate soft magnetic material for transformer, generator, inductor and other applications at low frequency, Fe-Co alloys have attracted much attention. However, at high frequency, the power loss increases due to its low electrical resistivity. During the Phase I research, Nanomat, Inc. has successfully synthesized Fe-Co alloy nanoparticles coated with some electrically insulating materials in order to increase its electrical resistivity. Interesting results pertaining to the electrical and magnetic properties of such nanocomposites achieved in the Phase I research suggest that there is considerable merit for further research and development of the approach. In the Phase II program, Nanomat will focus on the optimization of powder synthesis, consolidation and scale-up. We will consolidate the powder in order to achieve high density compacts and evaluate their microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties as a function of compaction parameter. The additional developments and improvements will be the critical steps needed to incorporate the technology developed during Phase I into the market. Additionally, similar studies on synthesis, compaction and characterization of structural, magnetic and electrical properties of Fe-Ni alloy nanoparticles, will also be taken up.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Fe-Co nanocomposites can be used for many applications, especially in power converters, motor drivers and other power electronics in commercial as well as military satellites, aircrafts, and spacecrafts requiring soft magnetic materials for use at high frequency. This material may also be used to make antennas and high frequency coils, tunable filters for cellular handset, suppression beads, choke coils, loading coils etc. Fe-Ni nanomaterials have potential applications in audio coils, transformers magnetic amplifier coils, etc.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Anit Giri
Nanomat, Inc.
1061 Main Street, Building #1
North Huntingdon , PA   15501 - 1267

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Nanomat, Inc.
1061 Main Street, Building #1
North Huntingdon , PA   15501 - 1267


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.07-9483 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012516 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02031
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long-Lived Solar Concentrator for Space Power

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the first phase of this SBIR, Long Lived Solar Concentrator for Space Power, NAS3-02031, L?Garde has focused on development of inflatably deployed rigidizable parabolic reflectors for space based solar power. L?Garde has proposed the novel approach of utilizing an inflated solar concentrator for the high precision requirements of solar propulsion, then rigidizing the reflector and jettisoning the canopy to provide long term solar concentration for space power generation at lower concentration levels. The concept of rigidizing a reflector for space solar concentration was demonstrated by rigidizing a 1m-diameter aluminum laminate reflector and achieving an excellent surface precision of 0.80 mm RMS. Through fabrication and test of high quality test articles, the relative merits of two reflector rigidization concepts, Sub Tg and Aluminum Laminate, were demonstrated and compared. L?Garde strongly recommends proceeding to a Phase II effort, and has developed a comprehensive analysis and test plan to build on the successes of Phase I. L?Garde?s unique mix of skills, experience, design tools, and test hardware will ensure the greatest chance of bringing this very important technology to fruition.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial applications for rigidizable reflector/concentrator concept are many. The lightweight and simplicity of the concept, coupled with the reliability of inflatable deployment, will be used in the fields of solar propulsion and deep space power generation. Further, the rigidized reflector can be utilized in the RF spectrum for space based radar, communications, radiometry, earth mapping, and with some further development possibly even optics. Relevant testing in a simulated space environment will significantly raise the technology readiness levels of these technologies, and give the confidence needed for incorporation of inflatably deployed rigidizable reflectors into America?s space programs.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
David Lichodziejewski
L'Garde, Inc.
15181 Woodlawn Ave.
Tustin , CA   92780 - 6487

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
L'Garde, Inc.
15181 Woodlawn Ave.
Tustin , CA   92780 - 6487


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E2.07-9800 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012199 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01212
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multipurpose Li-Ion Spacecraft Battery

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phase I established the viability of a 3.0-volt, Li-ion-based LixV2O5 cell system. Rechargeability, rate capability, and operability at -30oC, -200C, R/T, and +550C were demonstrated. It was also found that depending on the structural modifications of V2O5, delivery of specific capacity at 200 mAh/g or higher can be achieved. Further development and optimization of this cathode material, including processing of the electrode, should merit this system for NASA missions (GEO, LEO and Terrestrial). This Phase II effort proposes to further the development of two types of crystalline V2O5 (bulk crystalline and nanocrystalline) and two types of amorphous V2O5. Continued effort on this cathode technology will focus on the synthesis and optimization of the materials, characterizations of the materials at the 15-350 mAh cell level, determinations of the optimum windows for each specific materials with respect to achieving long cycle life, and the development of a 5 Ah cell prototype as the cell deliverables. Three basic tasks are therefore proposed: Task 1. Cathode Development, Task 2. Anode/Electrolyte Development, and Task 3. Cell Development for a duration of 24 months.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Successful introduction of high rate and high energy density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries is expected to have significance in commercial markets as well for military and aerospace markets. The key features in MaxPower's presently proposed SBIR battery R&D program are high energy density, high rate, and an operational range over an extremely wide temperature range. Uses in commercial markets include power tools, mobile computing (e.g. notebook PCs with energy and power demanding disk drives) which operate via satellite communications, implantable medical devices such as cardiac pacemakers and ICD batteries, and the high power battery required for hybrid electric vehicles, e.g. in combination with a low power very high energy density fuel cell.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mark Salomon
MaxPower, Inc.
220 Stahl Road
Harleysville , PA   19438 - 1911

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
MaxPower, Inc.
220 Stahl Road
Harleysville , PA   19438 - 1911


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E3.02-8972 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013027 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02019
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Plan Execution System For Web-Based Scientific Data Integration

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The sheer quantity of data available to scientists via the Internet is staggering, and more is being collected, aggregated and processed daily. Unfortunately, this data is scattered in collections throughout the network, stored in a variety of formats, and accessible via many different types of programs. NASA is a primary producer of scientific data, as well as an important consumer of such data, and thus developing systems to help scientists access, integrate and process large volumes of heterogeneous data is clearly in NASA's interest. Theseus is a commercial high-performance plan execution system that we have developed for integrating web-based data. We propose to extend the Theseus architecture to create a practical system that will make it easy for earth scientists to access, stage, integrate and process large volumes of scientific data distributed over the Internet. Theseus employs a dataflow architecture for plan execution, which we can leverage to create an innovative, scalable approach for processing distributed scientific data. The resulting system will be used as part of a collaborative ongoing effort with scientists from NASA Ames and University of Montana who are applying AI planning technology to ?Biospheric NowCasting? -- real-time ecosystem modeling from Earth Science data.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed work will significantly extend the parallel processing and data handling capabilities of the Fetch Agent Platform, our existing commercial system, which is built on top of the Theseus architecture. Though the market for scientific data integration is relatively small, there exists much larger potential markets for Internet Application Integration (IAI) and Intelligence, and the proposed project will significantly enhance Fetch Technologies abilities to sell into these markets. The ability to easily access, move and transform data is critical for IAI in that large enterprise organizations have numerous disparate sources of information that they need to integrate. Similarly, intelligence organizations that we have been working with (e.g., US SOCOM) are very interested in improving their technology for gathering and integrating geospatial and intelligence data. The new capabilities that we develop in this project will be marketed as ?add on? components to our existing product. Potential customers, in addition to U.S. military and intelligence services, include Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), and B2B integration companies.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Steven Minton
Fetch Technologies
4676 Admiralty Way, 10th floor
Marina del Rey , CA   90292 - 6611

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Fetch Technologies
4676 Admiralty Way, 10th floor
Marina del Rey , CA   90292 - 6611


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E3.03-9195 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012804 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02021
PROPOSAL TITLE: 1024 x 1024 Liquid Crystal Multi-Level Spatial Light Modulator

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Success in recent high-speed multi-level spatial light modulator (SLM) developments has led to a desire for increased resolution at these high frame rates. Applications such as optical correlation, holographic storage, and multi-spot beam-steering would all benefit from the development of a very high-resolution high-speed multi-level SLM. Today Boulder Nonlinear Systems (BNS) offers several high-speed liquid crystal SLMs custom designed for use in high-end optical systems. The most advanced SLM is our 512x512 pixel multi-level SLM that can operate at frame rates exceeding 1000-Hz. However, many applications require even higher resolution to maximize the processing gain achieved from the highly parallel nature of the SLM. BNS proposes to develop a multi-level 1024x1024 SLM with 5-micron pixels and 1000-Hz frame rate. In Phase I, BNS developed a conceptual design for the system. The Phase II effort completes the development by fabricating and testing the 1024x1024 SLM system.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
BNS has built substantial business around our SLMs because we designed them exclusively for phase and amplitude encoding instead of manipulating intensity as would a display device. This focus results in devices with superior performance for non-display applications. With the successful completion of the proposed Phase II effort, we will be in a position to offer this 1024x1024 multi-level SLM as a product, the likes of which cannot currently be found anywhere. Potential customers that have shown interest in this development include those in laser-tweezer microscopy, optical correlation, holographic storage, beam steering, high-speed printing and atmospheric correction.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Steve Serati
Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette , CO   80026 - 8878

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette , CO   80026 - 8878


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E3.04-9142 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012857 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS13-02006
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Processing Incorporating coremicro IMU and GPS Data

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of the proposed Phase II project is to develop AGNC?-2000CIMIU coremicro? IMU/GPS-based hyperspectral remote sensing processing system for spaceborne and airborne in situ data collection systems. This effort will result a high payoff and unique commercial product which features real time and high precision. Location and attitude information provided by the sensor suite of AGNC?-2000CIMIU coremicro? IMU and a GPS receiver are used for hyperspectral image processing. The Phase I efforts and achievements have laid a solid foundation for success of the Phase II project. Specifically, the Phase II project would: 1) Refine and integrate the Phase I algorithms; 2) Implement the miniature and custom design for hardware system; 3) Develop embedded software system, and 4) Perform the marketing and commercialization of the end product. Commercial applications include the use of the pointing and positioning system for monitoring water quality, geodesy surveying, precision farming, and potentially for other applications such as aircraft landing.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
This project will lead to an innovative real time high accuracy pointing system which has wide commercial applications, such as assessment of environmentally sensitive locations, geodesy surveying, precision farming, and aircraft landing.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ching-Fang Lin, Ph.D
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley , CA   93065 - 1812

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley , CA   93065 - 1812


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E3.04-9718 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012281 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS13-02007
PROPOSAL TITLE: Web-Based Hurricane Storm Surge and Flood Forecasting Using Optimized IFSAR Bald Earth DEMs

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase II objective is to deliver two commercial products: 1) variational analysis software that can produce optimized DEM maps for any region along the US coast; and 2) hurricane flood atlases for any coastal area.

These atlases will not only include higher-resolution storm surge simulations but rainfall effects as well. For flash flood mapping, the well-established HEC software program will be obtained from the Hydrologic Engineering Center of the US Army Corps of Engineers. These maps will have overlaid roads and detailed coastline information. Product evaluation partners will provide guidance on how to make the graphical output easy to interpret for their use.

It is important to note the power and versatility of variational analysis - non-conventional variables (in this case, optical pixel brightness and backscatter) can be incorporated into a cost function to find the optimized solution for an unrelated variable (in this case, elevation).

The current implementation of variational analysis yields desirable improvements to bare-earth estimation in several key areas, while other aspects require more work. There are also validation uncertainties due to a lack of ground truth that hampers both the development of the algorithm and in validation efforts. These shortcomings will be addressed in Phase II.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The market is wide open for the application of state-of-the-art remote sensing information to improve public safety. Federal and state agencies, such as Federal Emergency Management Agency, are evaluating IFSAR data as a potential solution for its Floodplain Map Reinvention Program, at significantly less cost [and higher resolution] than traditional means could achieve (Imaging Notes, July 2000).

Baron Services, of Huntsville, AL, currently distributes WorldWinds? commercial weather product line. They are interested in adding the storm surge and flood prediction forecasts into their current product offering to their established customer base that includes: local Emergency Management Officials, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and their TV broadcast station clientele.

A second major client base is the utilization of DEMs for orthorectification of satellite and airborne imagery. Intermap Technologies of Englewood, CO, is very interested in partnering on this SBIR in an effort to utilize WorldWinds' automated DEM algorithms for their commercial applications. This will be a ?ready-made? established market for the WorldWinds? developed DEM algorithm. Intermap is the commercial world leader in elevation mapping and plans to capitalize on its market and technology leadership, by capturing complete national coverage of the United States, Japan, and countries in Western Europe.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Elizabeth Valenti
WorldWinds, Inc.
29 Timberlane Road
Picayune , MS   39466 - 0001

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
WorldWinds, Inc.
29 Timberlane Road
Picayune , MS   39466 - 0001


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E4.02-8394 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013605 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS13-02009
PROPOSAL TITLE: An In-situ, Biogeochemical Sensor using Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorometry

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technical, scientific, and commercial feasibility of developing a novel aquatic in-situ biogeochemical sensor, termed the XMF, is evaluated. Using excitation-emission matrix fluorometry, the sensor will enable in-situ simultaneous detection and effective analytical separation of individual biogeochemical components present in seawater, including humic substances, hydrocarbons, proteins, wastewater/sewage, and other natural and anthropogenic substances. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) will be measured at sampling rates on the order of a second. No scanning of the monochromators, in fact no moving parts whatsoever, will be required. The technological innovation making this possible is termed Double Dispersion Imaging (DDI). The sensor software will incorporate real-time, automated quantum corrections and 2-D mixing analysis techniques. Design goals emphasize portability, compactness, ruggedness, and enabling flexible deployment through features such as variable sampling rates and memory storage capabilities. No current sensor for oceanographic deployment has these characteristics. If feasibility is demonstrated, the XMF is expected to be a powerful analytical tool for investigating biogeochemical processes that we feel will realistically mark a turning point in the analytical oceanic measurement capabilities.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
WET Labs plans to commercialize and manufacture three products as a direct result of this SBIR effort. These products will include an in water sensor for detection and classification of dissolved hydrocarbons and natural dissolved organics, a general purpose bench-top spectral fluorometer for process control and underway applications, and a in-water spectral fluorometer for biogenic identification. In addition two collaborations are presently underway which will allow the company to develop products using the core technologies and methods developed in this project, for developing chemical sensors for process control applications in the sewage treatment community and for making smart auto analyzers for autonomous and remote vehicles. The company sees potential revenues from manufacture and licensing to produce total revenues exceeding $50M. WET labs is currently hiring a marketing manager to assure successful implementation and completion of its commercialization efforts.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Casey Moore
WET Labs, Inc.
620 Applegate St. (PO Box 518)
Philomath , OR   97370 - 0518

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
WET Labs, Inc.
620 Applegate St. (PO Box 518)
Philomath , OR   97370 - 0518


PROPOSAL NUMBER: E4.02-9548 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012451 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS13-02010
PROPOSAL TITLE: Atmospheric Correction of Remote Imagery Using Ground-based Radiometers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Spectral Sciences, Inc. project addresses the development of data analysis software tools for ground-based radiometers to facilitate improved atmospheric correction of remotely sensed hyperspectral and multispectral imagery (HSI and MSI) of the coastal zone. The atmospheric variables needed for the correction (water vapor and ozone column amounts, and aerosol optical properties) may be retrieved from a radiometer located in the vicinity of the remotely sensed scene of interest. The radiometer-retrieved information will significantly improve atmospheric correction accuracy, most notably by taking the guesswork out of selecting a suitable aerosol model

Phase I featured novel MODTRAN-based algorithms and tools for analyzing shadow band radiometer measurements and porting the results to the FLAASH atmospheric correction algorithm. Key accomplishments include demonstration of radiometer data conditioning for continuous daytime retrievals, an aerosol parameterization that extrapolates well into the IR, analysis of radiometer data, and demonstration of complete, end-to-end atmospheric retrieval and correction using simulated radiometer and HSI data. In Phase II, an integrated software toolkit will be prototyped and validated against new HSI/MSI field and archival data. In Phase III, the toolkit will be commercialized and integrated with MODTRAN5 and ENVI/FLAASH products under development with our commercial partner, Research Systems, Inc.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
While the initially targeted application would be NASA?s current and future coastal zone remote sensing needs, an extensive market for such software exists within the broad-based remote sensing community, which includes numerous government agencies (NASA, USDA, USAF, DOE, etc.) and private companies. A key commercial application is precision agriculture, which is being pursued by one of our development partners, Resource 21 LLC. Other commercial remote sensing applications include mineral exploration, forestry management, rangeland management, and environmental monitoring. Related military remote sensing applications include surveillance, reconnaissance, and technical intelligence. Both commercial and military applications utilize aircraft and satellite sensor platforms.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Steven Adler-Golden
Spectral Sciences, Inc.
99 South Bedford Street, Suite 7
Burlington , MA   01803 - 5169

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Spectral Sciences, Inc.
99 South Bedford Street, Suite 7
Burlington , MA   01803 - 5169


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H1.01-8212 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013787 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01057
PROPOSAL TITLE: Toolkit for Enabling Adaptive Modeling and Simulation (TEAMS)

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to design, build, and deploy a Toolkit for Enabling Adaptive Modeling and Simulation (TEAMS). The proposed solution uses a process-centered approach to automatically reconfigure and optimize space transportation system operations analysis models. Because it operates over the Internet, the TEAMS solution will be platform independent and enable collaborative space transportation system operations modeling and analysis over geographically dispersed locations. The technical viability of the approach was established in Phase I by designing and prototyping an adaptive analysis tool that facilitates collaborative design of future NASA spaceport operations processes. The Phase II effort will implement the innovation on two focused NASA operations analysis applications and rapidly commercialize the research results. Central Phase II products include (i) TEAMS software applications, (ii) re-configurable spaceport operations modeling framework, and (iii) scalable operations analysis knowledge repository. Key innovations include (i) a process-centered approach that maximizes re-use of domain knowledge for rapid operations analysis model development, (ii) open-architecture, distributed, plug and play architecture that allows for mass customization and rapid deployment of TEAMS tools in multiple application problems, and (iii) novel, simulation-based optimization mechanisms that facilitate risk minimization through exploration of a large number of spaceport design configurations at reduced cost.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The first application of TEAMS will be to provide a model-based infrastructure for quickly and cost-effectively developing, maintaining and reconfiguring operations analysis models with NASA space transportation system designers. Other NASA TEAMS applications include space transportation systems analysis and design, spaceport process and infrastructure design, spaceport decision support systems, spaceport performance optimization, and virtual spaceport prototyping and validation. TEAMS commercial applications include air transportation system design, airport systems analysis and design, supply chain analysis and design, simulation-based acquisition, and virtual systems prototyping.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Perakath Benjamin
Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.
1408 University Drive East
College Station , TX   77840 - 2335

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.
1408 University Drive East
College Station , TX   77840 - 2335


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H1.02-8768 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013231 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01168
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed. Inspired by the biological example of cooperative nest building by social insects, the architecture's robotic construction agents perform their construction duties stigmergically, i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through sensed modifications made to the structure by each agent. Phase I simulations have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. During Phase II, the prototype multi-robot architecture will be comprehensively developed. The idealized robot subsystem models utilized in Phase I will be replaced with detailed engineering models. Phase II research objectives include the development of a comprehensive simulation of the cooperative multi-robot control architecture, development of parametric design relationships between the key robotic subsystems, and a system demonstration using commercial robotic hardware. It is anticipated that the Phase II research program will lead to a robust multi-robot control strategy that will make the use of autonomous robots a viable option for the assembly of future large space structures.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Coordinating the actions of multiple autonomous robots in order to assemble any structure is a challenging task, but the application of stigmergic principles may lead to a simplification of the undertaking. The development of a flexible, cooperative multi-robot control architecture which incorporates a stigmergic building algorithm has the potential to produce significant commercial applications. Commercialization opportunities may exist in situations where an assembly process is required and the environmental conditions are so hazardous that the use of autonomous construction robots is ideal. Examples include the construction of a containment structure after a nuclear accident and the underwater assembly of oil extraction platforms.
In addition to the construction of large structural assemblies, it may become possible in the near future to build very small items by using nanotechnology to create very small robotic agents. A common scenario for the envisioned technology involves many individual nanobots working collectively, hence requiring a cooperative control architecture to coordinate their activities. It is anticipated that the proposed research will produce a stigmergically based control architecture that can be applied to the emerging field of nanotechnology.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Thomas G. Howsman
Dynamic Concepts, Inc.
P. O. Box 97
Madison , AL   35758 - 0097

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dynamic Concepts, Inc.
P. O. Box 97
Madison , AL   35758 - 0097


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.02-8835 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013164 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01169
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rotational Molding of Thermoplastic Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Rotational molding is a low-cost processing scheme used to fabricate large tanks, ducts, and tubes with complicated shapes. Rotational molding of liquid crystal polymer (LCP) resins was successfully demonstrated in the Phase I program, and the proposed Phase II effort will continue development of this process. LCP materials are of interest in application to cryogenic propellant storage because of their low permeability, low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), excellent strength, and chemical inertness. Development of rotationally molded LCP articles addresses the aerospace industry's need for lightweight, low-cost liners for use in propellant storage tanks and transport lines in space vehicles. LCP tanks will potentially be suitable for use with several liquid rocket propellant systems including liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Rotationally molded LCP tanks will have a broad domestic application base in containment of cryogenic liquids, compressed gas, hazardous chemicals, and food processing. In effect, we hope to use LCPs as a low cost and lightweight alternative to metal containment materials such as stainless steel. We estimate the potential market size for rotationally molded LCPs in the tens of millions of dollars per year range.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Paul A. Clark, Ph.D.
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.02-9320 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012679 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01062
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Thermal Loss Cryogenic Pump

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phase I has shown that it is of great importance in most cryogenic pumping systems to minimize heat addition to the cryogen by the pump. Heat addition from pump inefficiency is the most significant heat addition source and conduction from the motor and ambient surroundings into the cryogen is secondary. The lower thermal conductivity of composite materials essentially eliminates the heat conducted to the cryogen, and allows a significant reduction in the length of what is typically an extended pump drive shaft. The previously long shaft may have limited the speed at which the pump may operate. The speed limitation usually increases pump inefficiency thus adding more heat to the cryogen. By incorporation of the composite material, and the subsequent drive shaft shortening that allows, a window for operation at increased speed is achieved. This will lower heat from inefficiency and allow the pump to operate at a higher, more efficient speed.

Phase II will design, build, and test a prototype cryogenic pump using composite components. Further research and design studies will be performed based on Phase I results. A pump intended for a Liquid Hydrogen transfer application will be delivered to NASA at the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The technology developed in this SBIR will be extremely useful in Helium and Hydrogen pumping applications. In these very cold applications, it can be worth thousands of dollars in operating costs to limit heat addition anywhere in the cryogenic system. BNI has sold many Helium and Hydrogen pumps for applications from magnet cooling in superconductors to circulation of Hydrogen in a propellant densification system. Nearly all of these systems could have benefited from this technology.

There is also commercial potential for this innovative pump design anywhere that cryogenic fluids (liquids and vapors) need to be transferred. All of the numerous cryogenic pumps, blowers, and compressors that Barber-Nichols supplies each year could use this technology. This would result in lower capital costs when developing the system due to the ability to use smaller cryostats. It would also lower energy consumption during operation.

With the successful demonstration of a cryogenic composite to metallic adhesive bond in Phase I, the potential commercial applications have broadened significantly to include any cryogenic system application where the use of composite materials technology is desired. Examples include liquid cryogen transfer pumps for propellant densification.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Bill Batton
Barber-Nichols Inc.
6325 W. 55th Ave
Arvada , CO   80002 - 2777

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Barber-Nichols Inc.
6325 W. 55th Ave
Arvada , CO   80002 - 2777


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.02-9952 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012047 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01063
PROPOSAL TITLE: Energy Efficient Cryogenic Transfer Line with Magnetic Suspension

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Energy efficient, cost effective, cryogenic distribution system (up to several miles) is strongly commanded for spaceport and in-space cryogenic systems. The use of magnetic levitation by permanent magnets and high temperature superconductors (HTS) results in without mechanical contact and thus, the conduction part of the heat leak can be reduced to zero. In Phase I, various magnetic suspensions, magnetic materials, insulations and mechanical stops for the cryo-maglev transfer line has been comprehensively investigated. Two demo modules of the cryo-transfer line has been designed and constructed. The cryogenic tests of the modules successfully demonstrate the vertical magnetic suspension, horizontal stability, and other important performances that have paved the solid ground for a Phase II project. In phase II, further optimizations of the designs and performances of cryo-maglev transfer lines will be conducted analytically and experimentally to meet the KSC technical requirements. The various warm supports (shape-memory-materials, bimetals, special magnetic structures, and special metal wires) will be studied. Two full sized prototype transfer lines will be designed, constructed and cryogenic tested at KSC. The proposed novel transfer line will provide potential of extending many missions, save cryogens, or reducing the overall launch mass to accomplish a given mission.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed energy efficient, cost effective cryogen transfer lines with magnetic levitation technologies are strongly demanded in a variety of applications including the transport of liquefied gases (N2, O2, H2, He and LNG) and in superconducting applications such as high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission lines. These technologies can also be used in various cryogenic tanks and cryostats in storage of cryogens for many government facilities (NASA, DOE, DOD, TOD, etc.) and private sectors (LNG facilities, chemistry plants, Liquefied gases plant, etc.)

*Very high thermal performance transfer lines for NASA spaceport (up to several miles) and in space application
*The technologies developed in this project will also directly be used in cryotank and cryostat (many NASA missions)
*For liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and liquid natural gas transportation industry of the future, LH2 powered cars, buses, planes and rockets
*Smaller rockets such as envisioned for on-orbit payload transfer operations or interplanetary propulsion
*Cryogen transfer line for super conducting accelerators and power cables industrials
* These technologies can also be extended to other applications, which need magnetic levitations.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Quan-Sheng Shu
AMAC International
12050 Jefferson Ave, Suite 348
Newport News , VA   23606 - 4385

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
AMAC International
12050 Jefferson Ave, Suite 348
Newport News , VA   23606 - 4385


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.03-8178 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013821 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01064
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Volumetric Visualization Using CBDs for Aviation Range Safety and Air T

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the use of Crossed-Beam Volumtric Displays for Range Safety and Mission Control of NASA rocket launch facilities.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Applications exist in NASA, the Department of Defense, and commercial markets.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Elizabeth Downing
3D Technology Laboratories
1243 Reamwood Drive
Sunnyvale , CA   94089 - 2226

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
3D Technology Laboratories
1243 Reamwood Drive
Sunnyvale , CA   94089 - 2226


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.03-8201 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013798 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01065
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spaceport Compatible Optical Sensor Suite for Hazardous Gas Detection

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Monitoring mission critical gases is vital for space ventures, including space shuttles, the international space station, spacecraft for planetary missions, spaceports, future projects on Mars, and satellites ? they all need to monitor gases that are mission critical. Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS), based on the successful results of Phase I, proposes to develop a compact and multi-analyte sensing platform for use across all NASA enterprises. Specifically, IOS will develop a prototype MOFS (multiplexed optical fiber sensor) unit for measuring, in real time, the leakage of highly combustible cryogenic fluids (hydrogen and oxygen) in spaceport and spacecraft in low ppms over multiple locations. The use of optical fiber in the MOFS unit will eliminate the danger of any arc or spark. During Phase I, IOS successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed device by constructing an eight-channel experimental setup that was able to detect 0.02% oxygen and 0.1% hydrogen with no interference from 100% nitrogen, argon, helium, and carbon dioxide. IOS has committed $150,000 co-funding for Phase II, and has attracted $250,000 in additional follow-on funding. IOS will deliver the MOFS prototype to NASA, complete with software, manuals, and schematics.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
It is estimated that the present $1.2 billion worldwide gas sensing market needs safe and reliable sensors to measure leaks in valves, and personal units for hydrogen gas safety monitoring. The transition into a hydrogen economy could push the $120,000,000 annual hydrogen sensor market today into annual sales of $1,800,000,000 by 2010 for hydrogen safety sensing according to available estimates. Hydrogen feed stock sensors needed to manage gas flow and purity will further increase the demand for hydrogen sensors. The upgrading of fuel tanks aboard commercial, freight, military, and corporate jets to avoid potential explosion from fuel vapor will open new markets for oxygen sensing. If the FAA mandates that all fuel tanks switch from open aerated fuel tanks into closed oxygen purged systems, then $900,000,000 in oxygen sensor will be required to meet the current need. Over $100,000,000 per year would be spent on sensor tip replacement during scheduled tri-annual fuel tank maintenance. The current combined world market totals roughly 40,000 aircraft in service today growing to 60,000 aircraft by 2020. Of these, new aircraft will replace about 40,000 aircraft, as older airplanes are retired and military aircraft upgraded.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Kisholoy Goswami
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance , CA   90505 - 5217

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance , CA   90505 - 5217


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.03-8501 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013498 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01066
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Compact, Low-Power Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Many hazardous gases that NASA needs to monitor on and around space vehicles during launch could be detected using mass spectrometers that need operate over only a limited mass range. But, stringent requirements of low weight and low power operation, plus the ability to tolerate high G-forces and excessive vibration prevent the ready adaptation of existing, commercial mass spectrometers to these applications. This Phase I SBIR project successfully tested a novel, compact, inexpensive, low power, time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) for quantitative measurement of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. The key insight behind our approach is recognizing that a useful TOFMS can be built incorporating a short flight tube that is operated at low energies. Phase I proof-of-principle experiments provide the essential information needed to design and build a prototype instrument that will be delivered to NASA KSC at the end of Phase II. We anticipate that deliverable will meet most of the target parameters specified in the Phase I solicitation: operation between 2 and 40 amu; a measurement dynamic range of 1,000,000; less than 3500 cubic centimeter volume; and, less than 10 kg total weight.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The planned technology also has commercial application as a low cost, portable sensor for leak detection, hygrometry, breathing air monitoring, and residual gas analysis.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
David Bomse
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco St., Suite E-11
Santa Fe , NM   87505 - 3993

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco St., Suite E-11
Santa Fe , NM   87505 - 3993


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.03-9895 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012104 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01067
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rugged High-Vacuum System for a Spacecraft Mass Spectrometer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has a pressing need for cost-effective and rugged mass spectrometers to detect hazardous gases on and around space vehicles during launch and flight. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small detectors for mass spectrometers. However, the vacuum systems required to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power hungry. An even greater problem is that commercially available high vacuum pumps cannot supply the required performance while withstanding the loads that would be experienced if the pumps were located on the launch vehicle or adjacent structures. Creare proposes to build and test a rugged, space-qualifiable vacuum system for use in a mass spectrometer. The vacuum system utilizes two innovative pump designs: a turbomolecular pump and a molecular drag pump. Both pumps employ a unique motor developed during Phase I specifically to provide high vibration tolerance. These pumps, which also rely on pump design technology developed in earlier NASA-sponsored projects, will be combined with a modified commercial diaphragm pump. Together, these pumps will comprise an integrated vacuum system that is optimized for use in a mass spectrometer operating in a harsh environment.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The vacuum system has commercial applications to support portable analytical instruments such as mass spectrometers and leak detectors that are intended for harsh environments. This includes mass spectrometers used for military chemical and biological weapons detection, and general-purpose field use such as environmental monitoring. Current-generation portable mass spectrometers are limited either by the size, mass, and ruggedness of their turbomolecular pumps or because they use less capable absorption pumps. Building a small, lightweight, low-power, and rugged vacuum system based on a turbomolecular pump and a molecular drag pump whose performance is optimized to meet the needs of miniature detectors, will expand the market for portable mass spectrometers.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Marc Kenton
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.04-9878 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012121 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS10-01069
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacecraft Charge Monitor

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Electrostatic charging can damage spacecraft, cause instrument biases that limit the accuracy of scientific measurements, and poses a direct hazard to personnel during extravehicular activity. There are now few options available for monitoring spacecraft charge. An inexpensive, compact, reliable, easily deployed spacecraft charge monitor is needed. Goembel Instruments has developed just such an instrument - the Spacecraft Charge Monitor (SCM). In Phase I we built and tested a prototype SCM. Results from Phase I show that the SCM will revolutionize the field of spacecraft charge detection. The 500 gram, 1 Watt, instrument will be able to determine spacecraft floating potential to within 0.1 volt for each second in flight. The SCM's performance represents an order of magnitude improvement over what is available now. In Phase II we will advance the SCM from laboratory prototype to flight prototype. We will develop flight electronics, a flight sensor head, calibrate the instrument, put it through a series of tests for flight worthiness, and deliver the fully tested flight instrument and documentation to NASA. The Phase II work will produce an SCM for flight tests, and will prepare us for the Phase III production of instruments.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
There are three markets in aerospace for use of the SCM: 1) scientific use in low earth orbit, 2) use for the detection of hazardous charge, and, 3) use for the detection of charge in the solar wind. We have already made a significant advance into the first market. The SCM has been included in one of two proposals now pending for the NPOESS satellite system. If funded, $3-5 million would be available for the production of the Goembel Instruments SCM starting as early as late 2002. We expect continued success in marketing the instrument to both the private sector and the Government (for all three uses given above). For instance, the SCM would excel at monitoring the floating potential of the International Space Station, which charges to dangerously high levels. The SCM could be used on its own to warn of high levels of charge or it could be used in conjunction with a discharge device to reduce charge. The relatively modest expenditure by NASA in Phase II would do a great deal to advance the state of the art in spacecraft charge sensing and make an inexpensive, compact, reliable spacecraft charge monitor available to all.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Luke Goembel
Goembel Instruments
1020 Regester Avenue
Baltimore , MD   21239 - 1515

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Goembel Instruments
1020 Regester Avenue
Baltimore , MD   21239 - 1515


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.05-9646 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012353 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01171
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermophotovoltaic and Thermionic Power Systems with Film Concentrators

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility of demonstrating critical subsystems and components of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) and thermionic (TI) power systems that use thin-film solar concentrators. Based on design, performance, and technology readiness evaluations, key hardware elements were identified for both electrical, power generation approaches and a thin-film concentrator assembly that are viable for validation testing. The Phase II work will validate the performance of critical elements of solar TPV and TI power systems. These elements are: a preshaped thin-film primary concentrator with inflatable support structure; the TPV receiver-emitter with a band gap solar cell array; and the TI thermal receiver with integral cylindrical inverted converter and secondary concentrator.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
In addition to large-scale, long-lived space solar power systems, these technologies have applications in near-sun and Mars-class missions, large antennas, high resolution earth observation satellites, light collectors for precision secondary optics, solar thermal and electric propulsion and high temperature materials processing in space. Ground commercial applications include large- and small-scale electrical power generation and use of the inflatable structures for emergency shelters in extreme environments and in lightweight articles exposed to long-term weathering conditions.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Rodney Bradford
United Applied Technologies
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville , AL   35803 - 4327

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
United Applied Technologies
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville , AL   35803 - 4327


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H3.07-9502 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012497 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02034
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Fiber Optic Sensors for Space-Based Nuclear Reactors

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Luna Innovations has successfullly completed all of the Phase I objectives. A Distributed Grating Demodulation System (DGDS) was constructed and tested using radiation-resistant fiber. Temperatue sensors were produced and calibrated. Two housings were constructed that allow an all-welded pressure boundary penetration. Radiation testing was successfully conducted on sensing fiber in a combined high-neutron and gamma environment. The key technological advantage offered by the sensors developed under this program is their ability to be highly multiplexed, allowing the placement of literally thousands of sensors along a single optical fiber.

There are three strategic objectives for the Phase II: 1) Fully validate the DGDS technology for space reactor applications, 2) Expand the application base for DGDS sensor technology, and 3) Develop strategy for commercial development. The primary objective is to finalize sensor designs using specifications obtained from NASA and industry partners so that prototypes can be constructed. Resolving high temperature operation is a major portion of this objective. The application base will be expanded by designing sensors that can measure temperature, strain, pressure, and flow. Luna has an extremely successful track record in commercial development, having spun off four successful companies dedicated to the commercialization of technologies developed at Luna Innovations.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The commercial product under development is a fiber optic-based highly multiplexed sensor suite. Sensor types will include temperature, strain, pressure, and flow. The nature of the Distributed Grating Demodulation System (DGDS) upon which this suite is based, allows the placement of thousands of sensors along a single optical fiber. A four channel system can easily read out 20,000 separate sensors with a spatial resolution less than 1.0cm. Commercial development efforts during the Phase I have uncovered numerous commercial applications for this system including:

1.) SAFE-100 and SAFE-400 Reactor core test prototypes
2.) Reusable Launch Vehicle surface temperature monitoring
3.) Turbine structural monitoring
4.) In-core experiments requiring temperature sensing
5.) Temperature monitoring inside of electrical machines such as generators and motors
6.) Pipeline health monitoring for steam lines piping

The development of the system under this program can address several markets for nuclear reactors, reactor test beds, steam and gas turbines, aircraft health monitoring, structural monitoring, and other applications. Luna?s initial market focus will be on the nuclear power and aerospace industry, with secondary focus in the test reactors market. Both of these markets show superb growth over the next decade.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Robert S. Fielder
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H4.01-9413 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012586 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01158
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Thermal Conductivity Textiles

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Personal cooling system technology was first utilized by NASA for the Apollo Astronauts to prevent heat buildup under their space suits. Extensive plastic tubing is used to circulate water for body heat removal. The undergarment is quite binding and restrictive and inefficient in the removal of body heat to the external heat exchanger. The proposed innovation is the creation of a new thermally conductive textile fiber using nanocomposite engineering. The immediate opportunity is reduced contact surface required for the plastic tubing. The loops can be spaced further apart greatly enhancing comfort and mobility. Improved rate of heat transfer and more uniform temperature distribution will provide the benefit of reduced water circulation needs, leading to an opportunity for reduction in the weight and bulk of the space suit and improved astronaut mobility. Reduced support systems, lower launch weight, greater personal comfort and extended activity time are expected.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Numerous commercial applications have been developed for cool suit technology and would benefit from improvements made through this proposal. Representative current uses include: Personal cooling systems (PCS)used by US and foreign troops under bulky protective gear; PCS for firefighters, hazardous materials handlers, nuclear power personnel, crop dusters, and workers in primary metals reduction, glass manufacturing, chemical processing, steel mills and foundries, and paper production; self-contained cooling systems for mine rescue workers; recreational sports/sports medicine; to lower body temperatures for patients with multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, and other neurological disorders.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Felipe Chibante
NanoTex Corporation
9402 Alberene Dr.
Houston , TX   77074 - 1306

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
NanoTex Corporation
9402 Alberene Dr.
Houston , TX   77074 - 1306


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H4.02-8799 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013200 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01160
PROPOSAL TITLE: UltraWIS

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Leak detection and location within manned spacecraft has been an elusive goal as was demonstrated on MIR. Manual leak detection, using ultrasonic technology, was successfully demonstrated at Johnson Space Center by a project team within ES using techniques for leak detection in pressurized aircraft. Manual surveys are intrusive to space craft activities and crews. An automated process of leak detection and location is needed. IVC proposes to do this with (a) existing space qualified hardware, (b) an addition of wideband ultrasonic transducers, and (c) new "smart" software algorithms that process emitted leak energy in a manner that results in detection and location of the leak. The uniqueness of the proposed approach is the use of large numbers of self-powered, miniaturized, "stick on" ultrasonic sensory nodes that are all synchronized within a radio frequency network and are self calibrating. The network provides the data paths and synchronization. Ultrasonic transducers can act as transmitters as well as receivers. Thus the sensor network calibrates itself thus increasing detection and location accuracy. Numbers of MicroWIS units (organized into such networks) have already been flown on Shuttle and station and have operated in a completely non-intrusive manner in regard to radio frequency, physical encumbrance, and astronaut time.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Cyclotron facilities require manual processes of leak detection. The proposed technology would allow automated detection and location of leaks. Food storage depends upon reliable temperature maintenance and air circulation equipment. This technology would monitor the sonic and ultrasonic energy that represents normal cooling conditions and alert maintenance personnel to abnormal conditions. Operating machines, whether for transportation, manufacturing, or maintenance give off residual wide band energy. Flaws in the machine will produce uncharacteristic spectral patterns of energy that can also be first recognized as anomalous and later evaluated to determine the nature and severity of the malfunction. Application of this NASA technology to complex machines would establish an automated process for machine inspection routines currently provided by expensive and error prone manual methods. Automotive, submarine, aircraft, and ship structures display a characteristic sonic and ultrasonic vibration pattern when excited. These patterns are functions of the structure type, weight, and bulk modulus of the materials. Accurate detection and mapping of these patterns and their dynamic characteristics are critical to noise suppression design. This technology would allow miniature wireless sensor units to be place quickly and easily on the surfaces to be tested so as to not damp the signals producing the noise.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Kevin Champaigne
Invocon Inc.
19221 IH 45 South - Suite 530
Conroe , TX   77385 - 8703

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Invocon Inc.
19221 IH 45 South - Suite 530
Conroe , TX   77385 - 8703


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H5.02-9012 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012987 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01164
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Situ Training of Anthropomorphic Robots

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The control technology under development enables human operators to teach anthropomorphic robots, in the field, how to perform new complex tasks. Building upon existing inverse kinematics, rule-based control, and neural network learning technology, the training method enhances robot capabilities through operator supervision. The current innovation enables the online construction of rule-based plans of action through verbal dialogue between operator and robot, and uses verbal, visual, and manual cues such as spoken words, hand gestures, and the pushing of buttons and joysticks to teach neural networks how to improve nominal rule-based performance. Phase I results indicate that given an underlying library of intelligent behaviors, non-trivial robot task plans can be created and modified verbally by an operator in a straightforward manner. Phase II will optimize the behavior control system, training process, and operator interface. Validation will focus on two scenarios: assisting EVA astronauts with tool preparation and handling using the Johnson Space Center?s Robonaut system, and assisting a physiologically degraded astronaut in partial gravity environments. The show-and-tell approach to adaptive control is expected to give future NASA robots an unending ability to learn, and NASA astronauts the ability to customize robot behavior for both routine tasks and unexpected situations.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Successful completion of the proposed effort will result in a trainable robot control system with great commercial potential. The incremental nature of the training algorithm permits an operator with limited mobility to build complex tasks. At no time is the operator expected to provide a complete, precise example of task performance. Robot competency builds over time, course to fine, given symbolic task plans and error-driven corrective cues. Not only can suited NASA astronauts with restricted movement benefit from this approach, but also persons with disabilities. With this technology, the disabled will be able to tailor to their personal needs the behavior of robotic assistive devices, providing a level of access and a sense of freedom otherwise difficult to attain. More generally, as anthropomorphic service robots begin to appear in consumer markets, intuitive man-machine interfaces will promote acceptance of these devices. Smart robots capable of learning from their owners will also find their way into entertainment and educational products. The current development effort addresses these opportunities.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
David Handelman
American Android Corp.
301 N. Harrison St., Suite 242
Princeton , NJ   08540 - 3512

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
American Android Corp.
301 N. Harrison St., Suite 242
Princeton , NJ   08540 - 3512


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H5.02-9883 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012116 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01165
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Velocity-Control Framework for Kinematically Redundant Manipulators

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
During Phase I we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a generic control method for cooperating kinematically redundant serial and bifurcating manipulators. This method extended an augmented Jacobian technique recently published by Energid personnel by 1) adding a post-processing step to increase its robustness and 2) writing an Extensable Markup Language (XML) based description language for the framework to allow control system supervision and modification. The method was proven through implementation in C++ toolkit form and integration with an OpenGL-based viewer. During the Phase II effort, we will 1) refine and extend the existing algorithms and language, 2) add support for vision-based feedback, 3) add support for acceleration control, 4) add support for force control, 5) add algorithms for collision reasoning about rigid, flexible, and movable objects, 6) include simulation capability as part of the control algorithm, 7) enhance the demonstration viewer and integrate a GUI for editing, viewing, and exchanging velocity control systems, 8) add grasping support, and 9) add support for floating-base manipulators. Phase II will culminate in the demonstration of the toolkit working with the software API for Johnson Space Center's Robonaut and CMT manipulator systems.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
There are many potential applications for kinematically redundant manipulators and the software toolkit we will develop. Harvesting citrus fruit from trees is an area in which Energid Technologies has particular interest, and we believe this problem is especially amenable to a robotic solution. We believe our manipulator-control toolkit can be applied to harvesting, where complex mechanisms are required to reach around limbs to access the fruit. The potential market for this application is large, and the need is great. In the 2001-2002 season, approximately 380 million boxes of oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and tangerines were picked in the United States (in Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California). A box contains about 200 oranges or 100 grapefruit. The cost to pick this fruit is about $1/box, for an annual total of almost $400 million.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
James English
Energid Technologies
258 Belmont Street
Watertown , MA   02472 - 3563

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Energid Technologies
258 Belmont Street
Watertown , MA   02472 - 3563


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H6.01-9170 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012829 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02026
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Test Generation in Intelligent Systems (GENISYS)

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
EDAptive Computing, Inc. (EDAptive) and the University of Kansas (KU) propose a unique and commercially viable solution to the problem of testing upgraded hardware and software components in place, within the system that contains them. Such upgrades occur frequently in NASA satellite and Space Station embedded systems. Our proposed solution implements specification-based testing techniques to automatically generate test sequences and expected results from component requirements models, and translates the generated tests, initially generated for application to the component interface, for application to the interface of the overall system. Our solution will considerably reduce the time and effort required for in place testing of components in real-time and embedded computing systems, thereby ensuring their safe and reliable operation. Our proposed Automated Test Generation in Intelligent Systems (GENISYS) project leverages the following:
i. An emerging System Level Design Language (SLDL), Rosetta,
ii. EDAptive?s VectorGen? tool, to automatically generate test sequences and expected results starting from specifications, and Syscape? tool to intuitively capture system specifications,
iii. EDAptive and KU?s expertise in formal methods, specification languages and test generation techniques, and
iv. KnowledgeKinetics (K2), an enterprise collaboration tool suite.
Furthermore, our commercialization and business plan has been refined and validated through a peer review.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed GENISYS tool suite is applicable to a variety of application areas; however, the Phase I analysis has indicated that GENISYS enabled automated test generation mechanism from specifications, and unit testing performed through the system interface upon replacement/upgrade of components, especially in embedded systems, holds high probability of commercialization success. EDAptive Computing has created a commercialization and business plan that includes the GENISYS translator, and subjected this business plan to a peer review of business leaders active in the field of innovative, high-tech products. This Government and commercial thrust enables effective utilization of limited Phase II resources. This initial target market provides a foundation for extending the GENISYS tool suite to other application areas such as Automotive, Control systems, Environmental controls (HVAC), and Security markets during Phase III. This provides NASA the benefit of a commercially supported toolset with which to address problems such as upgrading a software or hardware component on a satellite in orbit, or in a complex real time environment such as the Space Station. The GENISYS tool will make in place testing viable in virtually any system or environment.
Commercialization of the related VectorGen technology is underway, and the GENISYS effort will further its commercialization.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Krishna Ranganathan
EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1107-C Lyons Road
Dayton , OH   45458 - 1856

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1107-C Lyons Road
Dayton , OH   45458 - 1856


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H6.02-8346 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013653 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01166
PROPOSAL TITLE: Conversation Interface Domains for Rapid Programming of Complex Natural Language

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a programming environment that will greatly simplify the development of natural, cooperative natural language interfaces to complex systems. As flight operations and flight crews interact with larger numbers of complex and semi-autonomous systems, it is imperative that less demanding, more cooperative interfaces be developed. However, creating such interfaces is difficult. We believe these difficulties can be overcome by cleanly separating the complex language issues such as noun phrase resolution and dialog management, from the simpler issues of
describing the components of the system. Such a separation is made possible by defining broad Conversational Interface Domains (CIDs) that incorporate expert algorithms and heuristics for processing language within the domain. Thus, the interface programmer need only describe the specific objects, actions, and relationships that make up the application behind the interface. We believe that CIDs will significantly lower the cost and development time of effective, conversational interfaces. We plan to create a stable, commercial-grade version of a CID software engine and development system. The engine will run on hand-held wireless devices (PDAs) and allow distributed, conversational interaction to other CID-enabled devices.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Our company is focused on the development and deployment of conversational interfaces in a variety of markets, including on-board vehicular telematics systems and embedded devices. Applications also exist for home and factory automation, toys and surveillance system management.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
R. James Firby
I/NET, Inc
643 West Crosstown
Kalamazoo , MI   49008 - 1983

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
I/NET, Inc
643 West Crosstown
Kalamazoo , MI   49008 - 1983


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H6.02-8715 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013284 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01167
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Video for Synthetic Vision Systems

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Integrated Video for Synthetic Vision project aims to create a unique software technology to seamlessly add real-time video capture to VisualFlight's proven combination of real time flight simulation performance and Geographic Information System (GIS) power. While solutions exist to do this in hardware, they are ill suited to the flight deck environment for reasons of size and weight. These hardware video mixer solutions are limited to analog video technology, and therefore do not provide the level of resolution offered by new generations of digital video cameras. This project proposes to develop the first software only synthetic vision video overlay solution that will be scalable to any video resolution, and which will have no weight or size impacts on cockpit design.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The first application of the SmartCam technologies will be as a flight review system or debriefing system. This system records a pilot?s performance during instructional flight for later review. In this application the SmartCam technology is mounted in an aircraft and used to assess and improve the performance of pilots and aircrews. The SmartCam system will be used to record the flight including overlaid two and three dimensional data to video tape. The video tape then will be used by the instructor to review the performance of the crew and identify areas of necessary improvement. Typical commercial customers include flight schools and airline Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA).

The other major application of SmartCam technology that we foresee is to enhance UAV aircrew situation awareness. The SmartCam system will permit these vehicles to be operated more safely by providing the flight crew with enhanced situation awareness through SmartCam?s use of enriched video. UAVs have video cameras providing video imagery to ground stations from which they are controlled. By combining this video with 3D geographic information, we create an information-rich display, which substantially enhances situation awareness. This enrichment was demonstrated during recent NASA and RIS flight tests.


NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Michael F. Abernathy
Rapid Imaging Software, Inc.
1318 Ridgecrest Place S.E.
Albuquerque , NM   87108 - 5136

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Rapid Imaging Software, Inc.
1318 Ridgecrest Place S.E.
Albuquerque , NM   87108 - 5136


PROPOSAL NUMBER: H6.02-9928 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012071 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01168
PROPOSAL TITLE: Virtual Collaborative Training and Operations Simulation System

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of VCTOSS is to enable the creation and deployment of highly effective training and operations support materials by using new lightweight 3D simulation technology. This lightweight approach to 3D simulation makes it possible to: (1) electronically transmit materials to physically distributed mission participants, (2) run 3D simulations on COTS portable computers used on-orbit, and (3) economically apply the technology to broad application areas in procedures training. This approach is made possible by a rapid applications development system built specifically for the creation of network friendly 3D simulation. The Phase 1 project was intended to validate the concept of using lightweight 3D simulation for spaceflight applications. The Phase 2 project will greatly expand the applications of this approach by enabling collaborative use of the training materials. This will allow 3D simulation based training and operations support to be conducted collaboratively by geographically distributed participants using existing low bandwidth Internet connections. Thus, VCTOSS can have significant implications to (1) increase efficiency and effectiveness of preflight and flight-based training, (2) provide additional opportunity for real-time interactive support employing 3D models with expert collaboration, and (3) increase the ability to recovery from off-nominal situations, which may have significant performance and safety implications.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
One of the most promising aspects of high definition training and operations support media the wide range of applications and benefits that represent markets of 10?s to 100?s of millions of dollars. The primary general applications that can be applied to many market segments include an advance field service support system, training systems for industry and university, virtual education systems, and advanced collaborative customer service systems. The field operations and support market has wide potential in many applications including aircraft, computers, medical equipment, power systems, etc. The virtual laboratory can bring computer simulation techniques that are familiar to researchers into any classroom. Corporate and organizational training systems that bring in collaborative experts for key areas and allow the virtual, remote training to more efficiently use employee and trainer time. Web-based customer service that empower consumers to conduct self-service and allows collaborative service with a remote expert.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mark C. Lee
Orbital Technologies Corporation
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison , WI   53717 - 1961

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison , WI   53717 - 1961


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S1.05-9053 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012946 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01203
PROPOSAL TITLE: Antistatic Thermal Control Coatings

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Electrostatic discharge control is vital for the health of any spacecraft. Exposure to charged particles in a space enviroment can lead to large charge differences across the craft, that, if no mechanism for controlled discharge is present, can destroy mission critical equipment. The preferred way of ESD control is to use conducting thermal control coatings. These coatings combine the ability to regulate the thermal balance of a spacecraft with charge mitigation along the whole surface. Adherent Technologies Inc. has developed a new series of conductive binders with excellent thermal control properties. NASA?s JPL has confirmed a solar absorbance of only 0.175, which is 20% better then currently deployed conductive coatings. The material is easy to apply and is, by it?s chemical nature, much more resistant to the space environment then other organic materials. The Phase II program will further improve on the application properties, expose the coatings to a simulated space environment for an extended period of time, and provide sufficient material for full scale testing.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Adherent Technologies? new anti-static polymer system with high emissivity at ambient spacecraft surface temperature, atomic oxygen resistance, and resistance to surface charging by ion and electron impact is ideal for aerospace applications. One of the primary commercial markets for anti-static and thermal control coatings is in satellite manufacturing. In the commercial sector, the markets for space systems are extremely large, particularly for communications antennas and radars. In addition, the military satellite market is expected to experience a steady growth through the next ten-year period and is expected to deploy a consistent number of satellites despite budget cuts. In addition, these copolymers may also find a small niche commercial market for specialty products such as electrically conductive ?O? rings and seals. They may also be an attractive replacement for metal-filled elastomers in many shielding applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Jan-Michael Gosau
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque , NM   87111 - 1522

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque , NM   87111 - 1522


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S1.05-9324 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012675 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01173
PROPOSAL TITLE: PolyRAD Space Radiation Shield for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Microelectronics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
PolyRAD, a radiation shielding material, was demonstrated in a Phase I study. Three densities were fabricated: 15.3, 10.0, and 4.0 g/cc with mass and dimensional deviations of 0.27 % and 0.3 %, 0.6 % and 0.6 %, and 1.2 % and 1.4 % respectively. Outgassing tests yielded TML's less than 0.06 % and CVCM's less than 0.02 %. Mechanical flex and shear property tests showed the expected increase in modulus with density and strengths sufficient to enable handling without breakage. Data from electron radiation exposure tests and theoretical modeling agreed well for the three densities thus there is confidence in modeling prediction that a 20-mil (0.051 cm) PolyRAD shield can reduce the annual TID in GEO to less than 5 krads/year. These technical performances, combined with its simple and low-cost application to individual parts or large board, are a clear indication that PolyRAD can reliably and cost effectively enable successful commercial and NASA/DOD space applications of state-of-the-art, commercial-off-the-shelf microelectronics. The work planned for Phase II is intended to introduce and apply PolyRAD in the NASA and commercial communities.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The application of PolyRAD is to provide a total incident dose (TID) durability for microelectronic devices that is orders of magnitude more than their design. This is particularly important for use of commercial-off-the-shelf, state-of-the-art devices, analog or digital, large or small, simple or complex, that provide hi-speed and hi-volume data capacities but have insufficient radiation dose durability. PolyRAD will be marketed as a radiation shielding of either individual or arrays of microelectronic devices, ultimately as the packaging material. Commercial applications are as broad and in depth as are the needs for reduction of radiation TID in space. Upcoming NASA programs will benefit from PolyRAD by enabling COTS for micro- and nano-satellite applications. This will reduce costs and provide reliable hi-speed, hi-capacity devices. Several of the deep space probes such as the mission to Europa must deal with severe total dose threats. Defense satellites, including the next generation GPS and MILSTAR, continue to require TID well above that of most COTS silicon. Pure commercial ventures (Skybridge, FaiSAT, Orbcomm) need drastically reduced costs for economic viability. The total market for microelectronics in space is projected at over $1.3B in 2006.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Edward Long
Longhill Engineering
140 New Hope - Crimora Road
Waynesboro , VA   22980 - 1209

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Longhill Engineering
140 New Hope - Crimora Road
Waynesboro , VA   22980 - 1209


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S1.06-8900 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013099 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS8-01174
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Lighweight Mirrors (SLMs) for UV and Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Mirrors

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Subtopic 01-S1.06 requires mirrors with a diameter of 0.5-2.4 meters, areal density <20 kg/m2, a figure specification of 0.02-0.005 waves rms @633nm, a surface roughness 0.5-1 nm rms, and a midfrequency error of 1.0-2.5 nm rms for use in the IR to EUV waveband. Schafer?s Phase II objective is to use Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS), a novel, all-silicon, foam-core, lightweight mirror technology, to build three imaging mirrors for the Next Generation Space Telescope Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Engineering Test Unit: M0 (a flat), M2 (a concave sphere) and M3R (an oblate spheroid). The surface figure error specification for the NIRCam imaging mirrors is 8 nm rms (0.013 waves rms @633 nm), equivalent to that required for UV and EUV mirrors, and this figure must be maintained at the 35 K operational temperature of NGST. The surface roughness required is 30 ? rms since NIRCam operates in the VIS/IR (0.65-5 m). We will produce mounts for mirrors M2 and M3R using the complementary thermally matched C/SiC material demonstrated by Schafer under another NASA SBIR, NAS8-98137.

SLMS technology will significantly impact and benefit a very broad set of future NASA Space Science Enterprise (e.g., Explorer Program) and Earth Science Enterprise (e.g., GOES-R) missions. SLMS will provide a national benefit beyond NASA for DoD (Directed Energy, Imaging), DoC/NOAA (Remote Imaging) and commercial system houses (Ball, Raytheon, ITT, et.al.).

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
We anticipate that demonstration of TRL 6 performed during Phase III testing at NASA GSFC will lead to the successful launch of our Lightweight Optical Systems (LWOS) Business Area. The target marketplace is for lightweight, athermal optics, optical mounts and optical benches, at the component, subsystem or system level of assembly, for operation in the far infrared to extreme ultraviolet spectral bandwidth, and over a wide range of temperatures (25K-500K). Products include telescopes, imagers, fast steering mirrors and mirrors for high-energy laser applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
William Goodman
Schafer Corporation
26565 West Agoura Road, Suite 202
Calabasas , CA   91302 - 1958

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Schafer Corporation
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford , MA   01824 - 4177


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.02-9803 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012196 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01177
PROPOSAL TITLE: Trajectory and Performance Models for Earth and Planetary Balloons

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Global Aerospace Corporation is developing an innovative, new trajectory and performance tool for Earth and planetary balloons and lighter-than-air (LTA) systems, called Navajo. No software tool like Navajo currently exists. The key innovations of this concept are integrated vertical and horizontal trajectory modeling, application to Earth and planetary balloons and LTA systems, a graphical user interface, and a computer-platform-independent software package. Additional innovations are (a) the decoupling of environment and balloon trajectory models to allow a given balloon design to be flown in any number of environments with different levels of fidelity (b) the integration of safety analysis of Earth balloon flights for in-flight and pre-flight safety calculations, (c) improved fidelity of thermal models, and (d) an extensible application architecture to allow different balloon designs and new environments.

Navajo is a new, advanced, and modern simulation and analysis tool to enable the development of new balloon and LTA technologies for Earth and planetary applications.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The potential commercial market for Navajo includes those organizations and individuals that study, design, fabricate, fly, or analyze Earth tropospheric, Earth stratospheric, or planetary balloons and lighter-than-air systems (LTAs). These organizations would use Navajo to develop new balloon or LTA vehicle types; fine-tune models to better predict balloon or LTA vehicle performance; develop balloon platform component designs, such as valve, ballast or propulsion systems; develop new campaign and mission concepts; perform detailed, pre-flight analyses of launch trajectories; develop and analyze planetary balloon mission concepts; and evaluate in-flight safety and mission sequencing options.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Matthew Kuperus Heun
Global Aerospace Corporation
711 West Woodbury Road, Suite H
Altadena , CA   91001 - 5327

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Global Aerospace Corporation
711 West Woodbury Road, Suite H
Altadena , CA   91001 - 5327


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.03-8703 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013296 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01184
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacecraft Formation Control with Direct Interferometer-Output Feedback

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I research and analyses have confirmed the potential of wavefront sensing in providing the necessary information to accurately control interferometers. The concept involves data processing on the interferometer output signals to determine the adjustments required to achieve the desired interferometer performance. It is particularly valuable in advanced space interferometry missions where conventional metrology instrumentation may not be adequate in providing the necessary alignment data. The resulting information is useful in controlling the optical elements, and, in cases where the optical components are carried on separate spacecraft flying in formation, useful in controlling the spacecraft.
The signal-processing and image-processing techniques developed in Phase I are relatively generic in nature. For Phase II research, the selection of a specific space interferometer mission concept is proposed to provide the basis for more-detailed development of the wavefront-sensing concept. A comprehensive control structure for the optical components and their host spacecraft will be designed to address the real-world control issues. New data-processing techniques will be developed to handle the realistic interferometer signals expected from operational deployment. High-fidelity test beds are considered for evaluation of the technologies.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The primary application of the proposed technologies is in space science to enable space interferometry missions to image celestial bodies and phenomena. A secondary application is in Earth and planetary sciences where the technologies can be applied to enable orbiting interferometers to map and collect geo-spatial data. There are tertiary potentials in commercial application of the technologies as well. The signal-processing techniques may be useful in different medical imaging applications. Furthermore, the signal-processing techniques may be combined with low-cost embedded processors and optics with laser diodes to produce low-cost, high-performance metrology instruments for machine-tooling and surface-inspection applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Victor Cheng
Optimal Synthesis Inc.
4966 El Camino Real, Suite 108
Los Altos , CA   94022 - 1406

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Optimal Synthesis Inc.
4966 El Camino Real, Suite 108
Los Altos , CA   94022 - 1406


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.04-8182 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013817 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01178
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost Al/Diamond Composites for Thermal Management Applications

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I, MER has demonstrated low cost diamond/Al and diamond/Mg composites, which have the highest thermal conductivity of any known isotropic composite available today (>640 W/m/K), with low CTE (<7.5 p.p.m/K) for compatibility with GaAs and Si devices in electronics applications. The Phase II effort is focused on confirming low cost fabrication and processing of diamond/Al composites into useful forms including rolling of thin sheet (0.05" thick) and sheet joining for space radiators and building power electronic devices, using vapor deposition techniques for adherent dielectric layers with laser micro-machining and metallization techniques for 3-D devices.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Diamond/Al can be used for light-weight space platforms and high density power electronics. Low cost processing by rolling can provide thin sheet product for radiators, a generic thermal spreader for substrates and for lids which is a multi-billion dollar market. Higher added value is provided by patterning of the diamond/Al with dielectric and metallization to make devices with projected initial multi-million dollar yearly market increasing to multi-billion dollars once the products gets established.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Sion Pickard
Materials & Electrochemical Research Cor
7960 S. Kolb Road
Tucson , AZ   85706 - 9237

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Materials & Electrochemical Research Cor
7960 S. Kolb Road
Tucson , AZ   85706 - 9237


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.04-9901 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012098 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01172
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrochromic Variable Emissivity Devices for Thermal Control

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Small light-weight satellites and space vehicles under development for future NASA missions have reduced thermal mass and are rapidly affected by changes in orbital conditions, resulting in large temperature variations. Restrictions on payload weight and volume limit the usefulness of many thermal control system technologies. To address this problem, Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc. (EES) has suggested the application of electrochromic variable emittance devices (VEDs) to control the rate of energy dissipation by thermal emission from the satellite surface. During Phase I EES has demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating all-solid-state inorganic electrochromic VEDs built on high resistance silicon wafers. This VED is advantageous, because the silicon serves as a thermal shock resistant infrared window that can protect the electrochromic layers against the harsh space environment. The Phase II program will be directed toward the development of VEDs with 44cm2 active area that can achieve a tunable emittance modulation range from 0.2 to 0.6. VEDs will be subjected to different reliability tests to demonstrate feasibility of use in low, middle-earth, and geosynchronous orbit environments. The electrochromic technology under development by EES holds promise as an alternate for the ST5 mission should any of the scheduled participants fail in the preliminary test protocols.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Successful completion of the Phase II program will produce EC VEDs having an IR emittance modulation ranging from 0.2 to 0.6. These VEDs will exhibit low areal density and operate at a voltage as low as 1.5 volt. The EC technology will benefit the military and civilian aerospace industry by improving thermal stability of spacecraft and space structures. The EC technology will also find application in automotive and architectural glazing as well as improved contrast visible and IR imaging sensor arrays.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Nikolai Kislov, PhD
Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc.
2345 Anvil Street North
Tampa , FL   33710 - 3905

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc.
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg , FL   33710 - 3905


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.04-9911 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012088 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01207
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Frequency Low-Temperature Regenerative Heat Exchangers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Even with multi-layer insulation blankets, cryogenic thermal switches, thermal distribution systems (such as cryogenic heat pipes), and advanced thermal/structural isolation systems, the mission capability of a fully-passive, stored cryogen system is compromised by the lack of an active cooler to recharge the system. This shortcoming is particularly acute at very low temperatures (<15 K) because there are no proven, long-life space cryocooler technologies for that operational temperature range. The primary technological barrier to extending proven Stirling and pulse tube technologies down to liquid helium temperatures is the absence of a regenerator design that will function at the high frequencies (> 30 Hz) required to enable small, compact designs typical of existing flexure-bearing, space-qualified cryocoolers. Irvine Sensors Corporation proposes to develop an advanced regenerator, based upon the use of novel rare earth metal matrix designs to enable very-low-temperature Stirling and pulse tube cryocoolers for both ground and space applications. The matrix will offer the combined benefits of low porosity and an extremely high surface-area-to-volume ratio, both of which are essential for very low temperature operation. Our goal is to achieve a 50 percent improvement in efficiency for high-frequency regenerators operating around a cold head temperature of 5 K.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed regenerator has broad application for virtually any cryogenic refrigeration need below 15 K. The proposed concept will offer improved efficiency, even for traditional 4 K Gifford-McMahon refrigerators, because of increased control over matrix porosity and a reduced pressure drop through the parallel plate matrix. Magnetic resonance imaging, cryogenic vacuum pumping systems, laboratory instruments, radio astronomy, and high performance data communications (wired and wireless) are some of the commercial areas to be impacted by the development of a compact cryocooler.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Volkan Ozguz
Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Redhill Ave, Bldg 4
Costa Mesa , CA   92869 - 4529

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Redhill Ave, Bldg 4
Costa Mesa , CA   92869 - 4529


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.05-8276 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013723 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01167
PROPOSAL TITLE: Extended range profiling

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We analyze a new, noncontact approach for sensing the topography of an optic. It offers (1) sub-nanometer accuracy; (2) several mm or more of dynamic range; and (3) accommodation of large surface slopes and structure. We add autofocusing to a focusing distance measuring interferometer to keep the beam focused on the test piece. The measurement is unaffected by small autofocusing errors. Thus, the range is extended to the lens-servoing range; the servoing has loose tolerances; and the sub-nanometer accuracy is preserved. In another innovation, we add coma (by tilting the lens) to enlarge the focused spot on the test piece to be immune to surface defects. The coma is canceled on the return trip through the lens, preserving wavefront quality. These innovations can greatly improve the optical profiling of astronomical and space optics.

Our Phase I project was successful - we arrived at a workable design including mechanics, optics, actuation, and servoing architecture. In Phase II we have two main technical (and programmatic) objectives: (1) develop and demonstrate a potentially commercially viable extended range probe; and (2) use a set of those probes in a specific instrumental configuration to demonstrate explicitly the ability to perform sub-nanometer profilometry.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The potential commercial applications are in two areas. The first is for the probes themselves. Manufacturers such as Zygo, who makes the excellent laser gauge components that are key subsystems in our approach, understand that their standard focusing probes are finicky to use because of their lack of range, and especially their inability to accommodate both large standoff ranges and large incidence angle ranges. It is likely to be attractive to these manufacturers to work with Bauer to deliver hybrid systems based on their components to increase their sales. The second area of potential commercial applications is in the wider application of full surface profilometers (e.g., the four point sensor that we developed under a previous SBIR project). Such profilometers can be a powerful tool for any large or precision optics manufacturer. NASA itself, stands to benefit in both areas. The profilometry seems especially well suited to the NGST primary and secondary mirrors, while modified forms can be extremely useful for unusual mirrors such as the Constellation-X foils.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Paul Glenn
Bauer Associates, Inc.
888 Worcester Steet, Suite 30
Wellesley , MA   02482 - 3717

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Bauer Associates, Inc.
888 Worcester Steet, Suite 30
Wellesley , MA   02482 - 3717


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.05-8762 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013237 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01194
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fracture-tough Reaction Bonded SiC Composites for Monolithic SiC Optical Instrum

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSGPO proposes the development of a fracture tough reaction bonded silicon carbide (RB SiC) composite for lightweight space-based optical instruments. The combination of visible quality SiC optics and a fracture tough SiC structure will result in athermal operation for demanding environments. The new structural composite has material properties approaching those of reaction bonded SiC (high specific stiffness and thermal stability), ability to be formed into near-net shapes and the durability of a composite. Phase I showed the viability of a composite that combines a novel, low-cost fiber coating process developed in conjunction with the University of Illinois-Chicago and Drexel University with our reaction bonded SiC. This combination provides three critical discriminators for SiC structural materials: (1) low-cost fabrication (fraction of the cost of CVI process) and scaleability, (2) the ability to achieve complex shapes using the inherent near net shape forming of RB SiC and (3) material properties that are well matched to RB SiC while providing increased durability. In Phase II SSGPO will optimize the SiC/SiC composite process and demonstrate this process by building an optical bench for delivery to NASA.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Low-cost, high specific stiff, high thermal stability SiC/SiC composites have applications in both military and commercial markets. The material properties enable high performance monolithic space-based optical instruments. Low-cost/scalable processing provides a solution for high-end E-O tactical applications where multiple units need to be produced cost effectively. Moving SiC into commercial markets where cost is a driving factor will benefit from the successful completion of this Phase II effort including high speed stages and support structures for the semiconductor industry and high-temperature applications where SiC composites provide the only solution.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Jay Schwartz
SSG Precision Optronics, Inc
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington , MA   01887 - 1020

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
SSG Precision Optronics, Inc
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington , MA   01887 - 1020


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S2.05-9084 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012915 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS5-01180
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dynamics Optics Controls Structures (DOCS)

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Disturbance-Optics-Controls-Structures (DOCS) suite is an Integrated Development Environment for assembly of multidisciplinary analyses into an accurate dynamic integrated model for analysis of performance and margins and identification of resource-optimal redesign. The suite is innovative because it combines validated design tools, or modules, for detailed system analysis with an automation layer that drives the analysis tools, permitting rapid evaluation of the trade space between many highly coupled design variables. The analysis modules are general enough to be applicable for the complete program life cycle, from conceptual design to operational analysis. The automation layer handles the translation of high-level systems requirements into module-level design space constraints, and buffers the detailed analysis results. The suite encompasses an archiving function, which enables the time evolution of the design to be explicitly tracked, facilitating the systems designer?s understanding of the design space, and providing a formal means to manage risk. The combination of detailed modeling accuracy with the automation necessary for trading a large design space provides analysis depth and breadth, leading to an optimal systems design.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The "out of the box" capability included in the Phase II DOCS product is focused on the core market of high performance optomechanical systems. However, the modeling language, methodology, and analysis tools are common to a much wider field of customers. Any technical area that contains aspects of Controls/Structures Interaction (CSI), optimization of dynamic performance of structural systems, and/or coupled-system analysis are potential customers. For NASA missions, an example of a potential analysis extension supported by the framework is power dissipation by active control system elements on the cryogenic side of a system, which is naturally described in the DOCS language using coupled electro-mechanical impedance models of the actuators. Some potential commercial applications, culled from current Mide customers, including: disk drives and other storage media; running shoe stiffness optimization; smart material system design; acoustic and vibration control; and human factors such as ride quality and vibration. The basic capabilities for extension to these fields have been built into the package from the start of the Phase I effort, based in part in Mide's collaboration with representatives in these industries. Therefore, while the Phase II effort will remain focused on the core optomechanical systems customers, a significant effort will be made to identify and cultivate the grounds for an expansion to a wider market.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Dr. Carl Blaurock
Mide Technology Corporation
200 Boston Avenue Suite 2500
Medford , MA   02155 - 4258

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mide Technology Corporation
200 Boston Avenue Suite 2500
Medford , MA   02155 - 4258


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S3.01-8288 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013711 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02046
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Boundary and Alignment Actuation for Improvement of Large Membrane Optical Figure

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of the efforts described in this proposal is to establish the feasibility of boundary control and alignment actuators for improving the optical figure of thin film membrane optics. A representative example of this type of system, and the primary focus of the proposed Phase 2, is the DART telescope concept currently being advanced at JPL. Of immediate interest are multi-degree-of-freedom parallel actuator hexapod systems that can be used to adjust the orientation of the two primary reflectors relative to one another in the presence of manufacturing, deployment, and on-orbit disturbances. The desirability and feasibility of such systems was established in the course of Phase 1 activities. In Phase 2 we propose the continued development and hardware demonstration of hexapods with asymmetric attachment planes and suchsystems capable of functioning at the cryogenic temperatures required for infrared science as well as laying the groundwork for scaling up to on-orbit implementation. The developed systems will support the DART, and other space science, technology development efforts and lead to eventual in space applications as well as anticipated commercial/terrestrial spin-offs.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed actuators and hexapod based alignment systems could be used across a wide range of potential NASA and DOD missions covering a variety of Space Science, Earth Science, and Aerospace Transportation Enterprise major efforts such as Origins (optics and sunshields for NGST, TPF, Life Finder, Planet Imager), Structure and Evolution of the Universe, Sun-Earth-Connection and the Living with a Star Initiative (Solar Sails for Geostorm and North and South Pole Sitters), Exploration of the Universe (Solar Sails, SEP Concentrators and large communication antennas), the Interstellar Probes and Precursor Missions, and ASTP (Concentrators for SOTV and Solar Sails) and other programs like technology development for Space Solar Power. Potential terrestrial applications of the technology are also foreseen in a variety of applications such as life sciences, advanced manufacturing, fiber-optic alignment, and precision motion control applications industries.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Eric Flint
CSA Engineering, Inc.
2565 Leghorn St.
Mountain View , CA   94043 - 1613

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
CSA Engineering, Inc.
2565 Leghorn St.
Mountain View , CA   94043 - 1613


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S3.02-9233 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012766 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02048
PROPOSAL TITLE: Capillarity Driven Flow Of Propellant Liquids In Colloidal Satellite Thrusters

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this project is to develop colloidal thrusters capable of producing the thrust levels required to overcome drift and maintain individual microsatellites at their assigned positions.
In the Phase I research on this project, we showed that the use of capillarity driven flow of non-volatile propellant liquid through a porous matrix or "wick" could produce extremely stable electrosprays in vacuum of charged droplets. Inherent in this use of "wick" injection is that the flow rate of propellant liquid, and thus the thrust level for a particular thruster, is determined entirely by the applied voltage without any need for additional flow rate control circuitry. Moreover, this inherent simplicity, relative to other colloidal propulsion systems, means that multiplexing of such wick injectors is simple and straight-forward so that any desired level of thrust over a wide range can be achieved simply by varying the number of these simple wick thrusters.
The objective of the proposed Phase II research is to implement the results of our Phase I research by designing, constructing and testing prototype wick thrusters with both conventional needle designs and to investigate similar applications using MEMS technology.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Electrospray feed by capillarity driven flow provides an improved means of colloidal satellite propulsion yielding increased reliabilty, efficiency, and reduced weight over competitive systems employing hydrostatic feed mechanisms. Commercial applications include not only users of colloidal satellite thrusters, but numerous biomedical applications of electrospray mass spectrometry, where small sources are often plagued by plugging as a result of dirt or particulate media. Stable sprays for both ES-MS and Colloidal thrusters can be achieved simply by adjusting the applied electrostatic field.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Joseph Bango
Connecticut Analytical Corporation
696 Amity Road
Bethany , CT   06524 - 3006

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Connecticut Analytical Corporation
696 Amity Road
Bethany , CT   06524 - 3006


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S3.02-9366 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012633 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02049
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optimal Path Planning Toolbox for Formation Flying Spacecraft Missions

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Spacecraft Formation Flying is a key technology for NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and other Origins missions. Specific formation flying technologies required for TPF are distributed real-time fault-tolerant collision-free path planning and U-V mapping optimization tools. During Phase I, we investigated and further developed two approaches for solving the collision avoidance problem; namely, the LMI Approach and the Crossing Pattern Approach. Both methods proved to be very effective for small formations such as TPF. The objective of Phase II is to design and develop a Formation Flying Path Planner (FFPP) Toolbox with a comprehensive set of algorithms for path planning, u-v mapping, reactive control, actuator failure detection and dynamic control allocation. Specific Phase II tasks are: (i) Optimal path planning algorithms for TPF, (ii) Path Planning algorithms for moderate and large formations, (iii) Reactive collision-free control, (iv) Actuator failure detection and dynamic control allocation, (v) U-V mapping optimization, (vi) Testing and tuning of the algorithms for TPF, (vii) Development of FFPP Toolbox, (viii) Commercialization Planning, and (ix) Reports. Phase II work will be closely coordinated with JPL project teams for technology transition to TPF and other missions. The commercialization of the Toolbox will be pursued collaboratively with Ball Aerospace, Lockheed-Martin, and Boeing.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Commercial applications of collision-free path planning strategies exist in flight formation for UAVs, fighter aircraft, and spacecraft, as well as in control of automated air traffic management systems, and automated vehicle highway systems. NASA Space Science (Starlight, TPF) and Earth Science Enterprises (EOS, NMP, ESTP) will directly benefit from this technology. Commercial applications exist in the areas of satellite communications and remote sensing.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Sanjeev Seereeram
Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn , MA   01801 - 6580

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn , MA   01801 - 6580


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S3.03-9418 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012581 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02028
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Magnetic Refrigerator for Cooling at 2 K

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA requires cooling of detectors for space telescopes. Detector temperatures as low as 0.05 K are being specified for a number of missions. A number of physics experiments proposed on the International Space Station require very low temperatures as well. Thus, NASA has identified a dilution refrigerator (DR) as a new technology requirement for its Fundamental Physics program.

For a DR to operate it requires pre-cooling at 2K. Other than stored He II an ADR is the only suitable technique for achieving 2K in space. The ADR can serve to pre-cool a DR or a low-temperature ADR stage to achieve very low temperatures. It can also be integrated into a He II storage dewar to eliminate boil-off. This will reduce size and increase lifetime of such a system making long-duration experiments feasible.

An ADR is designed to provide cooling at 2K. Cycling the magnetic refrigerant it is necessary to connect or isolate the refrigerant to/from the heat source and the heat sink. This is accomplished by employing novel heat switches. The efficiency is greatly affected by the performances of the heat switches. In the design the on and off conductances and the switching times of the heat switches are optimized to achieve a high efficiency.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed ADR can be employed for re-liquefying helium in several commercial applications:
? Superconducting magnets for power generation and energy storage
? Superconducting magnets for MRI systems
? Low temperature superconducting electronics.

It can also be used as a precooler with a dilution refrigerator or a lower-temperature ADR stage for cryogen free operation.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ali Kashani
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose , CA   95120 - 4925

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose , CA   95120 - 4925


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S3.04-8623 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013376 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02029
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Pressure Micro-Sampling System for In Situ Deep Subsurface Measurements

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Thorleaf Research, Inc. has demonstrated feasibility in Phase I and now proposes a Phase II effort to develop a miniature, aseptic, high pressure micro-sampling system for in situ measurements in deep subsurface environments. This addresses an important NASA technology gap for astrobiology related studies, mainly how to acquire and process deep subsurface samples for in situ analysis while meeting challenging mass, volume and power constraints. In these high pressure environments, the integrity of the sample may be compromised by degassing of volatile components if brought to the surface. Our proposed high pressure micro-sampling inlet system addresses this by collecting a micro-sample in the high pressure environment, then transfers it into a protected low pressure environment within the instrument housing for processing and analysis. The proposed enabling technology will allow in situ analysis in deep subsurface environments by the new generation of miniaturized, low power instruments being developed by NASA, including GC/MS, isotope spectrometers, and other techniques that inherently require low pressures for operation. Since we plan to follow a modular design approach in our Phase II development, this core instrumentation can be adapted for a variety of astrobiology-related applications including Cryobot missions in deep ice and deep sea measurements.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Commercial application of the proposed high pressure micro-sampling system for in situ measurements in deep subsurface environments will address needs for scientific research instrumentation, energy exploration and environmental monitoring. Analysis of commercial instrumentation markets shows that two of the three major growth areas for analytical instrumentation are real-time analysis and environmental monitoring, with projected annual growth rates of more than 15%. There is a significant technology gap for low power instrumentation that can be miniaturized for field use. The proposed SBIR effort to develop a miniaturized, high pressure micro-sampling system for in situ measurements in deep subsurface environments addresses this need in an innovative way, and thus technical developments in the proposed program could have a significant market impact.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Paul M. Holland
Thorleaf Research, Inc.
5552 Cathedral Oaks Road
Santa Barbara , CA   93111 - 1406

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Thorleaf Research, Inc.
5552 Cathedral Oaks Road
Santa Barbara , CA   93111 - 1406


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S3.05-8592 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013407 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02050
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Noise High-Resolution Vacuum Compatible Multiplexed DM Electronics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The multiplexer electronics represent a true breakthrough in adaptive-optics technology. Xinetics has developed the multiplexer system to take advantage of the properties of the PMN actuators. The high dielectric constant of PMN actuatorsmeans that any charge placed on an actuator remains there essentially forever until it finds a discharge path. This implies that fabricating a suitable switching system allows a single amplifier channel to address thousands of actuators. The trade-off has to do with the overall system speed, but for spaced-based imaging applications speed is not critical.

The current SBIR took the results from previous programs one-step further by reducing the system noise and increasing the digital resolution. Xinetics has successfully demonstrated the low-noise concepts under this program. The major issues raised in Phase I are: charge injection in solid state switches, and optimizing analog and digital algorithms for robust charge transfer control. Results show a 1-lsb differentiation between adjacent channels within the test system. These results are extremely encouraging for a Phase II program where we will develop a single-board 1024-channel driver system with 16-bit input with 1-bit of resolution.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Low-Noise multiplexer electronics have applications in a variety of low-speed adaptive optics applications. Currently applications such as opthalmic imaging, laser correction, and satellite imaging would all benefit from this technology. In addition NASA programs such as Terrestrial Planet Finder will find direct application for this technology.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Eugene Kreda
Xinetics Inc
2 Buena Vista St
Devens , MA   01432 - 5022

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Xinetics Inc
2 Buena Vista St
Devens , MA   01432 - 5022


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.01-8861 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013138 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02053
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Calibrating Vector Magnetometer

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase II proposal describes the design, fabrication and evaluation of a Self-Calibrating Vector Magnetometer (SVM) breadboard model. The SVM is an innovative high-accuracy instrument capable of making both scalar and vector component measurements of Earth and planetary magnetic fields. The SVM scalar mode employs Optically-Driven Spin Precession (OSP) magnetic resonance. An OSP single-cell locked digital oscillator magnetometer was demonstrated for the first time under the Phase I Project achieving 3 pT/root-Hz sensitivity. Laser pumping with optical fiber coupling permits miniaturization of the SVM sensor by reducing helium cell volume by a factor of 8 and placing the laser and IR detector in the Electronic Unit. High-accuracy SVM scalar measurements are used to calibrate the SVM vector measurements thereby eliminating both fluxgate vector magnetometers and the scalar magnetometers required to correct for fluxgate drifts and offsets. The feasibility of fabricating a breadboard model SVM in Phase II has been established under the Phase I Project. By providing scalar measurements with an accuracy better than 1.0 nT, scalar sensitivity of 3 pT/root-Hz, vector component sensitivity of 5 pT/root-Hz, and calibrated accuracy of 1 nT, the SVM offers a significant advance in space magnetometer state of the art.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The SVM will have a variety of commercial and military applications including measurements of the magnetic fields around the Earth in support of monitoring the solar magnetic field activities for telecommunication applications and climate change predictions. The SVM will be use at the Earth's surface for geophysical airborne and surface magnetic prospecting as well as the new standard for geomagnetic observatories. The SVM technology is currently being considered by the US Navy and the Japanese Defense Agency for submarine detection and mine countermeasures applications. The SVM capabilities of outstanding accuracy, scalar and vector measurements, omni-directionality without dead zones, and high-frequency detection will open up a variety of applications in commercial security and surveillance applications.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Robert Slocum
Polatomic, Inc
1810 Glenville Dr. #116
Richardson , TX   75081 - 1954

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Polatomic, Inc
1810 Glenville Dr. #116
Richardson , TX   75081 - 1954


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.01-9167 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012832 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02054
PROPOSAL TITLE: Detecting Fossilized Microscopic Life Forms on Mars with Dual-Energy CT

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This purpose of this SBIR Phase II project is to build a prototype dual-energy CT scanner to inspect and analyze the small rocks and minerals for evidnece of fossilized life. The goal is to achieve three-dimensional volume images with 10-micron spatial resolution in the reconstructed image and to provide identification at that resolution, of both the density and the effective atomic number of the material being examined. The scanner will use a precision turntable to manipulate the part and an array of CZT detectors to detect full-energy photons from the decay of a 109Cd radioactive source.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Microfocus CT is needed for better inspection of printed circuit boards and microelectronic components. Other applications are in military and civilian non-destructive testing, mineralogy, paleontology, composites, forensics, small-animal scanning, etc. In several of these, dual energy can improve visibility of constituents that are not readily distinguishable by density. These include fossils in rock matrix, fibers in two-component composites, and small concentrations of metal-tagged drugs in mice in pharmaceutical research. However, at the present time, the immediate commercialization of this technology is to support NASA in its exploration of Mars.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
David Nisius
Bio-Imaging Research, Inc.
425 Barclay Blvd.
Lincolnshire , IL   60069 - 3624

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Bio-Imaging Research, Inc.
425 Barclay Blvd.
Lincolnshire , IL   60069 - 3624


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.02-8649 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013350 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS2-02033
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Versatile Apparatus and Method for Remote Autonomous Robot Mobility

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I, we explored and developed a concept for a versatile and robust locomotion methodology based on snake and worm morphologies. These creatures have evolved versatile techniques for mobility that can be mimicked by robots operating in complex unknown workspaces such as in rough debris fields or in diverse media such as water, sand, slush, or ice, as may be found on Mars or Europa. While we found a significant amount of prior research in related areas, it was confined to laboratory experiments in relatively benign environments, and none exhibited the ability of a mechanism to transition from one environment to another. For commonality of parts, our concept uses a single module design based on a three degree-of-freedom parallel kinematic linkage that is connected in series. The modules monitor their own specific orientations, which are then summed by a central processor. The vehicle's protective skin is one of the critical areas of innovation because it must resist abrasion and corrosion, yet be flexible and elastic. In Phase II, we will construct a working prototype, and conduct a series of experiments, both on the test bench and in the field, toward developing algorithms for locomotion.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Our snake-like vehicle's small frontal area and ability to conform to complex shapes would be advantageous in scientific applications, including glaciology and other polar research. Industrial applications include internal pipe inspections for obstructions, corrosion, and zebra mussel infestation. The device could be used to counter bioterrorism by inspecting and cleaning building air ducts. Its ability to maneuver in complex unpredictable environments makes it suitable for certain planetary exploration objectives, and to survey hazardous waste sites such as Chernobyl. Like silkworms, this vehicle could spool out an optical fiber, delivering a communication lifeline to survivors trapped in collapsed structures. Military applications include mine countermeasures and stealth operations, for example, deployed from a submarine, transiting through open water, moving inland via rivers or sewer pipes, onto shore and then overland, even climbing stairs or other structures. Sensors or ordinance packages could be stealthily deployed en route. The vehicle could swim to a predetermined site, bury itself, and remain on station for extended periods collecting data or awaiting further instructions. The snake mechanism also has important commercial potential as a serpentine robotic manipulator in industrial and underwater applications. Deep Ocean Engineering has a proven ability to commercialize technology developed in its SBIR projects.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Philip J Ballou
Deep Ocean Engineering, Inc.
1431 Doolittle Drive
San Leandro , CA   94577 - 2225

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Deep Ocean Engineering, Inc.
1431 Doolittle Drive
San Leandro , CA   94577 - 2225


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.02-9163 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012836 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02056
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multiuser Collaboration for Planetary Mobility and Robotics

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This research will develop the multiuser collaboration infrastructure which
enables multiple users to interact and collaborate on host applications
using their mobile devices. Multiuser collaboration is an important
element of ground operations in planetary rover and lander missions.
During mission operations, scientists need to meet often to plan science
activities with planning and visualization tools projected on large
displays. This infrastructure will allow the scientists to interact
directly with the software tools to collaborate on science planning
activities.

The infrastructure includes (1) human-computer interaction techniques that
enable natural, fast, and accurate inputs, (2) application-independent
middleware that maintains information about the connection, state, and
session of individual users and enables interaction and collaboration with
the software applications, (3) communication protocol that ensures reliable
and secure connectivity between the mobile devices and host computers, (4)
toolkit that generates GUI components that can be displayed on mobile
devices, and (5) delivery and synchronization services that transport
application components and data for offline interactions.

The infrastructure supports a broad range of mobile devices encompassing
laptops, PDAs, and cellphones, and supports all desktop applications
running under the Windows or Unix platforms.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Business meetings, design reviews, and brainstorming sessions, are often
conducted with a software application projected to a large screen to
facilitate discussions. The software could be a presentation application,
CAD design tool, etc. The Multiuser Collaboration Suite (MCS) will enable
the attendees to interact with the software application simultaneously from
anywhere in the room, using the mobile devices they often bring to the
meetings. Since MCS supports all Java-enabled devices, millions of future
genrations of cellphone users can use MCS to interact with host
applications. MCS also enables doctors in hospitals to access patient
records at point of care, passengers at airports to check city information,
customers at grocery stores to locate merchandises, etc. MCS will also
provide a toolkit for developing mobile applications that are based on the
host applications. The MCS toolkit enables rapid development of mobile
applications with minimal effort.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Kam S. Tso
IA Tech, Inc.
10501 Kinnard Avenue
Los Angeles , CA   90024 - 6017

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
IA Tech, Inc.
10501 Kinnard Avenue
Los Angeles , CA   90024 - 6017


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.04-9077 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012922 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02059
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space Rigidizable, Deployable Ultra-Lightweight Microcellular CHEM Foams

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space rigidizable and deployable structures with ultra-lightweight, high rigidity, and space durability are desirable to improve the reliability and affordability of space structures. Some of the components currently in use like shelters or space stations use double-walled thick films with high internal pressure. All these hollow components are often vulnerable in space because debris and meteorites can strike them. They will lose their functions if hit and damaged by foreign objects. We propose to fill the cavities of these hollow components with an ultra-lightweight cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) or a shape memory polymer (SMP) foam that can rigidize the space structure in space so that it can maintain its functions even when struck by debris. In our phase I research, we have successfully processed ultra-lightweight microcellular CHEM foams using an environmentally friendly technique. These microcellular CHEM foams have much higher mechanical properties than those processed by the conventional techniques. We have also performed tests and proved that the microcellular CHEM foams did recover their original shapes after compaction and stowage. This capability allowed them to be packed into a very small volume, recover their shapes and be rigidized in space, thereby considerably reducing the launching cost yet providing high rigidity for space structures. The objectives proposed in the Phase I work plan have been accomplished. In this Phase II research we will scale-up the processing of the microcellular CHEM foams, further reduce their density, and optimize their mechanical properties as well as processing conditions.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Potential Phase III NASA applications include space structures like boom and support structures for Gossamer structures, rover subsystems like wheels, chasis, insulation boxes, masts, solar array deployment devices, shelters and hangars for space habitats, airlocks, electronics boxes, tanks/shells/shields, solar arrays, radar boards, and support structures for telecommunication subsystems like struts and beams, etc. Commercial applications include satellite structures, and medical components like artificial muscles and organs, drug-delivery devices, chemical valves, and actuators. A team of medical devices investigator and manufacturer has made a statement that our microcellular SMP foams have a large potential to be used in endovascular devices especially in the treatment of aneurysms. The proposed microcellular SMP foams may solve or alleviate the cerebral vascular accident (AVC) or stroke problem that is the third cause of death and the principal cause of long-term disability in the United States.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Seng Tan
Wright Materials Research Co.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek , OH   45430 - 1120

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Wright Materials Research Co.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek , OH   45430 - 1120


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.04-9899 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012100 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS1-02017
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrochromic Thermal Stabilization of Large Deployable Structures

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Solar sails use a thin reflecting membrane to deflect sunlight, converting the momentum of solar photons striking the sail to a means of spacecraft propulsion. The trajectory of the sail-powered spacecraft may be controlled by through a mechanical arrangement or through the use of an electrochromic material that changes reflectivity or transmittance in response to the application of an electric potential. In Phase I of this effort, Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc. has demonstrated both reflective and transparent all-solid-state electrochromic membranes (EMs) built on 100cm2 flexible PET films. The reflective EMs demonstrated acceptable performance after cyclic potentiostatic tests in vacuum. The Phase II program concentrates on the development of 100cm2 VEMs built on 7 to 10 micron polymer films that can achieve a reflectance/transmittance modulation ranging from 10 to 75 %. Scale-up to fabrication of reflective EMs having 900cm2 (1? x 1?) active area will be also demonstrated in the Phase II program. EMs will be subjected to cyclic potentiostatic tests in vacuum as well as long-term exposure to ultraviolet radiation in order to demonstrate feasibility of use in orbit-to-space missions.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Successful completion of the Phase II program will extend the reflectance/transmittance modulation range of all-solid state EMs and provide an EM design suitable for use in space missions. These VEMs will exhibit a low areal density and operate at low voltages. The electrochromic technology will find application in aerospace and automotive industries as well as in architectural glazing.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Nikolai Kislov, PhD
Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc.
2345 Anvil Street North
Tampa , FL   33710 - 3905

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc.
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg , FL   33710 - 3905


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.05-8791 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013208 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02060
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Power High Speed Digital Signal Isolator

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Highly-sensitive linear spin-valve sensors combined with NVE's patented GMR isolator technology will be used to develop miniature, low power, high speed, radiation-hard, digital isolator devices for space and other commercial applications. The proposed linear mode spin-valve digital isolators will overcome the shortcomings of the present latching mode spin-valve digital isolators. The devices can be designed to work either in the unipolar mode or bipolar mode. If operating in the unipolar mode, the devices will not only be fully pin-for-pin compatible with optocouplers but also have superior performance with regard to cost, size, power consumption (<35 mW), bandwidth (DC to 1 GHz) and radiation tolerance. If operating in the bipolar mode, the devices will significantly improve NVE's present latching mode digital isolators with much faster speed (>400Mbd) and at least 80% less power consumption. This Phase II proposal is directed towards designing, fabricating and optimizing single/multi-channel digital signal isolator devices. The linear spin-valve sensors used in these devices will be based on the Phase I result. Prototype, radiation hard, low power, high speed, miniature digital isolator devices, that meet space and other commercial requirements will be demonstrated, and these prototypes will be ready for Phase III commercialization.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed technique will significantly improve and expand NVE's magnetic signal isolator products. The success of this project will enable NVE to not only fabricate low power, high speed, miniature (single/multi-channel) digital signal isolators for a variety of applications but also gain competitive advantage over other isolator technologies in the commercial market.

Keywords: spin-valve, radiation hard, digital isolator, magnetics, sensor

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Zhenghong Qian
NVE Corporation
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie , MN   55344 - 3617

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
NVE Corporation
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie , MN   55344 - 3617


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.06-8926 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013073 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02063
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surface Enhanced Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Near-IR Detection

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II SBIR builds on the exciting results demonstrated during the Phase I research. Using a new approach for enhancing the near-infrared (IR) sensitivity of high gain avalanche photodiodes (APDs), Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) will develop a reliable procedure to produce APD arrays with high sensitivity at 1064 nm. This work utilizes an innovative technique to microtexture the front surface of the APD using high power, ultra-short laser pulses (100 femto-seconds). The laser processed silicon surface exhibits remarkably high absorption characteristics over a large range of wavelengths (0.4 - 3 microns). Phase I work established that this processing technique provides an enhancement in the photo-induced charge collection at near-IR wavelengths. We have further demonstrated APD responsivity > 350 A/W at 1064 nm. Evidence of silicon bandgap transformations makes this remarkable innovation extremely promising for present detector technology needs.
The ultimate goal of this project is to use laser microtexturing technology to develop a high speed, high gain, low noise APD array sensor module with significantly improved near-IR response. The APD array sensor will be an extremely valuable tool for long distance optical communication and for LIDAR/LADAR applications.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The proposed technology will have numerous important commercial applications, such as imaging altimeters, LIDAR systems, near-IR spectroscopy, free-space optical communication, optical mammography and tomography, tissue oxygenation studies and many other applications. A successful program could potentially revolutionize any field that is presently limited by the lack of sensitive detection at 1064 nm, where robust and compact transmission technology is readily available.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Arieh M. Karger
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown , MA   02472 - 4699

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown , MA   02472 - 4699


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.07-8411 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013588 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02070
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency, Long Life, Low Mass Stirling Engine for Low Power Applications

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation is a small, highly efficient, long life, low mass free-piston Stirling engine for low power applications. This machine is innovative because in addition to its small mass and physical dimensions it is anticipated to have 35 percent higher efficiency than engines now being considered by NASA. The proposed machine is expected to have 32 percent efficiency at a temperature ratio of 2.35 . Analysis work under the Phase I effort is intended to verify the projected efficiency, size, and the ability to manufacture such a unit. Fabrication, testing and development would be carried out under the Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Commercial applications for a small Stirling engine/alternator are numerous. Anywhere a battery can be found, the Stirling engine is a candidate to replace it. The interest in this area stems from the extremely low energy density of batteries compared to liquid fuels. For example gasoline has approximately 300 times the energy density of a Ni-Cd battery and about 140 times the energy density of a Lithium-Ion battery. An efficient small engine combined with a liquid fuel source would thus act as a highly energy dense replacement for batteries. A second replacement category is that of current fuel fired devices such as thermoelectric power generators and small internal combustion engine portable generators in cases where such power sources are used because of their non-dependency on power grids rather than the higher powers they are capable of producing. Some of the major applications for our proposed unit include:
> Uninterruptible power supply.
> LED based portable traffic lights and safety signs.
> Soldier!|s power source.
> Power source for controls of a non-electrically connected furnace.
> Recreational remote power source.
> Laptop computer power source.
> Cordless (large) battery charger.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
James Gary Wood
Sunpower, Inc.
182 Mill Street
Athens , OH   45701 - 2627

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Sunpower, Inc.
182 Mill Street
Athens , OH   45701 - 2627


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.07-8513 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013486 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02036
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deep Space Power and Propulsion Systems

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Deep Space Missions need a prime power solar array that can operate in both inner and outer planet conditions. The Deep Space Concentrator uses optical and thermal control techniques available to high concentration ratio design, to enable a solar array that provides power efficiently at very high flux, high thermal environments, and very low-flux, cold, high radiation environments. The unique innovation of the DSC is to take advantage of the changes in apparent solar width, and use a concentrator with limited acceptance angle to reduce the light transmitted to the solar cell at near-sun conditions, when the apparent solar disk angle and collimation angle is large, and transmit more solar energy to the solar cell when at far-sun conditions, when the apparent solar disk size and collimation angle is small. In the Phase I SBIR, we demonstrated the basic operation of the Deep Space Concentrator through optical and thermal analysis and the fabrication and test of a Demo Model. The Phase II proposed program finalizes the mirror and photovoltaic receiver manufacturing technology, designs and analyzes a full-scale kilowatt-sized solar panel, and builds qualification and prototype panels for testing in thermal balance, thermal cycling and acoustic environments.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Solar panels represent a large fraction of high-power commercial spacecraft cost. High concentration ratio concentrator panels can reduce the cost per watt of a solar panel by reducing the cost of the solar cell, the primary driver of solar panel cost. The DSC program will demonstrate the cost reduction achievable by miniaturizing a solar cell and using automated semiconductor die-attach and assembly processes. The Phase III effort to complete commercialization will focus on minimizing risk of implementing the DSC in a commercial spacecraft operating environment.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Theodore Stern
Composite Optics, Incorporated
9617 Distribution Ave
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2393

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Composite Optics, Incorporated
9617 Distribution Ave
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2393


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.07-8931 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 013068 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02038
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance, Microfabricated Converters for Space Science Missions

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal addresses the need for the efficient conversion of thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source to electrical energy for space science missions. We propose to develop a miniature Turbo-Brayton Power Unit (TBPU) using a closed-loop Brayton cycle to provide approximately 55 We at a sink temperature of 300 K. This TBPU promises to achieve a net thermal efficiency of 22% and have a mass of only 3.0 kg. The technical approach that enables high efficiency relies on unique micro-fabrication techniques that have been developed at Creare. These techniques have been used in long-life, vibration-free turbo-Brayton cryocoolers that have been successfully space flight qualified and tested. Here we plan to apply the basic technology to high temperature power generation. During Phase I, we proved the feasibility of the concept by demonstrating the operation of a prototypical turbomachine rotor in gas bearings at speeds in excess of the design speed. During Phase II, we will develop a prototype TBPU and test it at prototypical power levels and temperatures. The project team that will collaborate on this effort has extensive experience in the development of space-flight hardware incorporating high-speed turbomachines, high-performance recuperators, and precision gas film bearings.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Turbo-Brayton power units promise to be lighter, quieter, and more compact than current military and commercial generators. Military applications include portable power units and cogeneration units for soldiers in the field; power sources for personal environmental control systems, battery chargers, and robots; and auxiliary power units for aircraft, cruise missiles, and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Commercial applications include portable power units and cogeneration units for construction and camp sites; emergency power units for homes and offices; and auxiliary power units for homes, boats, and aircraft.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Mark V. Zagarola, Ph.D.
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.07-9244 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012755 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS3-02039
PROPOSAL TITLE: MEMS Packaging for Deep Space Environments Using Nano-structured Polymers

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project investigated feasibility of nanostructured polymers for improving micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) packaging for deep space harsh environments. MEMS technology enables development of spacecraft devices and subsystems that are small, low-cost, low mass, low volume, and low power consumption. A Stirling powered microcooler device was studied and investigated in Phase II. MEMS devices offer improvements in spacecraft efficiencies and new mission functionalities, MEMS introduces new challenges directly related to their micro-size and solid-state structure. Space missions require devices to operate in harsh environments with extreme temperatures, debris, planetary atmospheres and electromagnetic radiation. A pervasive issue facing users of MEMS devices in all environments is the availability and design of packaging technologies for ensuring long-term reliability and performance of the devices. This project will develop packaging technologies for MEMS based on innovative polymeric materials that are processable into diamond like carbon and silicon carbide materials. Packaging benefits include:

? High wear surfaces
? Thermally conductive
? Electrically insulating
? Anti-stiction
? Hard surface
? Low porosity
? Low coefficient of friction
? CTE matched to silicon

These materials are also expected to be low in cost compared to chemical vapor deposition materials and they achieve higher purity and quality.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
The technology that is proposed for this project is a pervasive, critical path capability that is needed for MEMS devices as well as for microelectronics packaging. AMT is presently in the process of launching services for packaging and utilizing high reliability microelectronics in space and military environments and this project will provide added capabilities and new market niches that are complementary and synergistic. The initial focus is on space applications, however there are many other terrestrial needs for MEMS devices that are required to operate in harsh environments; examples include oceanographic exploration, automotive, oil and gas exploration, medical applications, fuel cells, etc. The market for MEMS devices is presently $3.8B and is expected to reach $11B by 2005. Packaging will become at least 10 % of the sales (based on microelectronics industry experience) and therefore MEMS packaging should achieve a market size of at least $1B. Because of the performance and cost benefits that MEMS devices offer for harsh environment applications, it is expected that the products and the packaging technology should be a high profit margin business. AMT has received a contingent letter of commitment from Intel Capital for $300K to support Phase II.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
William E. Davis
Applied Material Technologies, Inc.
2302 S. Fairview Street
Santa Ana , CA   92704 - 4938

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Applied Material Technologies, Inc.
2302 S. Fairview Street
Santa Ana , CA   92704 - 4938


PROPOSAL NUMBER: S4.07-9679 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 012320 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT: NAS9-01169
PROPOSAL TITLE: Long Life, High Energy Silver/Zinc Batteries

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Silver/zinc batteries have been a critical component in NASA missions for decades, yet the technology has not overcome the basic flaws that limit service life. Working with Eagle-Picher Technologies, RBC succeeded in its Phase I program in solving the two major causes of early failure in silver/zinc batteries, by incorporating innovative electrode and separator components. Capacity fade on cycling was appreciably reduced translating to higher average working energy density and specific energy. Polyolefin based microporous separators were stable in KOH electrolyte giving wet-life superior to a cellophane containing laminate. Cells could be assembled in the charged state, not requiring a formation step, which is an advantage in terms of mission preparation. The proposed Phase II program will build upon the successful results of the Phase I demonstration to complete development to the point where RBC would design, assemble and deliver to NASA a higher performance silver/zinc battery for a specific NASA application. In Phase II RBC will work with Eagle-Picher Technologies and Advanced Membrane Systems, Inc. in order to complete optimization of separator and electrolyte for maximum service life. The technology will then be scaled into 40Ah, 17V batteries for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit-Primary Life Support System.

POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Silver/zinc batteries have been widely used in space where volume and weight limitations are critical. Space applications include: launch-vehicle guidance and control, telemetry, NASA vehicles, space shuttle payload launch and power for the life-support equipment used by the astronauts during EVA's. Silver/zinc batteries (primary as well as secondary) also find critical applications in military markets, powering over 90% of all military missile systems, including the Patriot and Tomahawk Cruise missiles. The Navy makes use of silver/zinc batteries in applications that include: mines, buoys, special test vehicles, swimmer aids, deep submergence and rescue vehicles, exploratory underwater vehicles, torpedo propulsion, drones, submarines, and other military equipment. There are also commercial sector applications for silver/zinc in premium electronic equipment that requires a lightweight, high-capacity battery, such as portable medical equipment, portable communications, and professional video recorder. With sufficient improvements in wet-life/cycle-life, technology developed under this SBIR program could find new markets in high performance telecommunications and satellites, which are currently undergoing high rates of growth. Higher performance silver/zinc batteries could be reasonably expected to take market share from older versions of this system, and would be a driver for implementing technology successfully developed under this program.

NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Name, Organization Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
Ramesh Kainthla
RBC Technologies
809 University Drive East, Suite 100E
College Station , TX   77840 - 1431

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OFFEROR (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip)
RBC Technologies
809 University Drive East, Suite 100E
College Station , TX   77840 - 1431